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Accepted Manuscript

Power fluctuation smoothing and loss reduction in grid integrated with thermal-
wind-solar-storage units

Reza Hemmati, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Ghiasi, Azam Entezariharsini

PII: S0360-5442(18)30594-2

DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2018.04.004

Reference: EGY 12643

To appear in: Energy

Received Date: 17 January 2018

Revised Date: 31 March 2018

Accepted Date: 02 April 2018

Please cite this article as: Reza Hemmati, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Ghiasi, Azam
Entezariharsini, Power fluctuation smoothing and loss reduction in grid integrated with thermal-wind-
solar-storage units, Energy (2018), doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2018.04.004

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

Power fluctuation smoothing and loss reduction in grid integrated

with thermal-wind-solar-storage units

Reza Hemmati 1, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Ghiasi 2, Azam Entezariharsini 3

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran.

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

3Department of Science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

r.hemmati@kut.ac.ir, smsghiasi@aut.ac.ir, entezari552003@yahoo.com

Corresponding author’s info:

Name: Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Ghiasi

Position: Assistant Professor

Institution: Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University,

Ahvaz, Iran.

Address: Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Email: smsghiasi@aut.ac.ir
ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

Power fluctuation smoothing and loss reduction in grid integrated with

thermal-wind-solar-storage units

Reza Hemmati1, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Ghiasi2, Azam Entezariharsini

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran


2Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
3Department of Science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

r.hemmati@kut.ac.ir, smsghiasi@aut.ac.ir, entezari552003@yahoo.com

Corresponding author’s info:

Name: Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Ghiasi

Position: Assistant Professor

Institution: Department of Electrical Engineering, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz,

Iran.

Address: Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran.

Email: smsghiasi@aut.ac.ir

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Abstract

This paper aims at utilizing energy storage systems for two purposes at the same time including

smoothing the uncertainties of wind-solar units as well as reduction of network losses. In order

to achieve these objectives, IEEE 24-bus test system is considered as case study. This network

is integrated with wind turbine and solar system. The output powers of wind and solar units are

modeled by probability distribution function. The energy storage systems are installed on the

network to smooth out the uncertainty as well as loss reduction. The network is modeled by

AC power flow including both active-reactive power. The problem of finding location, power,

capacity, and charging-discharging pattern of energy storage systems is expressed as nonlinear

mixed integer optimization stochastic programming. The uncertainties are handled by Monte-

Carlo simulation and the proposed stochastic programming is solved by modified particle

swarm optimization algorithm. The results demonstrate that the proposed stochastic

programming can efficiently install energy storage systems on the network. The problem finds

optimal siting, sizing, and hourly operation pattern for all energy storage systems, while it

minimizes the losses. It is worth mentioning that number of predefined locations for energy

storage systems and renewable resources are limited to simplify mathematical formulation of

the planning. As well, the proposed methodology can successfully improve network operation

by reliving flow in transmission lines and improving voltage on buses. A sensitivity analysis is

also carried out to indicate the impacts of the parameters on the planning. All simulations

including modeling, solution, and sensitivity analysis are carried out in MATLAB software.

Keywords

Energy Storage Planning; Energy Storage Scheduling; Network Losses; Renewable Energy

Uncertainty;

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Nomenclature

Parameters and variables

bk Index for buses (bkth bus)


sb
Bbk Susceptance between bus bk and bus sb (p.u.)
CE Capacity of ESS (kWh)
C EMax Maximum capacity of ESS (kWh)

DVE Integer vector showing ESS status (0=ESS not installed, 1=ESS
installed)
E EL Stored energy at ESS at load level L (kWh)
E EL 1 Stored energy at ESS at load level L-1 (kWh)
E Ech Charged energy into ESS (kWh)
E Edch Discharged energy from ESS (kWh)
E0 Energy of ESS at initial stage of planning (kWh)
Ef Energy of ESS in final stage of planning (kWh)
EAC Coefficient for calculating equivalent annual cost
sb
Gbk Conductance between bus bk and bus sb (p.u.)
IPE Installation cost of ESS ($/kW)
LCll Cost of loss at load level ll ($/kWh)
Lossll Loss at load level ll (kW)
ll Index for load level
mll Number of all load levels
mtl Number of all transmission lines
mbk Number of all buses connected to bus bk
N Spv Number of series panels
P
N pv Number of parallel panels
NOCT Normal operating cell temperature (°C)
Qtlll Reactive power through line tl at load level ll (kVar)
Of Planning cost ($/year)
PW Output power produced by wind turbine (kW)
PWrate Rated power of wind turbine (kW)
PS Output power produced by solar unit (kW)
STC
Ppv Maximum power in STC (standard test conditions) (kW)
PErate Rated power of ESS (kW)
Pdch Discharging power (kW)
Pch Charging power (kW)
Ptlll Active power through line tl at load level ll (kW)

Pinbk Input active power to bus bk (kW)

PLbk Active power of load on bus bk (kW)

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PGbk Active power of generation on bus bk (kW)


PLoss Active power loss of the network (kW)
PG Generators active power (kW)
PGmax Maximum active power of generators (kW)
PGmin Minimum active power of generators (kW)

Qinbk Input reactive power to bus bk (kVar)

QLbk Reactive power of load on bus bk (kVar)

QGbk Reactive power of generation on bus bk (kVar)


QLoss Reactive power loss of the network (kVar)
QGmin Minimum reactive power of generators (kVar)
QG Generators reactive power (kVar)
QGmax Maximum reactive power of generators (kVar)
SR Solar radiation on tilted module plane (kW/m2)
STC Solar radiation in STC (standard test conditions) (kW/m2)
SR
Stlll Apparent power through line tl at load level ll (kVA)
S tl Apparent power through transmission lines
S tlmax Maximum permitted apparent power through transmission lines
TCell Temperature of panel (°C)
STC
TCell Temperature of panel in in STC (standard test conditions) (°C)
TET Environmental temperature (°C)
TM time needed for full-charging of ESS by rated power (hour)
TL Time duration of load level L (hour)
tl Index for transmission lines
Vbk Voltage magnitude on bus bk (p.u.)
Vsb Voltage magnitude on bus sb (p.u.)
Vb Voltage on all buses (p.u.)
Vbmin Minimum permitted voltage on all buses (p.u.)
Vbmax Maximum permitted voltage on all buses (p.u.)
WS Wind speed (m/s)
WS ci Cut-in wind speed of turbine (m/s)
WS rate Rated wind speed of turbine (m/s)
WS co Cut-out wind speed of turbine (m/s)
γ Power-temperature coefficient
ηE ESS efficiency
sb
θbk Voltage angle between bus bk and bus sb (radian)

Abbreviations

DG Distributed Generation
DISCO Distribution Company
EAC Equivalent Annual Cost
ESS Energy Storage System
MCS Monte-Carlo Simulation
PDF Probability Distribution Function
PSO Particle Swarm Optimization

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1. Introduction

The energy storage systems (ESSs) are one of the proper and useful technologies which have

been successfully operated to improve various problems in electric power systems such as

congestion management [1], network expansion planning [2], voltage stability [3], load

management [4], reliability, and reserve margin [5].

Various types of energy storage systems [6] have been applied in electric power systems such

as hydro-pneumatic [7], capacitive energy storage [8], pumped hydro storage system [9],

compressed air energy storage [10], thermal energy storage [11], and battery [12].

The energy storage systems (ESSs) [13] are proper to cope with losses in electric power

systems. They can alter energy consumption over the time and reduce the network losses by

peak-cutting [14] and load-leveling [15]. It is clear that the energy storage systems cannot

decrease the losses to zero, but they can enhance network operation through reduction of cost

as much as possible [16]. The energy storage units can also be applied to damp out the

uncertainties of renewable energy resources (e.g., wind and solar resources) [17, 18]. As a

result, the previous mentioned purpose (i.e., loss reduction) can be achieved together with

smoothing the uncertainty of renewable energy resources. Such coordinated purposes might

increase the benefits of energy storage systems in the network.

As it was stated, the energy storage units can tackle the uncertainties related to the wind [19]

and solar units [20]. Such energy storage systems mainly store energy of renewable resource

during off-peak hours (or high-generation hours) and restore it for the period of on-peak times

(or low-generation periods).

It is worth mentioning that the authors of current article have already published many papers

in scope of renewable energy resources and energy storage systems. But all of them are

dissimilar from the current work and each paper studies one different topic. The main subject

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area of some related papers are congestion management, maximizing DISCO profit in

restructured network by energy storage planning, generation expansion planning, and

improvement of stockholder’s profit in electricity market by planning of hybrid battery-DG

[21]. While, current paper aims at studies loss reduction in the networks.

One of the important problems in power system planning is to apply the proper power flow

formulation. Some studies utilize DC power flow which only incudes active power in the

formulation [22-25]. But this paper utilizes AC power flow which comprises both active and

reactive powers at the same time [26]. In power system planning, it is possible to apply both

AC and DC power flow formulations. Some papers utilize DC power flow in order to avoid

the complexity of AC power flow. The DC power flow removes reactive power from the

formulation and only considers active power. The network losses are not included in DC power

flow. However, application of DC power flow converts the nonlinear problem (i.e., AC power

flow) to linear problem which is very easier to solve [22-25]. In order to avoid such

disadvantages, this paper utilizes AC power flow including nonlinear formulation, reactive

power, and losses. However, AC power flow increases the complexity of the problem and

makes its solution difficult. It means that AC power flow needs more iterations to find the

solution and it takes more time because of its nonlinear formulation.

In this paper, a mathematical problem is introduced to plan the energy storage systems in order

to reduce the network losses as well as smoothing uncertainty of wind-solar units. The proposed

stochastic programming finds optimal place, power, capacity, and charging-discharging regime

of ESSs. The problem is solved by advanced adaptive PSO technique. Regarding the optimal

locations, it should be noted that number of candidate locations for energy storage systems are

limited to simplify the problem. As well, the locations of renewable energy resources are

considered as predefined and constant and just their uncertainty is studied on the planning.

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The contributions of the paper can be highlighted as follows:

 Determining optimal place, power, and capacity of ESSs.

 Finding optimal charging-discharging regime for ESSs.

 Modeling both wind and solar units in the problem as uncertain resources.

 Application of stochastic programming to handle the uncertainties.

 Considering both active and reactive powers in the problem.

 Application of AC power flow.

 Modeling the problem as a mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem.

 Utilizing an advanced optimization algorithm to solve the optimization problem.

 Providing comprehensive sensitivity analysis and evaluating the results as deeply as

possible.

2. Wind turbines and solar systems

This paper utilizes ESSs, wind units, and solar systems in the problem. In order to provide more

details, these technologies are modeled and discussed. The output power produced by wind

turbine is given by (1) [27]. Since wind speed is mainly modeled by a PDF, output power

produced by wind turbine is also given as a Gaussian PDF. The solar photovoltaic systems

have a similar modeling. The output power produced by solar system is expressed by (2) which

depends on cell temperature and solar radiation. The cell temperature is calculated by (3).

The cell temperature is function of environmental temperate and often modeled by Gaussian

PDF. As shown in (2), there is direct correlation between output power of solar cells (given by

(2)) and cell temperature (given by (3)). As a result, the output power produced by solar unit is

expressed by Gaussian PDF. Figure 1 signifies correspondence between wind and solar

energies. Wind energy often rises during night-hours, while solar energy mainly increases

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through day-hours. This paper deals with such interesting correlation between wind and solar

units.

 0 0  WS  WSci

 PWrate WSrate  3
 WS  
3
 PWrate WSci  WS  WSrate
PW   WS   WS 
3 3
WSrate 3  WSci 3 (1)
rate ci

 PWrate WSrate  WS  WSco
 0 WSco  WS

 STC
PS   Ppv


SR
SR STC
 STC 
 1  γ  TCell  TCell S

P
  N pv  N pv

(2)

SR
TCell  TET   NOCT  20  (3)
SR STC

120
Wind
Solar
100

80
Power (%)

60

40

20

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Hour of Day

Figure 1: Typical output powers for wind and solar units

3. Problem formulation for loss minimization

This paper minimizes network losses by optimal planning of ESSs. In the proposed planning,

capacity, location, and optimal charging-discharging pattern are determined for ESSs. The

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proposed problem is carried out incorporating uncertainties of wind and solar units.

Mathematical formulation of the problem is expressed through (4) to (21).

Objective function of the problem is given by (4). It comprises two terms indicating cost of

losses and cost of ESSs. The first term of objective function presents cost of losses and the

second term provides cost of ESSs. Both terms are given in $/year.

 mll  
of     Lossll  LCll  365   DVE  PErate  IPE   EAC (4)
 
 ll 1  
The constraints on ESS performance are given through (5) to (11). The relationship between

capacity and rated power is shown by (5). Constraints (6) to (8) controls capacity, charging

power, and discharging power, respectively. The balance of energy is specified by (9).

Efficiency is indicated by (10) and energy balancing at beginning-stage and closing-stage is

expressed as (11).

CEMax  PErate  TM (5)

C E  C EMax (6)

Pch  PErate (7)

Pdch  PErate (8)

E EL  E EL 1  Pch  TL  Pdch  TL (9)

EEch  EEdch  ηE (10)

E0  E f (11)

Constraints on network performance are given through (12) to (21). Conventional power flow

formulation is given through (12) and (13) that show equilibrium of active and reactive power

on all buses, respectively. Total input active and reactive power to each bus are calculated by

(14) and (15), respectively. As well, active and reactive power losses are modeled by (16) and

(17), respectively. Active and reactive power of generators are limited by (18) and (19),

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respectively. Magnitude of voltage on all buses is restricted by (20) and power flow in

transmission lines is controlled by (21) [28].

mbk
bk bk bk
 Pin  PL  PG  0 (12)
bk 1

mbk
bk bk bk
 Qin  QL  QG  0 (13)
bk 1

NB
 
Pinbk  Vbk  Vsb Gbk
sb sb
cos θbk sb
 Bbk sb
sin θbk  (14)
sb 1

bk
Qin
NB
sb
 Vbk  Vsb Gbk   sb
sin θbk sb
 Bbk sb
cos θbk  (15)
sb 1

mbk mbk
bk bk
 PL   PG  PLoss  0 (16)
bk 1 bk 1

mbk mbk
bk bk
 QL   QG  QLoss  0 (17)
bk 1 bk 1

PGmin  PG  PGmax (18)

QGmin  QG  QGmax (19)

Vbmin  Vb  Vbmax (20)

Stl  Stlmax (21)

4. Details of the methodology

This paper utilizes sample-based Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) to deal with uncertainties.

The sample-based MCS is combined with modified-adaptive PSO to solve the proposed

stochastic optimization problem. In sample-based MCS, the uncertain parameters of the

problem (i.e., output power of wind turbine and output power of solar system) are modeled by

probability distribution function (PDF). Then one random sample is chosen from each PDF.

All the generated samples make a scenario of performance. The problem is solved under this

scenario of performance. Afterward, a new scenario of performance is generated and the

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problem is solved under new scenario. This iterative algorithm is repeated until the

convergence criterion is satisfied. The details for solving stochastic problem can be found in.

The flowchart of solution methodology is depicted in Figure 2. According to the algorithm,

first, the initial population is formed and a large-number of scenarios are generated for each

particle in the population. Scenario generation is continued until convergence of MCS. The

objective function is calculated for each scenario as well as all constraints are checked under

each scenario. If scenario violates the constraints, current particle is removed and the next

particle is evaluated. After calculating objective function for all scenarios, the expected value

of objective function is calculated as final cost for current particle. Based on this procedure,

cost is calculated for all particles in the population and the particle with minimum cost is chosen

as the optimal solution of the problem. This iterative process is repeated until convergence of

the algorithm.

The PSO is a random natured optimization algorithm and it may fall into local optimal instead

of global optimal solution. In order to avoid this problem, the algorithm is ran several times

and the outputs are studied and compared. As well, setting of the algorithm (e.g., number of

iterations, population size, etc.,) is changed and the problem is solved under different setting.

If one unique output is achieved under various solutions and setting, it can be verified that the

achieved solution is the global optimal. As a result, it can be concluded that the proposed

optimization problem can achieve the best capacity, optimal location, and optimum charging-

discharging pattern for all ESSs.

In this paper, Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) is applied to run power flow problem.

IEEE-24 buses test system exists in PSAT as a test case. As well, PSAT is a MATLAB based

toolbox for electric power system analysis and simulation. The MATLAB codes in M-File

section can be easily linked to PSAT and run the power flow [29].

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Start

Generating initial population

Selecting one particle in population

Generating a scenario of performance based


on the solar and wind PDFs

Run power flow for current scenario

No
constraints (5)-(21) satisfies? Remove current particle

Yes
Calculating objective function (4) for current
scenario

No
MCS converged?

Yes
Calculating expected value of objective
function for all scenarios

No
All particles evaluated? Select next particle

Yes
No
PSO converge? Update population

Yes
End

Figure 2: Flowchart for solving the problem by PSO technique

4.1. IEEE 24 bus test system parameters

IEEE 24-bus test system as shown in Figure 3 is considered as case study and its data are taken

from [30]. This network includes two areas including 138 kV area (buses 1 to 10) and 230 kV

area (buses 11 to 24). These two areas are connected to each other by interfacing transformers.

First area has three generators and the second area comprises 8 generators. The generator on

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bus 14 only produces reactive power and its active power is zero. Indeed, it is a reactive power

compensator. Bus 6 is installed with a reactive power compensator. All lines are overhead and

the line between bus 6 and bus 10 is an underground cable.

One 200 MW wind unit is installed on bus 18 and one 200 MW solar unit is installed on bus

23. Load levels, wind unit output power, and solar unit output power during 24-hour (six four-

hour levels) are given in Figure 4 and cost of losses at all load levels is specified by Figure 5.

Table 1 provides the other necessary data of the planning [31].

Wind and solar units are modeled as Gaussian PDF with 15% standard deviation and mean

equal to the nominal power (both wind and solar: mean 200 MW and 15% standard deviation).

The standard deviation depends on the wind speed and wind turbine characteristics and it can

change from one system to another system. Bigger standard deviation means more uncertainty

in wind power distribution and it needs more energy storage systems to deal with uncertainty.

EAC is equal to 10%. The base apparent power for per-unit system is 100 MVA and the

acceptable voltage range is between 0.95 and 1.05 p.u. [32].

This paper considers 4-hour resolution for simulation. However, the proposed problem is a

general planning which can be solved under any time resolution such one-hour resolution. But,

the only problem for this issue is the simulation time. Currently, the problem takes about 24-

hour for solution and considering one-hour resolution would increase the simulation time to

about 100 hours.

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Figure 3: Single-line diagram of IEEE 24 bus test system


Load Wind Solar

100

90

80

70

60
%

50

40

30

20

10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6
Load Level

Figure 4: Load, wind unit power, and solar unit power at six load levels (i.e., 24 hours)

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0.4

0.35

Cost ($/kWh) 0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1
1 2 3 4 5 6
Load Level

Figure 5: Cost of losses at all load levels

Table 1: Data of the ESSs

Parameter Value
Candidates places Bus 3, Bus 10, Bus 14, Bus 6, Bus 18
Candidate rated powers (MW) 0, 50, 100, 150, 200
Candidate capacities (MWh) 0, 200, 400, 600, 800
Installation cost 80 ($/kW) for rated power and 20 ($/kWh) for capacity
Technology pumped hydro storage

4.2. Selection of the candidate locations and powers

This paper considers 5 candidate states for rated power, capacity, and location. It should be

noted that it is possible to increase number of the candidate buses, powers, or capacities.

However, this issue increases the simulation time and size of the programming. As a result, the

optimization algorithm would not find the global optimal solution and it may fall into a local

optima. In other words, the proposed methodology and formulation is a general tool which can

consider large numbers of the candidates, but the main problem is to rise the simulation time.

In order to solve this problem, a preliminary analysis is carried out to reduce number of the

candidates. As a result, the candidate locations are chosen close to the big load centers. The

network has two areas including 138 kv and 230 kv areas. Two buses in and 230 kv area and

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three buses in 138 kv area are selected as candidate places to install ESS. Therefore, the

proposed candidate places cover all zones of the network homogenously. The candidate powers

are also chosen near to the powers of the loads on the buses. The loading on the buses is varied

from 0 to 400 MW. A preliminary analysis reveals that the powers more than 200 MW make

negative impacts on the network during charging and discharging states. As a result, the

candidate powers are limited to 200 MW. Then five candidate powers between 0 to 200 MW

are selected as 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 MW. This selection covers the range homogenously with

minimum number of the candidates. It is worth mentioning that the proposed model is a

nonlinear mathematical problem and it is required to make tradeoff between solution time and

number of the candidates. In this paper, the area from 0 to 200 is covered by minimum numbers

of the candidates.

This paper applies AC-power flow that is a nonlinear and complex problem. The AC power

flow equations for equilibrium of active and reactive powers must be satisfied on all buses.

Since the IEEE 24-bus network is a large-scale network, the nonlinearity of the problem is

increased. The network comprises 24 buses and the planning has to check 24 nonlinear

constraints for equilibrium of active power on all buses and 24 nonlinear constraints for

equilibrium of reactive power on the buses. Such huge nonlinear formulation would not be

suitably converged in the presence of many candidate variables. It should be note that some

papers utilize DC power flow in order to avoid such complexity. DC power flow removes

reactive power from the formulation and network and only consider active power. As a result,

the nonlinear problem is converted to a linear problem. At such situation, it is possible to

increase number of the candidate places and powers. Because the planning is a linear

programming which can be easily solved by optimization algorithms. In such linear problems,

the candidate places and powers have not been simplified, but on the other hand, the network

formulation and power flow equations have been simplified. As a result, it is inevitable to make

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a compromise between network formulation and candidate variables. In this regard, this paper

utilizes AC power flow including nonlinear formulation and reactive power. On the other hand,

a compromise is made on the numbers of the candidate places and powers. However, the

numbers of the candidate places and powers have also been chosen based on the preliminary

analysis on the network by performing power flow calculation and analyzing the results.

5. Results and discussions

The introduced problem determines optimal place, capacity, power, and charging-discharging

pattern of ESSs at the same time. As it was stated, it is inevitable to make a compromise

between network formulation and candidate places and powers. In this paper, numbers of

candidate powers and locations are decreased. As a result, there are some simplifications which

take away the results from the optimal solution. But it has been tried to minimize such

inaccuracies and present the best possible results. The proposed results comprise the minimum

possible inaccuracies.

Tables 2 to 4 list the planning results. Table 2 shows the outputs of the problem after solving

by PSO technique. It is clear that the problem has obtained the location, power, and capacity

for all ESSs. As well, Table 4 shows the charging-discharging pattern of ESSs and it is clear

that the proposed planning can successfully find the optimal charging-discharging pattern of

ESSs.

Table 2 shows that four ESSs are installed on the network, while bus 18 is not equipped by

ESS. The capacity and rated power of ESS on bus 10 are greater than the other ESSs. This issue

is due to transferring more power though bus 10 as well as bus 10 is close to wind farm location.

Since ESS on bus 10 aims at mitigating the uncertainty of wind energy, it installs more capacity

and rated power. It is clear that the ESSs are installed near to the wind-solar locations to damp

out the uncertainties.

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Table 2: Optimal place and capacity of ESSs

Place= Bus 3
ESS1 Rated power=50 MW
Capacity= 200 MWh
Place= Bus 10
ESS2 Rated power=150 MW
Capacity= 600 MWh
Place= Bus 14
ESS3 Rated power=50 MW
Capacity= 200 MWh
Place= Bus 6
ESS4 Rated power=100 MW
Capacity= 400 MWh

The planning cost is given in Table 3. In order to provide a comparative study, cost is given for

two cases of with and without ESS. It is clear that installing ESSs significantly reduces the cost

by approximately 12 percent per year. The results demonstrate the positive impacts of ESSs on

the network performance as well as reduction of losses by ESS.

Table 3: Planning cost for two cases of including and excluding ESSs

Losses cost ESS cost Final cost


($106/year) ($106/year) ($106/year)
Planning with ESSs 65.783 2.8 68.583
Planning without ESSs 76.964 - 76.964

The optimal charging-discharging pattern for all ESSs is also given by Table 4. It is clear that

most of ESSs are charged during off-peak hours and discharged for the duration of on-peak

hours. As a result, energy is transferred from off-peak hours to on-peak times. Such arbitrage

of energy reduces the power flow through the lines during on-peak hours and minimizes the

energy losses significantly. This issue is shown in Figure 6. The losses of the network at all

load levels under main scenario of performance are depicted in Figure 6. It is clear that utilizing

ESSs reduces the losses at most load levels and improves the network performance. The loss

reduction during periods 1 and 5 is more significant. It should be reminded that stage 5 is the

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on-peak loading condition and ESSs can successfully improve network performance and

reduces the losses at this time period.

Table 4: Charging-discharging pattern achieved by optimal planning

Load level 1 2 3 4 5 6

ESS1 1 1 0 -1 -1 0

ESS2 1 1 0 -1 -1 0

ESS3 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1

ESS4 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1

ESS5 0 0 0 0 0 0

Without ESSs
2.5 With ESSs

2
Loss (p.u.)

1.5

0.5

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Load Level

Figure 6: Losses under all load levels for two cases of with and without ESSs

The voltage on all buses is also depicted in Figure 7. The ESSs can enhance voltage profile on

all buses and increase the network stability. It is clear that the voltage improvement is much

more significant on the buses mounted with ESS.

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1.04
With ESSs
1.03 Without ESSs

1.02

1.01
Voltage (p.u.)

0.99

0.98

0.97

0.96
0 5 10 15 20 25
Bus

Figure 7: Voltage profile over network buses in load level 1

Figure 8 indicates profile of power flow over network lines and it demonstrates that power flow

including ESSs involves better profile. The ESSs reduce flow in the lines and the losses are

therefore reduced. It is also more informative to survey voltage under all load levels. This issue

is indicated in Table 5, where, voltage under all six load levels is presented. It is clear that the

voltage profile under charging state is not significantly reduced, while the voltage under

discharging state is enhanced. As a result, ESSs show a robust performance under charging-

discharging states. During off-peak hours and charging state, the ESSs do not deteriorate

voltage. On the other hand, for the period of on-peak hours and discharging state, the ESSs

enhance voltage. Such procedure emphasizes on the optimal location and planning of the ESSs.

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3.5
Without ESSs
With ESSs
3

Power (p.u.) 2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Line

Figure 8: Profile of power flow over network lines in load level 5

Table 5: Voltage of bus 3 under all load levels

Load level 1 2 3 4 5 6

Without ESSs
0.9946 0.9909 0.9858 0.9806 0.9658 0.9658
Bus 3
With ESSs
0.9907 0.9845 0.9856 0.9781 0.9763 0.9746
Without ESSs
0.985 0.980 0.976 0.970 0.965 0.961
Bus 10
With ESSs
0.992 0.987 0.982 0.977 0.971 0.966

5.1. Uncertainty analysis

In order to show the impacts of uncertainty on the planning, the proposed planning is simulated

excluding wind-solar uncertainties. In this case, the wind and solar powers are certain and this

case is known as deterministic planning. The results of the deterministic planning are presented

in Table 6. It is clear that removing uncertainty and application of deterministic planning

reduces the planning cost. The deterministic planning installs less ESSs because the ESSs are

not required to tackle the wind-solar uncertainties.

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Table 6: The results under deterministic planning

Place= Bus 10
ESS2 Rated power=100 MW
Capacity= 400 MWh
Place= Bus 14
ESS3 Rated power=150 MW
Capacity= 600 MWh
Place= Bus 6
ESS4 Rated power=100 MW
Capacity= 400 MWh

Planning cost ($106/year) 66.583

5.2. Sensitivity analysis

In order to demonstrate the flexibility and robustness of the proposed planning, an informative

sensitivity analysis is carried out. Figure 9 depicts voltage profile following reduction of wind

and solar by 20% and increment of load by 25%. It is clear that network equipped with ESSs

is more robust and voltage profile is still lied inside the acceptable range, (i.e., between 0.95

and 1.05 p.u.). On the other hand, in the network without ESSs, the voltage on some buses such

as bus 3 is less than 0.95 p.u. and voltage profile is not acceptable. The results indicate that

optimal ESS planning can successfully tackle the uncertainty of wind and solar units.

With ESSs
1.02
Without ESSs

1
Voltage (p.u.)

0.98

0.96

0.94

0.92
0 5 10 15 20 25
Bus

Figure 9: Voltage profile following reduction of wind and solar by 20% and increasing load by 25%

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Another sensitivity analysis is given by Figure 10. In this case, evolution of losses versus load

growth is analyzed. It is clear that the loss is increased following load growth. But in the

network without ESSs, evolution of losses is very high and it is not acceptable. While, the

network equipped with ESSs can mitigate the evolution of losses following load growth.

700

600 Without ESSs


With ESSs

500

400
Loss (p.u.)

300

200

100

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Increasing load %

Figure 10: Evolution of losses versus increasing load

The sensitivity analysis on the prices is listed in Table 7. It is clear that the final planning cost

is significantly increased by rising loss price and the problem is greatly sensitive to the loss

price. On the other hand, the planning is not very sensitive to the ESS price. This issue

emphasizes on the major effects of losses in the network.

Table 7: Sensitivity analysis on the prices

Final planning cost Increment of cost


Description of case
($106/year) (%)

Case 1 Nominal case 68.583 0

Case 2 Increment of ESS price by 10 % 68.863 0.4

Case 3 Increment of loss price by 10 % 75.161 9.5

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6. Conclusions

This paper presented an optimization programming to install ESSs on the network. The

objectives of the programming were loss reduction and uncertainty management. The proposed

optimization problem was modeled as a nonlinear mixed integer stochastic programming and

solved by PSO. The uncertainties of wind-solar were also integrated and handled by scenario

generation technique. The results demonstrated that the proposed methodology installed four

ESSs on the network at buses 3, 10, 14, and 16. The ESS on bus 10 was greater than the other

ones for transferring more power though bus 10 and mitigating wind fluctuations. The ESSs

reduced the network cost by approximately 12% per year. The optimal hourly operation pattern

of ESSs was also determined. The ESSs charged energy during off-peak hours and discharged

it during on-peak hours. Such arbitrage of energy reduced the energy losses in the network at

all load levels. The most loss reduction was during stage 5 which is the on-peak loading

condition. The results also verified that the ESSs enhanced the voltage profile on all buses and

especially the buses integrated with ESS. As well, the installed ESSs reduced power flow

through the lines and relived the network congestion. The result also verified that the

deterministic planning installed less ESSs and reduced the planning cost, but is cannot cope

with wind-solar uncertainties. The sensitivity analysis was carried out one different parameters

of the planning. The result confirmed that the planning is robust under wind-solar-load

fluctuations and the voltage profile remain in the acceptable range following wind-solar-load

alterations. While, the network without ESS cannot tolerate such fluctuations and the voltage

go beyond the permitted levels. It was also shown that the ESSs can mitigate evolution of losses

following load growth. It was also addressed that the final planning cost is significantly

sensitive to the loss price, while it is not very sensitive to the ESS price.

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 Energy storage systems are planned and their sizing-siting are optimized.

 Stochastic programming is carried out to handle wind and solar uncertainties.

 The problem is expressed as non-linear mixed-integer stochastic programming.

 The planning significantly reduces the operational cost of network.

 The planning enhances technical parameters such as voltage and power flow.