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afforded or are absolutely necessary

The viscous sublayer is resolved

Can use

• k-e family or RSM with EWT

• S-A, k-w, SST

• transition models

Grid Considerations (2)

• Cases where the resolving the viscous sublayer is

unaffordable – Majority of industrial 3D flows.

WF’s bridge the gap between the wall

and the fully turbulent region where

the first cell centroid is placed

Can use

• k-e family or RSM with WF’s

Example in Predicting Near-wall Cell Size

• During the pre-processing stage, you will need to know a suitable size for the first layer of grid

cells (inflation layer) so that Y+ is in the desired range.

• The actual flow-field will not be known until you have computed the solution (and indeed it is

sometimes unavoidable to have to go back and remesh your model on account of the computed

Y+ values).

• To reduce the risk of needing to remesh, you may want to try and predict the cell size by

performing a hand calculation at the start. For example:

The question is what height (y)

Air at 20 m/s should the first row of grid cells be.

y

r = 1.225 kg/m3 We will use SWF, and are aiming for

m = 1.8x10-5 kg/ms

Flat plate, 1m long Y+ 50

rVL

• For a flat plate, Reynolds number ( Re l

m

) gives Rel = 1.4x106

Recall from earlier slide, flow over a surface is turbulent when ReL > 5x105

Calculating Wall Distance for a Given y+

• Begin with the definition of y+ and rearrange: • Re is known, so use the definitions to

ym

r Ut y calculate the first cell height

y y C f 0.058 Re l0.2 .0034

m Ut r

• The target y+ value and fluid properties are known, t w 12 C f rU 2 0.83 kg/ m s 2

so we need Ut, which is defined as:

t tw

Ut w Ut 0.82 m/s

r r

• The wall shear stress ,tw ,can be found from the skin • We know we are aiming for y+ of 50, hence:

friction coefficient, Cf:

ym

t w 1 C f rU

2 y 9x10 -4 m

2 Ut r

• A literature search1 suggests a formula for the skin

friction on a plate thus: our first cell height y should be

approximately 1 mm.

C f 0.058 Re l0.2

1 An equivalent formula for internal flows, with Reynolds number based on the pipe diameter is C = 0.079 Re -0.25

f d

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