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INDEX

1. TENSION TEST ON MILD STEEL AND HYSD BARS –------------------------2


2. COMPRESSION TEST ON MILD STEEL ------------------------------------------17
3. COMPRESSION TEST ON CAST IRON -------------------------------------------21
4. COMPRESSION TEST ON WOOD --------------------------------------------------25
5. TORSION TEST ON MILD STEEL --------------------------------------------------29
6. BENDING TEST ON WOOD –--------------------------------------------------------35
7. SHEAR TEST –-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 43
8. IMPACT TEST ON MILD STEEL (CHARPY TEST) -----------------------------47
9. IMPACT TEST ON MILD STEEL (IZOD TEST) ----------------------------------51
10.BRINELL‟S HARDNESS TEST -------------------------------------------------------55
11.ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST ------------------------------------------------------59
12.VICKERS HARDNESS TEST ---------------------------------------------------------63
13.WATER ABSORPTION TEST ON BURNT CLAY BRICKS --------------------67
14.COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BURNT CLAY BRICKS ---------------------69
15.ABRASION TEST OF FLOORING TILES -----------------------------------------73
16.TRANSVERSE TEST ON ROOFING TILES --------------------------------------77
17.MOISTURE CONTENT OF FINE AGGREGATE --------------------------------80
18.SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FINE AGGREGATES ---------------------------------83
19.BULK DENSITY OF FINE AGGREGATE ----------------------------------------85
20. FINENESS MODULUS OF FINE AGGREGATES ------------------------------89
21.BULKING OF SAND ------------------------------------------------------------------93
22.SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION TESTS ON COARSE
AGGREGATES --------------------------------------------------------------------------97
23.MOISTURE CONTENT OF COARSE AGGREGATE ---------------------------100
24.BULK DENSITY OF COARSE AGGREGATE -----------------------------------102
25.FINENESS MODULUS OF COARSE AGGREGATE ---------------------------107

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Mild Steel HYSD

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1. TENSION TEST ON MILD STEEL AND HYSD BARS

Date of Expt. :
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To conduct tensile test on Mild steel and High yield strength deformed (HYSD) steel bars,
and to study
1. Verification of Hooke‟s law
2. Behavior of mild steel under the action of gradually increased tensile load up to failure.
3. To determine yield stress, tensile strength, Young‟s modulus, percentage elongation in
length and percentage reduction in area.

Reference : IS 1608 - 1972, Method for tensile testing of steel products.

Apparatus :
1. Universal Testing Machine
2. Extensometer
3. Dial Gauge
4. Specimen
5. Vernier Caliper

Theory :
In tensile test, the operation is accomplished by gripping opposite ends of the piece of material
and pulling it apart. In a tensile test, the test specimen elongates in a direction parallel to the
applied force.
Stress - Strain Diagram : Stress strain diagram is a graph plotted with values of stress as
ordinate and values of strain as abscissa.
During the test at regular intervals of the load (P), the corresponding strain (e) are recorded. The
stress (f) are computed by dividing the instantaneous loads by the initial cross sectional area of the
specimen. (ie f=P / Ao) for each value of stress the corresponding strain (e) is calculated (ie e= l
/ Lo).ie strain = change in length / original length
The general form of stress strain diagram for uniaxial tension test
on mild steel in shown in figure. The initial portion of the curve is a straight line and represents
the proportionality of stress to strain according to a Hooke‟s Law.

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The point at which this portion of curve departs from a straight line is the
elastic limit. Or the point beyond which the specimen will not regain to its
original length even after the removal of load is known as elastic limit.
As the load is increased beyond the elastic limit, a stress is reached at which the material
continues to elongate without an increase in load. This stress is called the yield stress. Most of the
deformation beyond the elastic limit is inelastic or plastic for it will persist in the metal after the
load is removed, it is sometimes called permanent set. The peculiar behavior of mild steel during
yielding has let to the terms upper yield point and lower yield point.
As the tension specimen is strained beyond its yield point, the stress increase towards a
maximum known as the ultimate tensile strength.
Brittle materials fails at the ultimate tensile strength point, and specimen breaks, but the
ductile materials begin to decrease rapidly in diameter at some localized area forming a well
defined neck leading to fracture as known in figure.

Specimen : The figure shown shows a standard specimen for tension test of ductile metal.
The gauge length is the marked length over which elongaion is made and is less than the
distance between the shoulders. The specimen should be symmetrical about the longitudinal
axis.

Definitions :
Gauge Length : The length over which the extension is measured.
1. For extensometer reading grip to grip of extensometer.
2. For ivory scale / dial gauge readings grip to grip length of specimen
3. For determining percentage extension measure Gauge length L0 = 5d marked on the
specimen. (d0 - diameter of rod)

Procedure :

1. Measure the initial diameter (do) of the specimen at several sections with the micro meter
caliper to obtain the mean value.
2. For HYSD steel measure the weight per unit length and from the density,
find the diameter of bar. Mark the gauge length (5 x d0) accurately. Fix the
specimen in the grip holders of tensile testing machine.
3. The gauge length (Lo) is marked off by means of centre punch and the gauge length i.e.
initial length (Lo) is measured.
4. Firmly grip on end of the specimen in the fixed head of the testing machine such that the
punch marks face the front of the machine.
5. Mount the extensometer centrally on the specimen, the fixing screws being located in
punch marks. Remove the locking bars of the extensometer.

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6. Set the load dial of the machine to a suitable range and adjust the testing
machine and extensometer to read zero.
7. Apply the load at slow speed, and make simultaneous observations of load
P and extensometer readings.
8. When an increment of load leads to disproportionate extension (Indicating the yield point)
replace the locking bars and remove the extensometer.
9. Continue to load the specimen taking the extensions by means of the graduated scale/dial
gauge.
10. Record the yield point Py (Yield point is the maximum stress at which the specimen is
deformed without a noticeable increasing the load) And compute
fy = py / Ao where py = load at the yield point.
Ao = Initial cross sectional area of the specimen
11. Record the maximum load Pmax ( Ultimate tensile strength is the maximum stress that a
test specimen can bear before fracture.)
And compute fu = Pmax / Ao = Maximum load / original cross section area.
12. Record the load at fracture or break : Pb (Breaking stress is the stress at fracture.)

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MILD STEEL
Tabulations :

Average
Extensometer Strain calculated from
Extensometer
Elongation Dial
reading in Dial Gauge Stress Average
Load reading Gauge Dial
Sl. (mm) reading in f=Px9.81 Extenso-
(P) (Divisions) reading Gauge
No av=(1+2)/2 (mm) A0 meter
kg. ‘∆l’ reading
∆l x0.01 (N/mm2) reading
(Div) ∆l x0.01
1 2 av x 0.01 (avx0.01)
L0
L0
1 200
2 400
3 600
4 800
5 1000
6 1200
7 1400
8 1600
9 1800
10 2000
11 2200
12 2400
13 2600
14 2800
15 3000
16 3200
17 3400
18 3600
19 3800
20 4000
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
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Average
Extensometer Strain calculated from
Extensometer
Elongation Dial
reading in Dial Gauge Stress Average
Load reading Gauge Dial
Sl. (mm) reading in f=Px9.81 Extenso-
(P) (Divisions) reading Gauge
No av=(1+2)/2 (mm) A0 meter
kg. ‘∆l’ reading
∆l x0.01 (N/mm2) reading
(Div) ∆l x0.01
1 2 av x 0.01 (avx0.01)
L0
L0

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Observations:
Initial Diameter of specimen d0 = mm
Initial cross sectional area A0 = mm2
Initial Gauge length L0 = (5 x d0) = mm
Final Diameter of specimen d1 = mm
Final cross sectional area A1 = mm2
Final Gauge length L1 = mm
Ultimate Tensile load Pu = Kg
Failure Tensile load Pf = Kg

Calculations:
Percentage elongation in length = (L 1 - L0) x 100 = %
L0
Percentage reduction in area = (A 0 - A1) x 100 = %
A0
Failure Stress =ff = Pf / A0 = N/mm2

Ultimate Stress =fu= Pu / A0 = N/mm2

Yield stress =fy = (From Graph) = N/mm2

Young‟s Modulus =E (From Graph) = Stress / Strain = N/mm2


(Modulus of Elasticity)

Results :
Percentage elongation in length = %

Percentage reduction in area = %

Failure Stress = ff = N/mm2

Ultimate Stress = fu = N/mm2

Yield stress (From Graph) = fy = N/mm2

Young‟s Modulus (From Graph) = E = N/mm2


(Modulus of Elasticity)

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Requirements:

For mild steel IS requirements are as follows:


Yield strees = 250 N / mm2
Percentage Elongation = 20% to 25 %
Modulus of Elasticity = 2 x 105 to 2.01 x 105 N / mm2

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HYSD BAR
Tabulations :

Dial
Dial Gauge Stress
Gauge Strain
Load reading in f=Px9.81
Sl. No reading ∆l x0.01
(P) kg. (mm) A0
‘∆l’ L0
∆l x0.01 (N/mm2)
(Div)
1 200
2 400
3 600
4 800
5 1000
6 1200
7 1400
8 1600
9 1800
10 2000
11 2200
12 2400
13 2600
14 2800
15 3000
16 3200
17 3400
18 3600
19 3800
20 4000
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

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Dial
Dial Gauge Stress
Gauge Strain
Load reading in f=Px9.81
Sl. No reading ∆l x0.01
(P) kg. (mm) A0
‘∆l’ L0
∆l x0.01 (N/mm2)
(Div)

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Observations:
Initial Diameter of specimen d0 = mm
Initial cross sectional area A0 = mm2
Initial Gauge length L0 = (5 x d0) = mm
Final Diameter of specimen d1 = mm
Final cross sectional area A1 = mm2
Final Gauge length L1 = mm
Ultimate Tensile load Pu = Kg
Failure Tensile load Pf = Kg

Calculations:
Percentage elongation in length = (L 1 - L0) x 100 = %
L0
Percentage reduction in area = (A 0 - A1) x 100 = %
A0
Failure Stress =ff = Pf / A0 = N/mm2

Ultimate Stress =fu= Pu / A0 = N/mm2

Proff stress =fy = (From Graph) = N/mm2

Young‟s Modulus =E (From Graph) = Stress / Strain = N/mm2


(Modulus of Elasticity)

Results :
Percentage elongation in length = %

Percentage reduction in area = %

Failure Stress = ff = N/mm2

Ultimate Stress = fu = N/mm2

Proff stress (From Graph) = fy = N/mm2

Young‟s Modulus (From Graph) = E = N/mm2


(Modulus of Elasticity)

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Requirements :

For HYSD steel IS requirements are as follows :


Yield stress = 415 N / mm2
Modulus of Elasticity = 2 x 105 to 2.01 x 105 N / mm2
Percentage elongation = 12 % to 15 %

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Mild Steel Cast Iron

Cast Iron

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2. COMPRESSION TEST ON MILD STEEL

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To study the behavior of the given materials under compressive loading and to determine
the
1. Modulus of Elasticity
2. Compressive strength

Apparatus :
Universal Testing machine, micrometer caliper, scale and compressometer / dial
gauge.

Theory :
In compression test the operation is accomplished by subjecting a piece of material
to end loading, which produces crushing action. In compression test, the piece shortens.
Although compressive mechanical properties in the plastic range cannot be determined for
ductile materials because the ultimate and breaking loads cannot be determined, the elastic
properties of strength, stiffness and resilience can be determined as for tension. The moduli
of elasticity and yield strength for many metals and alloys are approximately equal in
tension and compression. The determination of accurate stress strain diagram in
compression is considerably more difficult than for tension. Difficulties arise because strain
diagram in compression is considerably more difficult than for tension. Difficulties arise
because of :
1. Irregularities of alignment which are accentuated with increase in loading and result in
lateral deflections and bending stresses.
2. Introduction of lateral restraining forces at the ends of the specimen owing to the friction
forces between the specimen ends and bearing plates.
3. The possibility of failure produced by lateral buckling if the specimen is too long. The
engineering stress strain curve for brittle and ductile material in compression test are shown
in figure.

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Specimen :
For uniform stressing of compressive, a circular section is to be preferred over other
shapes. A ratio of length to diameter of 2 is commonly employed in ordered to prevent the
specimen failing by bending, although the height to diameter ratio used varies for different
materials.

Fracture Appearance :
In compression of ductile materials, as the load increase in the plastic range, the
cross section increases. This increase in cross sectional area tense to decrease the true stress
and thereby increase the load resistance. For this reason it becomes difficult to fracture the
ductile specimen, and continued applications of load increases the lateral deformation until
a flat disk is produced as shown in figure.

Materials :

1. Mild steel specimen

Procedure :

The average diameter do and the length of the specimen Lo are measured. Place the
specimen between the table and the lower-cross head of the
universal-testing machine. Set the load dial of the machine to suitable range and adjust the
testing machine and compressometer to read zero. Apply load at slow speed, and make
simultaneous observations of the load F and compressometer reading L. Record the yield
point and the maximum load in the case of ductile material or the breaking load in the case
of brittle material. Remove the broken specimen (if it is brittle) from the machine. Observe
the location and character of the fracture and measure the final diameter df and length Lf .
Plot a stress-strain diagram for the test in accordance with the general instructions and
compute all properties called for. Repeat the above test on the other given specimens.

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Observations & Calculations :

1. Initial diameter do= mm

2. Cross sectional Area A0 = mm2

3. Failure Compressive Load = Pf = kN

4. Failure compressive stress = ff = (Pf/A0) N/mm2

Results

1. Failure compressive stress = ff = N/mm2

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Mild Steel Cast Iron

Cast Iron

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3. COMPRESSION TEST ON CAST IRON

Date of Expt. :
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To study the behavior of the given materials under compressive loading and to determine
the
1. Compressive strength
Apparatus :
Universal Testing machine, micrometer caliper, scale and compressometer.

Theory :
In compression test the operation is accomplished by subjecting a piece of material
to end loading, which produces crushing action. In compression test, the piece shortens.
Although compressive mechanical properties in the plastic range cannot be determined for
ductile materials because the ultimate and breaking loads cannot be determined, the elastic
properties of strength, stiffness and resilience can be determined as for tension. The moduli
of elasticity and yield strength for many metals and alloys are approximately equal in
tension and compression. The determination of accurate stress strain diagram in
compression is considerably more difficult than for tension. Difficulties arise because strain
diagram in compression is considerably more difficult than for tension. Difficulties arise
because of :
1. Irregularities of alignment which are accentuated with increase in loading and result in
lateral deflections and bending stresses.
2. Introduction of lateral restraining forces at the ends of the specimen owing to the friction
forces between the specimen ends and bearing plates.
3. The possibility of failure produced by lateral buckling if the specimen is too long. The
engineering stress strain curve for brittle and ductile material in compression test are shown
in figure below.

Specimen :
For uniform stressing of compressive, a circular section is to be preferred over other
shapes. A ratio of length to diameter of 2 is commonly employed in ordered to prevent the
specimen failing by bending, although the height to diameter ration used varies for
different materials.

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Fracture Appearance :
In compression of ductile materials, as the load increase in the plastic range, the
cross section increases. This increase in cross sectional area tense to decrease the true stress
and thereby increase the load resistance. For this reason it becomes difficult to fracture the
ductile specimen, and continued applications of load increases the lateral deformation until
a flat disk is produced as shown in figure above.

Materials :

1. Cast Iron specimen

Procedure :
The average diameter do and the length of the specimen Lo are measured. Place the
specimen between the table and the lower-cross head of the universal-testing machine. Set
the load dial of the machine to suitable range and adjust the testing machine and
compressometer to read zero. Apply load at slow speed, and make simultaneous
observations of the load F and compressometer reading L. Record the yield point and the
maximum load in the case of ductile material or the breaking load in the case of brittle
material. Remove the broken specimen (if it is brittle) from the machine. Observe the
location and character of the fracture and measure the final diameter df and length Lf . Plot
a stress-strain diagram for the test in accordance with the general instructions and compute
all properties called for. Repeat the above test on the other given specimens.

Observations & Calculations:

1. Initial diameter = do= mm

2. Cross sectional Area = A0 = mm2

3. Failure Compressive Load = Pf = kN

4. Failure compressive stress = ff = (Pf/A0)

N/mm2

Results

1. Failure compressive stress = ff = N/mm2

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4. COMPRESSION TEST ON WOOD

Date of Expt. :
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To study the action of wood under compressive loading perpendicular to the
grains & parallel to the grains.

Apparatus :
1. Compression testing machine
2. Scale
3. Specimen for compression test of wood perpendicular to grain (5 cm x
5 cm x 5cm)
Theory :
Wood is a hard and fibrous substance which form the major part of the trunk
and branches of the tree.
Wood has many advantages due to which it is preferred over many other
building materials, it is available and easy to transport and handle.
Wood has more thermal insulation, sound absorption and electrical
resistance as compared to steel and concrete. Also wood is widely used in buildings as
doors, windows, frames, partition walls, form work also in roof trusses and ceilings.
Wood is much stronger in compression when load is applied parallel to the grain
than in compression when load is applied perpendicular to the grain.
Because the wood fibers resist the compressive loads by giving lateral support to one
another.

Procedure :

1. The specimen for compression test is 5 cm x 5 cm x 5 cm cube.


2. The load is applied through a metal bearing plate of 5 cm width, once load is applied
perpendicular grains and secondly the load is applied parallel to the grains. as shown in
figure. Such that the load is applied continuously during the test at a constant rate of 0.6
mm per minute.
3. Stop the machine as soon as the specimen fails. And note the failure load.
4. Compute the compressive strength.

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Observations & Calculations:

I When load applied is perpendicular to grains

1. Cross sectional dimensions = ( l x b) = mm x mm


2.
Cross sectional area (l x b) = A = mm2

3. Failure Compressive Load = Pf = kN

4. Failure compressive stress = ff = (Pf/A) N/mm2

Result

1. Failure compressive stress = ff = N/mm2

II When load applied is parallel to grains

1. Cross sectional dimensions = ( l x b) = mm x mm


2.
Cross sectional area (l x b) = A = mm2

3. Failure Compressive Load = Pf = kN

4. Failure compressive stress = ff = (Pf/A) N/mm2

Result

1. Failure compressive stress = ff = N/mm2

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5. TORSION TEST ON MILD STEEL

Date of Expt. :
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To conduct the torsion test on mild steel and determine Modulus of rigidity (G).

Reference : IS 1717 - 1985, Method of simple torsion testing of steel.

Apparatus :
1. Torsion testing machine.
2. Vernier caliper
3. Mild steel sample

Material :
Steel specimen with circular cross section having length equal to 10 to 30 times the
diameter. The ends of the specimen should be thickened and preferably should have square cross
section for proper gripping in the machine and to ensure that the specimen does not break near
ends.
The gauge length is considered as the length between gripped ends, adopt the gauge length
as given in table below :

Diameter of Specimen
Sl. No. Gauge Length
From To
1. 0.4 mm 1 mm 200 x d
2. 1 mm 5 mm 50 x d to 100 x d
3. 5 mm 12.5 mm 30 x d to 50 x d
Theory :
Torsion is the twisting of the member, which is subjected to a twisting moment by two
equal and opposite couples. The purpose of the test is to determine the modulus of rigidity of the
material. This property is useful in the design of the machine parts, which are subjected to torsion
such as shafts, helical springs etc.

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The modulus of rigidity can be calculated by the relation.

G θ T
=
L J
where,
T = Torque in N m
L = Gauge length in mm
θ = Angular deformation in radians.
(θ/L) = Angular deformation in radians for unit length.
J = Polar moment of Inertia in mm4
= π d4
(d = diameter of specimen in mm)
32
G = Modulus of rigidity in N/mm2

Procedure :
Measure the diameter d of the specimen at several sections with
the micrometer to obtain a mean value. Measure the gauge length L. Adjust the torsion machine to
read zero and then insert the specimen into the two chucks. Apply the load at slow speed. Take
reading of torque T and angle of twist θ simultaneously until failure occurs. Note the torque at
fracture Tf. Note the character of the fracture. Plot a graph between torque T as ordinate against
angle of twist θ as abscissa. Compute the required quantities.

Observations:
Diameter d = mm
Gauge length L = mm
Breaking / Failure torque =Tf = Nm
Corresponding angle of twist = θf Degrees

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Tabulations:

Angle of twist θ
Sl. No. Torque T (N m)
(Degrees)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

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Calculations:

Plot the graph of T vs. θ; take two points (x1, y1 & x2, y2) to calculate slope of graph.

T (y2 - y1) x 103 180


\ = X = N-mm / Radian
θ (x2 - x1) Π

Π d4
and J = = mm4
32
TxL
G= = N/mm2 / Radian
θxJ

Result:
The modulus of rigidity „G‟ of the specimen is = N/mm2 / Radian

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6. BENDING TEST ON WOOD

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To conduct static bending test on timber and determine Modulus of rupture and Modulus of
Elasticity.
Reference : IS 1708 - 1969, Methods of testing small clear specimen of timber.
IS 883 - 1970, Code of practice for design of structural timber in building.
Apparatus :
1. Universal testing machine.
2. A Deflectometer or dial gauge to measure up to 0.02 mm

Material :
1. Timber specimen 5 cm x 5 cm x 75 cm or 2 cm x 2 cm x 30 cm absolutely free from any
defect, having slope of grain note more than 1 in 20 parallel to its longitudinal edges.
2. Thin metal plate.

Theory :
If forces act on a piece of material in such a way that they tend to introduce compressive
stresses over one part of a cross section of the piece and tensile stresses over the remaining part,
the piece is said to be bending. In a cross section of a beam the line along which bending stresses
are zero is called the neutral axis. In simple bending, the neutral axis passes through the centroid.
In bending, stresses are proportional to the distance from the neutral axis, within the proportional
limit. Above the proportional limit, bending stresses do not varylinearly across a section. Most
members subjected to bending are beams, and for this reason the usual laboratory tests to
determine flexure or bending stress-strain properties are made on beams subjected to simple
bending. In these tests, specimens are subjected to either center loading or point loading as shown
in fig.
Two point loading: By applying two loads F/2 at equal distance from the supports the
recommended distance from a support is equal to 1/3 of the specimen gauge length (L).
Maximum bending moment is Mb = FL/6

Center loading: By applying a concentrated load F at the span center, the maximum
bending moment Mb = FL/4

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A load deflection diagram is first obtained by using the above loading arrangement. The
load is applied by universal testing machine. To determine the deflection, a deflectometer is placed
on the specimen usually at the center, or dial gauge is fixed to the UTM. Loads and deflections are
measured to failure at predetermined increments of load or deflection. With these data load
deflection diagram is plotted as shown in fig. For most ductile materials, specimens continue to
deform without failure and fracture does not occur. For this reason, plastic properties cannot be
determined for such materials. In the case of brittle materials including cast iron, wood and various
plastics, the deflection diagram can be
determined to fracture so that plastic properties can be evaluated. For some brittle material a linear
stress strain relation in the elastic range exists, and both elastic and plastic properties can be
defined.

Mb σ E
The bending equation is = =
I y R

Where Mb is the bending moment (N-mm), I is the moment of inertia of the cross section
(mm4) σ is the bending stress (N/mm2), R is the radius of curvature (mm), E is modulus of
elasticity (N/mm2), and y is the distance from the neutral axis to the outermost fiber (mm).
Elastic strength is defined as the maximum bending stress in the
specimen corresponding to either the proportional limit load Pp or yield load Py. Based on Py,
the elastic strength in bending is σy = Mby y/I, where Mby
is bending moment corresponding to the load Py, y is the distance in mm from the neutral axis to
the outermost fiber and I is the moment inertia of the cross section in mm4. For rectangular
cross section, I = BD3 / 12 and y = D/2 in which B is the breadth and D is the depth. L is the
length of the span.
The resistance to deformation in bending in the elastic range is called stiffness in
bending. A measure of this property in modulus of elasticity in
bending. E=PL . / 48yI) for center loading. y is the deflection in mm.
3

The stress at fracture in bending in known as the modulus of rupture or transverse


rupture strength. The modulus of rupture σu=Mbuy/I where
Mbu is the bending moment at fracture.

Specimen: Specimen for bending tests may be either circular or


rectangular cross section. In order to avoid the specimen by shear, the span L must not be too short
with respect to the depth D. The value of L = 6D to L = 12D is common. A value of L < 15B
usually safeguards against lateral buckling.

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Procedure :
Measure the cross sectional dimensions. Mark the span length L symmetrical with length of
the specimen. Firmly place the specimen over the supports. Attach the deflectometer at the center
of the span and adjust to zero, or dial gauge to UTM. Apply the load or dial gauge to btm at slow
speed. Make simultaneous observation of load P and deflection y. Record the breaking load Pu
Observe the location and character of the fracture. Plot a load deflection diagram for the test in
accordance with general instruction and compute all properties called for. Repeat the above test on
the other specimens.

Observations:
Dimensions of the specimen

Overall Length l = mm
Breadth B = mm
Depth D = mm
Span (Centre to centre b/w supports) L= mm

Ultimate / Failure Load Pu = kg

Tabulations:

Deflection by Dial Deflection in


Load in kg
Sl. No. gauge reading ∆ in (mm)
(P)
(Divisions) ∆ x 0.01
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

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Calculations:
1. Modulus of rupture (Ultimate/Failure bending stress) =fu=σu=(Mu x y)/I = N/mm2

Ultimate / Failure moment = Mu = (Pu x L) x 9.81 / 6 = N-mm

Distance of extreme fiber from neutral axis y = D/2 = mm

Moment of Inertia about Neutral axis ┴ to loading = I = (BD3)/12= mm4

Draw load (P) v/s Deflection (∆) curve along Y and X axis respectively.

Calculate slope of graph = (y2 – y1) / (x2 – x1) = (P x 9.81) / ∆ = N/mm

Max. Deflection @ mid span = ∆ = 23 x P x L3 = mm


1296 x E x I

Modulus of Elasticity = E = Px9.81 x 23 x L3 = N/mm2


∆ 1296 I

Result:

Modulus of rupture / Failure / Ultimate bending stress = fu = σu = N/mm2

Modulus of elasticity, E = N/mm2

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7. SHEAR TEST

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the ultimate shear stress of the given specimen in single and in double
shear.
Apparatus: Universal testing machine and micrometer caliper.

Theory:
A shearing stress acts parallel to a plane where as tensile and
compressive stresses acts normal to a plane. There are two main types
of shear stresses used in laboratory tests. One is called direct or transverse shear stress and
corresponds to the type of stress encountered in rivels, bolts, and beams. The other type of shear
stress is called pure or torsional
shear and represents the kind of shear stress encountered in a shaft
subjected to pure torsion. Direct shear tests are usually conducted to obtain a measure of shear
strength and the torsion tests are usually employed to
evaluate the basic shear properties of a material.
For direct shear test of metal, a bar is usually sheared in some device that
clamps a portion of the specimen while the remaining portion is subjected to a load by means of
suitable dies. One method of applying shear load to the specimen is shown in fig. As in fig.
(a), a cylindrical specimen A is placed
in the center hole of the fixed block B and the load is applied to the block
C there by producing single shear. If the specimen is extended to D and the gap between the
two fixed blocks is bridged as shown in fig. (b), the specimen will fail in double shear since
two shear surfaces resist the load. It should be noted that the unit single shear strength of
steel in usually greater than
unit double shear strength.
Ultimate shear strength s = F / A for single shear.
and d = F / (2A) for double shear.
Where F is the fracture load and A is the cross sectional area. In
this experiment the failure of the material is not due to entirely by shear, but partially by
bending and crushing as well.

Procedure :

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The average diameter d of the specimen with a micrometer caliper is measured. For single
shear test, fix the specimen as shown in fig and apply the load slowly at right angles to the axis of
the piece through the central block. Note the fracture load. Report the shape and texture of the
fractured surface. Repeat the above test by fixing the specimen as in fig for double shear.

Observations & Calculations :

Type of Diameter C/S Area A Fracture Ultimate shear strength 


Material
Shear d (mm) πd2/4 (mm2) load F (N) (N/mm2)
Single s = (F/A) =
Mild Shear
Steel Double d = (F/2A) =
Shear

Result :

Ultimate shear strength for single shear = s N/mm2


and for double shear = . d N/mm2

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8. IMPACT TEST ON MILD STEEL


(CHARPY TEST)

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To determine the impact strength of the mild steel in the form of notched bar charpy
specimen.

Reference : IS 1499 - 1977, Methods of charpy impact test on metal.

Apparatus :
1. charpy impact testing machine.
2. Vernier, scale.
3. Specimen.

Material : Test specimen 10 mm x 10 mm x 55 mm long with a U notch at 27.5 mm from


ends, 5 mm deep with root radius of 1 mm. Axis of notch should be at right angles to the
longitudinal axis of the specimen.

Theory :
This test consists of breaking specimen by one blow from a swinging hammer
under specific conditions, such that U notch is in the middle, and the specimen supported at
both ends in simply supported condition. The energy absorbed is determined from which the
impact value is obtained.
Impact strength = Energy absorbed / Area

Procedure :
1. Provide the charpy support striker in their respective position.
2. Place the charpy test specimen on the supports.
3. Align the centre of the specimen notch with respect to centre of support by means of
charpy setting gauge.
4. Touch the striker to the test specimen and adjust the indicating pointer to 30 kgm.

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5. Adjust the pointer carrier in such a way that it just touches the indicating pointer.
6. Lift the pendulum by hand till it gets latched in position.
7. Now release the pendulum by operating the levers successively.
8. Allow the pendulum to swing freely and break the specimen.
9. After breaking the specimen, brake the pendulum slowly by operating brake lever.
10. Read the energy absorbed by the specimen directly on the dial by the indicating pointer. (E)
11. Calculate the Impact strength : I = E/A.

Observations & Calculations :

1) Cross sectional area of the specimen at the notch

A = mm x mm

A = mm2

2) Velocity of the pendulum = 5.3465 m/sec.

3) Initial Energy stored in the pendulum before Impact = E1 = Kg-m

4) Energy stored in the pendulum after impact = E2 = Kg-m

5) Energy absorbed by the specimen E = (E2 – E1) = Kg-m

6) Impact strength of the specimen I = E / A Kg-m / mm2

Result: The impact strength of the specimen is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg-m / mm2

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9. IMPACT TEST ON MILD STEEL


(IZOD TEST)

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To determine the impact strength of the mild steel in the form of notched bar Izod
specimen.
Reference : IS 1598 - 1977, Methods of Izod impact test on metal.
Apparatus :
1. Izod impact testing machine.
2. Vernier, scale.
3. Specimen.
Material : Test specimen 10 mm x 10 mm x 75 mm long with a V notch of apex angle 450
and 2 mm deep at a distance of 28 mm from one end. Notch axis should be at right angles to the
longitudinal axis of the specimen.
Theory :
The purpose of the test is to study the toughness of the materials.
Toughness means the ability of the material to absorb energy during plastic deformation, when
subjected to the suddenly applied loads. Impact strength, is the resistance of the material to shocks
or suddenly applied loads. It is equal to the work performed in breaking the specimen.
Brittle materials have low toughness since they have only one plastic deformation
before failure. Thus they absorb very little energy before failure and hence are dangerous as a
structural material. Ductile materials absorb considerable energy before they break and so are
comparatively tough. The ductile material has greater resistance to shocks.
In this test a pendulum that acts as a swinging hammer strikes a canti lever end of
specimen gripped vertically with the bottom of the notch at the same plane as the upper face of
the grips of vice and breaks it in one blow.

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Procedure :
1. Provide the Izod support and the Izod striker in their respective position.
2. Loosen the clamping screws of the support and insert the test specimen.
3. Align the centreline of the notch in the plane of support top, by using the Izod setting
gauge. Now clamp the specimen by clamping screw.
4. Touch the striker to the test specimen and adjust the indicating pointer to
16 kgm.
5. Adjust the pointer carrier in such away that it just touches the indicating pointer.
6. Lift the pendulum by hand till it gets latched in position.
7. Now release the pendulum by operating the Izod release lever.
8. Allow the pendulum to swing freely and break the specimen.
9. After breaking the specimen, stop the pendulum slowly by operating brake lever.
10. Read the energy absorbed by the specimen directly on the dial by the indicating pointer. (E)
11. Calculate the Impact strength : I = E/A.

Observations & Calculations :

1) Cross sectional area of the specimen at the notch

A = mm x mm

A = mm2

2) Velocity of the pendulum = 3.844 m/sec.

3) Initial Energy stored in the pendulum before Impact = E1 = Kg-m

4) Energy stored in the pendulum after impact = E2 = Kg-m

5) Energy absorbed by the specimen E = (E2 – E1) = Kg-m

6) Impact strength of the specimen I = E / A Kg-m / mm2

Result : The impact strength of the specimen is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ kg-m / mm2

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10. BRINELL’S HARDNESS TEST

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To study the Brinell‟s hardness tester and to determine the hardness number of the
given specimen.

Apparatus :
Brinell‟s hardness tester, and microscope.

Theory :
Hardness is usually defined as the resistance to permanent indentation. Hardness tests
consist in measuring the resistance to plastic deformation of layers of metal near the surface of the
specimen. In the process of hardness determination when the metal is indented by a special tip
(steel ball), the tip first overcome the resistance of the metal to elastic deformation and then a
small amount of plastic deformation. Upon deeper indentation of the tip it overcome large plastic
deformation. Therefore, hardness test determines the same properties as in other testing methods.
This fact enables a relation to be established between the hardness and ultimate tensile strength of
ducticle metals.
Brinell‟s hardness is one of the oldest and most used types. Brinell tests are static
indentation test using relatively large indenters. The principal features of a typical hydraulically
operated Brinell testing machine are shown in fig. The specimen to be tested is placed on a
hardened steel anvil. The anvil is raised or lowered by a steel screw operated by a large hand
wheel. Contact is made between specimen and the ball indetor by turning the hand wheel. Load is
applied by pumping oil into the main cylinder, which forces the main piston or plunger downwards
and presses the ball into the specimen. When the desired load is applied, the balance weight on top
of the machine is lifted by action of the small piston, this ensure that an overload is not applied to
the ball. After applying the load on the ball for particular time, the load is removed and the
diameter of the indentation is measured with a micrometer microscope. The hardness number is
defined as the ratio of load in kilograms to the surface area of the indentation in square
millimeters.

2F F
Brinell hardness number HB (kgf/mm ) 2
= =
Π D(D - (D - d )
2 2
Π dt
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Where F is the load i kgf., D is the diameter of the ball in mm., d is the diameter of the
impression in mm., and t is the depth of indentation in mm.
The ball diameter and applied load are constant, It is found that
the Brinell number varies with the diameter of the ball and the load employed. For strictly
comparable results, fixed values must be used for D and F.

Specimens :
Specimens must be chosen with care in order to obtain good results. Brinell test is not
suitable fr extremely hard materials, because the ball itself would deform too much, and is not
suitable for thin pieces, because the usual indentation may be greater than the thickness of the
piece. It is not adopted for use with case hardened surfaces, because the depth of indentation may
be greater than the thickness of the case and because of the yielding of the soft core invalidated the
results. The surface of the specimen should be flat and reasonably well polished.

Procedure :
The load F and the diameter of the ball D must selected in accordance with the expected
hardness of the material, Place the specimen on the anvil so that its surface will be normal to the
direction of the applied load. Raise the anvil by means of hand wheel until the specimen just
makes contact with the ball. In some testing machine electrical signals (light on-off) will indicate
its position. Apply the load by means of hand lever. Maintain the full load for the prescribed
time. Release the load and remove the specimen form the anvil. Measure the diameter d of the
impression left by the ball by means of micrometer microscope. Make three independent hardness
determinations on each specimen.

Observations and Calculations :

Diameter of
Time of indentation d (mm) HB= 2F .
Ball
Material diameter
Load load Π D(D - (D2-d2) )
F (kgf) application Ave.
D (mm) d1 d2
T (Sec.) ‘d’ (kgf/mm2)

Mild Steel 10 3000 15

Brass 10 1000 15

Aluminium 10 500 15

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Results :

Brinell‟s hardness of Mild steel = kgf/mm2

Brass = kgf/mm2

Aluminum = kgf/mm2

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11. ROCKWELL HARDNESS TEST

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To determine the hardness number of the given specimen.

Apparatus :
1. Hardness testing machine with hardned steel ball of 1.5875 mm diameter penetrator and
content shaped diamond penetrator.
2. Specimen for determination of hardness No.

Theory :
In Rockwell hardness test, the hardness of material is determined by the depth of
indentation (penetration) of a small steel ball or conical shaped diamond core.
The Rockwell hardness tester consists of an anvil which can be moved up or down by
turning the hand wheel which is situated at the bottom of the spindle.
The load can be applied by simply operating a hand lever. The indentor or penetrator in a
Rockwell test may either a steel ball or diamond penetrator is intended by two consective loads, a
minor load equal to 10 kg which does not deform the metal (i.e. 10 Kg minor load is applied to
seat the penetrator). And an additional load of 90 Kg for hardened steel ball (Total 100 Kgs) is
applied for penetration.
Where as an additional load of 140 Kg for conical shaped diamond. (Total 150 Kg) is
applied for penetration.
The depth of penetration effected by the additional load is a measure of Rockwell
hardness.
The Rockwell hardness is read directly on the dial of the instrument having
scale graduated in hardness units.

Hardened steel ball of 1.5875 mm Or conical shaped diamond with 120 apex
diameter (i.e., 1/16 inch) angle.,
1. It is suitable for soft material 1. It is suitable for material with high hardness.
2. Minor load = 10 kgs. 2. Minor load = 10 kg.
3. Major load = 90 kgs. 3. Major load = 140 kg.
4. Total load = 100 kgs. 4. Total load = 150 kg.

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The dial has two sets of figures, one red (Scale B) and other black (Scale C) which differ
by 30 hardness number, (i.e., B-30 is at C-0). It is made so, to avoid the negative hardness values
on the B-Scale if B Scale is used to test very soft materials.
The highest hardness that can be measured with a 1/16 inch dia ball penetrator is
only B-100 and for higher hardness the C-Scale should be employed.

Procedure :

1. Place the specimen on the anvil such that the surface is normal to the direction of the
applied force.
2. Note the type and size of the penetrator.
3. Raise the anvil and the test specimen by means of the elevating screw.
4. Once the specimen touches the penetrator, the small pointer in the dial starts to move.
5. Now continue to raise the specimen slowly until the small pointer comes to the red dot.
This indicates that the minor load of 10 Kg is acting upon the penetrator.
6. Now the turn the dial until the mark B-30 (i.e., C=0) which is also designated by the
arrow and by the work “SET” is directly behind the pointer.
7. Now release the operating hand lever so as to apply a major load, which is an
increment over the already applied minor load (10 Kg)
8. The penetrator starts to go down into the specimen. This can be seen from the dial. The
points starts to move during the period of loading.
9. Immediately after the major load has been fully applied, gently bring back the
operating hand lever to its latched position.
10. Now read the position of the pointer on the selected scale, which gives the Rockwell
hardness number,.
11. Make three independent hardness determination on a specimen,.

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Observations:

Rockwell
Scale Penetrator Total load
Sl. No. Material Hardness
symbol Dia (Kg)
Number

1)

Diamond ball 2)
10 kg + 140 kg
1. Mild Steel C. Scale of 1.5875
= 150 kg
mm dia 3)

Average
1)

Steel ball of 2)
10 kg + 90 kg
2. Brass B. Scale 1.5875 mm
= 100 kg
dia 3)

Average
1)

Steel ball of 2)
10 kg + 90 kg
3. Aluminum B. Scale 1.5875 mm
= 100 kg
dia 3)

Average

Results :

Rockwell hardness number of Mild steel =

Brass =

Aluminum =

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12. VICKERS HARDNESS TEST

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To study the Vickers hardness tester and to determine the hardness number
of the given specimens.
Apparatus :
Vickers hardness tester

Theory :
In Vickers hardness test, the hardness of the material is determined by indentation of a
square based diamond pyramid (with an angle of 136
degrees between opposite faces). Vickers hardness testing is more versatile than Birnell hardness
testing. Instead of changing the indenters as well as the load, depending upon the nature of the
material tested, only the load is changed in the Vickers hardness test. The load may be varied from
1 kgf. to 120 kgf. The load is selected in accordance with the size and hardness of the specimen.
The size of the indentation obtained in this test is small. The specimen is placed over the anvil and
the load is slowly applied to the indenter and then released by means of lever. After the anvil is
lowered. a microscope is swung over the specimen and the diagonal of the square indentation is
measured. In some types of machines, the indentation can be focused on to a graduated ground
glass screen and measured. The hardness number is given by equation,

2F sin ( /2) 1.8544F


HV = =
d2 d2
Where F is load applied in kgf., is the angle between opposite faces of pyramid
which is 136 , d is the average length of the two diagonals of the impression measured in the
0

plane of the surface of the metal in mm. Vickers and Brinell hardness are expressed in the same
units (kgf/mm2) and coincide for hardness up to about 400. At the higher hardness the Vickers
number is larger than Brinell number.

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Specimens :
Vickers hardness testing is used for determining hardness of specimens of small cross-
section or of their external layers on case hardened, nitraded, etc., specimens having a high
hardness. Owing to the fineness and the small size of the indentation obtained, the specimen
needs a glassy surface finish for testing.

Procedure :
The load F must be selected in accordance with the expected
hardness of the material and is noted. Place the specimen on the anvil so that its surface will be
normal to direction of the applied load. Raise the anvil by means of a hand wheel until the
specimen just makes contact with the indenter. Apply the load by means of hand lever. Maintain
the full load for the prescribed time. Release the load and focus the indentation on to graduated
ground glass screen. The magnified diagonal lengths d1 and d2 of the indentation are measured by
means of the vernire mechanism provided in the screen. Make three independent hardness
determination on each specimen.

Observations and calculations :

Diagonal length of indentation 1.8544F


Load F (mm) HV =
Material
(kgf) d2
d1 d2 Mean ‘d’ (kgf/mm2)

Mild Steel

Brass

Aluminum

Results :

Vickers hardness of Mild steel = kgf/mm2

Brass = kgf/mm2

Aluminum = kgf/mm2

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13. WATER ABSORPTION TEST ON BURNT CLAY BRICKS

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the water absorption of burnt clay bricks

Reference: IS 3495 - 1976, Methods of test on burnt clay building bricks.


IS 1077 - 1992, Specification for common burnt clay building bricks.
IS 5454 - 1978, Methods of sampling of clay building bricks.

Apparatus:
1. Weighing balance correct upto 0.1 gm.
2. Container for water in which bricks can be immersed.

Material: Bricks in five numbers and clean water.

Theory:
Bricks is a common local building material used for walls construction. Bricks to be
used for construction work should not absorb more water. More water absorption means presence
of more calcium carbonate and more
possibility of efflorescence. Bricks with higher water absorption are porous and weak. Such bricks
absorb moisture from mortar and thereby reducing the compressive strength.
Procedure:

1. Dry the bricks in a ventilated oven at a temperature of 105 0C to 110 0C till the bricks
attain substantial constant weight.
2. Cool the brick specimens at room temperature and weigh each specimen separately (W1).
3. Immerse the brick specimen completely in clean water at a room temperature of 25 0C to 29
0
C for 24 hours.
4. Remove the specimens after 24 hours, wipe out any traces of water with damp cloth and
weigh each specimen separately (W2). The weighing should be completed in 3 minutes
after removal from water.
5. Calculate percentage of water absorbed by bricks.
(W2 - W1)
% Water absorption = X 100 = .................. %
W1

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Tabulations and calculations:

Sl. Weight of oven Weight of wet % Water Average %


No. dried brick (saturated) absorption Water
W1 gm. brick W2 gm. (W2-W1)x100 absorption of
(W1) bricks
1
2
3
4
5

Result: The average percentage absorption of water by weight of given burnt


clay bricks is _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ %

Requirement:
As per IS code the percentage water absorption shall not be more than 20 %
by weight for class II and 15 % for higher class.

Conclusion:
The given sample of bricks satisfies / not satisfies the IS requirement.

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14. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BURNT CLAY BRICKS

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the compressive strength of burnt clay bricks.

Reference: IS 3495 - 1976, Methods of test on burnt clay building bricks.

Apparatus:
1. Compression testing machine.
2. Trowel and metal tray.
3. Curing Tank.
4. Weighing balance.

Material:
1. Bricks 5 in numbers.
2. Clean sand of different three grades.
3. Cement.
4. 3 mm thick two plywood sheets.
Theory:
Compressive strength of bricks is the resistance to crushing under gradually applied load
and it is equal to load at failure divided by the area under compression. The purpose of the test is
to have the idea of class and quality of bricks. The strength of bricks in wet condition is less than
that is dry condition hence the test is carried out on bricks after soaking in water for 4 days.

Procedure:
1. Remove unevenness in the bed faces of bricks to provide smooth and parallel
faces by grinding.
2. Immerse the bricks in water at room temperature for 24 hours.
3. Remove the bricks and drain out any surplus water.
4. Fill the frog, any hollows and by the cement mortar of 1:1 proportion.
5. Store the bricks under damp gunny bags for 24 hours. Then immerse them in clean
water for 3 days, remove and wipe out any traces of moisture.
6. Place a brick specimen with flat faces horizontal with mortar filled facing up wards
between two 3 mm plywood sheets in compression testing machine.

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7. Apply load axially at the rate of 14 N/mm2 per minute, till the failure take place and note
down the load at failure.
8. Test all 5 bricks in the same manner as above and find out average compressive strength.

Tabulation and calculations :

Sr. Size Area of loading Crushing load Crushing Average


No. ( l x b) face of brick A at failure Pf strength Crushing
(mm x mm) = l x b mm2 (N) (fct=Pf/A) strength N/mm2
N/mm2

1
2
3
4
5

Calculations:
Load at failure Pf
Compressive Strength fct = = = = N/mm2
Area of face A

Result:
Average Compressive Strength fct = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ N/mm2

The minimum compressive strength of brick is ....................... and it is less / more than
20% of average strength.

Requirement :
1. The compressive strength varies considerably depending upon the class of bricks specified,
but in no case the strength should be less than 3.5 N/mm2
2. The strength of any individual brick shall not fall below the compressive strength specified
for the corresponding class of bricks by more than 20% .

Conclusion:
The bricks satisfies / not satisfies the IS requirements.

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15. ABRASION TEST OF FLOORING TILES

Date of Expt. :
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the resistance to wear of flooring tiles.

Reference: IS 1237 - 1980, Specification for cement concrete flooring tiles.

Apparatus:
1. Abrasion testing machine.
2. Abrasive powder as per IS specification.
3. A thickness - measuring device.

1. Abrasion Testing Machine :


A grinding disc of about 750 mm diameter, which can rotate in horizontal plane. This disc
has a grinding path of 200 mm wide, annular space made of cast iron, of scalar scope hardness
between 30 to 50. The speed of rotation of disc is 30 revolutions per minute. Abrasive powder is
applied to the grinding path to abrade the specimen placed on the path.

2. The abrasive power :


It should have aluminum oxide content not less than 95 percentages. The grains should be
of rounded shape and shall have sizes between 150 to 250 . The specific gravity should be
between 3.9 and 4.1. The grains should have hardness of 9 in Mohr‟s scale.

3. Thickness measuring devices :


The device consist of three steel plates of size 15cm x 15cm x 6mm joined with their
machined faces at right angle to each other, and the thickness measuring instrument. The specimen
is placed on base with wearing surface upwards and sides in contact with the two shoulders plate.
A dial gauge, set up firmly on the surface of the specimen, measures the thickness. The instrument
should be capable of measuring thickness up to 0.01 mm.

Materials:
Six cement concrete flooring tiles, to be tested cut to specimens of size 70.7mm x 70.7
mm by sawing. The specimen should be obtained from each tile, preferably from central
part of the tile.

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Theory:
The tiles used for floors are subjected to constant movement of men and materials and also
cleaning operation. This causes wearing of the
tiles i.e. losening and removing of the particles at the top of the tiles, hence it is necessary to know
the properties of the tiles in respect of the resistance to this wearing effect. The life of the tile is
depends on this quality.

Procedure:

1. Dry the specimen at 110 0C + 5 0C. for 24 hours, and then weigh the
same correct up to 0.1 gm. Record this weight W1.
2. Measure the thickness of the specimens in a thickness measuring devices at 5 points (4 near
four corners and 1 at the center). Find the average thickness (t1) in mm.
3. Apply 20 gm. of abrasive powder to the grinding path of the disc of the
abrasion-testing machine. Fix the specimen in the holding device, with the surface to be
ground (i.e. the wearing surface of tile) facing the disc. Adjust load at 300 N. (30 kg).
4. Set the grinding disc in motion of 30 rpm, feed back the powder to the grinding path, so
that it is uniformly distributed below the specimen on its track.
5. After every 22 revolutions, stop the disc and remove the powder. Then apply fresh 20
gm of powder each time and rotate the specimen in 90 about vertical
0
axis in
clockwise direction. Repeat this operation nine times.
6. Weigh the specimen to the nearest 0.1 gm W2.
7. Measure the thickness by using thickness-measuring device at the same point. Find the
average thickness and record it as t2 mm and calculate the loss
of thickness ts = t1 - t2 on the basis of direct measurement.
8. Calculate the loss of thickness from the knowledge of weight and volume.
(W1 - W2)
tw = xV
W1 x A

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Tabulations:

Sl. No. Initial Thickness ti (mm) Final Thickness tf (mm)


1
2
3
4
5
Avg. Thk. Avg. Initial Thk. = Ti = Avg. Final Thk. = Tf =

1) Loss in thickness from measurement = Ts = (Ti – Tf) = mm

Observations and Calculations:

Cross sectional dimension of tile specimen = a x b = A = mm x mm


Cross Area of tile specimen = A = a x b = mm2
Volume of tile specimen = V = A x Ti = mm3
Initial weight of the specimen before abrasion = W1 = gm
Final weight of the specimen after abrasion = W2 = gm
Loss of thickness from weight Tw = mm

(W1 - W2)
Tw = xV = mm
W1 x A
Result:
1. Loss in thickness from measurement = Ts = mm
2. Loss of thickness from weight = Tw = mm

Requirement:
The wear shall not exceed following values :
1. For general-purpose tiles a. Average wear = 3.5 mm.
b. Wear on individual specimen = 4 mm.
2. For heavy-duty tiles a. Average wear = 2 mm.
b. Wear on individual specimen = 2.5 mm.

Conclusion:
The tiles satisfies / not satisfies the IS requirements.

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16. TRANSVERSE TEST ON ROOFING TILES

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine transverse strength (flexural strength) of cement concrete flooring tiles.

Reference: IS 1237 - 1980, Specification for cement concrete flooring tiles.

Apparatus:
1. Tile testing machine.
2. Lead shots.
The flexural testing machine has two parallel self-aligning cylindrical steel bearers. The
bearing surface is rounded to 40 mm diameter for testing tiles. For testing flooring tiles the rollers
may be 12 mm diameter. The distance between the rollers can be adjusted. The load is
applied through a third steel roller of same shape (40 mm diameter or 12 mm diameter) and
placed midway between the supports on the tile. The length of all bearers shall be more than
maximum width of the tile to be tested. The load is applied through a bucket, which can be
gradually filled with lead shots and connected to the loading bearer through the levers.

Material:
1. Six cement flooring tiles.
2. Plywood strips of size 20 mm X 3 mm.

Theory:
The strength in bending is called the transverse strength or the flexural strength. Tiles are
much thinner as compared to bricks, so their strength is measured by applying bending load
instead of compressive load or tensile load. Floor tiles laid on the mortar may be unevenly
supported by the mortar and would be subjected to bending. The purpose of this test is to get an
idea of quality of tiles.

Procedure :

1. Select 6 tiles as a representative, to the lot of tiles manufactured.


2. Soak tiles in water for 24 hours at a temperature of 27 0C + 2 0C.
3. Support the tiles, flat wise on the bearers (rollers) with sides parallel to supports. The span,
in case of the cement concrete tiles with smooth surface upwards is as follows :
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Tile size : 200 mm X 200 mm Span 150 mm


Tile size : 250 mm X 250 mm Span 200 mm
Tile size : 300 mm X 300 mm Span 250 mm
4. Provided plywood padding of 3 mm thickness and 20 mm wide between the tile and each
bearers.
5. Apply load at a uniform rate of 45 to 55 Kg/minute by allowing, lead shots to flow in the
bucket. Apply load till specimen breaks.

Tabulations and Calculations:

MANGALORE TILES:

Weight
of
Empty
Span basket Transverse /
Dimensions weight Weight of Breaking load
of the along Bending
Sr. of tile of lead balls of tile
tile with strength
No. (mm) basket (Kg) P=(Wx12x9.81)
(mm) lead f=(3PL)/(2bt2)
lxbxt (Kg) W= W2-W1 (N)
L balls N/mm2
W1
(Kg)
W2
1 150
2 150
3 150
4 150
5 150
Average Transverse / Bending strength =

3xPxL
Transverse / Bending strength f=
2 x b x t2

Result
Average Transverse / Bending strength for Mangalore tile is f = N/mm2

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Requirement:
For Mangalore tiles as per IS, the breaking load should be ;

Breaking load in kg.


Tiles Size
Class AA Class A
Average Individual Average Individual
410 mm x 235 mm 100 90 80 68
410 mm x 250 mm 110 100 90 78
410 mm x 260 mm 110 100 90 78

Conclusion:
The Mangalore tiles satisfies / not satisfies the IS requirements.

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17. MOISTURE CONTENT OF FINE AGGREGATE


(OVEN DRYING METHOD)

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To determine the surface moisture content of fine aggregate.

Reference : IS 2720 (Part II) - 1969

Apparatus :
1. Non corrodible air tight containers.
2. Balance of sufficient sensitivity
3. Desiccator with any suitable desiccating agent
4. Thermostatically controlled oven, with interior of non-corroding material,
to maintain temperature between 105 degree centigrade to 100 degree centigrade.

Materials : 200 gms of sand

Theory :
Surface moisture is the free moisture in the fine aggregate. It does not include the moisture
absorbed by aggregate. Surface moisture held by sand depends on the texture, grading and particle
size of fine aggregate. Surface moisture affects bulking of fine aggregate and slump of concrete.
The purpose of the test is to know the free moisture held on surface of fine aggregate.
The surface moisture causes bulking in sand i.e. increase in the volume of sand. When the sand is
moist i.e. when there is bulking, it is necessary to adjust water to be added and sand quantity to be
taken in each batch of concrete.

Procedure :

1. Clean the container and its lid. Take the empty weight of the container with lid (W1).
2. Some quantity of given sample is put in container and close the container with its lid.
Take the weight (say W2).
3. Now remove the lid and keep the container in an oven (which can maintain a
temperature of 1050 c to 1150 c) for about 24 Hrs.
4. The container is then taken out from the oven, and place the lid on the
container and then allow the container to cool in a desiccator.
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5. After cooling (i.e. at room temperature). Take the weight of container with lid (say
W3). Now the water content of a given sample can be calculated
by using the expression. Water content (in %) = (Wt of water / Wt of solid)
X 100

Observations and Calculations:

Sl.
Container No. 1 2 3
No.
1 Empty weight of container W1 (gms)
2 Weight of container and wet sample W2 (gms)
3 Weight of container and oven dry sample W3 (gms)
4 Weight of dry sample (W3 – W1) (gms)
5 Weight of Water (W2 – W3) (gms)
6 Moisture content in percentage
(W2 – W3)
W = x 100
(W3 – W1)

Hence the average moisture content = %

Calculations: The moisture content of the sample is calculated from the following expression.

Moisture Content = weight of water


X 100
Weight of dry sample

I.e. W = (W2 - W3) x 100


(W3 - W1)
Result:
Surface moisture of given fine aggregate is found to be...........................%

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18. SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FINE AGGREGATES


BY PYCNOMETER

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the specific gravity of given fine aggregates by using Pycnometer.
Reference: IS 2386 (part III) 1963, Methods of testing of aggregates for concrete.
Apparatus:
1. A Pycnometer bottle @ 900 ml capacity with a conical brass cap and screwed at it‟s
top.
2. Weighing balance of sensitivity of 1 gm.
3. Distilled water.
4. Glass rod.
Material: Sample of Fine aggregates.
Theory:
Specific gravity (G) is defined as the ratio of weights of a given volume of a aggregate
solids at a given temperature to the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at that
temperature, both weights being taken in air. In other words, it is the ratio of the unit weight
of aggregate solids to that of water.
Procedure:
1. Clean the Pycnometer bottle and dry it. Find the empty weight (W1 gm) of Pychometer,
brass cap and washer up to accuracy of 1 gm.
2. Take about 200 gm to 400 gm of oven dried fine aggregate and put it in the Pycnometer,
find the weight (W2) of Pycnometer with sample.
3. Fill the Pycnometer to half of its height with distilled water and mix it thoroughly with
glass rod. Add more water and stir it. Replace the screw at the top and fill the Pycnometer
and flush the hole in conical cap. Dry the Pycnometer from outside and weigh i.e. (W3).
4. Empty the Pycnometer and clean it thoroughly. Fill it with distilled water up to the hole
of conical cap and weigh it (W4).
5. Repeat the steps 1 to 4 for one more sample from the same sand.

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Observations and Calculations:

Sl. No. Particulars Trial 1 Trial 2


2. Weight of empty Pycnometer (W1) gm
3. Weight of Pycnometer + FA (W2) gm
4. Weight of Pycnometer + FA + Distilled
water (W3) gm
5. Weight of Pycnometer + Distilled water
(W4) gm
6. Specific gravity (W2 – W1)
G =
[(W2 – W1) – (W3 – W4)]

Calculations:
(W2-W1)

Specific Gravity (G) = =________


(W2-W1) - (W3-W4)

Result: Average specific gravity of fine aggregate sample is found out to be


____________

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19. BULK DENSITY OF FINE AGGREGATE


Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the unit weight or bulk density of a fine aggregate.

Reference: IS 2386 (Part III) 1963

Apparatus:
1. A balance sensitive to 0.5 percent of the weight of the sample to be weighed.
2. Cylindrical metal measure as shown below.

Size of container for bulk density test


Size of Largest particulars Nominal Inside Inside Thickness
capacity Diameter Height of metal
(Liter) (cm) (cm) (mm)
4.75 mm and below 3 15 17 3.15
Above 4.75 mm to 40 mm 15 25 30 4.00
Above 40 mm 30 35 31 5.00

Tamping rod:A straight metal tamping rod of cylindrical cross section 16 mm


in diameter and 60 cm long, rounded at one end.

Material: Fine Aggregates.

Theory:
The bulk density is the weight of material in given volume, and for purpose of this standard
it is measure in gm / cubic cm. The bulk density of an aggregate is affected by several factors,
including the amount of moisture present and the amount of effort introduced in filling the
measures.
The bulk density of an aggregate can be used for judging the quality by comparison with
normal density for that type of aggregate. The bulk density determines the type of concrete for
which it may be used. It is also required for converting proportions by weight into the
proportions by volume and is used in calculating the percentage of voids in the aggregate.

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Procedure :
A) Rodded or Compacted weight.
1. Measure the inside height and diameter accurately and compute the volume of the
container.
2. Fill the container with aggregate in three layers, each layer being tamped with 25 strokes of
the rounded end of the tamping rod, distributing the strokes evenly over the surface. The
container is finally filled to over flowing.
3. Strike of the surplus aggregate, using tamping rod as straight edge.
4. Weigh the container full of aggregate.
5. Calculate the net weight of aggregate in the container and compute the unit weight of
aggregate in gm / cc.
B) Loose Weight
1. Fill the container to over flowing by means of a shovel, the aggregate being discharged
from a height not exceeding 50 mm above the top of the container.
2. Level off the surface of the aggregate with a straight edge.
3. Determine the net weight of aggregate in the container.
4. Compute the unit weight of the aggregate.

Observations & Calculations:


Diameter of cylinder = d = cm
Height of cylinder = h = cm
Volume of cylinder = V = (π x d2 x h ) / 4 cm3

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Type of Determination: Compacted Weight

Sl. No. Particulars Trial 1 Trial 2

Weight of cylinder with full of aggregate (W1)


1
gm.
2 Empty weight of cylinder (W2) gm
Weight of aggregate in cylinder W = (W1–W2)
3
gm
Bulk density of aggregate
4
= γc = W / V gm / cm3

Hence average compacted bulk density γc = ......................................... gm /cm3

Type of Determination: Loose Weight

Sl. No. Particulars Trial 1 Trial 2

Weight of cylinder with full of aggregate (W1)


1
gm.
2 Empty weight of cylinder (W2) gm
Weight of aggregate in cylinder W = (W1–W2)
3
gm
Bulk density of aggregate
4
= γl = W / V gm / cm3

Hence average loose bulk density γl = ......................................... gm / cm3

Result:
Average compacted bulk density γc = ................................. gm / cm3
Average loose bulk density γl = ......................................... gm / cm3

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20. FINENESS MODULUS OF FINE AGGREGATES


(SIEVE ANALYSIS)
Date of Expt. :
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the fineness modulus of Fine Aggregates.

Reference: IS 2386 (Part I) - 1963, Methods of test for aggregates for concrete,
Part - I Particle size and shape.

Apparatus:
1. A set of IS sieves.
For fine aggregates : 4.75 mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600 , 300 , 150 ,
For coarse aggregates : 80mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 10mm, 4.75 mm.
2. Weighing balance of accuracy 1 gm.
3. Soft brush etc.
4. Mechanical Sieve shaker
5. Drying oven

Materials: Fine aggregates (2Kg)

Theory:
The purpose of fineness modulus test is to know the character of aggregates to be used, as
to whether it is fine, medium or coarse. Sieve analysis is the name given to the operation of
dividing a sample of aggregates into various fractions each consisting particles of the same size.
The sieve analysis is conducted to determine the particle size distribution in a sample of
aggregates, which we call gradation. In this connection the term known as “Fineness Modulus” is
being used.
Fineness Modulus is an empirical factor obtained by adding the cumulative percentage
weight retained on each of the standard sieves ranging from 4.75 mm to 150  and dividing this
sum by an arbitrary number 100.
Fineness Modulus is a ready index of coarseness or fineness of the materials. The larger the
F.M. value, the coarser is the material. Hence F.M. gives some idea of the mean size of particles in
the sample taken.
Based on F.M. value, fine aggregates or designated as Coarse sand, Medium sand and Fine
sand.

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The following limit may be taken as guidance:

Fine Sand : F. M. : 2.2 to 2.6


Medium Sand : F. M. : 2.6 to 2.9
Coarse Sand : F. M. : 2.9 to 3.2
A sand having F. M. more than 3.2 will be unsuitable for making satisfactory concrete.
Fine Aggregate: Aggregates which passes through 4.75 mm IS sieve are called fine
aggregates.
Coarse Aggregates: Aggregates which retain on 4.75 mm IS sieve are called coarse aggregates.

Procedure:

1. Take 2000 gms of oven dried sand sample in clean plate.


2. Arrange the sieve in order of IS sieves numbers : 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 µ, 300
µ, and 150 µ. Keeping sieve numbers 4.75mm at the top and
150 µ, at the bottom. Fix them in the sieve shaking machine with the pan at the bottom and
cover at the top.
3. Put the sand in the top sieve and carry out sieving for 15 minutes.
4. Find the weight of sand retained on each sieve.
5. Find the percentage weight retained on each of sieve and cumulative percentage weight
retained.
6. Compute the fineness modulus.

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Observations & Calculations:

Percentage
Weight of Weight of Cumulative
Empty wt retained
Sl. sieve + sand percentage
IS Sieve Weight (%)
No sand retained wt retained
Numbers of sieve (w x 100)
retained (gm) (%)
w1 (gm) Total weight
w2 (gm) w=w2-w1 Cp
taken
1 4.75 mm
2 2.36 mm
3 1.18 mm
4 600 µ
5 300 µ
6 150 µ
7 Pan Ԑ Cp =

Hence fineness modulus = Sum of cumulative percentages weight retained on each


sieves/100

i.e. F. M. = Ԑ Cp / 100

Result: Fineness modulus of fine aggregate = ..............

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21. BULKING OF SAND

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the maximum bulking of sand.


Apparatus: Measuring Cylinder.
Material: Sand and Water.
Theory:
The free moisture content in fine aggregate results in bulking of volume. Bulking
phenomenon can be explained as follows :
Free moisture forms a film around each particle. This film of moisture exerts what is know
as surface tension which keeps the neighboring particles away from it. Similarly, the force exerted
by surface tension keeps every particle away from each other. Therefore, no point of contact is
possible between the particles. This causes bulking of the volume. The extent of surface tension
and consequently how far the adjacent particles are kept away will depend upon the percentage of
moisture content and the particle size of the fine aggregate. It is interesting to note that the bulking
increases with the increase in moisture content results in the decrease in the volume and at a
moisture content repressing saturation point, the fine aggregate shows no bulking. It can be seen
from Fig. that find sand bulks more and coarse sand bulks less. From this it follows that the coarse
aggregate also bulks but the bulking is so little that it is always neglected. Extremely fine sand and
particularly the manufactured fine aggregate bulks as much as about 40 percent.
Due to the bulking, fine aggregate shows completely unrealistic volume. Therefore, it is
absolutely necessary that consideration must be given to the effect of bulking in proportioning the
concrete by volume. If cognizance is not given to the effect of bulking, in case of volume batching,
the resulting concrete is likely to be under sanded and harsh. It will also affect the yield of concrete
for a given cement content.

Procedure:
1. Take about 200 gms of sand and is filled into a measuring cylinder. Note down the level,
say h1.
2. Pour the water say about 2 percentage of weight of sand and note the level say h 2 and
calculate percentage bulking.
3. Continue the procedure and go on noting the level h2 for different percentages of water, till
the volume of sand becomes equal to the original volume.
4. Plot the graph, moistures content percent of weight versus bulking percent of dry volume.
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Tabulations and Calculations:

Percentage
Initial Final volume Bulking =
Percentage of Volume of
Sl. No. volume of of sand v2 Change in
Water (%) Water (ml)
sand v1 (ml) (ml) volume x100
Initial volume

v 2  v1
Percentage bulking = x 100
v1

Plot graph between percentage of bulking vs. Percentage water added along Y and X axis
respectively.

Result: Maximum percentage bulking of sand =

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22. SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION TESTS ON


COARSE AGGREGATES

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the specific gravity and water absorption of coarse aggregates.
Reference: IS 2386 (Part III), methods of test for aggregate for concrete.
Apparatus:
a. A balance of capacity about 3 kg, to weigh accurate to 0.5 g, and of such a type and shape
as to permit weighing of the sample container when suspended in water.
b. A thermostatically controlled oven to maintain temperature of 1000 to 1100 C.
c. A wire basket of not more than 6.3 mm mesh or a perforated container
of convenient size with thin wire hangers for suspending it from the balance.
d. A container for filling water and suspending the basket.
e. An air right container of capacity similar to that of the basket (referred to in
„c‟ above)
f. A shallow tray and two dry absorbent clothes, each not less than 75 x 45 cm.

Material: Coarse Aggregates.


Theory:
The specific gravity of an aggregate is considered to be a measure of strength or
quality of the material. Stones having low specific gravity are
generally weaker than those with higher specific gravity values. The specific gravity test
helps in the identification of stone.
Water absorption gives an idea of strength of rock. Stones having more water absorption
are more porous in nature and are generally considered unsuitable unless they are found to be
acceptable based on strength, impact and hardness tests.
The specific gravity of aggregates normally used in road construction ranges from about
2.5 to 3.0 with an average value of about 2.68. Though high specific gravity of an aggregate is
considered as an indication of high strength, it is not possible to judge the suitability of a sample of
road aggregate without finding the mechanical properties such as aggregate crushing, impact and
abrasion values.
Water absorption of an aggregate is accepted as measure of its porosity. Some times this
value is even considered as a measure of its resistance to frost action, though this has not yet been
confirmed by adequate research.

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Water absorption value ranges from 0.1 to about 2.0 percent for
aggregates normally used in road surfacings. Stones with water absorption upto 4.0 percent
have been used in base courses. Generally a value of less than 0.6 percent is considered
desirable for surface course, though
slightly higher values are allowed in bituminous constructions. Indian Roads, Congress has
specified the maximum water absorption value as 1.0 percent for aggregates used in
bituminous surface dressing and built-up spray grout.
Procedure:
About 2 kg of the aggregate sample is washed thoroughly to remove fines, drained and then
placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22 0C and 32 0C
with a cover of at least 5 cm of water above the top of basket. Immediately after immersion the
entrapped air is removed from the samples by lifting the basket containing it 25 mm above the
base of the tank and allowing it to drop 25 times at the rate of about one drop per second. The
basket and the aggregate should remain completely immersed in water for a period of 24 + 1/2
hours after wards.
The basket and the sample are then weighed while suspended in
water at a temperature of 22 0C to 32 0C. In case it is necessary to transfer the basket and the
sample to a different tank for weighing, they should be jolted 25 times as described above in the
new tank to remove air before weighing. This weight is noted while suspended in water =
W1g.
The basket and the
aggregate are then removed from water and allowed to drain for a few
minutes, after which the aggregates are transferred to one of the dry
absorbent clothes. The empty basket is then returned to the tank of
water, jolted 25 times and weighed in water = W2 g.
The aggregates placed on the absorbent clothes are surface dried till no further
moisture could be removed by this cloth. Then the aggregates are
transferred to the second dry cloth spread in a single layer, covered and
allowed to dry for at least 10 minutes until the aggregates are completely
surface dry. 10 to 60 minutes drying may be needed. The aggregate
should not be exposed to the atmosphere, direct sunlight or any other source of heat while
surface drying. A gentle current of unheated air may be
used during the first ten minutes to accelerate the drying of aggregate
surface. The surface dried aggregate is then weighed = W3 g. The aggregate is placed in a
shallow tray and kept in an oven maintained at a temperature of 110 C for 24 hours. It is then
0

removed from the oven, cooled in an air-


right container and weighed = W4 g.

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Observations & Calculations:

Sr.No Particulars Trial 1


1 Weight of saturated aggregate suspended in water with basket W1 (gm)
2 Weight of basket suspended in water W2 (gm)
3 Weight of saturated aggregate in water Ws = ( W1 – W2 ) (gm)
4 Weight of saturated surface dry aggregate in air W3 (gm)
5 Weight of water equal to the volume of the aggregate = (W3-Ws) (gm)

6 Weight of oven dried aggregate W4 (gm)

Dry weight of aggregate


Specific gravity =
Weight of equal volume of water

W4 W4
= =
W3-WS W3 - (W1-W2)

Dry weight of aggregate


Apparent Specific gravity =
(Weight of equal volume of water
excluding air voids in aggregates)

W4 W4
= =
W4-WS W4 - (W1-W2)

Water absorption = Percent by weight of water absorbed in terms oven dried weight of
aggregates
(W3-W4) x 100
= %
W4
Result:

1. Specific gravity of aggregate = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2. Water absorption of aggregate = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ %

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23. MOISTURE CONTENT OF COARSE AGGREGATE


(OVEN DRYING METHOD)

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the moisture content of coarse aggregate.

Reference: IS 2720 (Part II) - 1969

Apparatus:
1. Non corridible air tight containers.
2. Balance of sufficient sensitivity
3. Desiccator with any suitable desiccating agent
4. Thermostatically controlled oven, with interior of non-corroding material,
to maintain temperature between 105 degree centigrade to 100 degree centigrade.

Materials: 200 gms of aggregates

Theory:
Most of the coarse aggregates obtained from the field will have some water being held
in their force bases, called as the natural water content.

Procedure:

1. Clean the container and its lid. Take the empty weight of the container with lid (W1).
2. Some quantity of given sample is put in container and close the container with its lid. Take
the weight (say W2).
3. Now remove the lid and keep the container in an oven (which can maintain
a temperature of 1050 c to 1150 c) for about 24 Hrs.
4. The container is then taken out from the oven, and place the lid on the
container and then allow the container to cool in a desiccator.
5. After cooling (i.e. at room temperature). Take the weight of container with lid (say
W3). Now the water content of a given sample can be calculated
by using the expression. Moisture content (in %) = (Wt of water / Wt of solid) X100

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Observations & Calculations:

Sl. Container No.


Particulars
No.
1 Empty weight of container W1 (gms)
2 Weight of container and wet sample W2 (gms)
3 Weight of container and dry sample W3 (gms)
4 Weight of dry sample (W3 – W1) (gms)
5 Weight of Water (W2 – W3) (gms)
6 Moisture content in percentage
(W2 – W3)
= x 100
(W3 – W1)

Hence the average moisture content = %

Calculations: The moisture content of the sample is calculated from the following expression.

Moisture Content = weight of water


X 100
Weight of dry sample

= (W2 - W3) x 100


(W3 - W1)

Result:
Surface moisture of given fine aggregate is found to be ........................... %

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24. BULK DENSITY OF COARSE AGGREGATE

Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim: To determine the unit weight or bulk density of a coarse aggregate.

Reference: IS 2386 (Part III) 1963

Apparatus:
1. A balance sensitive to 0.5 percent of the weight of the sample to be weighed.
2. Cylindrical metal measure as shown below.

Size of container for bulk density test


Size of Largest particulars Nominal Inside Inside Thickness
capacity Diameter Height of metal
(Liter) (cm) (cm) (mm)
4.75 mm and below 3 15 17 3.15
Above 4.75 mm to 40 mm 15 25 30 4.00
Above 40 mm 30 35 31 5.00

Tamping rod:A straight metal tamping rod of cylindrical cross section 16 mm in


diameter and 60 cm long, rounded at one end.

Material: Coarse Aggregates.

Theory:
The bulk density is the weight of material in given volume, and for
purpose of this standard it is measure in gm/ cubic cm. The bulk density of an aggregate is
affected by several factors, including the amount of
moisture present and the amount of effort introduced in filling the measures.
The bulk density of an aggregate can be used for judging the quality by comparison with
normal density for that type of aggregate. The bulk

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density determines the type of concrete for which it may be used. It is also required for converting
proportions by weight into the proportions by volume and is used in calculating the
percentage of voids in the aggregate.
Procedure :
A) Rodded or Compacted weight.
1. Measure the inside height and diameter accurately and compute the volume of the
container.
2. Fill the container with aggregate in three layers, each layer being tamped with 25 strokes of
the rounded end of the tamping rod, distributing the strokes evenly over the surface. The
container is finally filled to over flowing.
3. Strike of the surplus aggregate, using tamping rod as straight edge.
4. Weigh the container full of aggregate.
5. Calculate the net weight of aggregate in the container and compute the unit weight
of aggregate in gm/cc.
B) Loose Weight
1. Fill the container to over flowing by means of a shovel, the aggregate being discharged
from a height not exceeding 50 mm above the top of the container.
2. Level off the surface of the aggregate with a straight edge.
3. Determine the net weight of aggregate in the container.
4. Compute the unit weight of the aggregate.

Observations & Calculations:


Diameter of cylinder = d = cm
Height of cylinder = h = cm
Volume of cylinder = V = (π x d2 x h ) / 4 cm3

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Type of Determination: Compacted Weight

Sl. No. Particulars Trial 1 Trial 2

Weight of cylinder with full of aggregate (W1)


1
gm.
2 Empty weight of cylinder (W2) gm
Weight of aggregate in cylinder W = (W1–W2)
3
gm
Bulk density of aggregate
4
= γc = W / V gm / cm3

Hence average compacted bulk density γc = ......................................... gm /cm3

Type of Determination: Loose Weight

Sl. No. Particulars Trial 1 Trial 2

Weight of cylinder with full of aggregate (W1)


1
gm.
2 Empty weight of cylinder (W2) gm
Weight of aggregate in cylinder W = (W1–W2)
3
gm
Bulk density of aggregate
4
= γl = W / V gm / cm3

Hence average loose bulk density γl = ......................................... gm / cm3

Result:

Average compacted bulk density γc = ................................. gm / cm3

Average loose bulk density γl = ......................................... gm / cm3

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25. FINENESS MODULUS OF COARSE AGGREGATES


(SIEVE ANALYSIS)
Date of Expt.:
Date of Submission. :
Experiment No. Sign. of Teacher

Aim : To determine the fineness modulus of Coarse Aggregates.

Reference: IS 2386 (Part I) - 1963, Methods of test for aggregates for concrete,
part - I Particle size and shape.

Apparatus:
1. A set of IS sieves.
For fine aggregates : 4.75 mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600 µ, 300 µ, 150 µ,
For coarse aggregates : 80mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 10mm, 4.75 mm.
2. Weighing balance of accuracy 1 gm.
3. Soft brush etc.
4. Mechanical Sieve shaker
5. Drying oven

Materials: Coarse aggregates (2Kg).

Theory:
The purpose of fineness modulus test is to know the character of aggregates to be used, as
to whether it is fine, medium or coarse. Sieve analysis is the name given to the operation of
dividing a sample of aggregates into varies fractions each consisting particles of the same
size.
The sieve analysis is conducted to determine the particle size distribution in a sample of
aggregates, which we call gradation. In this connection the term known as “Fineness Modulus” is
being used.
Fineness Modulus is an empirical factor obtained by adding the
cumulative percentage weight retained on each of the standard sieves ranging from 4.75 mm to
150 µ and dividing this sum by an arbitrary number 100.
Fineness Modulus is a ready index of coarseness or fineness of the
materials. The larger the F.M. value, the coarser is the material. Hence F.M. gives some idea
of the mean size of particles in the sample taken.

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Procedure:
1. Take 2000 gms of oven dried Coarse aggregates sample in clean plate.
2. Arrange the sieve in order of IS sieves numbers : 80mm, 40mm, 20mm, 10mm, 4.75 mm,
2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 µ , 300 µ , and 150 µ .
3. Put the Coarse aggregates in the top sieve and carry out sieving for 15 minutes.
4. Find the weight of Coarse aggregate retained on each sieve.
5. Find the percentage weight retained on each of sieve and cumulative percentage weight
retained.
6. Compute the fineness modulus.

Observations & Calculations:

Percentage
Weight Weight of Cumulative
Empty wt retained
Sl. of sieve sand percentage wt
IS Sieve Weight of (%)
No + sand retained retained
Numbers sieve w1 (w x 100)
retained (gm) (%)
(gm) Total weight
w2 (gm) w=w2-w1 Cp
taken
1 80 mm
2 40 mm
3 20 mm
4 10 mm
5 4.75 mm
6 2.36 mm
7 1.18 mm
8 600 µ
9 300 µ
10 150 µ
11 Pan Ԑ Cp =

Hence fineness modulus = Sum of cumulative percentages retained on each


sieves/100
I.e. F. M. = Ԑ Cp / 100

Result: Fineness modulus of Coarse aggregate = ..............

Conclusion:
The fineness modulus of given sample of aggregates is..........................
hence it is classified as .......................
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