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Test - 2

GS Mains
Test Series
IAS - 2017

Indian Society
TEST - 2


Time Allowed: 3 hr. Max. Marks: 250

1. Despite the efforts by the Government to introduce new policies, the elderly people lack the
social security needed in old age and live with a low social status. What are the lacunas in the
programmes and policies related to the old age?

2. Multiculturalism is before anything else a theory about culture and its value. Suggest approaches

to further reinforce India's multiculturalism.

3. Politics give birth to communalism or communalism gives birth to politics. Critically assess .

4. OR
Is the patriarchal nature of Indian society one of the reason behind very slow rate of decreasing
poverty ratio? Illustrate.

5. "Forced incorporation of tribal communities into mainstream processes has had its impact on the
tribal culture and society as much as its economy", do you agree? Analyse in the context of

PESA Act that empowers the tribals to preserve their customs, culture, community resources
and customary mode of dispute resolution.

6. Prohibiting women entry and worshiping in spaces dominated by male custodian of religion is
not just a matter of violating women's equality in matters of faith but also their dignity and
continuation of male appropriation of religion. Critically analyse in the context of recent landmark

judgment given by Maharashtra High Court.

7. What do you mean by stateless society? What are the political and social principles of stateless
society? What is the role of state in stateless society and how is it different from modern

8. While social movements seek to bring in social change, counter movements sometimes arise in
defence of status quo. Comment and bring examples to support your point.

9. Assess the role of women in strengthening the Panchayati Raj Institution. How far this has
been able to ameliorate the status of women and incorporated them in the mainstream of

10. Despite optimistic outlook towards globalization, globalization has a dark side and has the
power to create highly undesirable adverse effects. Analyse the above statement in context of
the concept of globalization and its impact on the working women.

11. Regionalism in India has taken the form of parochialism due to socio-economic factors.
Substantiate with examples.

12. Discuss how migration and migrants are shaping cities and how the life of migrants is shaped
by cities, their people, organizations and rules?

13. Will the Smart City Mission and AMRUT lead to Urban Renaissance? Critically assess.

Indian Society [1]

14. Bring out the relation of globalization with formation of bi-cultural identity. Discuss its pros
and cons.

15. “Growing economical disparities in urban setup of India leads to class stratification and a
sense of relative poverty." Critically analyse the above statement.

16. The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016 evolves a mechanism for social,
economic and educational empowerment of transgenders. Critically analyse how the recent bill
aims at developing an inclusive society for transgenders in India.

17. ‘The new Draft Policy on Women shifts the focus from entitlements to rights and from
empowerment to creating an enabling environment.’ Discuss.

18. Incidents of the past few years suggest that India is becoming racially intolerant society. Do you
agree? Discuss different measures that could be taken for sensitizing people in making India
a racially diverse country.

19. Highlight the importance of urbanization as a source of global development and social inclusion.

20. India has been ranked 87th out of 144 countries on the World Economic Forum's (WEF) Global
Gender Gap Report 2016. What measures are needed for bridging gender gap in India?


[ 2 ] Indian Society
TEST - 2


Time Allowed: 3 hrs. Max. Marks: 250

Q. Marks Instructions to Candidate

• There are 20 questions.
4. • All questions are compulsory
6. • The number of marks carried by a question is indicated
7. against it.
• Answer the questions in NOT MORE THAN 200 words each.
Contents of the answer is more important than its length.
• Answers must be written within the space provided.
15. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-
16. cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

Name _______________________________

Roll No.___________________________
1. Invigilator Signature _______________ Mobile No.___________________________
2. Invigilator Signature _______________ Date ________________________________

Signature ____________________________



Roll No.____________

Q1. Despite the efforts by the Government to introduce new policies, the elderly people
lack the social security needed in old age and live with a low social status. What are the
lacunas in the programmes and policies related to the old age? (12.5 Marks)





Q2. Multiculturalism is before anything else a theory about culture and its value. Suggest
approaches to further reinforce India's multiculturalism. (12.5 Marks)





Q3. Politics give birth to communalism or communalism gives birth to politics. Critically
assess . (12.5 Marks)





Q4. Is the patriarchal nature of Indian society one of the reason behind very slow rate of
decreasing poverty ratio? Illustrate. (12.5 Marks)





Q5. "Forced incorporation of tribal communities into mainstream processes has had its impact
on the tribal culture and society as much as its economy", do you agree? Analyse in the
context of PESA Act that empowers the tribals to preserve their customs, culture,
community resources and customary mode of dispute resolution. (12.5 Marks)





Q6. Prohibiting women entry and worshiping in spaces dominated by male custodian of
religion is not just a matter of violating women's equality in matters of faith but also
their dignity and continuation of male appropriation of religion. Critically analyse in the
context of recent landmark judgment given by Maharashtra High Court.
(12.5 Marks)





Q7. What do you mean by stateless society? What are the political and social principles of
stateless society? What is the role of state in stateless society and how is it different
from modern society? (12.5 Marks)





Q8. While social movements seek to bring in social change, counter movements sometimes
arise in defence of status quo. Comment and bring examples to support your point.
(12.5 Marks)





Q9. Assess the role of women in strengthening the Panchayati Raj Institution. How far this
has been able to ameliorate the status of women and incorporated them in the mainstream
of decision-making? (12.5 Marks)





Q10. Despite optimistic outlook towards globalization, globalization has a dark side and has
the power to create highly undesirable adverse effects. Analyse the above statement in
context of the concept of globalization and its impact on the working women.
(12.5 Marks)





Q11. Regionalism in India has taken the form of parochialism due to socio-economic factors.
Substantiate with examples. (12.5 Marks)





Q12. Discuss how migration and migrants are shaping cities and how the life of migrants is
shaped by cities, their people, organizations and rules? (12.5 Marks)





Q13. Will the Smart City Mission and AMRUT lead to Urban Renaissance? Critically assess.
(12.5 Marks)





Q14. Bring out the relation of globalization with formation of bi-cultural identity. Discuss its
pros and cons. (12.5 Marks)





Q15. “Growing economical disparities in urban setup of India leads to class stratification
and a sense of relative poverty." Critically analyse the above statement.
(12.5 Marks)





Q16. The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016 evolves a mechanism for social,
economic and educational empowerment of transgenders. Critically analyse how the
recent bill aims at developing an inclusive society for transgenders in India.
(12.5 Marks)





Q17. ‘The new Draft Policy on Women shifts the focus from entitlements to rights and from
empowerment to creating an enabling environment.’ Discuss. (12.5 Marks)





Q18. Incidents of the past few years suggest that India is becoming racially intolerant society.
Do you agree? Discuss different measures that could be taken for sensitizing people in
making India a racially diverse country. (12.5 Marks)





Q19. Highlight the importance of urbanization as a source of global development and social
inclusion. (12.5 Marks)





Q20. India has been ranked 87th out of 144 countries on the World Economic Forum's (WEF)
Global Gender Gap Report 2016. What measures are needed for bridging gender gap in
India? (12.5 Marks)



GS Mains Test Series 2017
Answer Hints: Test No.2

1. Despite the efforts by the Government to introduce new policies, the elderly people lack
the social security needed in old age and live with a low social status. What are the
lacunas in the programmes and policies related to the old age?

Main Idea of the Question: Government has introduced many policies and programmes to provide
Social Security to Elderly population, but there are issues involved in their adequate implementation.
Key Concepts: Prominent Demographic Trends of Elderly population in India, Old age Security as
Physical, Emotional and Social security, limitations of Government programmes and policies.
It is estimated that India has around 90 million elderly and by 2050, this number is expected to rise
to 315 million. The life expectancy in India has increased from 42 years in 1960 to over 65 years at

Prominent Trends
• Increasing life span
• Disintegrated 'extended family concept'/ less pool of caretakers
• 'Newly aged poor' is also becoming more prominent where people in their 50s are taking up

early voluntary retirement schemes (VRS) or forced retirement due to lack of jobs and skills
In this changing environment, Old Age Security will no longer be ensured by only providing
monetary support; there are physical, emotional and social factors that will need to be considered.
Social security is a basic human right. The older persons need social security as they cannot work
and earn due to age factor. Therefore, the formulation and successful implementation of welfare
policies for senior citizens pose a challenge to the Central and the State Government.
Government Efforts and New Policies
A host of legislation and government initiatives has been taken since independence. However, the
initiatives taken by the Government before 1990s were mainly aimed at ensuring income security
and proved to be inadequate.
• 1952-76 Employees provident fund scheme & Employee pension scheme for employees in the
central and state government sectors
• 1969, the Public Provident Fund (PPF) scheme for those in private sector as well as for self-
The Central Government initiated a new wave of welfare programs in last decade for the senior
citizens. Some of the prominent ones include the
Hints: Indian Society [1]
• National Health Mission (NHM)
• Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizen Act 2007
• Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) and National Pension Scheme
• Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY)
The healthcare system in India suffers from many structural problems therefore the results of various
schemes and initiatives have been only marginal and inadequate.
• The lack of coordination among various government agencies running these schemes. Hence,
a strong need was felt to introduce a comprehensive Universal Health Care System.
• Various ministries working independently without any nodal agency
• Poor capacity in public health management

• Weak regulatory systems for drugs as well as medical practice.
• Inadequate funding
• Further, a robust healthcare system also needs the active participation in preventive and
promotive healthcare.
Way Forward

• The eligibility criteria of the National Old Age Pension Scheme need to be liberalized, the
quantum of benefits under the scheme needs to be enhanced.
• The subsidized insurance schemes need to be enlarged to cover all sections of the unorganized
sector linked to welfare funds and rationalized in so far as the subsidy element is concerned.
• The system of social security in India should consist of a multi-tiered structure.

• Adequate arrangements should be made for institutional care of those who have no families
or who cannot be taken care of by their families.
• At the same time concerted effort should be made to preserve and strengthen the traditional
family system, as the alternative to institutional care cannot be a satisfactory substitute for
family care of the elderly.
• Pension Reforms - There is already a long delay which has harmed the retirement security
of millions of Indians, pension reforms must be discussed and enacted with immediate effect.
Supplementary Notes:
Definition of Elderly
Elderly or old age consists of ages nearing or surpassing the average life span of human beings. The
boundary of old age cannot be defined exactly because it does not have the same meaning in all
societies. Government of India adopted 'National Policy on Older Persons' in January, 1999. The
policy defines 'senior citizen' or 'elderly' as a person who is of age 60 years or above.
Demographic Trend and Current scenario
Steady Increase in Old age population: Both the absolute number and percentage of total population
has increased over years.
[ 2 ] Hints: Indian Society
Age group (years) Census 1991* Census 2001@ Census 2011@
0-4 12.2 10.7 9.3
5-9 13.3 12.5 10.5
10-14 11.8 12.1 11.0
15-59 55.4 56.9 60.3
60+ 6.8 7.4 8.6
Age not stated 0.6 0.3 0.4
Intra state comparison
Among States there is a wide variation of proportion of old age population .While Kerala(12.6%),
Tamil Nadu ( 10.4%) are among the top two states, Assam (6.7%), Delhi( 6.8) figure at the bottom
two .

Name of the State % elderly Name of the State % elderly
Top 5 Bottom 5OR
Kerala 12.6 Assam 6.7
Tamil Nadu 10.4 NCT of Delhi 6.8
Punjab 10.3 Jharkhand 7.1
Maharashtra 9.9 Bihar 7.4

Andra Pradesh 9.8 Jammu & Kashmir 7.4

2. Multiculturalism is before anything else a theory about culture and its value. Suggest
approaches to further reinforce India's multiculturalism.

Multiculturalism is defined as the state of co-existence of diverse cultures. Culture includes, racial,
religious, linguistic, etc. which may have differences and distinctions in customary behaviours,
cultural assumptions and values, patterns of thinking and communicative styles. It also aims at the
preservation of different cultures and their identities within a unified society as a state or nation.
'Multiculturalism' is now used not only to define disadvantaged and marginalised groups like tribals,
linguistic-cultural-religious minorities, LGBT, disabled, etc., but also immigrants who may come
under ethnic, religious minorities as well as minority nations and indigenous peoples.
India is home to policies of legal pluralism in religious family law (Hindu, Muslim, Christian,
Parsi), territorial autonomy for several linguistic and tribal groups, as well as quotas in
legislatures, government jobs and educational institutions for caste and tribal minorities and
hence a good example of multicultural society.
Multicultural claims include a wide range of claims involving religion, language, ethnicity, nationality,
and race. Culture is a contested, open-ended concept, and all of these categories have been subsumed
by or equated with the concept of culture. Hence, we can say that multiculturalism is itself a theory
of culture and its values comprising all its aspects.
Scholars have hailed the Indian Constitution of 1950 as a prescient model of multicultural
accommodation for its recognition of a range of group-differentiated rights within a broadly liberal
democratic framework.
Hints: Indian Society [3]
The Indian Constitution embodies two distinct approaches to the accommodation of difference
that might roughly be termed integrationist and restricted multicultural. It is true that in advance of
many Western democracies notably the US, the Indian Constitution recognizes affirmative action
(known as reservations) for historically disadvantaged groups. Nevertheless, as it is visible in Debating
Difference, in India's constitutional vision, a normative deficit remained with regard to the protection
of cultural difference and minority practices.
As a basis for group differentiated rights, cultural differences, unlike 'backwardness', lacked adequate
normative support in India's constitutional vision. The normative deficit at India's founding moment
continues to be politically influential.
State assistance to minority cultures has been seen as an illegitimate concession motivated by electoral
considerations, a line of critique exploited skilfully by a resurgent majority right.
For further reinforcing India's multiculturalism there is a need to recognise the rights of minorities,
vulnerable section, and women and work towards their upliftment.
For recognizing the minority rights the government has launched various schemes like pre-matric

and post-matric scholarship, financial assistance for higher education especially for girls, skill India,
and credit scheme under Mudra for encouraging entrepreneurship among minorities. However the
need of the hour is to implement these schemes in true spirit.
The recently proposed citizenship Amendment Bill which seeks to provide citizenship status to the
migrants is also a welcome step in further reinforcing multiculturalism.
3. Politics give birth to communalism or communalism gives birth to politics. Critically

Main idea of question: To understand the relationship between communalism & politics and how
communalism is more about politics rather than the religion.
Key concept related to answer: Emergence of communal politics and its evolution in India.
• Communalism is associated with religious fundamentalism and dogmatism. It is described
as a tool to mobilize people for or against by raising an appeal on communal lines. In India,

it is blind loyalty to one's own religious group.

• Communal Politics is a politics based on the belief that people who follow the same religion
has common political, economic, cultural and social interests; the common interests of the
followers of one religion are dissimilar and divergent from the interests of the followers of
another religion, and the interests of the followers of different religions or different
communities are seen to be mutually incompatible, antagonistic and hostile.
• Pre-Independence: In India, till 1880 communal consciousness as a driving force was absent
both in the Hindus and the Muslims. After the foundation of Indian National Congress in
1985 sowed the seeds of communal differences as according to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan,
congress was a Hindu body.

• The concept of elections and consequential power made Muslims to oppose the Congress
and as desired by the government, the Muslims began to be loyal to the British. In such a
situation, the Indian Muslim League was founded in 1907 by big landlords and Zamindars.
This loyalist, communal and conservative political organization supported the partition of
Bengal, demanded separate electorates and made its motto to oppose Congress but not
colonial rule.

[ 4 ] Hints: Indian Society

• 1937 was the dividing landmark and pre 1937, was an era of liberal communalism and the
post-1937 phase was that of extreme communalism. Communal politics emerged as
consequence of the modern politics based on mass mobilization and politicization which has
become evident in the Indian context from 1930.
• The communal consciousness arose as a result of the transformation of Indian society under
colonialism and it spreads the new idea of nationalism based on cultural and religious
ground, which finally led to partition of British India.
• Post-Independence: After independence there was a short break in communal politics due
to the absence of external fuelling by British Government, but it emerges in very short span
with Hindu Code Bill-1950.
• It is evident that year after year each political parties are selecting their candidate on any
seat with due consideration of communal approach of that area and they are flaring up
religious sentiments at the time of election.
• Even after paying a heavy price of partition, in many riots provoked thereafter, there were

involvement of political parties or their supporters, directly or indirectly viz.:
– Post-Independence/ Partition riots 1947-48
– Anti-Sikh riots, 1984
– Genocide of Kashmiri Pandit, 1989
– Babri Masjid demolition, 1992

– Gujarat riots, 1969 & 2002

– Assam Communal violence, 2012
– Muzaffarnagar violence, 2013
Historically, it's evident that politics gave birth to communalism in India.
Supplementary Notes:

• According to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in 1884, "Do you, not inhabit this land? Are you not
buried in it or cremated on it? Surely, you live and die in the same land. Remember that
Hindus and Muslims are religious terms. Otherwise Hindus, Muslims and Christians who
live in this country are by virtue of this fact one Qauam (nation or community)". But later
on, he becomes loyalist of British.
• M.S. Golwalkar in 1939 declared that if minority demands were accepted, Hindu national
life runs the risk of being shattered and he attacked the nationalists for "hugging to our
bosom our most inveterate enemies (Muslims) and thus endangering our very existence".
Thus both the Hindu and Muslim extremists tried to play on the fears and suspicious of
majority and minority and raised the cry of 'Hinduism in danger' and 'Islam in danger' or
Hindu culture and Islamic culture in danger. This creation of hatred proved harmful to both
the Hindus and the Muslims in the end and thousands lost their lives in the communal
• When Congress launched Quit India movement in August 1942, the League opposed it and
propagated its dream of separate homeland. The League took the help of Islam to spread
its idea of Pakistan along with popular newspapers. In 1944, C. Rajagopalachari placed his
compromise formula before Jinnah. Owing to the adamancy of the League, the Wavell plan
and the Shimla plan failed. When elections were held in 1946 as per the 1935 Act, the
Hints: Indian Society [5]
League rejected it and refused to participate in the interim government. In protest, the
Muslim League observed August 16, 1946 as the Direct Action Day which led to Hindu and
Muslim riots throughout India.
4. Is the patriarchal nature of Indian society one of the reason behind very slow rate of
decreasing poverty ratio? Illustrate.
Main idea of question: Concept of patriarchal system in India and its impact on the total family
earning, which halts poverty eradication.
Key concept related to answer: Non-indulgence of women in family earning due to patriarchy and
social obligations towards women, which finally led to idle workforce.
• Patriarchy is a social system in which family systems or entire societies are organized around
the idea of father-rule, where males are the primary authority figures. With time this definition
has changed to a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women

are largely excluded from it.

• The reasons patriarchal system halts human progress are based upon the fact that half the
human workforce that exists in any family, community, society or nation is compromised
when women and girls are suppressed and excluded from education and opportunities.
• Besides the sacrifice of human workforce, patriarchy leads to the ill treatment of women
physically and mentally/ educationally. When women of the family, community, society or
nation are not fit, they nurture the next generation in same manner, including the boys,

which degrades the physical and mental quality human resource.

• Patriarchy denies the females' control over the marriage partner & age, age of pregnancy
and number of children in the family. These situations lead to stunted child, which directly
contributes to the poverty of family and over population leads to general/social poverty.
• An educated population votes effectively to promote their interests and patriarchal system,
women are mostly uneducated and dependent on thoughts of male head of the family. This

leads ill elected representatives, who does not care about them and results into crippled
growth of society.

• Even, female Gram Pradhan/Sarpanch in Panchayati raj system of India is not the actual
representative due to the concept of "Pradhan-Pati/ Sarpanch-Pati" (Husband of Gram-
Pradhan) which is the outcome patriarchy.
• Kids grown into men in patriarchal atmosphere have sense of entitlement that is reinforced
over countless generations. Even poor fathers use more tobacco/bidi/alcohol, they gamble
and throw out of limit celebrations more than the poor mothers.
These patriarchal nature of Indian society halt the poverty eradication in Indian society.
Supplementary Notes:
• According to UNICEF, In India, almost half (48 per cent) of children younger than five years
of age are stunted, a manifestation of chronic under nutrition. Stunting and other forms of
under-nutrition are thought to be responsible for nearly half of all child deaths globally.
Stunting is associated with an under developed brain, with long-lasting harmful consequences,
including diminished mental ability and learning capacity, poor school performance in

[ 6 ] Hints: Indian Society

childhood, reduced earnings and increased risks of nutrition related chronic diseases, such
as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in future. While India's economy has been growing at
impressive rate, the country still has the highest number of stunted children in the world,
(61 million children) representing one third of the global total of stunted children under the
age of five. Stunting starts from pre-conception when an adolescent girl and who later
becomes mother is undernourished and anaemic; it worsens when infants' diets are poor,
and when sanitation and hygiene is inadequate. It is irreversible by the age of two. Child
survival and health is inseparably connected to reproductive and, maternal health.

5. "Forced incorporation of tribal communities into mainstream processes has had its
impact on the tribal culture and society as much as its economy", do you agree?
Analyse in the context of PESA Act that empowers the tribals to preserve their customs,
culture, community resources and customary mode of dispute resolution.

Tribals are considered as the indigenous people of India, usually staying in jungle areas, in a small
locality, absolutely illiterate poor, hardly clad in clothes, usually dark and frail, fully living within
their own community whose marriage always takes place among themselves, engaged in hunting
and searching for roots, shoots and fruits as their veg food and roasted animals as non-veg food,
completely oblivious of the country's political and economic condition, resisting all efforts of
development and have a strong dislike for strangers and educated modern community.
There has not been any change of tribes in their belief, life style and religion which prevent them
from mixing with any outsider or educated community whom they greatly dislike.

Tribal people live within nature and absolutely clean environment and this determines their economic
activity which consists of hunting small animals and look for food like roots and wild fruits.
They hardly have any transaction because nobody has any currency or coins and do not have any
knowledge and experience of organizing market.
The tribal communities who had earlier suffered tremendously from engagement with modern

development process and from the operation of both colonial laws and statutes made in independent
India. They have been grossly affected by the land reform and have lost their right of access to
forest; land and other community resources which had increased their vulnerability.
Rampant land acquisition and displacement due to development projects had led to large scale
distress in tribal communities living in Scheduled Areas (such areas as the President may by order
declare to be Scheduled Areas).
Panchayats (Extensions to the Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA)
Considering this the Government of India under provisions of Part IX of the constitution enacted
the Panchayats (Extensions to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 popularly known as PESA in order
to mainstreaming the tribals into developmental path.
PESA sought to enable the Panchayats at appropriate levels and Gram Sabha to implement a
system of self-governance with respect to a number of issues such as customary resources, minor
forest produce, minor minerals, minor water bodies, selection of beneficiaries, sanction of projects,
and control over local institutions.
However, even after two decades since the passing of the Act, the implementation of the Act is
sketchy at best. The state government is reluctant to devolve the power that needed to accrue to the
Gram Sabha.
Hints: Indian Society [7]
One of the most severe violations arose in the context of rights over minor forest produce. The
Forest Rights Act defines even Tendu and Bamboo as a tree and is not in the list of minor forest
Section 4 (m) (ii) of PESA gave to the Gram Sabha the ownership over minor forest produce (MFP).
However, most of the States retained monopolies over minor forest produce, ostensibly for protecting
tribal communities.
Control over Tendu and bamboo trade, two of the most lucrative of MFP, remained in the hands of
the forest department in most states; and, thus affecting Tribal's economic independence.
However, PESA's sincere implementation has not been seriously attempted by the government,
which is still dominated by centralized structures and laws that are in contradiction with the
progressive provisions of PESA. The non-implementation of provisions of the PESA in its true spirit
has adversely affected the Tribal, their culture, economy and their day to day life.
Local disputes to be resolved by the Gram Sabha, Gram Sabha to manage and protect common

properties based on their traditional systems of management and protection. The administration
has to seek permission from the Gram Sabha in case of land acquisition.
For PESA Gram Sabha are the units at the ground level. Most states have enacted laws that
provide the bulk of the powers to the Gram Panchayat, and not the Gram Sabha hence they
remain subordinate to Gram Panchayats.
Panchayats have not been given adequate responsibilities to levy and collect taxes, fees, duties or

Recommendations of State Finance Commissions have been either accepted partially or implemented
Government functionaries treat tribals as inferior and, District administration and forest departments
subordinate the Gram Sabha hence making the Act ineffective.
There is no provision for appeal against the decisions of the Gram Sabha, which is prerequisite for

true democratic governance.

Supplementary Notes:

The salient feature of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act, 1996 (PESA) and
the modalities worked out to grant rights to tribal communities in the country are:
(i) Legislation on Panchayats shall be in conformity with the customary law, social and religious
practices and traditional management practices of community resources;

(ii) Habitation or a group of habitations or a hamlet or a group of hamlets comprising a community

and managing its affairs in accordance with traditions and customs; and shall have a
separate Gram Sabha.

(iii) Every Gram Sabha to safeguard and preserve the traditions and customs of people, their
cultural identity, community resources and the customary mode of dispute resolution.

(iv) The Gram Sabha have roles and responsibilities in approving all development works in the
village, identify beneficiaries, issue certificates of utilization of funds; powers to control
institutions and functionaries in all social sectors and local plans.

[ 8 ] Hints: Indian Society

(v) Gram Sabha or Panchayats at appropriate level shall also have powers to manage minor
water bodies; power of mandatory consultation in matters of land acquisition; resettlement
and rehabilitation and prospecting licenses/mining leases for minor minerals; power to
prevent alienation of land and restore alienated land; regulate and restrict sale/consumption
of liquor; manage village markets, control money lending to STs; and ownership of minor
forest produce.
The provisions of Panchayats with certain modification and exceptions have been extended to the
Schedule V areas viz. the ten States where the Panchayats exists in the country including Andhra
Pradesh. A list of ten States has been annexed. Only four States have framed their Rules for
implementation of PESA. These are, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra and
6. Prohibiting women entry and worshiping in spaces dominated by male custodian of
religion is not just a matter of violating women's equality in matters of faith but also
their dignity and continuation of male appropriation of religion. Critically analyse in

the context of recent landmark judgment given by Maharashtra High Court.
Hints: OR
There has been the wide protest from the group of women for their rights to enter and worship into
the temple who are being debarred from the ages citing some customary law which permit prohibiting
women from accessing places of worship.
Here the right is not only for entering and worshiping but the equality and dignity of women which
is being violated. The prohibition also legalizes the male domination and continuation of male
appropriation over religion.

Indian constitution under Article 25(1) guarantees to all persons the right to freely profess, practice,
and propagate their religion. Mirroring this, Article 26(b) grants to religious denominations the
right to manage their own affairs in the matter of religion. Overriding both these provisions, Article
25(2) allows state intervention in religious practice, if it is for the purpose of "social welfare or
reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and
sections of Hindus".

Despite all these constitutional provisions 50% of our population (women) is being neglected from
their rights. It is the State government's duty to protect the rights of women. The prohibition is
arbitrary, illegal and violate of the fundamental rights of a citizen.
The Bombay High Court verdict:
The Bombay High Court upon hearing a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) came out in favour of
women's right to worship saying there is no law that prevents women from entering a place of
worship, and if men are allowed entry, women should be allowed too.
The Bench said if temple authorities impose restrictions on someone's entry in a religious place, they
could face six months' imprisonment as per the Maharashtra Hindu Place of Worship (Entry
Authorisation) Act, 1956.
In directions which are seen as a break from centuries-old traditions and a victory for women's
campaign against gender bias, the court asked the Maharashtra Government to take pro-active
steps to ensure that this right was not allowed to be encroached upon by any authority.
The court also said the government should give wide publicity to the Act and issue circulars, informing
the general public at large about the Act and its provisions.
However, the similar demand has also been raised for entry of women into the sanctum sanctorum
of Haji Ali Dargah, a centuries old Sufi shrine in Mumbai and the Sabrimala Temple in Kerala.
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The Sabrimala governing board's argument is that the prohibition of women is "justified by custom".
They rely upon the Kerala Hindu Places of Public Worship (Authorisation of Entry) Rules, 1956,
which permit prohibiting women from accessing places of worship where "custom" or "usage"
requires it.
The Supreme Court has held that while personal law is exempt from the application of the
Constitution, mere 'custom' is not. It might therefore simply strike down the offending rule on the
ground that it discriminates on grounds of sex, and therefore violates the Constitution.
The Supreme Court has also held that if one private party obstructs another private party from
exercising her constitutional right, then it is the duty of the state to effectuate her right by restraining
the former from continuing with its obstruction. Therefore, the women worshippers may ask the
court to direct the state to take all necessary steps to guarantee that they are allowed to access and
worship at the Sabarimala shrine.
In case of Haji Ali Dargah, the trust responded by invoking Article 25(1) itself, arguing that Islam
mandated the exclusion of women from the inner sanctum. It also (though faintly) invoked Article
26(b), that granted religious denominations the right to manage their own affairs in matters of

The Court said that, the state is constitutionally bound to respect fundamental rights, not merely by
refraining from infringing women, but also by actively intervening in order to protect women when
they were threatened by others. Consequently, it was for the state to ensure - whether by providing
adequate protection or otherwise - that women who wanted to exercise their fundamental right to
equal access at the Haji Ali Dargah could do so.
Since the Constitution primarily guarantees fundamental rights to individuals against the state, it
had to explain how the Mahila Andolan could succeed where the rights-infringing actor was a

private, non-state body (the Dargah Trust).

In the exercise of their constitutional functions, there are times when it becomes necessary - and
inevitable - for courts to consider and decide deeply divisive and polarising questions about gender
relations, the family, religion, and society.
In such situations, it is tempting for judges to think that they are in a position to solve age-old,
intractable social problems, and to sally forth on adventurous tracks where both their competence
and their legitimacy are called into question. This is a temptation that the Indian judiciary has not

always been able to resist.

The Bombay High Court verdict in the Haji Ali case, however, is an example of a judgment that
adroitly negotiates these difficult issues by hewing closely to the Constitution, to law, and to the
judicial task of defending individual rights. For that, the Bombay High Court must be praised, and
its judgment upheld.
7. What do you mean by stateless society? What are the political and social principles
of stateless society? What is the role of state in stateless society and how is it different
from modern society?
Main idea of the question: The societies which have no formal agency of social control such as no
rigid boundary, no bureaucracy, no fixed ideology, have oral tradition, simple economy and single
person holds several powers like religious, economic, political etc. are main characteristics of stateless
society. Roles played by state in stateless society which is different from the modern society or state.
Key concept related to the answer: what is stateless society, its political and social principles and
the role of state in it. How it is different from the modern society/state?
• Stateless societies were those that had no centralized authority, no administrative machinery
and no courts of justice. They were without any kind of pyramidal structure of power. There
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were no chiefs or councils with the authority to issue commands that would be binding on
all. They were described as existing in a condition of 'ordered anarchy'.
• These societies have idea of territorial rights which are maintained through notions of age,
social sanctions and social control. Here Power and authority are diffused in different groups
in a society.
• Much of political and social life of a stateless society revolves around the feud. The feud was
a force for division, but it was also a powerful force for union. Feuds were generally settled
in course of time. Sometimes a lesser feud had to be settled so that the contestants could
unite for a greater one. This is what has been called 'the peace in the feud'.
Political principles of a stateless society:
• Politics deals with the distribution of power in a society. In a stateless society power is
confined in one individual who orders about the course of action. In grave situation such
as for the defence of territory or blood feud people from the different group or segment unite

and fight collectively.

• Authority or command is delegated by the head to the subordinate who within his/her
boundary becomes powerful and independent. Chief authority is a titular or symbolic head
representing entire group though segmentary social structure persists. He is considered almost
divine and sacred.
• More the level of surplus, greater the development of centralized polity. Extent to which a
ruler exercises his authority over his people, defines the scope of his political power. Scope

rather than range of power makes polity more centralized e.g. Feudatory states of Orissa.
Territory of king surrounded by segmentary clan lineage based units. They participate in
main rituals and ceremonies of central kingdom. No other political authority exist i.e. minimal
scope e.g. Silluks of upper Nile.
• Among loyal subjects Relatives are considered as rivals. Loyalty is rewarded by king in the
form of shared authority. Mystical symbols also integrate and unify stateless societies. This

is because the entire society regards these to be sacred and that which should be protected.
Social principles of a stateless society:

• The detailed study of the day-to-day affairs of stateless societies served to dispel the idea that
the State was the sole and indispensable guarantor of social order, and that without it
everything would dissolve into chaos. Such society operates according to their own principles
of cooperation and conflict.

• The ordinary business of life consists of sowing, harvesting and herding. It also consists of
birth, marriage and death and the rites and ceremonies attendant on them. None of these
activities can be undertaken by the individual alone. They all require the participation of
others, including those who are on opposite sides in a feud.
• In a stateless societies where the society is segmented or divided into sections alliances take
place along the lines of territory, residence, kinship, descent, heritage and marriage.

• Kinship system plays a very crucial role in the socio-political and economic organisation of
a stateless society. Its functions are extensive and overlapping with functions of the political
and economic institutions.

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• In some stateless society there are institutions which protect the rights of all the members of
society. For Example: where food is scarce or limited, these institutions used to gather and
distribute food. Since, in these societies the concept of accumulation of property and food
does not exist, there is always the problem of distribution.
Role of state in a stateless society which is different from the modern society:
• In modern concept state consists of a territorial boundary headed by elected political authority
to run the everyday business of the society associated by various others such as bureaucrats
and executive officers. In a stateless society the state boundaries are not defined (no rigid
boundary) and no elected political authority. Here the political authority is the hereditary
ruler who is the symbolic head. Some of the state is also headed by religious head. The
concept of fixed ideology and bureaucracy remain completely absent in such a society.
• When a society is industrialized it is considered to be modern society or it can be defined
as people living together in current time. The boundaries are marked and sovereignty is
followed in letter and spirit. In stateless society state boundaries are self-considered which

can be increased or decreased as per the acquisition by other group in terms of feud and
feud settlement. Though state play important role in their recognition and belongingness
which is prevalent today also.
• Social lineages are separated by villages and a group of villages which prevents conflicts
between different lineages. For example; lineage system of Santhals, Oraon, Bhils which
have principles of segmental opposition.
• Modern society is based on expansion of education, technology, industry and urban life. It
has a complex culture changing with the time. Its base is materializing. Due to diverse social

conditions heterogeneous life is found. Social problems of various natures develop among
various groups.
• Modern society considers more about urbanization, sub-social institutions, job opportunities,
better income opportunities, social stratification, urban facilities, source of communication,
social mobility, international relation, women status etc. which were absent in stateless

Supplementary Notes:
Types of Stateless Societies
i) First type of societies are those which usually live by hunting and gathering. Here the largest
social units are the co-operating groups of families or close kin. There does not exist any
other formal grouping besides this. There are no gradations or stratification's or even any
separate institutions. No specific political organisation exists in this type of society. The
authority rests with the senior members of these families. But this authority is very limited
in scope. Some of the examples of these societies are the Bushmen of South Africa and some
of the people of South East Asia, Jarawa of Andaman Islands etc.
ii) Second type of society is that which is made up of village communities which are related
to one another by various kinship and economic ties. They have formally appointed councils
to maintain administration. In these councils the eligibility for membership varies from one
society to another. Some of the criteria for eligibility are descent from either old family or
reputed family etc. or any other social eminence such as economic power. Here we can see
that there is an emergence of political order. Some of these types of societies are the Ibo and
Yako of West Africa.

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iii) In the third type, the societies have political control vested in age-set systems. This is a
common feature of the societies in East Africa. In these societies the allocation of authority
is vested in the elders of the society. Thus age-set organisation is based on the principle of
seniority. An example of such a tribe is the Cheyenne of America and the Nuer of Africa.
iv) Finally, the fourth type of societies is those in which political functions are performed
through groups organised in terms of unilineal descent. The unilineal descent is traced along
the line of either father or mother. In such societies there are no specific political offices.
There are no political chiefs, but the elders of the society may exercise a limited authority.
In this type of society the groups within the society may be in a state of balanced opposition.
Some of the examples of such type of societies are, the Nuer, the Dinka of Southern Sudan.
8. While social movements seek to bring in social change, counter movements sometimes
arise in defence of status quo. Comment and bring examples to support your point.
Main idea of the question: The movements which are being organised by the group for bringing
social change and age old practices. However, in retaliation the counter movement do arise but the
duo recognition is being given to more utilitarian one.

Key concept related to the answer: various social movements and their counter movement for
maintaining the status quo. OR
Social movements are purposeful, organized groups striving to work toward a common goal. These
groups might be attempting to create change (Occupy Wall Street, Arab Spring), to resist change
(anti-globalization movement), or to provide a political voice to those otherwise disenfranchised
(civil rights movements, Anna Hazare on Lokpal). Social movements create social change.

Social movements often arise with the aim of bringing about changes on a public issue, such as
ensuring the right of the tribal population to use the forests or the right of displaced people to
settlement and compensation.
While social movements seek to bring in social change, counter movements sometimes arise in
defence of status quo. There are many instances of such counter movements.
When Raja Rammohan Roy campaigned against sati and formed the Brahmo Samaj, defenders of

sati formed Dharma Sabha and petitioned the British not to legislate against sati.
When reformers demanded education for girls, many protested that this would be disastrous for
society. When reformers campaigned for widow remarriage, they were socially boycotted.
When the so called 'lower caste' children enrolled in schools, some so called 'upper caste' children
were withdrawn from the schools by their families.
Peasant movements have often been brutally suppressed. More recently the social movements of
erstwhile excluded groups like the Dalits have often invoked retaliatory action. Likewise proposals
for extending reservation in educational institutions have led to counter movements opposing them.
Social movements cannot change society easily. Since it goes against both entrenched interests and
values, there is bound to be opposition and resistance. But over a period changes do take place.
9. Assess the role of women in strengthening the Panchayati Raj Institution. How far this
has been able to ameliorate the status of women and incorporated them in the
mainstream of decision-making?
Main Idea of the Question: 73rd Amendment Act aimed at creating local self-government which
led to the start of decentralised democracy in India. PRIs played a prominent role in women
empowerment however women participation in PRIs is not satisfactory and measures need to be
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Key Concepts: 73rd Amendment Act, Panchayati Raj Institution, Women Reservation in PRIs ,
Women Empowerment
The adoption of the 73rd amendment by the Parliament in 1992 had a great revolutionary potential
to create genuine democracy at the grassroots village level.
Women empowerment means to give women the opportunity to fulfil their creative capabilities
and desires and take decisions independently. It has social, political, economic, cultural dimensions.
The presence of 1.05 million elected women representatives in the institutions of local governance
has changed the face of rural India to some extent. But still, PRIs which give 33% reservation to
women coupled with decentralised decision making have had mixed implications.
Role of women in strengthening PRI institutions
• PRIs through women can work on creation, development and promotion of Self Help groups,
Cooperatives, MSMEs for better employment and livelihood options in rural areas.

• PRIs with women as members can curb social ills like liquor sale and promotion, prostitution

Most of the schemes for Women and girl child empowerment like ICDS, or Maternity
benefits etc require oversight at ground level and PRIs are best place to provide that oversight.
• Better governance in implementing social programmes like MGNREGA etc through PRIs as
equal pay for equal work for women workers etc can be imposed.
• PRIs can be the first step for political empowerment of women as the confidence and

understanding of polity can allow them to participate in elections to state legislatures and
Parliament paving way from 'Panchayat to Parliament'.
• Ensuing progress towards political empowerment of women leads to enhancement in their
self-esteem, confidence, decision-making ability and respect within the family after winning
an election.
• Social Empowerment - Panchayati Raj Institutions have one-third of the seats at every level

of leadership reserved for women. Thus women have the chance to make them heard in
society and positively influence the Panchayati Raj Institutions decisions.
• Economic Empowerment- Women who are elected to PRI posts gain some degree of economic
independence. They are also able to take measures like formation of SHGs which allow
women to improve their standard of living.
• Technological Empowerment-Several women elected to PRIs are educated and use this
knowledge to bring about change in their villages. Quite a few of these interventions are
driven by IT.
Constraints on Women's Effective Participation in PRIs
Despite these achievements, constraints to women's political empowerment remain large and
• Women, who enter representative bodies, including panchayats, generally belong to influential
families including politicians, and may be surrogates for the men who cannot themselves
contest due to the reservation.
• Men controlling PRIs through women like wife etc as proxy, less financial control of PRIs,
lack of support to women from men etc.

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• On the other hand, under-privileged women often face threats of violence when they have
dared to express their intention to contest elections. Violence against women representatives
is generally worse when they also happen to belong to a scheduled caste or tribe group.
• Women representatives face many social confronts - including restrictions on going out of
the house; lack of literacy and education; the household chores of fetching water and fodder,
cooking and raising children that affect their performance in office.
Irrespective of various hurdles, women have gained significant social, economic and political power
through PRIs and effective implementation of programmes and sufficient support from state
governments can go a long way in providing decentralized governance with woman as vanguard
for development of the villages in India. So, PRIs are one of the best ways to encourage empowerment
of women.
10. Despite optimistic outlook towards globalization, globalization has a dark side and
has the power to create highly undesirable adverse effects. Analyse the above statement
in context of the concept of globalization and its impact on the working women.

Main Idea of the Question: Globalisation has integrated the world in innumerable domains. Besides
the positive, it led to negative impacts too especially on the women workforce in India.
Key Concepts: Globalization, Women Workforce, Health Hazards, Social Hazards and the issues of
sexual harassment at work place.
Globalization can be defined as the integration of world economies by removing barriers to trade
and encouraging the free flow of foreign investment, private portfolio capital and labour across

national boundaries. Despite this optimistic outlook towards globalization, globalization has a
dark side and has the power to create highly undesirable adverse effects. In particular, globalization
has the potential to lead to exploitation of the female workforce and even to jeopardize their safety.
Women Work force - Women do two thirds of the world's work, receive ten percent of world's
income and own one percent of the means of production. This is the present picture of women
workers in the era of globalization.

Positive Effects of Globalization on Women in India

• With broader communication lines and more companies and different organizations entering
into India, opportunities for not only working men, but also women has broadened.
• With new jobs for women, there are opportunities for higher pay, which raises self-confidence
and brings about independence.
• This, in turn, can promote equality between the sexes, something that Indian women have
been struggling with their entire lives. Globalization has the power to uproot the traditional
treatment towards women to afford them an equal stance in society.
Negative effects of globalization on Working Women
• Out of the total 397 million workers in India, 123.9 million are women and of these women
96% of female workers are in the unorganized sector.
• Although more women are now seeking paid employment, a vast majority of them obtain
only poorly paid, unskilled jobs in the informal sector, without any job security.
• Working women in India are more likely to be subjected to intense exploitation.

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– They are exposed to more and more risks that cause health hazards
– Forced to endure greater levels of physical and mental stress.
Health Hazards
• One of the common hazards faced by the working class is the increasing threat to job
security, which in turn negatively impacts the health of female workers.
• In the modern sectors like the Information Technology and the automobile sectors where
working women are forced to work for 12 hours
• The uncertainties of obtaining work and the dire need to retain a position in the midst of
intense competition cause mental tension, strained social relationships, psychological problems
and chronic fatigue, all of which are difficult to prove as work-related.
• The advent of assembly line jobs and the increased use of machinery have resulted in a
degradation of working conditions for women in India.

Hazards Related to the Attitude of Society and Family
• Women continue to be perceived as weak, inferior, second-class citizens. For working
women, this discrimination is extended to the workplace also.
• The improper and insufficient dietary intake along with the heavy workload results in
nutritional disorders.
• In addition, this perception that they alone are responsible for the domestic work, leads to

a feeling of guilt when they are not able to look after the children or family members due
to their official work, often resulting in emotional disorders.
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
• One of the evils is the sexual harassment female workers endure from their male counterparts
and other members of the society.

• Regardless of whether they are skilled or unskilled labourers or work in the organized or
unorganized sector, a large number of women are harassed sexually at the workplace.
Night Work
• For years women have been working in hospitals, in the telecom department and in the fish
processing industry during the night shift.
• In the era of globalization, the number of women working the night shift is increasing with
call centres and export oriented companies located in the Export Processing Zone employing
women in large numbers during the night shift, without providing proper protection or
transport facilities to them.
• Moreover even though night work will help to usher gender-parity in the work force, the
apprehensions about incidents of sexual abuse are a matter of concern.
The aspects of globalization have provided women with greater opportunities to work but, it has
also led to gender wage differentials and the marginalization of women which is clearly reflected
through segregation of women workers in certain specific jobs. Unfavorable working hours, lack of
training and skill up-gradation opportunities and lesser career mobility in the formal sector of economy
still prevail in almost every country.
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11. Regionalism in India has taken the form of parochialism due to socio-economic factors.
Substantiate with examples.
Main Idea of the Question: Regionalism is fundamental in diverse society of India. Due to
socioeconomic factors Parochialism creeps in to hinder the national development and the spirit of
unity in diversity.
Key Concepts: Regionalism, Parochialism, Tensions due to Parochial Regionalism.
The Indian Constitution and the process of nation-building is based on the basic principle of unity
in diversity i.e. the Indian nation shall not deny the rights of different regions and linguistic groups
to retain their own culture. We decided to live a united social life without losing the distinctiveness
of the numerous cultures that constituted it. Indian nationalism sought to balance the principles of
unity and diversity. The nation would not mean the negation of the region.
• India adopted a democratic approach to the question of diversity. Democracy allows the

political expressions of regional aspirations and does not look upon them as anti-national.
• Besides, democratic politics allows parties and groups to address the people on the basis of
their regional identity, aspiration and specific regional problems. Thus, in the course of
democratic politics, regional aspirations get strengthened.
• At the same time, democratic politics also means that regional issues and problems will
receive adequate attention and accommodation in the policy making process.
Regionalism is a feeling or an ideology among a section of people residing in a particular geographical

space characterized by unique language, culture etc., that they are the sons of the soil and every
opportunity in their land must be given to them first but not to the outsiders. It is a sort of
Parochialism. In most of the cases it is raised for expedient political gains but not necessarily.
In the Indian context generally the term regionalism has been used in the negative sense. Indian
regionalism has come in three forms, namely, regionalism, parochialism and secessionism.
Parochialism is the state of mind, whereby one focuses on small sections of an issue rather than

considering its wider context. Parochialism is when a person views the world solely though his or
her own eyes and perspectives. People with a parochial attitude do not recognize that other people
have different ways of living and working.
Parochial Regionalism sometimes leads to tensions and problems. Sometimes, the concern for national
unity may overshadow the regional needs and aspirations. At other times a concern for region
alone may blind us to the larger needs of the nation.
Tensions due to parochial regionalism
• Immediately after independence our nation had to cope with many difficult issues like
partition, displacement, integration of Princely States, reorganisation of states and so on.
Many observers, both within the country and from outside, had predicted that India as one
unified country cannot last long. Soon after independence, the issue of Jammu and Kashmir
came up. It was not only a conflict between India and Pakistan.
• More than that, it was a question of the political aspirations of the people of Kashmir valley.
Similarly, in some parts of the north-east, there was no consensus about being a part of
India. First Nagaland and then Mizoram witnessed strong movements demanding separation
from India. In the south, some groups from the Dravid movement briefly toyed with the idea
of a separate country.

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• These events were followed by mass agitations in many parts for the formation of linguistic
States. Today's Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Gujarat were among the
regions affected by these agitations. In some parts of southern India, particularly Tamil
Nadu, there were protests against making Hindi the official national language of the country.
Yet this did not lead to resolution of all problems and for all times. In some regions, like Kashmir
and Nagaland, the challenge was so complex that it could not be resolved in the first phase of
nation-building. Besides, new challenges came up in new forms in States like Punjab, Assam and
Supplementary Notes
The term 'regionalism has two connotations -

• In the positive sense it is a political attribute associated with people's attachment for their
region, culture, language, etc. with a view to maintain their independent identity. Positive
regionalism is a welcome thing in so far maintaining as it encourages the people to develop
a sense of brotherhood and commonness on the basis of common language, religion or

historical background.
• But in the negative sense, it implies excessive attachment to one's region is preference to the
country or the state. In the negative sense, regionalism is a great threat to the unity and
integrity of the country.
Indian regionalism has come in three forms, namely, regionalism, parochialism and secessionism.

1. Regionalism: It is the first and most legitimate kind of regionalism which is often in the form

of the demand of a separate space or state of one's own, for the purpose of resting securely
within the Union of India.

• This was spearheaded by the Telugu-speaking residents of the erstwhile Madras Presidency.
The forms of protest it involved were attacks on state property, and the hunger-fast, and as
a result of this, the creation of the state of Andhra Pradesh and, later redrawing of the map

of India on linguistic lines took place.

• With the same token, some of such protests for the creation of a separate state have birth
to leading regional parties like the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam in Madras, which was
later emulated by the Akali Dal in Punjab, the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh, and
the Asom Gana Parishad in Assam.

• All of such parties won state elections by successfully claiming that they stood for the rights
of their regions. These parties proclaimed themselves regional by their very names.

• The successful protests include those which were raised by the hill people of Uttar Pradesh,
which delivered to them a new state called Uttaranchal (now Uttarakhand), and the tribal
and other residents of the Chota-Nagpur Plateau, whose claim from a reluctant Bihar was
the state of Jharkhand for which they had been fighting from well before Independence.
2. Parochialism - Another form of regionalism has been termed as parochialism.

• This can be benevolent, as in evident in form or pretensions of the Bengali bhadralok, who
claim that their literature, music dress and Cuisine are superior to others in India.

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• However, sometimes it has also taken the form of blood shade, as evident in the attacks on
Bihari labourers by the Ulfa cadre, in which the belief rests that only Assamese speakers
have the right to live in Assam. This kind of blood shade was committed by the Shiv Sena
goons in mid-sixties, who in Bombay began to attack South Indians entitling them as 'outsiders'
to the city.
• Even Udupi restaurants were torched, and offices and factories threatened not to employ
south Indians in their establishments. Recently, the Shiv Sena has kept the Bengalis and
Bihari at its target. Following the same, the MNS has made the North Indians its target.
3. Secessionism
• It can be classified as the most violent and dangerous form of regionalism as it is based on
the desire, or hope, , to divide the Republic of India and form a separate nation of one's own.
• This form of regionalism evolved with A. Z. Phizo's Naga. National Council, and T. Muivah's
National Socialist Council of Nagaland. In the similar way, militants in Kashmir can also be
said to follow this form of regionalism as they are persistently committing bloodbath in

pursuit of their dream of a separate.
• The movement of Khalistan, spearheaded by the Sikh extremists during 1980s also hoped to
form their own nation-state. In fact, even the Dravidian movement for many years demanded
a separate nation out of India, which failed due to the jingoism unleashed by China's war
with India.
• This form of regionalism is the most dangerous one as it has claimed some 60,000 lives in
Kashmir, and several thousand lives apiece in Nagaland since 1950s, and in Punjab in the
1980s and 90s.

12. Discuss how migration and migrants are shaping cities and how the life of migrants is
shaped by cities, their people, organizations and rules?
Main idea of the Question: Migration in the era of globalization has changed the urban landscape
globally. Migration and Migrants are in interplay with the urbanisation process and affects each

Key Concepts: Migration, Global Trends of Migration, Migration Challenges and Opportunities,
Migrants and Inclusive Urban Governance
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of
settling, permanently in the new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one
country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally.
There are many reasons why people choose to migrate, including: Poverty, Armed conflict, Social
strife, Political turmoil, Economic hardships.
Global Trends of Migration
• We live in a world which is becoming increasingly urban, where more and more people are
moving to cities. Over 54 per cent of people across the globe were living in urban areas in
• The current urban population of 3.9 billion is expected to grow in the next few decades to
some 6.4 billion by 2050. It is estimated that three million people around the world are
moving to cities every week. Migration is driving much of the increase in urbanization,
making cities much more diverse places in which to live.

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• In Asia and Africa, rapidly growing small cities are expected to absorb almost all the future
urban population growth of the world and this mobility pattern to cities and urban areas
is characterized by the temporality and circularity of the internal migration process.
The fast rate of urbanization, and rising migration to cities, brings with it both risks and
opportunities for the migrants, communities and governments concerned.
Migration and migrants are shaping cities, and in turn the life of migrants is shaped by cities, their
people, organizations and rules
• The relationship between migrants and cities is built on the issues of employment, housing
and health, and how migrants help to build and revive cities with their resources and ideas,
both in the origin and host countries.
• In return cities are seeking to manage the challenges of increased global mobility and social
diversity with varying degrees of success. Migration and how it is governed, is an issue at
the frontline of urban planning and sustainable development.

Migration to cities brings Challenges
• Strong population growth in cities poses a great deal of pressure on infrastructure, the
environment and the social fabric of the city.
• Rural-urban migration as the main contributor to over-crowding, congestion, increasing
exposure to environmental hazards and to shortfalls in basic infrastructure and services.
• In the Global South, poorly managed urban migration has often resulted in the development
of informal solutions to address gaps in the provision of basic needs and in the exclusion of

migrants from access to formal land, housing and job markets as well as health and education
• UN-Habitat estimates that one out of every three people in cities in the developing world
lives in slum areas accommodating migrants and other urban poor.
• Newcomers often have no choice except to settle in hazard-prone and poorly planned areas,
where they have limited access to resources and opportunities.

Migration to cities brings Opportunities -

• Moving to cities can greatly enhance people's well-being. It offers an escape from the impact
of the hazards of a fragile rural livelihood, and an access to diverse employment opportunities
and better health and education
• Urbanization clearly brings benefits, as it is hard to find sustained economic growth without
urbanization. Cities can also turn urban diversity arising from migration into social and
economic advantages.
• Migration can help increase productivity if it is strategically managed and linked to the
formal economy.
Migrants are resourceful partners in urban governance - Migrants make significant and essential
contributions to the economic, social and cultural development of their host countries and of their
communities back home.
Migrants as builders of resilience - Migrants also play an important role in building the resilience
of home and host communities through the exchange of resources and support. They and their
networks can contribute to managing risk for the community at large.

[20] Hints: Indian Society

Migrants as agents of local development - Migrants play a central role in forging the links between
cities of origin and of destination and in mainstreaming migration into local development planning.
Migrant and diaspora communities can play an important role in supporting local decentralized
development partnerships between cities and in facilitating or undertaking some of the related
activities such as the provision of expertise and information on the communities of origin.
Migrants as city-makers - Migrants can help strengthen the place of cities in the global economic
and political hierarchy. They can do so by promoting historical, cultural, religious and socioeconomic
assets of a city if opportunities exist to enable them to do so.
Migrant-inclusive urban governance is needed - Urbanization is the dominant challenge of the
twenty-first century. Most urban growth will come from both international and internal migration.
Urban growth, however, can only be sustainable if cities invest in their communities, including
migrants. Cities are well positioned to help manage human mobility. They have the authority to
develop and implement policy frameworks for the inclusion of migrants. As service providers, they
have direct access to migrants and can assess their needs.
Urban migration governance requires, however, a multi-stakeholder approach and governance

structure so that diverse interests may be accommodated and cooperative action taken.
13. Will the Smart City Mission and AMRUT lead to Urban Renaissance? Critically assess.
Main idea of the Question: Potential and strength of the new scheme for urban infrastructure and
Key Concepts: Urbanisation challenges, urban infrastructure, AMRUT, and SCM

Smart City Mission:

• In the approach of the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide
core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable
environment and application of Smart Solution. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive
development and the idea is to look at compact areas, create a replicable model which will
act like a light house to the aspiring cities.

• The Smart Cities Mission of the Government is a bold, new initiative. It is meant to set
examples that can be replicated both within and outside the Smart City, catalyzing the
creation of similar Smart Cities in various regions and parts of the country.
The core infrastructure elements in a smart city would include:
a) Adequate water supply,
b) Assured electricity supply,
c) Sanitation, including solid waste management,
d) Efficient urban mobility and public transport,
e) Affordable housing, especially for the poor,
f) Robust IT connectivity and digitalization,
g) Good governance, especially e-Governance and citizen participation,
h) Sustainable environment,
i) Safety and security of citizens, particularly women, children and the elderly,
Hints: Indian Society [21]
j) Health and education
AMRUT Mission:
• Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) is to develop civic
infrastructure in five hundred cities and towns having population of 1 lakh and above.
• The mission adopts a project based approach to make sure basic infrastructure services
concerning water supply, sewerage, transport and development of green spaces among
• The mission conjointly includes some cities situated on stems of main rivers, a few capital
cities, important cities located in hilly areas, islands and tourist areas.
The smart cities mission focuses on a selected larger urban areas, the AMRUT mission is intended to
improve infrastructure in small cities and cities of special importance only.
Smart cities mission adopts area based approach that specialize in improving amenities in a specific
area of a larger town, the AMRUT mission adopts functional based approach focusing on improving

the delivery of services in the selected cities and smaller cities.
The two missions have twin objectives of meeting the challenges of growing urbanization within
the country in a sustainable manner as well as ensuring the advantages of urban development to
the poor through increased access to urban spaces and enhanced employment opportunities.
Both the mission together certainly has the potentiality to bring drastic change in the urban
infrastructure and development of the cities with the incorporation of world class facilities and
hence will bring urban renaissance.
However, some challenges are also associated with it for realizing the smooth development in

the cities and towns.

• For the first time, a MoUD programme is using the 'Challenge' or competition method to
select cities for funding and using a strategy of area-based development. This captures the
spirit of 'competitive and cooperative federalism'.
• States and ULBs will play a key supportive role in the development of Smart Cities. Smart
leadership and vision at this level and ability to act decisively will be important factors

determining the success of the Mission.

• Understanding the concepts of retrofitting, redevelopment and Greenfield development by
the policy makers, implementers and other stakeholders at different levels will require capacity
• Major investments in time and resources will have to be made during the planning phase
prior to participation in the Challenge. This is different from the conventional DPR-driven
The Smart Cities Mission requires smart people who actively participate in governance and
• Citizen involvement is much more than a ceremonial participation in governance. Smart
people involve themselves in the definition of the Smart City, decisions on deploying Smart
Solutions, implementing reforms, doing more with less and oversight during implementing
and designing post-project structures in order to make the Smart City developments
sustainable. The participation of smart people will be enabled by the SPV through increasing
use of ICT, especially mobile based tools.
Hence, the better implementation of the SCM and AMRUT can take India to a new path of
development, by way of employment initiatives and financial inclusion.
[22] Hints: Indian Society
14. Bring out the relation of globalization with formation of bi-cultural identity. Discuss
its pros and cons.
Main idea of the Question: how globalization enforced biculturalism and multiculturalism and in
some cases how it lead to backlash
Key Concepts: Biculturalism, multiculturalism, globalization
• Bicultural identity is the condition of being oneself regarding the combination of two cultures.
The term can also be defined as biculturalism, which is the presence of two different cultures
in the same country or region.
• Globalization has fast tracked access to new labour markets, resources and sharing of
knowledge bases.

• It has removed the barriers to human resource mobility, which is in-turn is changing the
fabric of many nations and communities. Ability of migrants to assimilate and adapt to host
country culture plays an important role in development of their cultural identity.

Global economy is underpinned by migration of skilled resources. Every year thousands of
people migrate from developing countries to western countries.
• The biggest impact of this bi-cultural influence is on the children who move to new host
country with their parents. Intercultural interaction, building relationships to all the cultures

while not having full ownership in any becomes an important part of their social life.
• Increased opportunity to interact with people of different nationalities/cultures in their day
to day life. They find it easier to adapt to new cultures, adept at intercultural communication,
have a broader world view and their kids are likely to do better in studies.
• New culture adopted is future oriented, adaptive and supportive of mutual acceptance of

differences. They are right tools and skills to be truly global knowledge workers.
• Positive effect on their outlook on life. Their perception of reality is shaped by a more
wholesome experience of interacting with different cultures.
• Migration of skilled resources across borders is leading to radical changes to social customs
and lifestyle of host countries. It is encouraging development of a non-homogenous hybrid
• Today social media and internet plays a big part in people's day to day life. They not only
provide access to information and entertainment they enable people to keep in touch with
home culture, tradition and way of life. They keep alive the influence of "Diaspora".
• Globalisation and bicultural identity has given rise to cosmopolitan culture.
• Conflicts, prejudices and stereotypes can be avoided with exposure of people to multiple
Bi-Cultural Identity Challenges
Globalisation is seen as a threat to socio-cultural environment in the context of identity

Hints: Indian Society [23]

• The issue of national identity vs. ethnic identity: differences in language and expectation
with regards to assimilation in mainstream society push many of them into their own ethnic
sub groups or communities.
– In order to retain the ethnic identity and seek the comfort of interacting with people from
similar background, a number of these migrants, start forming or becoming part of small sub
ethnic communities. E.g. Hindu Mahasabha, Punjabi Association, Marathi community group,
Gujarati association etc.
• On one hand they try to maintain cultural ties, traditions and values of their home country
on the other they look to adapt to the culture of adopted home.
• Through films, music, festivals, food and community functions, migrants usually strive to not
only retain their cultural values but to pass them on to the children.
• This dilemma with regards to self-identity inculcates a sense of rootlessness among people
and a number of them find it hard to define their own identity vis a vis their host country

• Children of bi-cultural identity are caught between the pressure from parents to retain their
ethnic culture and need to adapt to the culture of their peers in school, colleges and workplace
• In bicultural identity can lead to homogenisation of cultures across the globe. Developing
countries are blindly following the culture of western countries and neglect of local culture.

15. “Growing economical disparities in urban setup of India leads to class stratification
and a sense of relative poverty." Critically analyse the above statement.

Main Idea of the Question: Rapid Urbanisation in last two decades has led to economic disparity in
urban landscape of India. This inequality has seeped into economical, educational and political
domains of life leading to skewed development in India.
Key Concepts: Economic Inequality, Relative poverty, Absolute Poverty, Inequality of Life, Wealth
and Education.

Economic inequality refers to a skewed distribution of wages, income and/or capital. Economic
inequality is the same as relative poverty, not absolute poverty. In the case of absolute poverty the
'gap', in terms of income, wage or wealth, between one person or one group and the other is irrelevant.
Instead, the emphasis is on whether someone is above or below as a minimum level of income,
wage or wealth.
Urban-economic inequality is increasing day by day and it needs to be combated. There are many
forms of urban inequality such as poverty, segregation and injustice. Also Urban Inequality is not
homogeneously distributed between and within cities over space. It shows traces of spatial
In the case of India there are two elements which play a role in increasing Inequality:
• India is mimicking what is happening in the rest of the world: share of capital in gross
domestic product is increasing, capital is flowing very freely and the rate of profit has
increased. There is growing demand for skilled workers in developing countries, who tend
to be towards the top.
• There is also the phenomenon of what is rural and what is urban, and that development in
the last 20 years has been concentrated in urban areas only.

[24] Hints: Indian Society

Growing inequality leads to
• Less economic growth and less welfare.
• Decrease in the faith in politics
• Smooth social mobility
• Lead to undemocratic power concentrations
• Decrease social cohesion
• Increase health problems etc.
Impact of Urban Economic Disparity
The widening income gap has fuelled a class-based social disconnect that has produced inequitable
• Inequality in Life Situations - In much of the world, the accident of where a person is born

continues to determine her life chances. There is rapidly growing inequality between and
within nations, which continue to block chances for billions of the world's poor people to
improve their life situations. Children and grandchildren of the rich will largely replace their
parents and grandparents in the steep economic ladder, as much as children and
grandchildren of the poor will remain impoverished, regardless of their potential and hard
• Inequality of Wealth - India today is home to the third largest numbers of dollar billionaires
in the world but, at the same time, harbors within its borders a third of the world's poor

and hungry
• The inequality of education - Now, your family income matters more than your own
abilities Smart poor kids are less likely to graduate from college now than rich kids. That's
not because of the schools that are because of all the advantages that are available to rich
• Political Inequality - Economic inequality also feeds the political one, driving everything

from the actions of our political representatives to the quality and quantity of civic engagement,
such as voting and community-based public service.
Roots of the inequalities
• Free Market Policy - the insistence that economic growth requires reduced government
interventions, and further freeing up markets. It opposes public investments in education,
nutrition and health, and progressive taxation, and demands dilutions of labour protections
and acquisition of people's lands and forests, all of which further fuel inequality.
• Power with Economic Elites - Economic elites buy political clout, which in turn purchases
tax exemptions, land concessions, cheap credit, and subsidies on electricity and water. In
India, tax exemptions to corporate India in every recent budget of around five lakh crore
rupees could substantially finance India's education, nutrition and health care gaps.
How to contain the Economic disparity?
The ways to dam the surging tides of inequality are
• Raising and enforcing statutory wages
• Expanding taxation of the rich
Hints: Indian Society [25]
• Enhancing public investments in education, health and the small farm agriculture
• Enlarging social protection for the aged, infirm and disabled
• Enhancing maternity and child benefits
• Protecting indigenous and socially disadvantaged groups
• Ensuring water, sanitation and basic utilities to the rural poor and urban slums, and protecting
the rights of workers.

16. The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016 evolves a mechanism for
social, economic and educational empowerment of transgenders. Critically analyse how
the recent bill aims at developing an inclusive society for transgenders in India.
Main Idea of the Question: Transgender population in India has always been marginalised and
faced social political and economic isolation. To improve their conditions Govt. has cleared
Transgender Person (Protection of Rights) Bill 2016 to empower them.

Key Concepts: Transgender, Census Data, Demographic Profile, Key highlights of the new Draft
Bill 2016.
The recent Bill defines a transgender person as one who is partly female or male; or a combination
of female and male; or neither female nor male. In addition, the person's gender must not match the
gender assigned at birth, and includes trans-men, trans-women, persons with intersex variations
and gender-queers.

Social Economic and Educational Empowerment

• The Union Cabinet has approved The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2016.
Through this Bill the Government has evolved a mechanism for their social, economic and
educational empowerment.
• The Bill will benefit a large number of transgender persons, mitigate the stigma, discrimination

and abuse against this marginalized section and bring them into the mainstream of society.
It will lead to greater inclusiveness and will make the transgender persons productive members
of the society.
• Transgender community is among one of the most marginalized communities in the country
because they don't fit into the stereotypical categories of gender of 'men' or 'women'.
Consequently they face problems ranging from social exclusion to discrimination, lack of
education facilities, unemployment, and lack of medical facilities And so on.
• The Bill will make all the stakeholders responsive and accountable for upholding the principles
underlying the Bill. It will bring greater accountability on the part of the Central Government
and Slate Governments Administrations for issues concerning Transgender persons.
Key Highlights of the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2016
• A transgender person must obtain a certificate of identity as proof of recognition of identity
as a transgender person and to invoke rights under the Bill.
• Such a certificate would be granted by the District Magistrate on the recommendation of a
Screening Committee. The Committee would comprise a medical officer, a psychologist or
psychiatrist, a district welfare officer, a government official, and a transgender person.

[26] Hints: Indian Society

• The Bill prohibits discrimination against a transgender person in areas such as education,
employment, and healthcare. It directs the central and state governments to provide welfare
schemes in these areas.

• Offences like compelling a transgender person to beg, denial of access to a public place,
physical and sexual abuse, etc. would attract up to two years' imprisonment and a fine.

Key Issues in the new Draft Bill 2016

• The Supreme Court has held that the right to self-identification of gender is part of the right
to dignity and autonomy under Article 21 of the Constitution. However, objective criteria
may be required to determine one's gender in order to be eligible for entitlements.

• The Bill states that a person recognized as 'transgender' would have the right to 'self-
perceived' gender identity. However, it does not provide for the enforcement of such a right.

• The definition of 'transgender persons' in the Bill is at variance with the definitions recognized

by international bodies and experts in India.

• The Bill includes terms like 'trans-men', 'trans-women', persons with 'intersex variations' and
'gender-queers' in its definition of transgender persons. However, these terms have not been

• Certain criminal and personal laws that are currently in force only recognize the genders of
'man' and 'woman'. It is unclear how such laws would apply to transgender persons who
may not identify with either of the two genders.

Supplementary Notes
Demographic Profile of Transgender
• Indian Census has never recognized third gender i.e. Transgender while collecting census
data for decades. But in 2011, data of Transgender were collected with details related to
their employment, Literacy and Caste.

• The total population of transgender is around 4.88 Lakh as per 2011 census. The current
figure is on the lower side as it is unlikely that the number of people declaring themselves
as transgender would ever give an accurate figure.
• The data of Transgender has been clubbed inside "Males" in the primary data released by
Census Department.
• Of the total number of transgender identified by the census, almost 55,000 are in the 0-6
• During the voter registration process only 28,341 people registered as belonging to the third
• Over 66% of the population identified as third gender lived in rural areas, very close to the
69% of the overall population that lives in villages.

• The census data also revealed the low literacy level in the community, just 46%, compared
to 74% literacy in the general population. The literacy rate is so low because it is common
for people of transgender to drop out of school because of the harassment and discrimination
they face.
Hints: Indian Society [27]
17. ‘The new Draft Policy on Women shifts the focus from entitlements to rights and from
empowerment to creating an enabling environment.’ Discuss.
• Since the last policy in 2001, significant strides in global technology and information systems
have placed the Indian economy on a trajectory of higher growth impacting the general
populace and women in particular in unique and different ways.
• The discourse on women empowerment has seen paradigm shift from seeing women as
mere recipients of welfare benefits to mainstreaming gender concerns and engaging them in
the development process of the country.
• There have been fresh opportunities and possibilities for women's empowerment while at the
same time presenting new and emerging challenges and socio-economic problems hindering
gender equality and holistic empowerment of women
• Priority areas in policy that focuses on shift are:

• Health including food security and nutrition:
– Focus on recognizing women's reproductive rights, shift of family planning focus also to
– Addressing health issues in a life cycle continuum such as psychological and general well-
being, expansion of health insurance schemes and addressing the intergenerational cycle of

• Education: Implement innovative transportation models for better schooling outcomes,

advocate gender champions and address disparities with regard to ICTs thus creating an
enabling environment to further education
• Economy: Raising visibility, engendering macro-economic policies and trade agreements,
generate gender-disaggregated land ownership database, skill development and training for
women, entrepreneurial development, review of labour laws and policies, equal employment
opportunities with appropriate benefits related to maternity and child care services, address

technological needs of women.

• Governance and Decision Making: Increasing women's participation in the political arena,
administration, civil services and corporate boardrooms,
• Violence Against Women: Address all forms of violence against women through a life cycle
approach, Legislations affecting /relating to women will be reviewed/harmonized to enhance
effectiveness, Improve Child Sex Ratio (CSR), strict implementation of advisories, guidelines,
Standard Operating Procedures (SoPs) and protocols, prevention of trafficking at source,
transit and destination areas for effective monitoring of the networks.
• Enabling Environment: Gender perspective in housing and infrastructure, ensuring safe
drinking water and sanitation, gender parity in the mass media & sports, concerted efforts
towards strengthening social security and support services for all women especially the
vulnerable, marginalized, migrant and single women.
• Environment and Climate Change: addressing gender concerns during distress migration
and displacement in times of natural calamities due to climate change and environmental
degradation. Promotion of environmental friendly, renewable, non-conventional energy, green
energy sources for women in rural households.

[28] Hints: Indian Society

The policy provides a framework for implementation of legislations and strengthening of existing
institutional mechanisms through action plan, effective gender institutional architecture. Advocacy
and Stakeholder Partnerships, Inter-sectoral Convergence, Gender Budgeting and generation of
gender disaggregated data have also been given due focus.
Operational strategies - Create an enabling environment through continued and additional
• Enabling safety and security of women - with initiatives such as One Stop Centres, Women
Helpline, Mahila Police Volunteers, Reservation of women in police force, creating immediate
response mechanism through panic buttons in mobiles, public and private transport,
surveillance mechanisms in public places.
• Creating eco-systems to encourage entrepreneurship amongst women - through platforms
like Mahila E-Haat, dedicated theme based exhibitions, focussed skill training, mentoring
through Women Entrepreneurship Council, availability of easy & affordable credit and
financial inclusion.

• Training and capacity building of all stakeholders including youth through Gender Champion
initiative, frontline workers, women sarpanch and all officials dealing with policy and delivery
systems impacting women.
• Facilitating women in workplace - through gender friendly work place, flexi timings, increased
maternity leave, provision of child care / crèches at workplace, life cycle health care facilities.

18. Incidents of the past few years suggest that India is becoming racially intolerant society.
Do you agree? Discuss different measures that could be taken for sensitizing people in

making India a racially diverse country.

This is in relation to the racial attacks on African students, north east communities and other
foreigners across the country in the past 3-4 years.
Some of the examples: In 2016, African Group of Heads of Mission initial refusal to join the May 25

Africa Day celebrations, in solidarity with a Congolese student who was killed last week in Delhi.
• The infamous death of Nido Tania, a student from Arunachal Pradesh.
• Attack on Tanzanian girl by an angry mob in Bengaluru. Women of North east and foreigners
being harassed in public places etc.

• Triggered by an SMS hate campaign, mass exodus of North East people from Bengaluru in
2012, etc.

• Racial profiling of employment opportunities, given the concentration of jobs for north-
easterners mostly in the hospitality sector, young women in beauty salons, restaurants and
as shop assistants.
Frequently there have been incidents of violence and racial discrimination.

Reasons for racial discrimination:

• Indian's deep-seated inferiority is rooted in a past of subjugation, the colonial despair of
feeling second rate. But a deeper resentment now emerges as a form of by-polar urbanism
where protection of self and turf is paramount, and always guarded against any invasion.
Hints: Indian Society [29]
• Post-colonial rule hasn't been much of an influx of different nationalities settling down for
work and living here. Foreigners are immediately viewed as an outsider and beyond the
Indian social fabric. This xenophobia leads to hostility and alienation as they don't fit in
Indian standard norms and societal framework.
• Racism due to competition: constant competition for jobs and financial comparison leads to
unhealthy relationship or mental perceptions towards other racial groups.
• Racism due to diversity in identity: Due to a large regional diversity, we find communities
pitted up against each other ideologically, or for resources. The mainland population isolating
the North Eastern people, African communities and a multitude of regional clashes.
• Racism due to a lack of imbibing virtues of tolerance: Children, and even adults, aren't being
taught tolerance or harmonious living and people live on persisting mindsets.
What measures needed to be taken:
• In February 2014, committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Shri M.P. Bezbaruah
to look into the various concerns of the citizens hailing from the North Eastern States who

are living in different parts of the country and to suggest suitable remedial measures including
legal measures which could be taken up by the Government. some of the recommendations
• Police protection: Police exchange programme has been approved between NE States and
metropolitan cities including Delhi.
– North East Special Unit at New Delhi is activated to address the grievances of the NE
people. Other States have been advised to do the same.

– A decision has been taken that cases of NE people be referred to the existing fast track courts
for early decision.
– A special helpline No.1093 for NE people is being synchronized with helpline No.100. Other
States are advised to set up special helpline.
• Education: In order to educate the people about the North East, Universities have been

advised that history of North East and participation in the freedom movement of the country
should be taught at graduation level and post-graduation level, and for this purpose,
curriculum be changed.
– Similar action is being taken by the NCERT with respect to elementary and higher secondary
– A special scholarship scheme for students of North East Region 'Ishan Uday' has been
launched from the academic session 2014-15 providing 10,000 scholarships ranging from
Rs.3,500/- to Rs.5,000/- per month for studying at under-graduate level in colleges and
universities of the country.
– Under 'Ishan Vikas' scheme, selected students from school and college levels from the North
Eastern States will be taken to Indian Institute of Technology (IITs), National Institute of
Technology (NITs) and other engineering institutes for exposure/internship programme.
• Awareness generation: Ministries of Culture, Tourism, Information & Broadcasting have also
planned to roll out programs for bridging the gap between the peoples of the North-Eastern
Region and the rest of the country, including:
– Chalking out action plan for educating the people about the rich cultural heritage of the
North Eastern States and its wider coverage & promotion at the national level.

[30] Hints: Indian Society

– The North East Film Festival & North East Festival to be organized annually at New Delhi,
showcasing culture, films, foods, sports etc.
– Indian government took steps to guarantee the safety of Africans in India, including
appropriate programs of public awareness that will address the problems of racism and
Afro-phobia in India.
• Sports: identification of talented sports persons from North East with the help of State
Governments for arranging their training in reputed sports training centers.
– Sports Ministry is taking action for organizing Sports Tournaments/Events in the North
Eastern States.
– An amount of Rs.100 crore has been earmarked for setting up of National Sports University
in Manipur.
• These recommendations can be applied with respect to any race.

19. Highlight the importance of urbanization as a source of global development and social
inclusion. OR
Main Idea of the Question: Urbanization is a common phenomenon globally. Urbanization brings
forth opportunity for global development and social inclusion.
Key Concepts: Urbanization, Trends of Urbanization, Urbanization and Global development,
Urbanization and Social Inclusion.

Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities. Urbanisation
occurs because people move from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities) in the
process of development.
Global development is a wide concept concerning the level of development on an international
scale. It has been largely synonymous with economic development. But recently it is also used in a

holistic context of human development as well as quality of life or social well-being.

The social inclusion is the process of improving the terms for individuals and groups to take part in
society. Social inclusion aims to empower poor and marginalized people to take advantage of
burgeoning global opportunities.
Trends of Urbanisation
• Globally, over 50% of the population lives in urban areas today, and this trend is expected
to continue - by 2045, the number of people living in cities will increase by 1.5 times to 6
billion, adding 2 billion more urban residents.
Urbanisation and Global Development
• With more than 80% of global GDP generated in cities, urbanization contributes to sustainable
growth by increasing productivity, allowing innovation and new ideas to emerge.
• Cities also play an important role in tackling climate change, as they consume close to 2/
3 of the world's energy and account for more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
As cities develop, their exposure to climate and disaster risk also increases. Almost half a
billion urban residents live in coastal areas, increasing their vulnerability to storm surges and
sea level rise.

Hints: Indian Society [31]

• Cities are at the forefront of global socio-economic change. Globalization and democratization
are an important part of sustainable development. Half of the world's population now lives
in urban areas and the other half increasingly depend upon cities for economic, social,
cultural and political progress.
Urbanisation and Social Inclusion
• In cities, education policies serve highly diverse populations. Providing education for all - in
particular girls, persons with disabilities, migrants, the poor and the marginalized - is a
complex exercise requiring effective public services and the collaboration of numerous partners
• Urbanization helps pull people out of poverty and advances progress towards the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs)
• Urbanization has been a major force behind poverty reduction and progress towards other
MDGs. With over 80 percent of global goods and services produced in cities, countries with
relatively higher levels of urbanization, such as China, and many others in East Asia and
Latin America, have played a major role in lowering extreme poverty worldwide.

• Urban infant mortality rates range from 8-9 percentage points lower than the rural rates in
Latin America and Central Asia; to 10-16 percentage points in the Middle East and North
Africa, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa and highest in East Asia (21 percentage points).
• In South Asia, 60 percent of urban dwellers have access to sanitation facilities, compared
with 28 percent in rural areas. In Sub-Saharan Africa, 42 percent of the urban population
has access, compared with 23 percent of rural residents.
• Access to safe water in urban areas in developing countries was almost complete in 2010,
with 96 percent coverage, compared with 81 percent of the rural population having access.

• Megacities and large cities are the richest and have far better access to basic public services;
smaller towns, secondary cities, and areas on the perimeter of urban centres are less rich;
and rural areas are the poorest
• Progress has been stellar on reducing extreme poverty, providing access to safe drinking
water and eliminating gender disparity in primary education.

• Agglomeration, or the clustering of people and economic activity, is an important driver of

development and evidence suggests that it can have high pay offs, particularly for countries
on the lower rungs of development
However, in order to harness the economic and social benefits of urbanization, policy-makers must
plan for efficient land-use; match population densities with the required needs for transport, housing
and other infrastructure, and arrange the financing needed for such urban development programs.
20. India has been ranked 87th out of 144 countries on the World Economic Forum's (WEF)
Global Gender Gap Report 2016. What measures are needed for bridging gender gap in
Main Idea of the Question: WEF has released the Global Gender Gap report 2016 in which India
secured 87th Rank among 144 countries. India ranked poorly in women Health and Education
indices. This grim situation demands measures to bridge the Gender Gap in India.
Key Concepts: World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Report, India Statistics, Lacunas in
Government Measures.
• Global Gender Gap Report 2016 (GGGR) released by World Economic Forum (WEF) finds
that the global workplace gender gap is getting bigger and economic parity between the
[32] Hints: Indian Society
sexes could take 170 years. India has been ranked 87th out of 144 countries in 2016 climbing
21 spots from 108th position in 2015.
India related key findings -
• India (ranked 87) has overtaken China which is ranked 99th.
• The improvement in India's ranking is driven largely by major improvements in education,
where it has managed to close its gap entirely in primary and secondary education.
– Education - In case of education attainment, India has made considerable strides moving up
from 125th rank in 2015 to 113th in 2016.
– Economic Participation - On economic participation and opportunity too, India has moved
up to 136th rank in 2016, from 139th in the year 2015.
– Health - On health and survival, India has made little progress moving up by one place to
142nd rank compared to 141st in 2015.

– Political Empowerment - On political empowerment, India continues to be ranked 9th in
the world. OR
Analysis of Statistics
• The improvement has come mainly on the back of stronger representation of women in
political leadership. However, in health survival India has regressed over the past decade
and ranked third from bottom, 143 out of 145 countries.
• India's rise in the rankings was mostly thanks to a doubling of the number of women in

ministerial positions, which pushed up the proportion of women in ministerial positions

from 9% to 22%.
• In economic participation, India slipped five places to 139 out of 145 this year, the lowest
position it has occupied on this criteria since the measuring of gender gap began in 2006.
On this count, it has declined not only relative to its international peers, but also in absolute
terms, with a wider gap today than 10 years ago, stated the report.

• India's ranking in health is pulled down by its ranking for one of the sub-indicators, sex ratio
at birth, where it was ranked 143 ahead of only China and Armenia.
What should the Government do?
• The Government of India along with the various States and Union Territories have initiated
a number of programs targeted with the objective of reducing gender inequality and to
increase women's empowerment over the 1989-2013 period. Some of these programs are
Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana, Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana, many more.
• In spite of growth, and the Government's efforts, substantial gender gaps still persists. Women
in India face various cultural and social challenges that act as obstacles in their path of social
advancement. Lack of education, lack of health care, preference of boys over girls,
discriminatory family codes, cultural stigmas are just a few instances.
Ways to fill in the gender gap:
• Establishing ways and processes for women's equitable participation and equal representation
at all levels of the public life and political process in each society or community.
• Enabling women to speak fluently and coherently their concerns and needs.

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• Promoting women's potential through education, skill development and employment.
• Eliminating all practices that differentiate women
• Helping women to establish and realize their rights, including reproductive and sexual
• Adopting measures to enable women to earn beyond traditional occupations and to ensure
equal access to the labour market and security
• Eliminating violence against women
• Eliminating discrimination by employers against women
• Making it possible for women to combine the roles of child-bearing, breast-feeding and child-
rearing with active involvement in workforce.
• Passing of the reservation Bill for women's participation in Parliament so that we have more
women political leaders to look into the needs of the women of our country.

The gender gap in India has narrowed down. But India still remains one of the worst countries in
the world for women in terms of labour force participation, income levels as well as health and
survival. India has closed its gender gap by 2% in a year (2016), but much work remains to be done
to empower women in the economic sphere.
Supplementary Notes
What is Global Gender Gap Report?

The World Economic Forum (WEF) releases Global Gender Gap Report every year. The report is an
annual benchmarking exercise that measures progress towards Parity between men and women in
four areas:
1. Educational attainment
2. Health and survival
3. Economic opportunity

4. Political empowerment
What are the key findings of the latest Global Gender Gap Report 2016?
1. Top 5 Countries in 2016 Report: Iceland (1st), Finland (2nd), Norway (3rd), Sweden (4th)
and Rwanda (5th).
2. The global workplace gender gap is getting wider and economic parity between the sexes
could take as many as 170 years to close after a dramatic slowdown in progress. In 2015,
projections based on the Global Gender Gap Report data suggested that the economic gap
could be closed within 118 years, or by 2133. But now global economic gender gap will not
close until year 2186.
Reason - The slowdown is partly because of chronic imbalances in salaries and labour force
participation, despite the fact that, in 95 countries out of the 144 that are ranked, women
attend university in equal or higher numbers than men
3. The report finds that progress towards parity in the key economic pillar of gender has
slowed dramatically with the gap-which stands at 59%-now larger than at any point since

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Reasons - Behind this decline are a number of factors. One is salary, with women around
the world on average earning just over half of what men earn despite, on average, working
longer hours, taking paid and unpaid work into account.
4. Another persistent challenge is stagnant labour force participation, with the global average
for women at 54%, compared to 81% for men.
5. Education - The education gender gap has closed 1% over the past year to over 95%, making
it one of the two areas where most progress has been made to date.
6. Health - Health and survival, the other pillar to have closed 96% of the gap, has deteriorated
marginally. Two-thirds of the 144 countries measured in this year's report can now claim to
have fully closed their gender gap in sex ratio at birth, while more than one-third has fully
closed the gap in terms of healthy life expectancy.
7. Political Empowerment -The pillar where the gender gap looms largest, political empowerment,
is also the one that has seen the greatest amount of progress since the WEF began measuring
the gender gap in 2006. This is now over 23%; 1% greater than 2015 and nearly 10% higher

than in 2006. However, improvements are starting from a low base: only two countries have
reached parity in parliament and only four have reached parity on ministerial roles, according
to the latest globally comparable data.
8. Economic Opportunity- The slow rate of progress towards gender parity in the economic
realm poses a particular risk given the fact that many jobs that employ a majority of women
are likely to be hit proportionately hardest by the coming age of technological disruption
known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Women and men must be equal partners in
managing the challenges our world faces-and in reaping the opportunities. Both voices are

critical in ensuring the Fourth Industrial Revolution delivers its promise for society.


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