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GS SCORE

Special Edition for


IAS Mains 2017

Compilation of
Illustrations & Case Studies
from YOJANA

Compiled & Edited


By - Mayuri Khanna

www.iasscore.in
Objective
In the MAINS ANSWER WRITING – Right Interpretation, Articulation
and Objectivity are the three basic pillars.
Right interpretation clears the direction related to the dimensions
required.
Right articulation helps in maintaining the flow.
Right objectivity brings clarity in the thoughts of the reader. To bring
objectivity in the answer proper justification of points with the help of
correct illustrations, examples and case studies are required.
A good answer cannot be an effective without illustrations and
examples. Candidates are required or are expected to substantiate
their answer wherever it is possible.
Hereby, compiling the illustrations, case studies and examples from
YOJANA MAGAZINE.
Why Yojana?
Yojana is a monthly magazine devoted to socio-economic issues. Every
year 4-5 questions are being asked from Yojana related to government
programmes and policies, initiatives and social issues. Yojana gives
different shades of opinion and views on any issue and thereby
presents a balanced picture.
The topics covered are:
1. Disaster Management 7. Differently Abled
2. Less Cash Money 8. Education
3. Empowering Youth 9. Health
4. Labour Force 10.Sanitation
5. New India Initiatives 11.Skill Development
6. Climate Change and Sustainability 12.Women Empowerment

The compilation is topic-wise thus may help student in enrichment of


the Mains Answer.

Manoj K. Jha
www.iasscore.in

Significance of Building
Disaster Resilience

1
Example

Building disaster resilience is critical in achieving the


goal of eradicating extreme poverty.
Evidence suggests that the impacts of disasters
undermine hard-earned development gains in both

Disaster
developing and developed countries, potentially
dragging the poor and most vulnerable even deeper
into poverty. By 2030, there could be 325 million

Management
people trapped in poverty and exposed to the full
range of natural hazards and climate extremes
particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

Disasters, whether natural or man-made, have been This suggests an urgent need to build and strengthen
part of man’s evolution since times immemorial. the resilience of poor communities to prevent future
disaster events from pulling more people into poverty
The Indian subcontinent is among the world’s most
and to protect their livelihoods and assets to help
disaster-prone areas. As per the current seismic zone
map of the country, over 59 per cent of India’s land area
them recover.
is under threat of moderate to severe seismic hazard. The Nepal earthquake post disaster damage and loss
Out of the total geographical area of 329 million study has clearly mentioned that this disaster will end
hectares (mha), more than 40 mha is flood prone. up pushing an additional 2.5 to 3.5 percent people
On an average every year, 75 lakh hectares of land is
of Nepal into poverty in 2015-2016 which translates
affected, 1600 lives are lost and the damage caused to
crops, houses and public utilities is Rs.1805 crores due
into at least 700,000 additional poor and damge is of
to floods. almost US $7 billion.
Over the years, losses due to disasters have shown
growing trend in terms of lives and property throughout
the world due to urbanization, increasing population Post Disaster
and increasing degradation of environment.
Management Example

1956 Earthquake in Anjar, Gujarat the state


In UPSC questions on government had relocated the construction of city
and a disaster resilient construction was carried
Disaster Management are out. In the Bhuj earthquake of 2001, half a century
usually 1-2 but if student is later, most of the houses in the town of Anjar had
witnessed great devastation, except those, which
able to place some concrete were in the relocation site of 1956. This shows one
example of strategies of the best examples of mainstreaming disaster
risk in development sector but unfortunately, was
adopted by other nations or forgotten over time. We need to document and learn
few important points then it from our past experiences and to use these to reduce
vulnerabilities at regional, national, and local levels.
can enhance answer. Hereby
Disaster risk reduction practices need to be inclusive
compiling few information and accessible in order to be efficient and effective.
related to disaster Governments should facilitate, incentivize and engage
management. with relevant stakeholders especially private sector
in the design and implementation of policies, plans
and standards. There is a need for engaging women

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Disaster Management

as leader, youth, children, civil society, academia for Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security
making it inclusive. Also, all states should be engaged and improved nutrition and promote
with scientific and research institutions, to work sustainable agriculture, supports the
more closely together and to create opportunities for immediate need to advance actions in
collaboration, and for businesses to integrate disaster mainstreaming disaster risk reduction
risk into their management practices for making SDG and climate adaptation into agriculture
achievable. sector planning and investments in order
to promote resilient livelihoods, food
production and ecosystems.
Psychological First Aid Goal 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-
being for all at all ages, which relates to
example strengthening early warning and risk
reduction of national and global health
The concept of psychological first aid aims at providing risks presents an opportunity to further
immediate supportive response to someone who is actions to promote resilient health.
suffering in wake of disaster however, psychological Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality
and social impact of traumatic events and disasters education and promote lifelong learning
is not limited to the early phases. Such experiences opportunities for all focusing on building
can also undermine the long term mental health and and upgrading education facilities and
psychosocial well-being of the affected individuals. promoting education for sustainable
development, contribute significantly to
The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed
resilience-building in the education sector.
a framework consisting of three action principles to
assist in the delivery of psychological first aid which Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable
provide guidance for how to view and safely enter an management of water and sanitation
emergency situation (LO vOK) in order to understand for all, which relates to protecting and
the needs of affected people (LISTEN) and link them restoring water-related ecosystems, will
with the information and practical support they need significantly contribute to strengthening
(LINK). Therefore, the first responders, primary care the resilience of communities to water-
givers and disaster relief workers shall be equipped related hazards.
with basic minimum skills to extend immediate care Goal 9: Build resilient infrastructure, promote
and support in terms of psychological first aid to every inclusive and sustainable industrialization
person who survives through calamities including and foster innovation related to developing
adults, adolescents and children, as well as disaster sustainable and resilient infrastructure
relief workers and first responders themselves to development are vital not only to protect
address emotional and practical needs and concerns existing infrastructure but also future
above all and to restore functionality and make the infrastructure investments.
individuals capable to help themselves and others
Goal 11: Make cities and human settlements
who are in need of support. inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Action targets under this goal focusing on
upgrading urban slums, integrated urban
Disaster Risk Reduction planning, reducing social and economic
in Sustainable impacts of disaster risk, building the
resilience of the urban poor.
Development Goals
Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate
change and its impacts.
Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere, Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans,
which relates to building the resilience seas and marine resources for sustainable
of the poor, further strengthens the development, focusing on the sustainable
position of disaster risk reduction as a core management and protection as well as
development strategy for ending extreme strengthening resilience of marine and
poverty. coastal ecosystems, can contribute to

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reducing disaster risk and increase in Declaration’ and ‘Regional Action Plan for
demand for healthy marine and coastal implementation of the Sendai Framework’. In line
ecosystems. with the all-of-society approach for disaster risk
reduction enshrined in the Sendai Framework,
Goal 15: Protect, restore and promote sustainable
the AMCDRR also provided an opportunity for
use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably
multiple stakeholders to come together and make
manage forests, combat desertification,
specific commitments to the implementation of
and halt and reverse land degradation
Sendai Framework in Asia and the Pacific.
and halt biodiversity loss.
!! Government of India has issued a set of priority
actions to all the State Government based on the
goals, targets and priorities of Sendai Framework
About Sendai Framework 2015-2030.
!! Government of India, during AMCDRR, 2016, has
The Sendai Framework has set targets for substantial extended the grant of US $ 1 million to UNISDR
reduction in losses including reduction in number of towards effective implementation of the Sendai
deaths from disasters, number of people affected by Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction in the
disasters, economic losses and infrastructure losses. Asian region.
At the same time, it calls for increase in capacities
!! In line with Sendai priority 4, National Disaster
through national and local strategies, international
Response Force (NDRF) is strengthened, both in
cooperation and improved access to early warning.
terms of state-of-the-art training and equipment
In furtherance to its commitment to the Sendai so as to further empower it as a professional
Framework, Government has taken up several disaster response force.
important initiatives post Sendai Declaration.
!! The Sendai framework also calls upon other
!! India has successfully hosted the Asian Ministerial stakeholders including the private sector to be
Conference on Disaster Reduction (AMCDRR) involved in disaster preparedness and mitigation
in November, 2016 and adopted ‘New Delhi planning as well as relief and recovery phase.

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LESS CASH MONEY

2
Adverse Consequences
of Cash

Paper currency is a zero interest anonymous bearer

Less Cash
bond. It has no name or history attached to it. Crime
can take place with or without cash but excessive
cash as a medium of exchange is favoured by the

Money
underground economy. It results in non-compliance
in the matters of tax payments which creates an
unjust enrichment in favour of the evader as against
the poor and the deprived. Mountains of cash money
Prime Minister has announced demonetisation of 500 reach tax havens through the hawala route from the
and 1000 rupee notes on the night of 8th November original paper currency. Cash facilitates real time
2016. The main objective of this move was to curb black
untraceable payments. Cash is the medium which
money, corruption and fake money menace.
funds bribery, corruption, counterfeit currency and
Another motive of the government in demonetisation terrorism.
was to create a cashless economy. Cashless transactions
have the benefit of transperancy i.e. all transactions can
be traced and tracked. This helps the government to
track payment to terrorist organizations and other anti-
national activities. At the same time, the existing white Sweden Experience with
money of the people remains with banks and also in respect to being Cashless
knowledge of the government facilitating it’s recycling
into the system for giving loans to the needy and for Economy (Comparison
development activities.
with India)
One major cause for concern in the less cash economy
has, however, been the danger of cyber crimes. While,
the digital methods reduce the risks involved in Sweden is one of the top five cashless economies in
carrying cash, they are prone to cyber security risks. the world. It has already adopted effective policies
At the same time there are definite solutions to handle
to facilitate transactions using mobile or plastic
cyber crimes.
payments through digital infrastructure. Sweden is
the first country to promise to go 100 per cent cashless
by 2020, and leads the race to become a cashless
society with banks, buses, street vendors, and even
Demonetisation is the most churches expecting plastic or virtual payments.
current topic and recently many According to the central bank (the Riksbank), cash
experts have criticized the move transactions made up barely 2 per cent of the value
as it has effected economic of payments made in Sweden in 2016, and the figure
is expected to drop to 0.5 per cent by 2020.
growth of the nation.
Around 900 of Sweden’s 1,600 bank branches no
If aspirant have knowledge longer keep cash on hand or take cash deposits and
many, especially in rural areas, no longer have ATMs.
about the case studies of Circulation of Swedish krona has fallen from around
different nations, then he may 106 billion in 2009 to 80 billion in 2016.
justify the pros and cons more Technology plays an important role when we talk
analytically. This will help in about the policy shift from cash to cashless. Swish
enrichment of the answer. (a mobile app owned by six Swedish banks, and
the result of a collaboration between several major
Swedish and Danish banks) has seen huge uptake in
Sweden.

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The app allows users to make real-time transactions a politician-bureaucracy nexus. When the two most
from their bank account to another, whether they are important instruments of governance join hands
at a restaurant, in a cab, or at the flea market. in this unholy alliance, corruption spreads in all
directions, horizontally and vertically, and seeps into
The user base of Swish has grown by 1,20,000 users
every sphere of life. The lowest functionaries like a
per month. In December 2014, over 1.69 billion
constable or patwari when accosted, have a stock
kronor got transferred using the Swish app. The
answer, “Ooper tak dena hai” (we have to pay up to
company expects to have three million users by the
the top).
end of 2017.
Cash-for-votes notoriety as a regular feature in our
However, there are huge differences in terms of base
elections was conveyed by US diplomatic cables,
and other crucial dimensions. As on 31 December
leaked by WikiLeaks.
2015, the population of Sweden was estimated at
9.85 million people; literacy was almost 100 per cent. Demonetisation and the subsequent developments,
India had a population of 1,260 million; literacy was even if not originally intended, have a bearing
only 75 per cent. The population of illiterate people on electoral reforms. After demonetisation threw
in India was almost 30 times the entire population of up huge logistical challenges, the government’s
Sweden. campaigns to promote e-banking, e-wallet etc have
come on everybody’s lips. This, again, is a positive
Per capita income is 435 per cent of the world average
development to end black economy.
in Sweden but 14 per cent in India. In India, 68 per cent
of the population lives in rural areas; in Sweden, 85.5 The unprecedented step of demonetization may
per cent of the population is urban. It is difficult for hopefully turn out to be a blessing in disguise for
India to think along the lines of Sweden; nonetheless, conducting free and fair elections, where cashless
India has come up with an app called BHIM, although transactions will ensure higher level of transparency
large-scale adoption has not happened yet, and a and scrutiny.
large section of the Indian population is unfamiliar
with the technology.
The RBI and commercial banks need to come up with India vis-a-vis Other
an innovative idea that enables cashless transactions
and makes them safe and easy to perform. Countries With Respect
to Cashless Economy

Political Corruption Comparing India with some of the other countries


Example and need for shows that the currency in circulation in India is higher
than many developing and developed countries. In
demonetization 2015, the share of cash in circulation3 in the economy
as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP)
of India was 12.3 per cent compared to 3.8 per cent
An analysis by Association of Democratic Reforms
in Brazil, 5.6 per cent in South Korea and 1.7 per cent
(ADR) shows that among the affidavits declared by
in Sweden.
candidates in the 2011 assembly elections in Tamil
Nadu, West Bengal, Kerala, Puducherry and Assam, Further, in 2016, more than 68 per cent of the
576 candidates (16 per cent of the 3,547 analyzed), transactions in India were settled in cash, one of
were crorepatis (multimillionaires) and yet 50 per cent the highest in the world after Indonesia and Russia.
of the candidates had never filed income tax returns. Other developing countries such as Thailand, Brazil
The situation cannot be different in other states. and China have much lower usage of cash for settling
payments, as compared to India. The use of credit
The seed of corruption sown in elections eventually
cards in India has also been much lower compared to
germinates in corruption in administration in the
many developed and developing countries.
country. When candidates and political parties spend
crores of rupees in election campaigns, they have to Among developing countries Kenya has taken
generate enough funds by hook or by crook when measures for online payments for government
they come to power. services such as council parking, construction permits,
land rates, renewal of driving licences and passport
The ‘collection drive’ that follows inevitably leads to
fees to reduce fraud and ensure better collection.

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LESS CASH MONEY

!! Mobile internet penetration remains weak in


Benefits of Cashless rural India: For settling transactions digitally,
internet connection is needed. But in India, there
Economy Example is poor connectivity in rural areas. In addition to
this, a lower literacy level in poor and rural parts
of the country, make it problematic to push the
A report by Google India and Boston Consulting
use of plastic money on a wider scale. This is being
Group showed that last year around 75 per cent overcome by application BHIM (Bharat Interface
of transactions in India were cash-based while in for Money) launched by the Prime Minister which
developed countries like the US, Japan, France, will work on USSD i.e without mobile internet.
Germany etc it was around 20-25 per cent. Due to
demonetization, business for mobile or e-wallet
companies has boosted by up to four times. Much
of the cash transactions in the country are small Demonetization,
exchanges for goods or services and the penetration
Cashless Economy and
of PoS terminals is not enough. Millions of people
still don’t have a bank account, access to PoS sale Views of Experts example
points, internet or infrastructure to understand and
use online payment methods etc. So we need a large Not only India but several countries to name a few
scale penetration of digital services and PoS terminals such as USA in 1969; Zaire in 1990; Australia in 1996;
to facilitate digital transactions in small towns and Zimbabwe in 2010 and North Korea in 2010 have
rural India. resorted to demonetization; while the effort resulted
in success in the developed liberalized economies of
the USA and Australia it could not ensure any success
Challenges of a Cashless in the underdeveloped African countries.

Rural Economy The Crisil Report says that “the demonetization


move could change the face of the Indian economy”.
According to Mauro F Guillen “the move could stifle
some business that are legal and clean, if they use
!! Currency Dominated Economy: High level
cash payment. But everyone will adjust. And while
of cash circulation in India. Cash in circulation
it can hurt some small business and individuals, it is
amounts to around 13 per cent of India’s GDP.
better to do it than not”. According to IMF “we support
!! Transactions are mainly in cash: Nearly 95 per the measures to fight corruption and illicit financial
cent of transactions take place in cash. Large size of flows in India.”
informal/unorganized sector entities and workers India is a great democracy where the people at large
prefer cash based transactions. They don’t have despite inconvenience supported the demonetization
required digital literacy. drive by the government for unearthing black money
!! ATM use is mainly for cash withdrawals and not and counterfeit currency. Demonetization and cash
for settling online transactions: There are large less economy in the long run will have negative
number of ATM cards including around 21 crore impact on black money and positive impact on
Rupaya cards. But nearly 92 per cent of ATM cards economic growth and development. By controlling
are used for cash withdrawals. Multiple holding black money, these two measures i.e demonetization
of cards in urban and semi-urban areas show low and promotion of cashless transaction will help the
rural penetration. nation to achieve a cleaner and transparent growth
rate bereft of black money. Income earned through
!! Limited availability of Point of Sale terminals: demonetization, if spent on various developmental
According to RBI, there are 1.44 million PoS activities such as roads, sanitation, health, education,
terminals installed by various banks across employment generation, and other livelihood
locations at the end of July 2016. But most of them projects and programmes will enhance development
remain in urban/ semi-urban areas. and raise the quality of life of the people.

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3
Rashtriya Yuva
Sashaktikaran
Karyakaram

Empowering
BThe RYSK now aims to provide a more holistic
and overall development as it now operates
in an interdisciplinary approach rather than a

Youth
compartmentalized one.
Some of the important initiatives of the government
are mentioned below-
The Youth of a Nation are the trustees of posterity. 1. Skill up gradation Training program (SUTP):
While most of the developed world is moving towards It aims to develop vocational training skill with
a nation of ageing population, India is poised to be the the help of trained masters to help generate
youngest country in the world by 2020. This young force, extra income and boost self confidence. This
which also constitutes nearly 40 per cent of the total
programme also aims to recognize the local need
population of India, is the most vibrant and dynamic
and thus imparts vocational training.
segment and also the country’s most valuable human
resource. India’s demographic dividend has become the 2. Promotion of Folk Art, Culture and Yuva Kriti:
talk of economists and policy planners the world over. With the generation x obsessed about the west
As the future of the nation, youth have a tremendous — this programme comes as the much needed
role to play in nation building. Their creative potential task master to provide opportunity to the rural
coupled with their enthusiasm, energy and versatility
youth to showcase and promote their culture and
can work wonders for any country.
talent.
This educated youth however needs to be equipped
with necessary skill sets for specific jobs. A routine 3. Mahatma Gandhi Yuva Swachta Abhiyaan and
school/college education may not ensure jobs for the Shramdaan Karyakram to alert and engage the
young people, especially in today’s competitive and youth in contributing to the cleanliness drive and
highly technological world. The need is for appropriate water conservation.
and adequate skill development and training which can
convert this force into the largest source of technically
4. Life Skill Training for adolescents
skilled manpower. (Empowerment for Adolescents): This is an
important and major initiative for it highlights the
Youth are the pillars of nation building. It is in their psychological derailment of the youth, and training
hands lies the power to change destiny. Any country
youth in a manner that enables them to cope with
that strives to change it’s destiny, must have ways
and means to tap the energy and ambitions of this the pressure and make healthy life choices. This
wonderful resource. scheme also aims to sensitize and make aware the
adolescent about reproductive sexual health, the
issues and concerns. It aims to draw a consensus
by pooling their potential for problem solving.
The Youth topic is linked Bridging the geographical and social barriers-Two
programmes can be highlighted.
to health, education, Skill
 Tribal Youth Exchange Programme (TYEP):
development, Make in India, The aim is to pick up potential youth from the
Unemployment, etc. Thus left wing extremism affected tribal belt and tour
them to other parts of the nation. It enables
the example and content them to develop and nationalize their mind
related to it can be used set without the influence of a dominant local
ideology. TYEP also provides an opportunity
under different dimensions where learning by experience may be put into
to enrich the answer. practice in respective tribal home towns whose
youth have seen the magic of development;
infrastructural growth and skill development.

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Empowering Youth

 The North-East Youth Exchange Programme: before investing. They can also offer mentoring
Under the Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan in a or advice alongside capital. Angel investors have
joint effort with the Ministry of Youth Affairs and helped to start-up many prominent companies,
Ministry of Home Affairs, aims at a collaboration including Google, Yahoo and Alibaba. This
of North Eastern Youth with the Youth of alternative form of investing generally occurs in a
Maharashtra to develop an understanding company’s early stages of growth, with investors
of socioeconomic development and ethos of expecting an upto 30 per cent equity. They
culturally diverse lifestyle. prefer to take more risks in investment for higher
returns. 5. Venture Capital - Venture capitals are
professionally managed funds who invest in
companies that have huge potential. They usually
Funding options for invest in a business against equity and exit when
Start-ups there is an IPO or an acquisition. VCs provide
expertise, mentorship and act as a litmus test of
where the organisation is going, evaluating the
Funding options for start-ups that will help them to business from the sustainability and scalability
raise capital for their business are: point of view.
!! Pradhan Mantri Micro Units Development and !! Business Incubators & Accelerators: Early stage
Refinance Agency Limited: MUDRA started with businesses can consider Incubator and Accelerator
an initial corpus of Rs. 20,000 crore to extend programs as a funding option. Found in almost
benefits to around 10 lakhs SMEs. You can submit every major city, these programs assist hundreds
your business plan and once approved, the loan of start-up businesses every year. Incubators are
gets sanctioned. You get a MUDRA Card, which is like a parent to a child, who nurture the business
like a credit card, which can be used to purchase providing shelter tools and training and network
raw materials, other expenses etc. Shishu, Kishor to a business. Accelerators are almost or less
and Tarun are three categories of loans available the same thing, but an incubator helps/assists!
under the promising scheme. nurtures a business to walk, while accelerator
!! Bootstrapping or self funding: Self-funding, also helps to run! take a giant leap.
known as bootstrapping, is an effective way of !! Microfinance Providers or NBFCs: Microfinance is
start-up financing, especially when you are just basically access of financial services to those who
starting your business. First-time entrepreneurs would not have access to conventional banking
often have trouble getting funding without first services. It is increasingly becoming popular
showing some traction and a plan for potential for those whose requirements are limited and
success. credit ratings not favoured by the bank. Similarly,
!! Crowd funding: Crowd funding is like taking a NBFCs or Non Banking Financial Corporations
loan, pre-order, contribution or investments from are corporations that provide Banking services
more than one person at the same time. In this a without meeting legal requirement/definition of
start-up will put up a detailed description of his a bank.
business on a crowd funding platform. He will
mention the goals of his business, plans for making
a profit, how much funding he needs and for what
reasons, etc. and then consumers can read about
Government schemes for
the business and give money if they like the idea. youth in the CPI (Maoist)
Those giving money will make online pledges with
the promise of prc-buying the product or giving a
insurgency affected ‘Red
donation. Anyone can contribute money towards Corridor’
helping a business that they really believe in.
Some of the popular crowd funding sites in India
are Indeigogo, wishberry, ketto, fund lined etc. !! As per the new Integrated Action Plan, government
!! Angel Investment: Angel investors are individuals plans to bring adivasis into the mainstream
with surplus cash and a keen interest to invest and at the same time strictly deal with the
in upcoming start-ups. They also work in groups violence. Government has decided on achieving
of networks to collectively screen the proposals “short-term goals” in the fight against left-wing

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extremism. Following a district-wise approach agencies. ,Addiionally. State Livelihood Mission as


of development has also been replaced now by well as NULM schemes are also being deployed to
adopting block level development planning. It is skill the youth.
also planned to set up development hubs in each
!! DONER ministry is also offering subsidy incentives
of the worst affected districts.
in NER for industrial and other units generating
!! Government has launched scores of initiatives employment. To implement the same, DON ER’s
in the field of education and skill development assistance to North Eastern Development Finance
for the benefit of the youth belonging to the Corporation (NEDFI) will have a component of
LWE regions. On the one hand, government has higher interest subsidy for such units which give
expedited the implementation of already available more employment.
existing schemes in these regions on priority, on
the other hand several innovative measures and
interventions have been introduced to meet the
specific needs.
Government schemes
!! Under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan, residential
for the youth affected h
schooling facility is being provided to all children. Terrorist organisatious
For girl child Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas and insurgents groups of
provide affordable and quality elementary
education. Secondary education is ensured J&K
through Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan
(RMSA). A number of KVs and Navodaya schools
are also being opened up. !! UDAAN: The Special Industry Initiative (SII) for
J&K is funded by Ministry of Home Affairs and
!! The Police of Jharkhand has initiated a very
implemented by National Skill Development
unique initiative for the children of LWE affected
Corporation (NSDC). It aims to provide corporate
region Palamu of the state. This initiativecalled
exposure to the youth as well as provide corporate
‘Taare Zameen Par’, has cops collecting amenities
India with the talent available in the state. The
like books, notebooks, clothes, bags, shoes etc.
schemes has received overwhelming response
from residents of Daltonganj, the headquarters of
and is making a considerable impact on ground.
the Palamu district. The police then re-distributes
those among local children who come from under !! SADBHAVANA: Another very successful
privileged backgrounds. initiative is Sadbhavna which is run by the Army.
Under SadbhavnaArmy runs several important
programmes for the youth of Jammu and Kashmir.
Army Goodwifi Schools which is an education
Government schemes for initiative works to provide middle and high
school level education to over one lakh students.
youth effected in North Presently, over 14,000 students are undergoing
East Insurgency schooling in various army run schools in the
state and over 1,000 children from the state are
studying in institutions outside the state through
scholarship programmes facilitated by the Army.
!! North eastern India is the most geo-strategic Army also runs National Integration Tour under
landscape for India. Unfortunately this region Sadbhavna where students get to visit other
has been plagued by insurgency, instability and states of the country and get a first hand view
social unrest since India’s independence, as in of the culture of their fellow citizens. They came
this backdrop. the government has introduced back motivated to become productive citizens
a number of initiatives specially for the youth of of the country and actively leverage the growth
insurgent areas of North East. trajectory for personal development. So far more
than 5000 people have benefited out of the 200
!! The Skill Development Ministry has planned State tours conducted under this scheme. Army also
Skill Des elopment Mission for few of the north runs vocational training centres and women
eastern states. The mission is working to train empowerment centres spread across the state to
youth with the help of government ITIs and private provide practical skills to interested and deserving

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Empowering Youth

candidates. Sourced through Army’s own budget, records when 26 boys and two girls from the state
people friendly projects are executed year after cracked the IlT-JEE Mains exam 2017. Achieving a
year to ameliorate the conditions of people living success rate of 78 per cent is the result of army’s
in far flung regions of the State. Another important
Kashmir Super 40 being at par with the best lIT
and highly beneficial initiative run in Jammu and
coaching centres in the country.
Kashmir is by Army only. Army in association with
its training partner Centre for Social Responsibility !! HIMAYAT: Run under Ministry of Rural
and Learning (CSRL) and Petronet LNG runs Development, Government of India’s Deen Dayal
Kashmir Super 40 initiative for coaching Jammu Upadhyay Grameen Kaushal Yojana the scheme
and Kashmir youth for engineering entrance
endeavours to train 1.24 lac local youth of Jammu
exams.. Infact this year Super 40 broke all previous
and Kashmir in job intensive vocational courses.

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4 Labour Landscape of
World Data

Labour The report of the International Labour Organization,


Employment and Social Outlook, Trends 2016, has
underlined that ‘Poor job quality remains a pressing

Force issue worldwide. The incidence of vulnerable


employment – the share of own-account work and
contributing family employment, categories of work
Labour force has the capability to define the growth and typically subject to high levels of precariousness
development of anycountry. It plays the most important – is declining more slowly than before the start of
role in any economic activity.
the global crisis. Vulnerable employment accounts
Indian labour market has a sharp divide between for 1.5 billion people, or over 46 per cent of total
organised and unorganised sector. The small proportion of employment. In both Southern Asia and sub-Saharan
organised labour enjoys an advantage with stringent laws
and rules and regulations enabling them to fight for their
Africa, over 70 per cent of workers are in vulnerable
rights. The major chunk however consists of unorganised employment’.
labour with almost no job or social security. Each segment As per the same ILO Report, 2.4 million unemployed
of labour whether organized or unorganized, industrial persons will be added to the global labour force in the
or agriculture, migrant or non migrant has its’ peculiar
issues and challenges to deal with. The unorganized
next two years and India is projected to account for
sector, whether in the urban areas or rural areas toils hard 17.6 million or nearly 60 per cent of all unemployed
to help the rich earn huge profit margins and accumulate in South Asia by 2017.
wealth? Rural unorganized labour on the other hand ends
up toiling for the land owner for a mere pittance. The very
name – unorganized – symbolizes their state of affairs
with their plight being reflected in terms of low wages, Situation in India Data
bad working conditions and uncertain employment
prospects. Migrant labour, moving away from their roots
with family, bag and baggage, are found in places far away
from where they belong. As construction workers, road !! Of India’s approximately 1.3 billion population,
workers, household help, they are around us all the time. (constituting approximately one-sixth of the
Women labour constitute another major segment whose humanity), 70 per cent live in villages and 40-
work is rarely seen or recognized. 45 per cent can be categorized as the working
The Government being committed to make India the population. This proportion, or the so called
largest investment destination and the manufacturing worker population ratio, has roughly remained
hub in the world, attempts are being made to look at the same since Independence.
labour reforms holistically with intention to make them
commensurate with economic growth and ensure labour !! The proportion of women in the labour force has
welfare in it’s true sense. been consistently lower than male workers by
close to 20 per cent age points.
!! Another important feature of India’s labour
Due to the emphasis on Make in domain is the overwhelming dependence on
India, implementations of labour agriculture which accounts for close to 50 per
laws for the welfare of Labours cent of the total workforce. Significantly as per
the recent estimates agriculture contributes only
have become important. Thus in
approximately one sixth of the GDP of the country.
questions related to Labour laws, This overcrowding of the workforce in agriculture
unemployment following data and its ‘underemployment’ is structured by the
and examples of international high presence of wage labourers and declining
number of people who report themselves as
experience can be placed to ‘cultivators’.
enrich the answer.
!! Though the nonagricultural sector accounts
for about half the work force, it contributes

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LABOUR FORCE

approximately 80 per cent to the total GDP, with a Fund and in the case of textile sector the entire 12 per
very small segment of less than 10 per cent being cent employer contribution of the employer would
in the organized sector. Of the total employment in be paid by the government for all the new accounts
the organized sector, almost 65 to 70 per cent is in opened after April, 2016. This is to encourage small
the public sector (including public administration firms to take in more workers and provide them
and defense services). Approximately 29.2 social security benefits. To encourage employers
million people work for the private sector, largely to take in apprentices the National Apprenticeship
corporate manufacturing and a variety of services, Promotion Scheme was launched wherein the
16 per cent of which in informal employment. government provides reimbursement of 25 per cent
of prescribed stipend subject to a maximum of Rs.
!! The presence of vulnerable labour reserves
1500/- per month per apprentice to all apprentices
is structured by the lack of employment
to employers and also sharing of the cost of basic
opportunities. Data on current daily status of
training in respect of fresher apprentices (who come
work reveals that there was a significant decline
directly for apprenticeship training without formal
in unemployment between 1983 to 1993- 94, but
training) limited to Rs. 7500/- per apprentice for a
unemployment rose sharply between 1993-94
maximum duration of 500 hours/3 months.
and 2004-5. As per the official estimates, there is
a need to create 10-12 million jobs every year to Under the Skill India Mission, through the Pradhan
absorb the potential entrants to the labour force. Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana and skill development
The latest estimates, available from the Labour programmes being implemented by the 20 plus
Bureau, paint an extremely depressing picture Central Ministries the new entrants to the labour
with respect to the pace of job creation. Apart force are skilled so that they get better paying jobs.
from being nowhere near what would be required Under the Ease of Doing Business initiative the process
to facilitate near full employment, there has been of registration, compliance to labour laws, inspection
a staggering decline by about 90 per cent in etc has been simplified to encourage more number
creation of new jobs; the figure for new jobs has of enterprises to be set up and provide quality jobs.
come down from about 11 lakhs in 2010 to 1.5 The flagship schemes such as the ‘Make in India’,
lakhs in 2016. Digital India, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan are initiatives
that should provide opportunities for employment
generation. Besides efforts are being taken to
Social Security covers for promote entrepreneurship through initiatives such
as Startup India, Standup India, MUDRA, ASPIRE, Atal
labours Innovation Mission, Pradhan Mantri Yuva Yojana etc
as an entrepreneur would in turn create more wage
Various schemes have been introduced with the jobs.
objective of universalisation of social security cover
to the informal workers.
Atal Pension Yojana that provides a guaranteed
National Child Labour
minimum pension beginning from Rs.1000 per Project Scheme
month to the age group 18-40 on attaining the
age of 60 based on their subscription, the Pradhan
Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana provides accident and More than 12 Lakh Children rehabilitated under
disability cover upto Rs. 2 lakh at an annual premium National Child Labour Project Scheme since 1988
of Rs.12 and the Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima As per the information received from District Project
Yojana provides life insurance cover of Rs.2 lakh at an Societies 12 Lakh 15 Thousand 755 Children have
annual premium of Rs.330. Then there is the Pradhan been rescued/withdrawn from work and rehabilitated
Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana to provide financial support and mainstreamed under the National Child Labour
to farmers suffering crop loss/damage arising out of Project (NCLP) Scheme from its inception in 1988
unforeseen events for the entire crop cycle from pre- to December 2016. The Scheme is sanctioned in
sowing to post-harvest losses. 270 Districts of 21 States, out of which Special
Under the Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Protsahan Yojana, Training Centres (STCs) are, at present, operational
the Government provides the 8.33 per cent of in 104 Districts. Under NCLP Scheme, funds are
employer contribution to the Employees’ Provident released to the District Project Societies headed by

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District Magistrates/ Collectors who in turn allocate


the funds for the Special Training Centres run by Southeast Asia’s Labour
NGOs/ Government agencies/ local bodies etc. The
volunteers for the special schools are engaged by
Law example
the NGOs etc., for which they are paid a consolidated
amount of honorarium. Most other countries of East and Southeast Asia such
as Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan and South
Korea have somewhat similar policies although
China’s Labour Law the finer details of the law may vary somewhat
from country to country. Most of these countries
example had very flexible labour laws in the 1970s to 1990s
and experienced rapid growth of employment and
wages. Most of these countries have strengthened
China, world’s largest exporter of manufactured labour laws as their economies have strengthened.
goods, despite being run by the communist party that Their labour laws are similar to China’s and require
was founded to further the interests of the workers severance pay of 1 month’s wages for each year (or
has adopted labour laws that are quite pragmatic part thereof ) that an employee has worked payable
in terms of ensuring efficient and productive use of on the last working day. This is however subject to
labour. China’s labour laws allow that even employees a maximum of 8 to 12 months wages irrespective
with indefinite period (or “permanent”) employment of the length of the service (even if, say 20 years).
In Singapore, severance pay is not required for
can be terminated for serious violation of labour
employees who have been employed with a firm for
discipline or employees rules and regulations, for
less than 3 years or who are in managerial positions.
serious dereliction of duty, or for graft. Further, Most East Asian countries also have the tradition of
contracts with a fixed expiry date are also permitted giving large bonuses often equal to several month
and employees who are not continued at expiry of wages. However the bonus is not fixed and is linked
such contracts do not have to be paid any severance to firm profitability and often related to individual
pay etc. Layoff of substantial number of employees is workers performance evaluation. This helps ensure
also allowed when an employer firm is suffering from cooperative behaviour by employees and helps in the
major difficulties in terms of production or operation efficient and smooth functioning of the company.
(such as a major restructuring, large reduction in
production due to business or export market setback,
etc). However any such layoff requires a notice period United States Labour Law
of at least 1 month and severance pay of 1 month’s example
wages for each year of service. Similar severance pay
also need to be paid to individual employees who are
terminated except where employee is dismissed for In the United States labour laws allow employers to
indiscipline or other major fault on his part. The labour dismiss workers at will (without any severance pay
laws are much more flexible in export processing etc) unless specific labour union contracts exist in
zones where employers have almost unlimited right which case the conditions of the contract have to be
to hire and fire. This is done to attract foreign direct respected. However, it should be noted that the US
investment and in view of much higher need for has a well functioning social security system that pays
production flexibility due to higher uncertainty and unemployment benefits to unemployed workers for
variability in exports. These laws have helped ensure upto one year and also provides additional worker
training if needed.
a disciplined and efficient work force and China has
become world’s largest ever exporter with exports
of about $23000 billion in 2016. Both employment
and wages of workers have risen dramatically during
Japan Labour Law
the 35 year period when these policies have been example
followed with poverty falling from 40 percent to
about 10 percent and per capita income rising from
Japan has very restrictive labour laws. Partly because
$400 to $8000.

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LABOUR FORCE

of the pressure put on the companies by the Japanese there has been a downward trend in the labour share
government in the formative years after World War 2, in many of the countries. It was observed that over
Japanese have a tradition of lifelong employment the period from 1990 to 2009 the share of labour
with the given company and termination is extremely
compensation in national income declined in 26 out
rare, partly because of restrictive laws and partly due
to tradition. However the Japanese have found a way of 30 advanced countries. In the case of emerging and
of maintaining labour efficiency and productivity developing economies, the evidence appears to be
despite permanent employment. This is attained by more mixed and somewhat ambiguous. Nonetheless,
giving large bonuses which can often be as much as the ILO finds that in many emerging and developing
3-4 months of wages which depend upon the firm’s
countries the decline in the labour income share is
profitability and can also be linked to the individual
employee’s performance on job. This again ensures even more pronounced than in advanced economies,
that the workers have a stake in the firm’s profitability with considerable declines in Asia and North Africa.
and helps in ensuring efficient functioning of the Labor’s declining share in GDP is a cause of concern
workers and the firm. in many advanced economies as well as developing
countries.
Technology and Technological advancement and pace of change will
Employment example significantly affect the availability of jobs, type, and
location. Machines will replace some jobs, and new
As per International Labour Organization (ILO) report jobs will be created while existing jobs may take on a
for the G20 Employment Working Group in 2015, new set of tasks.

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5
Achievements in Rural
development

!! A record 47,350 kms. of PMGSY road was

New India constructed during 2016-17.This is the highest


construction of PMGSY roads in a single year, in
the last 7 years.

Initiatives !! 11,614 habitations were provided connectivity


by construction of 47,350 kms. of PMGSY roads
during 2016-17 (an average of 32 habitations
India is rewriting its growth story in the global being provided connectivity every day). In terms
geopolitical economic landscape, charting new courses of number of habitations connected with PMGSY
in its governance paradigm and striving to demolish roads, 11,606 is highest ever in the last 7 years.
the old images and impressions as viewed through
coloured lenses in the comity of nations to evolve into !! With a view to reduce the “carbon footprint” of rural
a ‘New India’. roads, reduce environmental pollution, increase
A move to purge the economy of the toxic black
the working season and bring cost effectiveness,
cash not only induces more efficiency and reduces PMGSY is aggressively encouraging use of “Green
corruption, but also gives room for the government Technologies” and nonconventional materials like
and the central bank to cut tax rates and interest rates waste plastic, cold mix, geo-textiles, fly-ash, iron
respectively, spurring up investments while being on and copper slag etc. in rural roads.
track to attain the fiscal deficit and growth targets. This
is the story of a Resurgent India.
!! 4,113.13 kms. of PMGSY roads were constructed
using ‘Green’ technologies, in 2016-17.
Payment through online channels significantly reduces
the need for cash and brings about transparency in !! MGNREGS – Governance transformation and
financial dealings. This is the story of a Digital India. water conservation thrust as focus in 2016-17
The opening of accounts under PMJDY, in turn, !! FY 2016-17 witnessed an unprecedented
facilitated the channelizing of Liquefied Petroleum governance transformation in MGNREGS with
Gas (LPG) subsidy to targeted beneficiaries under the a sustained thrust on water conservation. With
Direct Benefits Transfer (DBT) scheme or PAHAL. This is over 82 per cent active workers (9.1 crore) with
the story of an Inclusive India. Aadhaar seeding in NREGASoft, 4.6 crore workers
The ‘Make in India’ Campaign is one of the flagship on Aadhaar Based Payment Bridge, electronic
schemes of the government that aims at making India payment of 96 per cent wages through Bank/
a global manufacturing hub and reaping the economic Post Office accounts, more than 89 lakh assets
spin offs thereon in terms of better infrastructure, geo tagged so far, 93 lakh job cards deleted so far
better employment opportunities and leveraging on through proper verification, large scale drought
India’s massive demographic dividend. This is the story
proofing water conservation works in rainfall
of a Investor-friendly India.
deficient regions, MGNREGS established itself
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan which can be hailed as a as a well governed programme creating durable
transformational move that sets the lofty goal of assets for livelihood security in poor regions,
achieving an open defecation free India by 2019. This is while providing employment on demand.
the story of a Clean India.
MGNREGS achieved 230 crore person days which
The government believes in the maxim of ‘Minimum is higher than the revised labour budget. The total
government, Maximum governance’ and this can be provisional expenditure of Rs. 58,056 crore (Central
witnessed in the changed work ethic of the government. plus State) is the highest ever in MGNREGS in any
This is the story of a Transparent India.
year. 56 per cent women in the wage employment
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Atal Pension Yojana, Jeevan generated is also the highest ever.
Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY), Krishi Sinchai Yojana,
MUDRA Bank Yojana, Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana, !! The Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana– National
Nayi Manzil Yojana among others try to ensure a well Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM) is making
balanced development of all sections of the society, a difference to the lives and livelihoods of over

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NEW INDIA INITIATIVE

3.6crore households from where women have


joined Self Help Groups (SHGs). The collectives Tax Administration for a
of women under SHGs, Village Organisations
(VOs) and Cluster Level Federations (CLFs) has
clean economy
evolved transformational social capital that is
changing gender relations, access to services Following path breaking measures have been taken
and participation in Gram Sabhas and Panchayati to address the menace of black money:
Raj Institutions (PRIs). The programme has given
!! Special Investigation Team (SIT)– headed by
confidence to women to seek Bank loans for former SC judge M.B.Shah was formed to probe
economic activity a f t e r d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l s and black money.
competencies through a sustained Community
!! ‘The Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income
Resource Person (CRP) led handholding for
and Assets) and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015’ with
livelihood diversification. stringent penal provisions including rigorous
imprisonment of 3-10 years has been enacted
to effectively deal with the issue of black money
Towards Cleaner stashed away abroad. Tax evasion has been made
Cooking Fuel a predicate offence, under Prevention of Money
Laundering Act (PMLA).
!! Multi-Agency Group (MAG) was set up for
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana was launched by the facilitating coordinated and speedy investigation
Prime Minister on May 1st, 2016 in Ballia, Uttar Pradesh of cases of Panama Papers leaks.
to safeguard the health of women and children by !! Signing Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements
providing them with a clean cooking fuel – LPG, so (DTAAs)/ Tax Information Exchange Agreements
that they do not have to compromise their health in (TIEAs)/Multilateral Conventions etc. with other
smoky kitchens or wander in unsafe areas collecting nations.
firewood. Under this scheme, 5 Cr LPG connections !! Joining Multilateral Competent Authority
were to be provided to BPL families with a support Agreement in respect of Automatic Exchange
of Rs.1600 per connection within 3 years. Ensuring of Information to support global efforts against
women’s empowerment, especially in rural India, the black money.
connections is issued in the name of women of the !! Signing information sharing arrangement with
households. Rs. 8000 Cr. was allocated towards the USA under its Foreign Account Tax Compliance
implementation of the scheme. Identification of the Act (FATCA).
BPL families is done through Socio Economic Caste !! Though participatory Notes (PN) bring foreign
Census Data. An adult woman member of BPL family investment, but they have been red flagged as
identified through Socio-Economic Caste Census a conduit to route black money back into the
(SECC) data is given a deposit free LPG connection country by SIT on black money. SEBI mandated
with financial assistance of Rs. 1600/- per connection increased disclosure requirements and restricted
by Government of India. transfer of PN to curb money laundering in order
to keep track of their beneficial owners.
The top five States with maximum connections are
UP (46 lakh), West Bengal (19 lakh), Bihar (19 lakh), !! Enactment of Benami Transactions (Prohibition)
Madhya Pradesh (17 lakh) and Rajasthan (14 lakh). Amendment Act, 2016’ which empowers the
government to confiscate benami properties—
These States constitutes nearly 75 per cent of the total
assets (without any compensation) held in the
connections released. The households belonging to name of another person or under a fictitious
SC/ST constitute large chunk of beneficiaries with 35 name. The act has a provision for imprisonment
per cent of the connections being released to them. up to seven years. As per Department of Revenue,
India is home to more than 24 Crore households out more than 245 benami transactions have already
of which about 10 Crore households are still deprived been identified and provisional attachments of
of LPG as cooking fuel and have to rely on firewood, properties worth Rs.55 crore have been made in
coal, dung – cakes etc. as primary source of cooking. 124 cases

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Taking forward the crusade against black money 6,600 Blocks and 641 Districts. This project will
they Finance Minster proposed the following major provide access universally to all citizens across
reforms: panchayats.
!! Cash expenditure upto Rs 10,000/- only is allowed !! The second pillar “Universal access to Mobile
as deduction to businesses. Connectivity” intends to provide mobile
!! Charitable trusts can receive cash donations up to connectivity to all inaccessible regions in the
Rs 2,000 only from a single source. country. Today, roughly 42,000 villages in India
do not have mobile coverage. The Department
!! Restricting cash expense to Rs 2 lakhs only for a of Telecommunications as the nodal agency
single transaction and in case of violation a penalty manages the project with cost slated at Rs. 16,000
of equal amount would be levied. crore during 2014-18. This indicates that by 2018,
!! Primary Agriculture Credit Societies which are India will have complete mobile coverage.
susceptible to misuse by parking black money, are !! Under the third pillar “Public Internet Access
to be computerized and integrated with the Core
Programme,” the government plans to create 2.5
Banking System of District Central Cooperative
lakh common service centres (CSCs), mapping
Banks.
one CSC to each Gram Panchayat. Today, India has
!! Exemption from long-term capital gains tax has already 2.42 lakh CSCs spreading across 1.62 lakh
been restricted to shares on purchase of which panchayats. CSCs would be multifunctional end-
Securities Transaction Tax has been paid (and points for delivery of government and business
other “genuine cases” such as public offers). This services.
will clamp down on tax evasion through “sham
!! The fourth pillar “e-Governance– Reforming
transactions”
Government through Technology” enables the
!! Aadhaar has been made mandatory for filing of government to use IT to simplify and transform
income-tax returns as well as for obtaining and government processes more efficiently so
retaining the PAN. This would solve the problem that the delivery of government services can
of multiple and bogus PAN and strengthen KYC be more effective across various government
verification for different transactions including departments.
opening of bank account
!! The fifth pillar of Digital India programme is
“e-Kranti - Electronic delivery of services”.
The Building Blocks of Considering the rationality of transforming
eGovernance and mGovernance to deliver good
Digital India Programme governance to all citizens in India, e-Kranti carries
the vision of “Transforming e-Governance for
Transforming Governance”.
Any programme needs a concrete architecture to
succeed. In order to make the Digital India programme !! “Information for All,” the sixth pillar of the
the most efficacious initiative, the Government of India Digital India programme drives transparency in
defines the nine pillars of Digital India. Each pillar not governance. Under Open Data platform, ministries/
only supports the ambit of the programme, but also departments release information proactively for
comprehensively contributes to the uninterrupted public use. Online hosting of information and
success of the programme. documents facilitates open and easy access to
information.
!! “Broadband Highway,” the first pillar of Digital
India programme, plans to connect 2.5 lakh village !! The seventh and the most important pillar of
panchayats via National Optical Fibre Network the Digital India programme is “Electronics
(NOFN). This will empower the rural population Manufacturing”. A study by the government
to access government programmes easily and suggests that the demand for electronic goods
effectively. In order to push NOFN to its logical is drastically rising with 22 per cent CAGR and is
destination, Bharat Broadband Network Limited expected to touch USD 400 billion by 2020. In
(BBNL) has been established by the Government of order to give electronics manufacturing a boost,
India with an authorized capital of Rs. 1000. BBNL the Government has launched several initiatives
is mandated to create the NOFN by connecting for the development of electronics sector in the
around 2,50,000 Gram Panchayats spread over country.

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NEW INDIA INITIATIVE

!! The eighth pillar “IT for Jobs” focuses on providing of our exploding cohort of youth population
necessary training to the youth in smaller towns with the adequate supply of higher education
and villages for availing employment opportunities institutions.
in the IT/ITES sector. SOLUTION: Absence of any projection mechanism
!! Finally, the ninth pillar “Early Harvest is its root cause. A forecast mechanism to know
Programmes” comprises the projects which can the future demand and division of targets between
be implemented within a short timeline. Some public and private sector with simultaneous increase
projects under this programme include IT platform in education budget should be done. Six out of the
for messages, wi-fi in all universities, secure email top ten colleges in the recently released National
within government, public wi-fi hotspots, and Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) of the
SMS-based weather information. Ministry of Human Resource Development are in
Delhi. Of the other four, one is in Kolkata, two in
Chennai and one in Tiruchirapalli. This skewed
Lacunaes in Education distribution of places of quality higher education in
the country should be cause for alarm.
sector and solutions
!! Affordability: Scarcity of public financed education
and exorbitant fees of private institutions make
!! Financial health of the education sector: The gap education unaffordable to a vast majority.
between the government and private schools. SOLUTION: Financial models like scholarships,
SOLUTION: Centre- states must prioritize education education loans, industry sponsored education need
and have accountable mechanisms to ensure to be explored at varied levels.
implementation of schemes. Raising public !! Autonomy: Political appointments and frequent
expenditure on education to a level of 6 per cent intrusions cripple universities, ability to innovate.
of GDP has remained a national commitment for
SOLUTION: A National appointment commission
nearly forty years now.
and autonomy in internal model design is the need
!! Quality, uniformity and spread of education: of the hour.
Quality of teaching staff, huge vacancies of
!! Employability: Separation of research facilities
teachers are compounded by infrastructure deficit
from universities and absence of relevant
like absence of laboratories etc.
education that creates employment makes
SOLUTION: There is need to increase the percentage pursuing of higher education a risky proposition
of qualified teachers and also the training of both in our country.
qualified and under-qualified teachers. The school
SOLUTION: Incubation centres, scientist extension
and higher education sectors face a teacher shortage
programs and education industry interface should
of 15-40 per cent across states and levels. A national
be encouraged.
quality assessment framework to assess the quality
of education, integrated courses and credit transfer !! Access: Declining role of public health delivery
should be adopted along with teacher training. systems and lack of adequate skilled personnel.
!! Teacher absenteeism: Academic supervision is SOLUTION: Regulatory mechanism in public
conspicuously absent. and private sector to improve access, quality and
delivery of care including standardization of health
SOLUTION: Performance based appraisal for
infrastructure, its management, administration and
teachers and midterm re-evaluation (scores can be
overall governance structure, focus on preventive
calculated on the basis of quality teaching, teachers’
healthcare through sanitation programmes and
attendance, efforts, co-curricular and evaluation-
other central and state schemes.
related activities, academic record, besides student
performance) Concept of virtual classrooms should !! Specialists Requirement: Imbalance in availability
be promoted. Integrated network of outstanding of doctors, nurses and para-medical professionals
teachers with subject expertise can be created to in the rural and urban areas of the country.
motivate, inspire and guide. All India Teachers SOLUTION: Create healthcare cadres who address
Service can be introduced on the lines of Indian specific health challenges and integrate hospitals
Administrative service. through e-network, which can share bed-doctor-
!! Availability: We are unable to match the demand facilities availability information (adopting

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technology as an enabler for inclusiveness and  Both the central and state governments
provider of efficient services) subsidise the price of a wide range of products
!! Affordable healthcare: High cost of medicines with the expressed intention of making them
and tests. affordable for the poor. Rice, wheat, pulses,
sugar, kerosene, LPG, naphtha, water, electricity,
SOLUTION: Promote generics diesel, fertiliser, iron ore, railways – these are
just a few of the commodities and services that
Steps for Sound Fiscal the government subsidises.

Management !! Reclassification of the expenditure


 From this budget (2017-18), the expenditure
will not be classified under plan or nonplan.
Sound Fiscal Management policies do not require just This distinction has been removed and all the
arithmetic and harsh measures but also a practical expenditure will be categorised as ‘Capital’ and
approach and a human face besides a mechanism to ‘Revenue. The Government feels that the plan/
show results. non-plan bifurcation of expenditure has led
!! Auction of coal and various minerals and to a fragmented view of resource allocation to
spectrum various schemes, making it difficult not only to
ascertain cost of delivering the service but also
 The earlier policy of ‘First ComeFirst Serve’ for to link outlays to outcomes. The bias in favour of
allocation of natural resources found itself in plan expenditure by Centre as well as the State
the web of corruption and this was proved Governments has led to a neglect of essential
when the Supreme Court of India, in its expenditures on maintenance of assets and other
judgement dated August 25, 2014, cancelled establishment related expenditures for providing
the allocation of 204 coal blocks. essential social services. The merger of plan and
 Accordingly, it was decided that these mines non-plan in the budget is expected to provide
would be allotted through an auction or appropriate budgetary framework having focus
allotment to Government companies. So, an on the revenue, and capital expenditure.
ordinance was promulgated which later was !! Merger of Railway Budget with the General
converted into law to smoothen the process Budget
of auction and allotment to the Government
companies.  The Government ended a 92 years old tradition
of presenting Railway budget separately, and
 In terms of other minerals, the State Governments now the Railway budget and General Budget
are empowered to carry out auction of mines/ have been merged.
mineral block in accordance with the Mines
and Minerals (Development and Regulation)  The presentation of a unified budget will bring
Amendment Act, 2015. So far 21 mineral blocks the affairs of the Railways to centre stage
have already been successfully auctioned in and present a holistic picture of the financial
the States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, position of the Government. The merger
Jharkhand, Karnataka, Odisha, Rajasthan and is also expected to reduce the procedural
Madhya Pradesh. It is estimated that States requirements and instead bring into focus, the
will earn over Rs 50,000 crore through these aspects of delivery and good governance.
auctions. 71 more mines/mineral blocks are to  This process also ends dividend liability on the
be auctioned in 10 States. Railway This will save approximately Rs.9,700 crore
!! JAM Trinity annual dividend to the Government of India.
 ‘JAM’ means Jan Dhan, Aadhaar and Mobile. !! Advancement of budget date
Before going details of ‘JAM’, it is necessary to  This year the budget was presented on
understand why we need this. The Government February 1 and the entire process including
spends trillions of rupees every year on welfare enactment of Finance Bill was completed by
schemes meant to uplift the living standard of March 31. Earlier this used to end in May-June
the masses. One of the most important tools of and finally various Ministries and Departments
such expenditure is subsidy. were getting not more than 9 months to spend
money of 12 months. Now, the advancement

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 21


NEW INDIA INITIATIVE

of budget presentation by a month and of the full working seasons including the
completion of Budget related legislative first quarter. This will also preclude the need
business before 31stMarch will pave the way for for seeking appropriation through ‘Vote on
early completion of Budget cycle and enable Account’ and enable implementation of the
Ministries and Departments to ensure better legislative changes in tax laws for new taxation
planning and execution of schemes from the measures from the beginning of the financial
beginning of the financial year and utilization year itself.

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Biosaline Farming

Biosaline Farming involving both halophytes (salt


tolerant plants) and marine aquaculture. Over 150years
ago, the farmer of Kuttanad in Kerala perfected
the method of cultivating rice below sea level. This
requires both salinity management and varieties like
Pokkali which are salinity tolerant. In recognition of

6
this innovative and important contribution of the
farmers of Kuttanad, FAO has declared the Kuttanad
Farming System as a Globally Important Agricultural
Heritage Systems (GIAHS). The Government of Kerala
has decided to establish an International Research
and Training Centre in Below Sea Level Farming

Climate
in Kuttanad for the purpose of equipping coastal
communities in the science and art of biosaline and
below sea level agriculture. Such a Centre will also be

Change of interest to areas like Sunderbans and countries like


Maldives.
The M S Swaminathan Research Foundation has

& established in Vedaranyam in Tamil Nadu, a Genetic


Garden of Halophytes in order to conserve halophytes
and make them available to breeders for designing

Sustainability climate smart coastal agricultural methods. There is


also need for agriculture to make a contribution to
reducing green house gas emissions. Several steps
Climate change is defined as the long term change
can be taken by the local climate risk management
in earth’s climate due to natural, mechanical and centres with the active participation of local
anthropological processes which result in emission of communities.
greenhouse gases like CO2, methane, etc. These gases
settle in the stratosphere and trap the heat within the
atmosphere leading to global warming and changing
climatic patterns. Shifting of seasons, increasing global Economic Costs of
temperatures, rising sea levels, changing agricultural Climate Change
patterns have resulted in frequent disasters like
landslides, tsunamis, drought, famine, population
migration and major health hazards not just for us but
also for our children and grandchildren. Substantial economic impacts from climate change
in India can be expected to occur given the current
The need of the hour is to think of sustainable solutions
low levels of adaptive capacity, the country’s
which are not just temporary but also take into account
geographical location, large numbers dependent
the needs of future generations. It must be recognized
that natural resources are not unlimited and hence on natural resource basedlivelihoods, and impacts
their consumption must be rationed and planned so on agriculture. Some idea of the magnitude of the
as to ensure sustainable development. Nature friendly economic impacts can be gauged from studies relating
alternatives like wind farms, hydro-electricity, solar to the projected impacts on food production systems
power, geo-thermal and bio-mass for the generation and food security due to rising air temperatures.
of power need to be explored and adequately Sorghum grain yield is projected to decline between
implemented into the system. 2-14 per cent by 2020, with worsening yields by
It is the responsibility of not any one nation but the 2050 while in the Indo-Gangetic plain, reduction in
entire world to work in the direction of saving humanity wheat yields upto 51 per cent in the most favourable
from the effects of climate change. area is projected. In rice plant cultivation, current
temperatures are claimed to be already approaching

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 23


Climate Change & Sustainability

critical levels during stages of growth, e.g. in Northern technology, to fight greenhouse gas emissions. As a
India (October), Southern India (April, August) and signatory country to Kyoto Protocol, no commitment
Eastern India (March-June). One recent study projects for reduction of emissions was required to be made
an overall decline in foodgrain production by 18 per then. However, in the Copenhagen Summit, India
cent by 2050. volunteered GDP intensity reduction of 20-25 per
In sum, the impacts are projected to be wide-ranging cent by 2020 from 2005 level.
and can impose a substantial economic burden. Risk In the Post Kyoto phase, UN secretariat has desired
levels are influenced by the factors that influence the all countries to give their Intended Nationally
probability of hazards occurring and by interventions Determined Contributions (INDCs). These will be
that can reduce the impacts when these occur. finalized during the Paris Summit in December 2015.
The former relates to activities that can reduce India’s stated objectives in (INDCs) are
the emissions of greenhouse gases (or mitigation) (i) to bring down GDP intensity reduction of 33-35
and the latter aspect includes actions that reduce per cent by 2030 from 2005 level,
vulnerability to these impacts or increase coping
capacities (or adaptation). Consumption patterns, (ii) to have 40 per cent non fossil fuel based
population growth, availability of technology and electricity capacity and
knowledge, and institutional capacities are some of (iii) to add carbon sinks for 2.5-3 billion tons of
the factors that influence adaptation and mitigation carbon dioxide by 2030.
responses. Economic decision-making with regard to
the prioritization of resource allocation and the use of We have achieved electricity capacity of 272, 432
economic policy instruments is crucial in determining MW on 31st July 2015. In this, coal is around 1,65,000
the responses to the climate challenge. Costing of the MW, gas 23,000 MW and diesel 993 MW. We have
projected impacts and the resources required to take a total thermal capacity of 1,89,313 MW. From
up appropriate mitigation and adaptation responses renewable source 35,776 MW, hydro 41,632 MW
is an important input into decision-making. and nuclear is 5717 MW. When we analyze the good
and bad of various sources of energy, we come to
The economic costs related to climate change can the conclusion that energy sustainability has to be
be considered in different ways. On one hand, the achieved by exploring all energy sources. The most
adverse impacts are losses for the economy that have significant aspect in this forward looking policy is
to be carefully assessed. On the other hand, there that technology would have to find ways through
arecosts for reducing these losses through adoption new research and optimum resource utilization. Let
of mitigation and adaptation activities. Note that us have a look at the current perspectives of INDCs
the two are not the same. Climate science provides three objectives in India.
evidence that impacts are already being felt, some
of which could be irreversible, and some amount of
warming is inevitable. Even if resources to take action
for reducing the impacts were fully available, there 2nd Paradigm Shift in
are limits to what adaptation can achieve. Disaster Management

Climate Change IPCC’s 4th Assessment Report (2007) was instrumental


in bringing political recognition globally for
Mitigation converging climate change adaptation with disaster
risk management. We termed this as 2nd paradigm
shift in disaster management which focussed on
International protocols and conventions on three aspects: (i) addressing hazard risk, (ii) reducing
climate change namely; United Nations Framework vulnerability, and (iii) environmental-knowledge
Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol are based approaches. The 1st shift in paradigm was from
binding all countries of the world to make greenhouse ‘response and relief’ to ‘prevention and preparedness’
gas inventories for taking action towards stabilization centric approach in disaster management.
of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.
‘Disaster management’ globally is in transformation
India as an emerging coal dominant economy as is economics and engineering, with the realization
has to find its own solutions to climate change. It of environmental changes. There are three aspects of
needs to have a credible response in terms of green environmental changes: the climate change, land use

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and, ecosystem alterations, known foraggravating opportunities for integration. As per the Disaster
threats and increasing vulnerabilities. Working in Management Act of India (2005), disaster is defined as
field of ecology and disaster management since the “a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence
period of the United Nations International Decade for in any area, arising from natural or man-made
Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990- 99) to the causes, or by accident or negligence which results in
Hyogo Framework of Action (2005-15), I witnessed the substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage
initial engineering based mitigation principles moved to, and destruction of, property or damage to, or
to a broad community and socio-economic based degradation of environment, and is of such a nature
vulnerability focused approach with emphasis on or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity
preparedness. Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action of the community of the affected areas”. Besides
for a Safer World adopted in the World Conference the above referred legal provisions, following policy
(1994) clearly “recognised the close interrelationship provisions in India offer significant opportunities for
between disaster reduction and sustainable adaptation integration with disaster risk reduction:
development”, citing the United Nations Conference !! National Environment Policy 2006;
on Environment and Development and the Agenda
21. However, review of the Hyogo Framework found its !! National Disaster Management Policy 2009;
priority for “addressing underlying causes of disaster !! National Water Policy 2002 (under revision 2012);
risk and vulnerability” as unfulfilled by nations.
!! National Forest Policy;
!! National Urban Sanitation Policy;
Disaster Focussed !! National Agriculture Policy;
Adaptation Interventions !! National Land-use Policy (draft/ pending);
– Some Examples !! Strategy on Climate change (National Action
Plan);
A Delhi Declaration on Resilient Housing, released on
There are many initiatives world over, and in the
27 January 2014, called for a specific building code on
countries of Asia Pacific as a well to strengthen
flood resilient housing. The year 2015 marks special
disaster management in the background of changing
significance with new sustainable development
climate and its consequences. Disaster law in India
goals and a new protocol on climate change.
clearly recognized “environment” as major aspect in
Implementation would require effective capacities,
disaster management, and thereby, offers significant

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 25


Climate Change & Sustainability

customised and tested tools, and policy planning substantial emission reductions over next few
mechanisms up to district and village level. An decades and near zero emissions of CO2 and other
“environmental action plan” at district level has been GHGs by the end of 21st century; to implement
much awaited since the enactment of Environmental these would pose technological, economic, social
Protection Act 1986. The time calls for improving the and institutional challenges.
planning process and implementation with adequate
(i) During 2001-2100 relative to 1986-2005, the rise
awareness and effective governance and safety of
in sea level ranges from 0.26 to 0.55 m for RCP 2.6,
people and their resources are crucial components
and from 0.45 to 0.82 m for RCP 8.5; by the end of
of sustainable development. A “national mission” on
21st century sea level will rise in more than 95 per
environment and value education as part of National
cent of the ocean area.
Action Plan for Climate Change may be incorporated
to create social and professional environment for (j) Emission scenarios leading to GHG concentrations
sustainable development. in 2010 of about 450 PPM CO2 or lower are likely
to maintain warming below 2°C over 21st century
relative to pre-industrial levels. These scenarios
Climate Change Report are characterised by 40 per cent to 70 per cent
global anthropogenic GHG emissions reductions
by 2050 compared to 2100, and emission levels
Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) near zero or below in 2100.
has published many comprehensive reports (in 1990,
1995, 2001, 2007 and 2014). Its Synthesis Report of
AR5 found the following major trends: Climate change impact
(a) Anthropogenic emissions of GHGs are highest Indian Scenario
in history; climate changes have widespread
impacts on both human and natural systems.
These are the impacts of climate change on the
(b) Oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) resulted biodiversity of India.
in acidification of oceans; warming of 0.85˚C
!! Adverse effect on agriculture, health, forestry and
increased during 1882-2012 and sea level rose by
infrastructure.
0.19 m during 1901-2010.
!! Temperature rise by 3 o C to 4 o C towards the end
(c) Due to continued emission of GHGs, there is
of 21st century.
likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible
impacts for humans and ecosystems. !! Reduction in wheat and rice yields. Rainfall
patterns and quantities in periods of drought in
(d) Limiting total human-induced warming to less
some regions, more rainfall in central India and
than 2° C relative to the period 1861-1880 with a
reduced rain in the north-east, leading to changes
probability of more than 66 per cent would require
in forestry and vegetation. Rain spells in the Ganga,
cumulative CO2 emissions from all anthropogenic
Krishna and Godavari more intense.
sources since 1870 to remain below 2900 GtCO2,
about 1900 GtCO2 had already been emitted by !! Number of rainy days may be reduced in the
2011. western parts of the Gangetic basin.
(e) Risks are unevenly distributed and are !! 70 per cent of vegetation vulnerable to change.
generally greater for disadvantaged people !! Adverse impact on wildlife and other biological
and communities in all countries at all levels species.
of development.
(f ) Adaptation and mitigation are complementary
strategies for reducing and managing the risks of Impact on Forests of India
climate change.
(g) Without additional mitigation efforts beyond !! Shift in vegetation type boundaries i.e in Western
those in place today, warming by the end of 21st Ghats the moist forest species are shifting
century will lead to high to very high risk of severe, eastward.
widespread and irreversible impacts globally.
!! Species of lower altitude migrating to higher
(h) Multiple mitigation pathways would require

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altitude. A slew of policy measures were launched to achieve


this goal. As a result, the emission intensity of India’s
!! Mountain forests of Western Ghats would change
GDP has decreased by 12 per cent between 2005 and
into grasslands.
2010. India has further pledged in its INDC that it will
!! Increase in dry season length would increase increase its target to reduce the emissions intensity
the risk of forest fires in moist and dry deciduous of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 from 2005
forests. level.

India’s INDC Goals National Action Plan on


Climate Change
India’s INDC builds on its goal of installing 175
gigawatts (GW) of renewable power capacity by India has also committed to increase its share in
2022 by setting a new target to increase its share of renewable energy to 40 per cent in installed capacity
non-fossil-based power capacity from 30 per cent by 2030. Its current share of renewable energy
today to about 40 per cent by 2030 (with the help is around 13 per cent (36 GW) making it a very
of international support). The country also commits ambitious goal. India says that the ambitious goal will
to reduce its emissions intensity per unit GDP by 33 be attained by the following. Solar and Wind energy
to 35 per cent below 2005 by 2030 and create an will increase from current 4060 MW and 23.76 GW in
additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of 2015 to 100 GW and 60 GW by 2022 respectively and
carbon dioxide through additional tree cover. an increase even after that.
The plan also prioritizes efforts to build resilience to It is envisaged to increase biomass installed capacity
climate change impacts, and gives a broad indication to 10 GW by 2022 from current capacity of 4.4 GW.
of the amount of financing necessary to reach its Special programmes will be launched to promote
goals. Besides, India has also been working on small and mini hydel projects, new and efficient
reducing its auto-emissions by constantly improving designs of water mills have been introduced for
emission standards. As a result, India’s emissions electrification of remote villages and will continue
intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP) to be promoted. Nuclear energy will be promoted
declined by approximately 18 per cent between 1990 from the current capacity of 5780 MW to 63 GW
and 2005, and the country has already committed to installed capacity by the year 2032, if supply of fuel
reduce it by another 20-25 per cent from 2005 levels is ensured. Clean coal will be promoted by increasing
by 2020. the efficiency standards and old inefficient thermal
The new INDC target commits India to go further stations will be assigned mandatory targets for
– 33-35 per cent from 2005 by 2030. In the course improving energy efficiency.
of meeting its renewable energy and non-fossil India has also agreed to enhance its forest cover from
targets, and by tapping the substantial potential of 24 per cent of the geographical area in 2013 to 33
energy efficiency improvements, India should be per cent of its geographical area in long term. And it
able to easily exceed its intensity target. India’s INDC also mentions that its forest cover will absorb 2.5 to 3
recognizes the importance of increasing forest cover. billion tonnes of carbon dioxide by 2030 making it a
Creating an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion major sink for absorbing Carbon Dioxide.
tonnes of CO2 through this would require average
India has also decided to build capacities, create
annual carbon sequestration to increase by at least 14
domestic framework and international architecture
per cent over the next 15 years relative to the 2008-
for quick diffusion of cutting edge climate technology
2013. India has put forward a well-balanced climate
in India and for joint collaborative R&D for such future
plan that, alongside its renewable energy goals, will
technologies.
generate transformational changes.
These actions are also being proposed alongside
an aggressive development agenda. India had in India’s INDC Goals-
the past declared a voluntary goal of reducing the
emissions intensity of its GDP by 20–25 per cent, Enhancing Forests
over 2005 levels, by 2020, despite having no binding Carbon Sink
mitigation obligations.

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 27


Climate Change & Sustainability

!! To create additional carbon sink of 2.5 -3 billion !! Finance Commission (FC) Incentive for creation
tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional of carbon sink: devolution of funds to states from
forest and tree cover (increase of about 680 - 817 federal pool (attaches 7.5 % weight to area under
million tonne of carbon stock) forest).
!! Reduction in consumption of wood/ biomass as fuel
!! Full implementation of Green India Mission
!! Funds from Compensatory Afforestation Fund
!! Launched Green Highways Policy: 140,000 km long
Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA):
“tree-line” along both sides of national highways. USD 6 billion proposed to be given to States
1% of project cost to be earmarked for plantation
!! Other Policies: REDD-plus; National Agroforestry
!! Plantation along Rivers: part of the Namami Gange Policy (NAP); Joint Forest Management; National
Mission Afforestation Programme

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Data on Disability

India’s population with disabilities has increased by


22.4 per cent between 2001 and 2011. The number of
disabled, which was 2.19 crore in 2001, rose in 2011
to 2.68 crore—1.5 crore males and 1.18 crore females.
The growth rate of disabled population is more in
urban areas and among urban females. The decadal
growth in urban areas is 48.2 per cent and 55 per cent
among urban females. Among scheduled castes, it is

7
2.45 per cent. (Census 2011).
Among males, the prevalence of disability (2.37
per cent) was significantly higher than that among
females (1.87 per cent). The prevalence rate among
SC population (2.23 per cent) was marginally higher
as compared to the general population; while among

Differently ST population, it was noticeably lower (1.92 per cent).


From 21.9 million in 2001, it has gone up to 26.8
million in 10 years — 2.13 per cent to 2.21 per cent

Abled The latest Census figures on disabilities have


shown only a marginal increase in the number of
differentlyabled people in the country with the figure
Disability is now being accepted as a curable medical
condition. The disabled are no longer expected to be rising from 21.9 million in 2001 to 26.8 million in 10
treated as outcasts of society. Science and innovation has years. In percentage terms, it has risen from 2.13 per
provided tools to supplement their disabilities. Braille, cent to 2.21 per cent, as per the Census 2011 figures
Jaipur foot are some examples which have bettered released by the Registrar General of India.
the lives of the physically disabled. Mentally challenged
have also benefitted with greater recognition and There are 14.9 million men with disabilities as
responsiveness about their needs in the society. compared to 11.8 million women in the country with
Information and communication technology has the total number of disabled people over 18 million
empowered the differently abled to participate actively in the rural areas and just 8.1 million enumerated in
in nation building. There has been a spurt in efforts to the urban settings.
provide greater accessibility for differently abled to provide
them a barrier free environment and enable them to live
The percentage of men with disabilities is 2.41 as
independently. Accessible India Campaign is the product against 2.01 in women. Employment rates of persons
of government’s vision to have an inclusive society in with disability vary with geographical location (urban
which equal opportunities and access is provided for or rural), gender, education, and type of disability.
growth and development of persons with disabilities to
lead productive, safe and dignified lives. According to 2011 Census of India, 68 per cent of
India lives in rural areas. Therefore, in the overall
population, the number of disabled is proportionately
higher in rural areas, accentuated by general poverty
This topic is relevant this year considerations and poor access to health services.
as government has taken many The rural disabled are significantly disconnected
initiatives related to it. Further from skills and markets. Literary levels are low, with
the Census of India estimating that 51 per cent of
the drive for inclusive growth
persons with disability are not literate; 26 per cent
requires inclusion of disables in reach up to the primary level; 6 per cent middle level
process of development. Thus the and only 13 per cent secondary level and above.
illustrations and case studies can The Government of India has made some important
be used in the answer to enrich it. decisions which will be very beneficial in the long run
for Financial Inclusion and overall welfare of the PwD’s
through Department of Empowerment of PwD’s.

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 29


Differently Abled

!! Inclusion of PwD’s in Priority Sector Lending by The Index aims at assessing the current stage of
Banks under 10 per cent weaker section Target. inclusiveness and accessibility of persons with
!! Introduction of Swavlamban Health Scheme for disabilities by an organization. It can also act as a
PwD’s at little over Rs 350 per year. guide for taking progressive steps to increase support,
inclusiveness and accessibility towards persons /
!! Pre metric & Post-metric Scholarship for PwD’s. employees with disabilities.
!! Scholarship for top class higher education to It will help organizations to fully utilize diverse
students with disabilities. talent pool, reduce employee turnover, increasing
!! Launch of Accessible India Campaign. employee loyalty, morale and productivity in the
organization, resulting in creating a positive brand
!! Launch of National Action Plan for Skill Training of image and expanding customer base through new
PwD’s products and services.

Concept of Accessibility Strategies for social


in international scenario inclusion of Disables

At the global level, the United Nations Standard Rules It must be carefully planned, provided with adequate
on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons resources and implemented with vision:
with Disabilities (1983)1 provides a normative and 1. Sensitization/Awareness programmes for different
substantive guidance on environmental accessibility stakeholders about different types of disabilities,
in Rule 5 (Accessibility). their needs, their capabilities.
The more recent Convention on the Rights of Persons
2. In service training for different stakeholders
with Disabilities (CRPD)2 addresses accessibility as a
including medical professionals, teachers, civil
General Principle and as a specific Article.
servants, lawyers, employers, employment
As a General Principle, it requires that all articles officers, local community leaders, to increase the
of the convention, when implemented, must take knowledge about disability, to develop skills while
cognizance of accessibility. working with them and to change their attitudes
As a specific article - Article 9 on ‘Accessibility’, it must towards disability and people with disabilities.
be read along with Article 21 ‘Freedom of expression 3. Need to focus on strength, perspectives and
and opinion, and access to information’, Article 20 abilities of people with disabilities and encourage
‘Personal mobility’ to get a complete understanding them to empower themselves.
of accessibility requirements. Article 4 ‘General
Obligations’ of the convention provides direction to 4. Need to make compulsory, course on disability
the States on providing accessibility to all its citizens and pedagogy of teaching for children having
with disabilities and puts forth the idea of ‘progressive different types of disabilities to B. Ed and M.Ed.
realization’ of accessibility. teachers training curriculum
At the regional level, the Asian and Pacific Decade 5. The people with disabilities must have access to
for Persons with Disabilities (2013-2022) in Goal 3 opportunities to contribute to the society supported
focuses on accessibility of physical environment, by both specialist and mainstream policy which will
public transport, knowledge, information and help them to be a part of social inclusion as society
communication. India having adopted the declaration will believe in their capabilities.
has launched the Accessible India Campaign (AIC) to
6. People with disabilities’ needs should be actively
achieve this goal.
incorporated early on within all mainstream policy
Accessibility Index design and delivery, alongside other citizens.
The Accessibility and Inclusiveness Index toolkit has 7. People with disabilities’ experience of government
been created under the Accessible India Campaign support and services needs to change. There is a
to assess and benchmark the systems and processes need to develop adequate dialogue between them.
of various organizations for their accessibility and 8. Need to adopt universal design for barrier free and
inclusivity. inclusive environment.

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System(GPS) and made still better when added


ICT as an aid to with data enabled mobile functions which can
Disability keep the user connected to internet on the go
and also give better location data using mobile
towers(known as A-GPS or Assisted GPS).
Any adaptive device or service that increases
participation, achievement or independence for a !! Video magnifiers enable people with Albinism
to enjoy the activities of work, school, and their
student with a disability may be considered as an
personal lives. By adjusting the contrast on the
assistive technology (AT).
video, magnifier users can use a magnified view
!! Cane: Using ICT devices like a humble cane, has without discomfort or fatigue and bridge the gap.
supported people with high level of vision loss or
!! Programmable implants of various sizes can be
complete blindness to avoid obstacles and pitfalls.
customized and used to aid weakened or damaged
Using new technology such as bat echolocation,
ocular muscles due to age, deficiency, conditions,
signals using ultrasonic technology with computer disease or damage. They can be programmed to
processing prowess can auto-detect obstacles in help control vision ‘naturally’. In case of damages or
advance in different planes, giving new meaning malformed optic nerves, electrodes and implants
to echolocation. The user can be alerted using can be used to send signals through nerves or
vibration signals, haptic signals or sound alarms. brain directly. Electrodes can be inserted or just
!! Navigation Devices: Navigation, context-aware epidermal connected to get and receive signals
computing can read and analyze contextual and correct vision.
information, for example, about location and !! Advanced Braille is also being developed, where
personal preferences which can be embedded into not only speed reading is possible, but it is no
user-computer interactions and these facilities longer necessary to buy expensive braille printer
and capabilities could be used to assist the visually but using intelligent material coupled with existing
impaired traveller on a long distance journey. technology any book, reading material, etc. can
Keeping the user aware about his surroundings. be directly changed to braille where the surface
the Navigation technology gets a great leap in changes its shape to make braille engravings
function when it is coupled with Global Positioning which can be felt by the user and read.

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 31


education

Gender Discourse in
Education

Many consider that the problem of universal


elementary education in India is essentially a problem
of girls’ education. Though positive change is visible
in recent years in terms of decreasing gender gap
in school enrolment across all states, are we doing
enough with respect to education of girls?
Several factors seem to be impeding the education
of girls. Girls are doubly affected by the absence of
effective early childhood education programmes as
they are invariably burdened with the responsibility
of caring for the younger siblings. Distance norms
for opening middle schools work against the
interest of girls as often they are not allowed to go

8
out of the village for schooling. Further, provision
of basic infrastructure and women teachers in the
school could considerably influence the situation as
indicated by recent efforts through various primary
education projects.

Education
When a girl drops out of the school, many events
precede shaping the course of action – some located
in the family, some located in the community and the
peer group, and many located in the school where
After Independence, the policy makers worked hard to the girl is supposed to be studying.
transform the elitist system of education created by the
British into a mass based system, built on principles of Support to the girl child will have to flow following
equality and social justice. Right to Education was made the life of the girl children over a sustained period
a fundamental right with the formulation of the Right to of time and transforming the events that surround
Education in 2009 and a National Education Policy was their lives. Several programmes have been launched
also announced. Subsequently, policy makers tried to
universalize education through measures like the Sarva
including the more recent ‘beti bachao, beti padhao’
Siksha Abhiyan and Mid Day Meal scheme. programme. Yet it is necessary to formulate a more
comprehensive policy for girls education that goes
Still there have been challenges and shortcomings in this
journey too. Access to education is still a dream for many,
beyond the school years and shift the focus from
especially in the remote and rural areas where there are mere parity to gender equality. The policy should also
no school buildings or even possibility of reaching the address the needs of reorienting the youth in order
school during rain or snow. to socially impact their attitudes as they grow.

Education is an important topic Advent of Massive Open


in UPSC, questions on it are Online Courses
usually asked in governance,
social issues, etc. Even essays too The advent of Massive Open Online Courses, known
are related to this topic. commonly as MOOC has seen great interest in its
scalability and reach. Initiative by the University Grants
Thus the examples, illustrations Commission (UGC), known as e-PG pathshala focuses
on developing courses at the post graduate level in a
and case studies on it can be very large number of disciplines and subjects.
used at diverse places. MOOCs have the potential to address a looming
scarcity of teachers at all levels of education. They

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also have the potential of addressing a severe quality in the 21st century identified seven tensions that
problem at the school level. Typically teachers at the human beings are facing at present:
school level undergo in service teacher training, which !! Global and the local;
thanks to the numbers involved are delivered in a
cascade model. An expert trains a set of key resource !! Universal and the individual;
persons, who in turn, train other resource persons, !! Tradition and modernity;
who then train the teachers. Due to the inability of
!! Long term and short-term considerations;
the system to provide uniform resources at each of
these levels leads to quality losses. Also, the large !! Competition and equality of opportunity;
numbers of teachers involved means not all of them !! Knowledge explosion and capacity to assimilate;
can be covered for all content and frequently enough. and
The availability of the courses online or digitally has
the potential of overcoming these constraints. !! Spiritual and material;
The consequences of these tensions are now not only
obvious to one and all on the planet earth, this calls
Model of National Digital for immediate corrective initiatives in several areas.
Library Nelson Mandela articulated it very comprehensively:
“education is the most powerful weapon which you
The overall model of NDL has been conceptualized can use to change the world”. Towards that education
over digital repository systems in a 3-tiered must bring the best out of ‘body, mind and spirit’.
mannerwhere services are added in each tier. Total personality development requires initiatives at
the level of family, community and education to pave
The bottom-tier (Digital Repository or DR) will cater
the path of growing up through thought, action and
to basic Authoring and Acquisition Services through deed.
content creation and borrowing.
India needs to acknowledge that unless it presents a
The middle-tier (Digital Library or DL) will provide model of valuebased society in action, its dream of
Dissemination Services through content search and leading the world in spirituality shall remain a distant
access. dream.
Finally, the top-tier (National Digital Library or NDL)
will support a number of value-added services like
Learning, Personalization, and Localization whose Skill or Education, which
combination would provide a set of rich experiences is important?
to the user.
These will include Experience-based Learning, Multi-
Perhaps, the most fundamental element of how
lingual Content Browse & Search, and Multi-faceted
we perceive education lies in the distinction often
Interface. NDL tier will also support Open services
made in academic and policy discourse between the
through which others will be able to build new
“instrumental” and the “intrinsic” value of education.
extensions to it in future – a Mobile App for NDL
The former refers to education as a means to improve
being an immediate possibility. opportunities for social and economic mobility
The philosophy of NDL is inclusive and open – inclusive measured largely in terms of employment and income
of all levels of users of all kinds, all areas, all languages, growth, whereas the latter refers to improvement in
all domains, all sources, and all types of contents. the quality of life of an individual going far beyond the
It is envisaged to be open in terms of usage. The quantifiable benefits that education provides. While
infrastructure and metadata of NDL will be open for all there is little argument over both being important,
kinds of research, development, and extension except for recent years have seen far too much attention paid
copyright restrictions on full-text wherever applicable. to the instrumental values, especially for the poor
who tend to swell the ranks of government schools,
and much less attention to the intrinsic values. In the
Value Education current context, this trend has taken the shape of
a focus on skill development as the driving force in
school education. This thrust derives unfortunately
The widely known Delores Commission Report from the objective of preparing the young for the
(UNESCO, 1996) that presented a vision of education

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education

labour market, as quickly as possible, and not from teaching and learning employed in teacher education
the objective of providing an opportunity to realize may contradict that commitment and the teacher
their full potential as individuals. Acquiring skills early trainers may remain unconvinced. In many teacher
in one’s educational life, as is being proposed, not education courses, inclusion is considered as an add-
only takes away the opportunity to learn and grow, on module, usually associated with learners with
it also runs the danger of condemning the individual impairments or those categorised as having ‘special
to a life of low-wage employment, based on skill educational needs’, rather than permeating the
development and not education. Acquiring skills for approach to education in all courses for all students.
the job market is thus, a narrow and parochial view of Thus, issues of gender, ethnicity, language differences
education serving the short term interests of a few.
etc are silently brushed aside. There is a need for
In addition, it ignores the fact that even to acquire
urgent reflection and introspection of both general
skills, a basic level of education is necessary. With the
and special education courses in order to pave the
elementary education sector still miles away from
delivering the goal of universalization, the focus on way for a dynamic ‘inclusive education course’ that
skills can thus, serve to distract from the primary goal meets the challenge of the day.
of quality school education for all. Educating students in an inclusive setting, therefore,
This is not to deny that “skills” have no place in the life will succeed, when it is pedagogically equitable and
of a child or in a school curriculum. They do – but they when the focus is on the inclusion of all learners to
are of a different nature and play a different role. “Life- be taught using diverse ways of learning: education
skills”, for instance, have emerged as a crucial element delivered through a format of questioning, research,
in the learning grid of children. Other non-academic cooperative learning, individualised expectations,
or non-cognitive skills too have an important role to and critical thinking – all generally captured under
play in the educational development of children. The the term “best practices.” Every child in school should
problem emerges when policy advocates life skills be provided with equitable access to curriculum,
for some and vocational skills for others, especially at textbooks and teaching learning material in the form
the level of school education. In so doing, it not just best suited to his/her learning needs.
contravenes the constitutional objective of equality
of opportunity, widely interpreted in educational
terms, but does not serve the long term objectives of
the economy either. Concept of University-
Associated Research
Teacher Capacity Parks
Building
An important component of the eco-system to
make India a nation which design, develops, owns,
The development of inclusive education not only
entails a constant change in teachers’ values, manufactures and commercialise products, will be
attitudes, professional expertise and knowledge, University-associated Research Parks (RPs). These
but also on those responsible for their training and RPs could take the industry-academia interaction
support. To deal with this ‘sea-change of change’, a to a new height. Located adjacent (within cycling
continuous and coherent programme of professional distance) of an academic institute, the Park is to invite
development is needed for all educational personnel. industries to set their R&D there and drive the R&D
Since the teacher will be primarily responsible for in collaboration with the institute’s faculty, staff and
bringing about this radical change, in practice, it is students.
vital that careful planning is undertaken to provide Such Parks have played an important role in
the required capacity building and make inclusive strengthening industry-academia interactions
education a reality.
in Europe and in USA. They also house the newly
Although educators may profess a more learner incubated companies, which contributes to make the
centred approach to education, the methods of Park as an innovation hub.

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Social determinants of
Health
The social determinants of health range beyond
income and education to include water, sanitation,
nutrition, environment, gender, social stability
and social status. Policies in agriculture and food
systems as well as urban design and transport too
profoundly affect health. So does the lack of energy
security, especially in India where many women and
children are badly affected by indoor air pollution
from burning of solid biofuels like wood and dung.

9
Many of these relationships were delineated by the
WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health
(2005), which recommended that health equity
gaps must be bridged within a generation, through
determined action on the social determinants of
health so that conditions conducive to health are

Health
created in all societies. Merely providing equality of
opportunity to access health services is not enough,
if social deprivation has already created a large lag
in health status and limits real and ready access to
A population with major health problems cannot become
part of the Nation’s growth process. On the other hand, health services. As British economist Tawney pointed
a nation beset by health problems can have a retarding out in his seminal book Equality, over 80 years ago,
effect on the country’s development goals. people need “not just an open road, but also an equal
Financing of health care is one of the key factors in start” in a society that promises social justice.
delivery of health care. Total health care expenditure in
India is about 4 per cent of GDP and the government does
run a large public health care services system. However, Health for All
a large proportion of the population is forced to look for
health care outside the system. Health care has become
one of the most expensive services for a person belonging
The constitution of World Health organization (WHO)
to middle and lower classes. So, while the government is, mentions ‘that health, well-being, standard of living,
of course, continuing its effort to improve the primacy medical care, right to security in case of sickness
health care services, it should not ignore the large private as well as special care and assistance for mothers
sector. and children are quite significant and notable in
A Nation with a healthy population is more capable of the context of HFA. In addition, Article 3 of UDHR
contributing to and achieving its development goals and clearly provides that everyone has ‘the right to life,
making India vivid and vibrant.
liberty and security of person’. Obviously, right to life
includes right to food and health (as interpreted by
Supreme Court of India). The Alma Ata declaration
Health is an important topic in in 1978 was thus, in consonance with UDHR and
UPSC, questions on it are usually WHO’s constitution. In fact, at Alma Ata (now Almati
asked in governance, social in Kazakistan) International Conference on ‘primary
health care’ expressed the need for ‘urgent action by
issues, etc. Even essays too are all governments, all health and development workers,
related to this topic. and the world community to protect and promote
the health for all the people of the world’.
Thus the examples, illustrations
and case studies on it can be
Concept of Universal
used at diverse places.
Health Coverage

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 35


Health

per packet. One member packs about 150 – 200


packets in 4-5 hours everyday. With a profit margin
of over 10 per cent, ICDS rations are making an
important contribution in improving the viability
and sustainability of federations while at the same
time, ensuring clean and nutritious supply to ICDS.
Federations are paying farmers Rs.10 to Rs. 15 per kg
for Mandua, against Rs.5 to Rs.8 per kg earlier. With this
opportunity, farmers are now much more interested
in growing traditional crops, and there has been a big
increase in demand for millet seeds. Finally, the work of
processing and packaging creates paid employment
for federation members. In 2014-15, a formal MoU was
signed between ICDS and the women’s federations
UHC has three dimensions – population coverage, and a business of INR 25.30 million was done with the
health services coverage and financial protection profit of INR 2.3 million. From April 2014 to December
coverage– and is often represented by a cube, 2014, federations directly benefitted nearly 7,500
referred as ‘UHC Cube’ or ‘UHC coverage box’. pregnant/ lactating women and 22,430 children. This
initiative is being implemented under the Integrated
The ‘inside cube’ reflects the existing status in the
Livelihood Support Programme of the Government
countries, where only a proportion of the population
of Uttarakhand.
has access to health services, only a few services are
available and not all who receive services can afford
the cost. The ‘outer cube’ is the aspirational goal for Health in Tribal Areas
the countries, as defined by UHC, and proposes that
all countries should strive to fill the box by extending
coverage of quality services with affordable cost. The Scheduled Tribes (ST) constituted 8.6 per cent of
Interestingly, as the services provided leads to the total population of India in 2011, amounting to
improved health outcomes, which in turn leads to about 10 crore in absolute number.
a change in disease pattern in the countries, and The mortality indicators of ST population have
availability of newer technologies would affect service certainly improved during the past decades. However,
need and utilization. Thus, there would always be a these are significantly worse thanoff the general
need for addressing the changing epidemiological population. A comparison on a few child mortality
realities and there would always be some gap in indicators is as follows: IMR – 62; Under Five Year Child
inner and outer boxes. These are some of the reasons Mortality Rate – 96.
that UHC is considered a ‘journey’ rather than a The nutritional status of ST children as well as of
‘destination’. UHC is a dynamic process and the idea adults reveals a sad picture:
is to make an attempt to fill the ‘UHC coverage box’ as
much as possible. Experience from the countries has !! 53 per cent boys and 50 per cent girls in pre-school
shown that it takes 10-15 years to make reasonable age were underweight, and 57 per cent boys and
progress in this direction and UHC is not possible in a 52 per cent girls were stunted in height.
year or two. While UHC is the aim, the health system !! 49.0 per cent of ST women had a body mass
reforms and strengthening are foundation and tools, index less than 18.5 indicating chronic energy
on which progress in the direction of UHC could be deficiency.
made.
!! Dietary intake of tribal households showed large
deficiencies in protein, energy, fats, iron, vitamin
State level innovation for A and riboflavin.
handling malnutrition The diseases prevalent in tribal areas can be broadly
classified into following categories.
In three districts of Uttarakhand, women’s federations
A. The diseases of underdevelopment (malnutrition
are supplying Mandua (Finger Millet), and other
, communicable diseases, maternal and child
traditional cereals and pulses in the form of Take
health problems),
Home Rations for ICDS. They do grading, sorting
and packaging for which federation pays them Rs.1 B. Disease atypically common in ST population

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(Sickle cell disease, animal bites, accidents) and 3. Social determinants of health – literacy, income,
water, sanitation, fuel, food security and
C. Diseases of modernity (Hypertension, addiction,
dietary diversity, gender sensitivity, transport
mental stress).
and connectivity – play a very important role
in determining the health outcomes. Hence,
How to Redesign ?
intersectoral coordination for improvement in
1. The first principle of any policy or program for other sectors is as important, if not more, as
tribal people is the participation. Tribal people health care.
as a population segment are not politically very
4. Empowerment of the ST population is another
vocal. However, they have different geographical, cardinal principle. Building their capabilities to
social, economic and cultural environments, care for their health is the long term solution for
different kind of health cultures and health care superior to a perpetual dependence.
needs. Hence, their views and priorities must get
5. To bridge the scientific knowledge gap of
due place in any health care program meant for
centuries, health care for scheduled areas should
them.
give paramount importance to spreading ‘health
2. In view of the enormous diversity among nearly literacy’ by way of mass educational methods,
700 tribes in India, the second principle to be folk media, modern media and school curriculum.
followed, is of the area specific and tribe sensitive Enormous scope exists for communication in
local planning. The PESA provides an institutional local dialects and for the use of technology.
basis for this. Local tribal health assemblies, 6. Traditional healers and Dais play an important
district level tribal health councils and, at the role in the indigenous health care. Instead of
state level, Tribes Advisory Councils can be the alienating or rejecting them, a sensitive way of
institutional mechanisms which when created including them or getting their cooperation in
and made operational will allow local planning. the health care must be explored.

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sanitation

Sanitation status in India


Poor sanitation has been linked to a number of
economic and social issues. According to the Water
and Sanitation Programme Report, inadequate
sanitation resulted in a loss of 53.8 billion US Dollars
accounting for 6.4 per cent of India’s gross domestic
product (GDP) in 2006. Nearly 72 per cent of this
impact was attributed to health related causes. The
social consequences of poor sanitation have not been
adequately investigated. Most of the evidence on
the social consequence of poor sanitary conditions
appears to be poorly documented and inadequately
explored.

10
In India, nearly 650 million people lack toilet facilities.
Efforts toward addressing this massive problem
of sanitation appear to be bi-pronged involving
both the government and the Non-Governmental
Organizations. The government programmes have
focused mainly on community campaigns. The main
goal of this is to eliminate open defecation by 2017

Sanitation through peer pressure and to reward communities,


which achieve ‘open defecation free‘ status. The
current government has initiated a ‘Mahatma Gandhi
Sanitation generally refers to principles, practices, Clean India Programme’, to clean up nearly 1000
provisions, or services related to cleanliness and hygiene in towns and to put an end to the practice of manual
personal and public life for the protection and promotion scavenging. The success of this program and in
of human health and well being and breaking the cycle particular, its sustainability is likely to depend upon
of disease or illness. It is also related to the principles and
practices relating to the collection, treatment, removal or
its coherence with the social structural forces, which
disposal of human excreta, household waste water and drive poor sanitary conditions. The purpose of this
other pollutants. The World Health Organization states study is to explore the factors related to sanitation
that: Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities levels among Indian households.
and services for the safe disposal of human urine and
feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease
world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a Concepts of Income
significant beneficial impact on health both in households
and across communities. The word ‘sanitation’ also refers to
Inequality
the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services
such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. Income Equality: Measures the distribution of
income across households or individuals in an
economy. This is usually measured using the Gini
As the government is Coefficient of Inequality ranging from zero to 1. 0
indicates complete equality and 1 indicates complete
emphasizing on the sanitation inequality.
under different aspects, each
Two conceptions of inequality:
ministry has initiated efforts for
sanitation, thus illustrations and !! Household Income Distribution: This is the
distribution of income across households within
case studies related to sanitation the economy. It can be further decomposed into:
are important. This will help in  Primary Income Distribution: The distribution
enrichment of the answers. of the household incomes consisting of the
different factor incomes in each household
before taxes and subsidies, as determined by

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markets and market institutions


 Secondary Income Distribution: The
Integration of informal
distribution of household incomes after waste pickers
deduction of taxes and inclusion of transfer (case study)
payments
 Tertiary Income Distribution: The distribution SWaCH is a wholly owned autonomous cooperative
of household incomes when imputed benefits of self employed waste pickers and other urban poor
from public expenditure are added to that came into existence in 2007, with the support of
household incomes after taxes and subsidies. the Kagad Kach Patra Kashtakari Panchayat and the
Pune Municipal Corporation. 2300 members of SWaCH
!! Functional Income Distribution: This is the recover user fees and service about 4 lakh households
distribution of income between different factors (including 28000 slum households) for daily door to
of production such as land, labour and capital. It is door waste collection. While the minimum user fee
typically measured as the share of wages or profits is prescribed, it is periodically revised by mutual
in national income. agreements between the service provider and the
service users. The worker also retains the right to the
The drivers of factor inequalities can be characterized earnings from the sale of recyclable materials. Each
broadly into two categories- exogenous (attributed SWaCH member contributes 5 per cent of the earnings
to globalization) and endogenous (resulting from to the cooperative. The Pune Municipal Corporation
domestic policies). The degrees of trade openness, and SWaCH, had a Memorandum of Understanding
financial market liberalization (capital openness) and between 2008 and 2013. As per the terms of the
technical change have been identified as the broad MoU, the PMC was to provide office space; uniforms,
exogenous drivers of factor inequalities. Additionally, raincoats, footwear and safety gear; collection
monetary, exchange rate and fiscal policies act as equipment (push carts and buckets); recycling sheds
for waste categorisation; subsidy for collection from
the endogenous drivers of such inequalities through
slums; welfare benefits and operational costs of
affecting growth, investment and employment
supervision, training and citizen outreach to SWaCH.
adversely. According to the MoU, over a period of five years, the
PMC was to spend Rs.206 per h ousehold by way of
Urban poverty and operational costs to SWaCH, against which it actually
spent only Rs.98 per household. The MoU is currently
Sanitation in the renewal process with revision of some of the
terms and conditions, based upon the experience of
To elucidate the issue of sanitation in urban slums, the first five years.
Tiruchirappalli in Tamil Nadu is a good example of
how city authorities, communities and NGOs worked Gender concerns in
together in partnership to address the problem of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
sanitation in the city. The urban slum dwellers of the
city brought in the model of community managed
The inextricable link between access to safe and
toilets with bathing and washing facilities. (WaterAid
hygienic sanitation services and the well-being and
India, 2008). This was mainly due to receptive city
safety of women, has been well recognized, in both
authorities, communities and NGOs working together. the policy and public discourse. Women, more than
It was found out that achieving clean and healthy men have to bear the brunt of the lack of toilets and
slums did not require huge financial investment. other sanitation facilities.
Rather, it required a city authority receptive to the
It is well recognised that women lacking access to
problems faced by slum communities and supportive toilets and using open spaces, often wait till dark
of community action, dedication of communities and drink less water or modify their diet, which
and their support to NGOs. Since the community has adverse health implications. Moreover, it also
managed their own toilets, it led to empowerment increases their vulnerabilities to various forms of
of women with many positive impacts in terms of violence. Sanitation programmes, therefore must
personal and community development. focus not only on constructing household toilets, but

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 39


sanitation

also on safe and hygienic sanitation services through remained ineffective, limiting the scope for women
community sanitary complexes. to participate in decision-making processes in
Although the unit costs for CSCs under the newly sanitation programmes.
proposed programme have been enhanced to
Rs 6 lakh, the conditionalities attached to their How ‘safe’ are the toilets?
construction, as were laid down in NBA, have been
retained. The construction of CSCs being contingent
on a mandatory 10 per cent community contribution Women’s access to toilets is often hindered as and
could prove to be a hurdle in achieving the goals when women’s safety is threatened by factors such
of this mission in the long run. Additionally, a large as poor/ faulty design of the cubicles (open roofs
proportion of CSCs that have been constructed are where men can peek in); poor maintenance (broken
not in use owing to poor maintenance and lack of latches and doors); inadequate lighting (women find
water supply. it difficult to get back home in the dark and fear it is
It is important to include measures to convert easier for men to attack them in the CTC compound
defunct CSCs functional under the programme. While at night), men and boys loitering around the toilet
programmes on sanitation have clearly recognized complexes and absence of female attendants at the
the importance of toilets from a gender perspective, CTCs.
the need to provide enclosed and safe bathing While all these factors hinder women’s unrestricted
spaces for women has not found recognition in the toilet access, the predominant reason why the
policies and programmes. Government schemes on
public toilet or the open field is seen as ‘unsafe’ is
sanitation do not make provisions for construction
often associated with the rising number of cases of
of bathing spaces within homes, which is critical to
sexual harassment in public toilets and during open
ensure privacy and safety of women.Lack of enclosed
bathing spaces compromises the privacy of women defecation. Dasra published an extensive study in
and increases their vulnerabilities to various forms 2012 which states that approximately 30 per cent of
of violence, while also adversely impacting their women from the underprivileged section of Indian
hygiene, health and well-being. society experience violent sexual assaults every year
because of lack of sanitation facilities which compel
The designs of toilets, especially in schools,
them to travel in search of secluded spots or public
Anganwadis and CSCs must factor in the different
facilities to meet their bodily needs.
needs of women, including pregnant women, women
with disabilities and elderly women. It is hoped that Women having internalized the value of sexual safety
the guidelines of SBA would recognise and address seem to pay less attention to other ways they may risk
this concern. their physical safety. Choosing to monitor their fluid
Moreover, mechanisms for participation of women and food intake, avoiding the visit to the toilet after
in the planning and implementation of the evening, restricting themselves to one visit a day,
programme need strengthening. The experience they prioritize their sexual safety over their physical
of implementation of NBA shows that village water safety while the latter may cause greater damage to
and sanitation committees have by and large, their bodily systems.

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Pradhan Mantri Kaushal


Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)

11
Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) is the
flagship outcome-based skill training scheme of
the Government of India implemented through the
National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) under
the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship.

Skill
The objective of this skill cerfication and reward
scheme is to enable and mobilize a large number of
Indian youth to take up outcome-based skill training

Development and become employable and earn their livelihood.


Under the scheme, monetary reward through direct
bank transfer would be provided to trainees who are
successfully trained, assessed and certified in skill
The Indian employers have been struggling with acute
shortage of skilled manpower despite India having the courses run by affliated training providers. PMKVY
largest pool of young population in the world. Reason: Lack will impart skill/training to 24 lakh persons. The
of required expertise for specific jobs. As per the Labour scheme will be implemented through the National
Bureau Report 2014, the current size of India’s formally Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).
skilled workforce is only 2 per cent. This apart, there is
also the challenge of employability of large sections of All trainings and cerfication under Recognition of Prior
the conventionally educated youth. The Indian education Learning will be specifically oriented for developing
system has been churning out brilliant minds but lacking skills in specific growth sectors. Assessment and
in the skill sets required for specific jobs. There is a huge
training bodies for all purposes of the Scheme will be
gap between the talent that is coming out of colleges
and universities and it’s suitability in terms of scope separate and no overlap of roles will be allowed to
and standard of employable skills. This crop of English maintain transparency and objectivity. The monetary
speaking population has the capability to meet the skill reward will be wholly funded by the Ministry of Skill
requirements of the nation as well as the entire world. The Development and Entrepreneurship, Government of
need is for appropriate and adequate skill development India and will be affected through bank transfer to
and training which can convert this force into the largest
source of technically skilled manpower.
the beneficiaries’ accounts.

The Skill India mission launched by the government aims


to provide a solution to this problem through creation India’s Jobs Enterprises-
of a job ready and skilled workforce by equipping it with
employable skills. The Mission aims to skill over 40 crore
Technology-Skills (JETS)
people by 2022 and enhance their employability by eco-system
training them in skill sets of their choice.

Principles for setting this ecosystem


Skilled human resource !! It cannot be designed like a supplychain or
at all levels is essential for assembly line for reasons explained. It must not
inclusive growth. Thus this be a system designed from the end requirements
working backwards. Rather, it must be designed
topic is important for the to enable young people to discover opportunities
broad dimensions as youth and jobs as they arise, and to be quickly able to
empowerment, unemployment, learn the skills that will be required.
unorganized sector, etc. !! The emphasis must be on making students better
learners. The thrust of teaching in universities,
As it covers a broad dimension, technical institutions, and schools must be to
the illustrations can be helpful in develop better learners, not merely good workers.
(Indeed, the thrust of livelihood generating
enrichment of mains answer. enterprises also, as we shall see in our example
later, must be primarily to foster a learning ability

GS SCORE Compilation of Illustrations & Case Studies from Yojana | 41


skill development

in enterprise creators and employment seekers.) enterprises cannot provide for themselves. Here
too, the principal must be that the employers
!! Employers must be an integral part of the skill
take responsibility for the quality of the skill
development process, not merely its customers.
development. Therefore, these common facilities
To survive in dynamic competition, employers
should be, as much as possible, run as cooperative
must keep re-shaping their enterprises along
ventures by the employers albeit with support
with the changing landscapes of their industries,
from the government.
which, as explained before, will happen even
faster than it already is. Therefore enterprises must
continuously change their processes and they Issues in Vocational
must keep changing the skills they expect their Courses &
employees to have. Since the changes will be fast,
the only place employees can hone and develop Recommendations
these new skills will be in the place of work itself
where the new processes and technologies are
Some of the important issues are listed below:
being introduced.
!! The vocational courses are terminal in nature
!! Competition will be increasing by ‘global’, i.e.
– there is lack of clear vertical mobility from
coming not just from other countries, but
certificate to diploma to degree courses in
from enterprises outside the present borders
vocational education. As a result, parents who do
of industries also. Only those enterprises (and
feel that their child has an inherent skill, do not
employers) will succeed who are able to learn and
influence him/her to take up a vocational career.
change themselves faster than other enterprises.
Thus, vocational courses are not pursued by ‘choice’
Therefore, enterprises must become faster and
and entrants to this stream are limited in number
better ‘learning enterprises’.
despite the demand for skilled manpower.
!! The only resource any enterprise has with the
!! Social acceptability -Vocational and skill
ability to learn and improve its own abilities
development courses are looked down upon and
is human beings. Human beings are the only
such students do not have acceptability in the
‘appreciating assets’ of an enterprise whose value
society as compared to other courses. It was found
can increase over time as they learn. The value of all
during our study that many of these students do
other resources of the enterprise—its machinery,
not have the choice to pursue undergraduate
materials, and buildings, will depreciate with time.
courses in the skills which they obtained. Not
Therefore, in a fast changing world, employers
having the option to obtain a degree, most
would do well to ‘humanize’ their enterprises, and
students drop out and get demotivated.
not only ‘digitize’ them with technology.
!! Lack of good infrastructure and poor quality of
!! The architecture of the JETS ecosystem will be a
courses – The infrastructure in most skill training
dynamic network, not a tight supply-chain. The
organizations or centers is of poor quality and
network will be formed by enterprises specializing
not upgraded. Hence, the gap between what the
in different activities to assist people to learn
industry desires and the machinery being used for
and keep learning as jobs and enterprises take
training becomes wide.
new emergent forms. There will be specialists in
content development, training support, teacher !! Poor quality of Trainers – the trainers who impart
development, for mentoring entrepreneurs, etc. the skill training are not up-to-date with the skills
They will compete with others providing the same required by the industry and hence the outcome
service: those amongst them who provide better of training is not as per desired quality. As such,
value will grow. Innovation must flourish within students who complete these courses also do not
the JETS ecosystem. find ready employment in the industry.
!! The government’s principal roles will be to !! Lack of initiative from the industry – the industry
protect ‘customer’ interests with standards especially the small and medium enterprises do
that enterprises must follow. It must regulate not emphasize on vocational certification or formal
competition and prevent established players training as this sometime increases the cost of
crowding out new entrants. The government manpower. At times, it is observed that such SMEs
may also provide ‘common’ facilities, for steps prefer to hire an untrained or semi trained worker
in the skill development process that smaller at a cheaper pay-out than a formally trained or

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skilled worker. a university will help more and more students to


enter the vocational stream.
!! Lack of standardization - Several Ministries offer
skill courses increasing the confusion amongst 2. Providing lateral mobility by giving equivalence to
students also resulting in lack of standardization. vocational students especially at +2 level so they
It is observed that the expansion of this sector and can pursue under graduate programs.
the various initiatives being taken are happening 3. Increasing role of industry in all aspects of
without considering all these and other major vocational training – providing latest machinery
issues facing this sector today. Furthermore, there for training, governance, providing trainers from
is no single comprehensive model addressing all industry and doing assessments to ensure quality
the concerns of this sector. at each stage.
Recommendations 4. Industry should emphasize on formal vocational
1. Creating a vertical mobility from certificate to training and certification at the time of hiring and
diploma to degree courses in the vocational for career advancement.
education sector. Providing options right from 5. Creating standard curricula and assessments across
school level up to PG level. Establishing a Skill various agencies offering vocational courses.
Development University to offer specialized degree 6. Formal training programs for vocational faculty and
programs which will provide advance skills. Since trainers so that they understand this pedagogy.
most students aspire for higher education, such

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skill development

such as full or partial subsidy based/revenue


Steps needed for based, residential and/or outreach training, long
developing Tribal Youths and short duration vocational courses and so on
to cater to the needs of different segments of
tribals and sectors of livelihoods.
Multi-pronged strategy is required to promote !! Collaboration with existing government ITIs and
skills among the youth. Following key strategies are private Vocational Training Institutions (VTIs)/
suggested for skill development of tribal youth – Vocational Training Providers (VTPs) for optimum
!! Awareness generation about vocational education utilization. The collaboration could be done for co-
and labour market among the tribal youth. In creating modules and co-offering the same while
addition, orientation and induction of tribal utilizing the existing infrastructure. Along with
youth on skill development and employability technical education, focus should be given on
through organizing awareness camps/sensitizing improving the soft and life skills (communication,
workshops/ achievement motivation trainings. attitudes, and behavioural aspects etc.).
This initiative needs to be started at high school !! Establishing new VTIs at block and cluster
level. levels in tribal areas under PPP model. External
!! Need to evolve various models of skill development accreditation and certification of the courses to

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be ensured through external agencies. !! Leveraging existing government schemes for


youth skill development and employability
!! Diversification in present courses in terms of
increasing options - green skills, grey skills and !! Sensitizing the industries and their associations
service sector skills in selecting trades based on and promoting interface between them and VTIs
demand of labour market and local economy. through creating Employment Exchange Forums
in tribal areas to provide employment to skilled
!! Building a resource pool of vocational trainers youth
who are sensitized to tribal culture and customs.
!! Assured post training job placement and
In addition, build a cadre of vocational trainers
handholding for establishing micro-enterprises
from within educated tribal youth who will be
so as to ensure greater employability of the tribal
more acceptable to tribal youth in the process of youth.
imparting skills.
The skill development programme of tribal youth
!! Use of ICT for vocational education and for support should include all four aspects of skill viz., Life skills,
for employment and self-employment that will Enterprise /Management development, Technical
help in wider outreach. skills and Practical training.

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women empowerment

Women Multiple’s Role


Renana Jhabvala in her study stated- “Women often
remain invisible and unrecognized as workers, both
because they are women and because work in the
informal economy is often hidden. The work and
contributions of women to the economy, as well
as in the family and community, are persistently
undervalued, particularly when women are home-
based workers, paid domestic or care workers, or
unpaid contributing workers in family businesses or
on family farms. Focusing on their role as workers
rather than homemakers or childcare providers serves

12
to underscore the fact that women are economic
agents who contribute to their households and the
economy and therefore should be considered a target
of economic as well as social policies.

Justice Verma Committee


Women Report and its impact

Empowerment
Here is a list of the 10 key recommendations put
forward by the Justice Verma Committee in its 630-
page report:

The extent of empowerment of women in the national


!! Make voyeurism, stalking and intentional
hierarchy is determined largely by the three factors – touching an offence
her economic, social and political identity and their Make voyeurism an offence punishable by a
weightage. These factors are deeply intertwined and
maximum jail term of three years - Make stalking
interlinked with many cross cutting linkages which imply
that if efforts in even one dimension remain absent or an offence punishable by a maximum jail term of
weak, outcomes and momentum generated by the other three years - Intentional touching, using obscene
components cannot be sustained as they will not be able language or gestures should be treated as a sexual
to weather any changes or upheavals. It is only when all assault offence.
the three factors are simultaneously addressed and made
compatible with each other can the woman being truly !! Amend rape laws
empowered. Rape of a minor should carry a minimum jail term
of 10 years - Gang rape should be defined in the
Indian Penal Code and be punishable by at least
Women empowerment topic is 20 years imprisonment - Death caused by rape
important for mains examination should carry a minimum penalty of 20 years in jail
- Make marital rape a criminal offence.
as its concept can be utilized
!! Review security laws in conflict zones
under Governace, Society, Ethics
Due to the number of reports of alleged sexual
and Essay.
offences committed by the armed forces in India’s
conflict areas such as Kashmir and the North East,
The examples, illustrations and the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) - a
case studies on such topic can controversial law that gives sweeping powers to
help in enrichment of the main and often confers immunity on security forces -
answer. must be reviewed - Security forces must be brought
under the purview of ordinary criminal law rather
than under army law - Special commissioners for

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women’s security must be deployed in all areas transparency in receiving donations and declaring
of conflict. Such commissioners will have powers whether parties had sanctioned people to run for
to monitor and take action in all cases of sexual elections who have criminal records.
violence against women by armed personnel -
!! Gender sensitisation through education
Introduce “Breach of command responsibility” -
making a senior officer of security forces or police The formal curriculum in Indian schools must be
liable to a jail term of at least seven years if his/her drastically revamped and sex education must be
subordinate commits rape. made an integral part of the curriculum.
!! Monitor illegal, patriarchal village councils !! Bill of rights
Put in place measures to monitor illegal village India should institute a “Bill of Rights” for women,
councils known as “Khap Panchayats” that sanction along the lines of similar bills in South Africa and
socalled “honour killings” and impose oppressive New Zealand. The bill would set out the rights
diktats such as banning girls and women from guaranteed to women, which would include the
using mobile phones, wearing western clothes or right to life, security, bodily integrity, democratic
venturing out unaccompanied and civil rights and equality.
!! Review medical examination of rape victims !! Human trafficking
Put in place medico-legal guidelines on how to Define the offence of trafficking in the Indian Penal
perform a medical examination of a victim of Code - Trafficking should be punishable with a jail
sexual assault - Scrap the so-called “two-finger” term of no less than seven years and may extend to
test - an outdated practice that examines the laxity life imprisonment - Employing a trafficked person,
of the vagina to determine whether the victim is for example as a domestic servant, should carry a
“habituated to sex”. jail term of no less than three years.
!! Police reforms
Institute a Police Complaints Authority at district Marital Rape
level to look into complaints against police
officers who do not register complaints of gender Rape is crime against society and independent of the
crimes. Police who fail to register complaints or relation that exists between the criminal and the victim.
abort an investigation should be punished. This Society cannot justify a crime if the same is done behind
will provide more police accountability, said the closed doors between a wife and a husband. A crime is
commission - All police stations should have CCTV a crime and if the wife chooses to bear the shame and
to ensure proper procedures are being followed pain under streets and pressure of her family, it does not
in handling, recording and filing complaints - remove the criminality of the act.
Provide appropriate technical equipment and
Women Empowerment is easier said than done. Mere
training to police to ensure the highest standards
realization or mere acceptance of forcing oneself for
of investigation of forensic evidence for sexual
physical gratification onto the other spouse is a not
assault crimes - Separate police investigating
a criminal offence in India though there has been
gender crimes from law and order police to
much debate on the issue. However, the same is civil
ensure speedier investigation, better expertise
misdemeanor under the Protection of Women in
and improved rapport with the public - Increase
the number of female police on patrol and on duty Domestic Violence Act to curb the inhuman atrocities
in police stations so that women feel comfortable faced by women. This progressive step under the
filing sexual assault complaints. protection of Women under Domestic Violence Act
helps you create awareness and may also curb this
!! Electoral reforms malpractice and provide women with a physical
Lawmakers who have been charged in a court of sense of comfort and confidence that the wife is
law with serious offences such as sexual offences not just a tool to satisfy the physical needs/ physical
or dowry crimes should be disqualified from aspects of married life, by force and threat, there shall
contesting elections - Sitting parliamentarians always be a consent, willingness to consummate
with criminal cases against them, including those from both the spouses. It tells the wife that she has a
of rape and other types of sexual assault, should choice. Marital Rape refers to unwanted intercourse
voluntarily vacate their seats - There should be a by a man with his wife obtained by force, threat of
code of conduct for political parties, instituting force, or physical violence, or when she is unable to

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women empowerment

give consent. Marital rape could be by the use of force large, without acting out from the stand point of
only, a battering rape or a sadistic/obsessive rape. responsibility and accountability. There is also a brute
It is a nonconsensual act of violent perversion by a force in patriarchy that overpowers women and those
husband against the wife where she is physically and men with lesser brute force. This brute force muscles
sexually abused. In the present day, studies indicate its way into an environment where the meeker lot
that between 10 per cent to 14 per cent of married submits. The malaise of crimes against women and
women are raped by their husbands: the incidents the attitude with which we handle the same, lies in
of marital rape soars to 1/3rd to ½ among clinical decayed power dynamics between the genders.
samples of battered women. Sexual assault by one’s
spouse accounts for approximately 25 per cent of
rapes committed. Women who became prime targets
Steps for women
for marital rape are those who attempt to flee. empowerment
Empowerment of women is not a one way process -
Violence against Women in which some activists can go and empower others.
It is a two way process in which we empower and get
The cultural genesis of crime against women is empowered. This is an ongoing journey for all of us.
found in a family’s value system. What reflects No one can become empowered for good and then
outside as patriarchy, is nursed within the family’s become an expert in empowering others.
core principles and a lineage of filial violence;
especially against women. In families which raise Women’s empowerment has to be multidimensional
patriarchal and misogynist men; women are taught and integrative. This process may include some or all
to be submissive, meek and subservient. Whereas, of the following:
these men are taught to be aggressive, to display !! Making women’s contribution to society visible;
ownership and sense of bullish entitlement towards i.e. showing that women, in addition to being
livelihood choices, general decision-making and deliverers of children and homemakers, are
creating a stifling pecking order within the family farmers, labourers, artisans, professionals, etc.
where people are only respected as humans, basis they have always been involved in production,
the subjective discretion of the patriarchy which and their contribution to GDP has always been
creates the hierarchy. The men in such families are major. They are producers of life itself, managers
taught that their masculinity is directly proportionate of natural resources etc.
to their display of violence in thoughts and actions.
When the father is violent towards the mother, the !! Making women and society recognize the
son will invariably be violent towards his wife. It would knowledge , capabilities and skills that women
take exceptional self-education and initiatives for have had and still have, particularly in areas of
selfsensitization for the son to not emulate his father. agriculture, health, handicrafts, etc.
There has been prevalence of a culture where parents !! Creating a social environment which gives women
boast of treating their daughters as they would treat self-esteem and self-confidence.
the sons. This strain of thought has patriarchal roots
because it implies that women are supposed to be !! Providing opportunities for girls and women to
discriminated against. Not doing so is a privilege realise their full potential and to have choices and
that is extended towards women by the family. It not to be pushed into only a few traditional roles
annihilates the concept of celebrating the feminine. and occupations. Giving them an education which
On the contrary, it breeds the machismo culture in empowers rather than domesticates.
mindsets of both the genders. !! Enabling women to take decisions about their own
The time has long come for us to change the lives; whether, when and whom to marry, whether
narrative. Feminism and women empowerment are and when to have children, whether and what to
misunderstood as ‘women’s issues”, when in fact, study. Also, to take decisions about family matters,
these are the actually the issues of men. The problem community and national affairs. Enhancing women’s
of gender inequality in India is the problem of male political participation at all levels.
culture which affects women and girls. The answer !! Facilitating awareness amongst women and men
to the question, “Why are men so violent?” lies in the about girls and women’s genuine needs, their
irresponsible handling of power equations. Patriarchy status within and outside the family, their rights
entails power over the other gender and society at and responsibilities.

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!! Making facilities and resources available to women !! Helping women gain access to and control
to meet their basic needs of food, clothing, shelter over means of production, property and other
and their special needs in health and security. resources and control over income.

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