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Water Financing Partnership Facility

RETA 6498: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADB’s Water Financing
Program

PILOT AND DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITY


Final Report

March 2017

VIE: Assesing the Applicability of


Nanotechnologies in Viet Nam’s
Water and Sanitation

The Pilot and Demonstration Activity Report is a document of the proposer. The views expressed herein do not
necessarily represent those of ADB’s Board of Directors, Management, or staff, and may be preliminary in
nature. In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of or
reference to a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not
intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.
Executive Summary

The coverage of water and sanitation in Vietnam is quite low and it needs huge
investment in order to increase the coverage to the level of developed country. The
scheduled investment from Vietnam government is still much less than the required
financing for achieving the national development strategy in water and sanitation
sector. The Asian Development Bank, along with many other international donors, is
helping Vietnam through a vast investment program, divided in several phases,
aiming to build more urban supply water plants and water distribution networks as
well as urban wastewater plants.
Nanotechnology during the last decade has been developing at very high rate. It has
a lot of applications across various economic sectors. Therefore, the question of
whether there is any common point between nanotechnology, which is very
complicated and advanced, and water sector, which is quite simple and basic, has
been raised. This project “Support Vietnam water and sanitation sector through the
potentiality of nanotechnology” bears the mission to answer that question,
especially in Vietnam whose need in water and sanitation is huge.
The project was carried out by the expert team of Expertise France during two and a
half months in Vietnam. The study covered the understanding of actual situation of
water and sanitation as well as the development of nanotechnology in Vietnam.
Then it was extended to answer the question if it was really worthy to invest, in
parallel with the construction of water treatment plants, a laboratory dedicated for
the applications of nanotechnology in water.
The work was performed by a series of field interviews of water and/or
nanotechnology-related stakeholders. In parallel, online survey was established in
order to acquire more answers from Vietnamese individuals. As a result, it was seen
that in Vietnam, the government was trying to switch the economy to be based on
the core of science and technology while the actual state of application of
nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment plants was very limited. Even
though, it was found that there was a huge potentiality for the applications of
nanotechnology in water and sanitation sector in Vietnam, especially for distributed
systems and for rural areas. In order to push the development of nanotechnology in
water, it is, without any hesitation, true that a dedicated laboratory for applications
of nanotechnology in water will be tremendously useful.
Even though, further studies must be addressed in order to clarify some actual
questions raising during the interview, such as, the governance structure of the new
research laboratory, its development approach and strategy, its scope of research
and impact on Vietnamese population, its functioning model, its privileged
nanotechnology to be developed so that Vietnamese people can benefit the most.
When these questions can be answered then the exact financing number for such a
laboratory will be figured out.

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Table of contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................... II
ABBREVIATION ........................................................................................................................................ V
1 BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 NANOTECHNOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................1
1.2 NANOTECHNOLOGY MARKET SEGMENTS ..............................................................................................2
1.3 WATER FLOW IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES ....................................................................................................3
1.4 WATER MARKET SEGMENTS ...................................................................................................................4
2 GLOBAL PICTURE AND CURRENT SITUATION IN VIETNAM............................................ 5
2.1 WORLDWIDE APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN WATER ......................................................5
2.1.1 Nanotechnology-enabled membranes for water purification .......................................... 7
2.1.2 Possible effects of nanotechnology in health and environment ....................................... 9
2.2 WATER IN VIETNAM ............................................................................................................................. 10
2.2.1 National strategy and regulations on water and sanitation ..........................................10
2.2.2 National picture on water and sanitation ...............................................................................11
2.2.3 Some concerns over water in Vietnam ......................................................................................12
2.3 DEVELOPMENT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN VIETNAM....................................................................... 15
2.3.1 National strategy and law on nanotechnology .....................................................................15
2.3.2 Prominent public organizations in the field of nanotechnology ...................................16
3 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN WATER AND SANITATION
SECTOR IN VIETNAM ........................................................................................................................... 17
3.1 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS ..................................................................................................................... 17
3.2 WATER FLOW ANALYSIS....................................................................................................................... 18
3.3 MARKET SEGMENT ANALYSIS .............................................................................................................. 18
3.4 FIELD WORK ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................... 19
3.4.1 Field work description .......................................................................................................................19
3.4.2 Potential needs and applications of nanotechnology in Vietnam .................................21
3.4.3 Nanotechnology-enabled products for water ........................................................................23
3.4.4 Expectation of nanotechnology-enabled products for water .........................................24
3.4.5 FABLAB dedicated for applications of nanotechnology in WWWT .............................25
4 BENCHMARK ................................................................................................................................. 26
4.1 BENCHMARK CRITERION ...................................................................................................................... 26
4.2 COMPARISON WITH OTHER COUNTRIES............................................................................................. 27
5 CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES ........................................................................................ 28
5.1 CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................................... 28
5.2 PERSPECTIVES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES ............................................................... 28
ANNEX 1: FIELD WORK SHORT PRESENTATION ..........................................................................A
ANNEX 2: FIELD WORK QUESTION SHEET ......................................................................................B
ANNEX 3: ONLINE SURVEY .................................................................................................................... C
ANNEX 4: NANOTECHNOLOGY - WATER RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT LNT – VNUHCM .... D
ANNEX 5: BINH HUNG HOA WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT PROCESS FLOW .......... E
ANNEX 6: SAIGON HIGH TECH PARK ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
PROCESS FLOW ......................................................................................................................................... F

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ANNEX 7: DALAT WATER SUPPLY PLANT PROCESS FLOW....................................................... G
ANNEX 8: BARRIER - A NANOTECHNOLOGY-ENABLED WATER FILTER ............................. H
ANNEX 9: ANSWERS TO THE ONLINE SURVEY QUESTIONS ....................................................... I

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Abbreviation

CAGR Compound Annual Growth Rate


CAPEX Capital expenditure
FO Forward Osmosis
MF Microfiltration
MOC Ministry of Construction
MOH Ministry of Health
MONRE Ministry of Natural resources and Environment
MOST Ministry of Science and Technology
Nano-Ag Silver Nanoparticles
Nano-TiO2 Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
NF Nanofiltration
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
R&D Research and Development
RO Reverse Osmosis
UF Ultrafiltration
VAST Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
VNU Vietnam National University Hanoi
VNUHCM Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City
WT Water Treatment
WWT Wastewater Treatment
WWWT Water and Wastewater Treatment

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1 Background
1.1 Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is one particular kind of technology that deals with objects whose
size varying from 0.1nm to 100nm. For a comparison, 1nm in length is 100.000
times smaller than the diameter of human hair. The concept of nanotechnology was
first raised by Richard Feynman, a famous physicist who earned Nobel prize for his
contribution in QED, in 1959 by his lecture named “There’s plenty of room at the
bottom”. Then the term “nanotechnology” was first introduced into scientific
community by a Japanese professor, Norio Taniguchi, in 1974. During the first
phase, the development of nanotechnology was hugely levered by the development
of semiconductor industry, especially by the “gold-rush” of reducing the size of field
effect transistors in micro-processors1. The second phase of development of
nanotechnology was the merging of many disciplines such as chemistry, physics,
biology, material science and computational science… The third phase of
nanotechnology, which is considered to be at the present time, is the
functionalization of each system composed by many smaller nanoscale
subcomponents. These systems could be connected together in order to make the
“Internet of Things”, which should be the ultimate target for nanoscience and
nanotechnology.

Figure 1: The merging of top down and bottom up approach in nanotechnology2.

In order to reach the small sized object, nanotechnology can be based on two typical
approaches: (i) top-down and (ii) bottom-up. The top-down approach, so called the
physical methods, intends to make small size from bigger size by using physical

1 The “gold-rush” is author’s terminology for the Moore’s law of doubling the number of transistors in a dense intergrated
circuit every 24 months
2 Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties, The Royal Society & The Royal Academy of Engineering,

July 2004

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ways such as grinding, chopping, cutting or “lithography”3. This approach needs
complicated equipments because of the required precision of its action. The bottom-
up approach, in contrast, so called chemical methods, relies on putting together
atoms and molecules for making big size object. The merging of these two
approaches, illustrated by Figure 1, is an excellent example of how nanotechnology
is disciplinary. The development of nanotechnology is chiefly originated by new
properties of matter when its size is reduced to nanometer scale. These new
properties can be the result of quantum effects at the nanoscale, which is also the
scale of quantum realm, or simply the result of high ratio between surface area and
volume of the matter. Nowadays, nanotechnology becomes more familiar with
people and has more impacts on human society.

1.2 Nanotechnology market segments


As nanotechnology is developed and has more impacts on human activities, the
market of nanotechnology becomes bigger and more important. The global market
of nanotechnology can be divided into three big segments: (i) nanomaterials, (ii)
nanotools and (iii) nanodevices. The term “nanomaterials” regroup all materials
which are small (nanoscale) in size or are structured in nanoscale (for example a
bulk solid matter with nano-sized pores). The “nanotools” segment regroups all
equipments dedicated for making nanomaterials. The last segment “nanodevices”
represents all devices in the nanoscale size. For a better understanding of these
terms, a device is a complex structure that requires the participation of more than
one kind material. One material can be single element or an alloy of several
elements.

(a) (b)
Figure 2: Global nanotechnology market segments (a) by types of nanotechnology
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and (b) by applications of nanotechnology

Figure 2 represents how big these three segments are (on the Figure 2 a) and how
they are used in specific applications (on the Figure 2 b). In global nanotechnology
market, the nanomaterials segment takes more than 74%, which is also the biggest

3Lithography is a complicated method concerning at least two steps of material processing inorder to have nanoscale
structred material. These two steps are : (i) making the material and (ii) shaping the material
4Nanotechnology: A Realistic Market Assessment, BCC Research, July 2010

2
segment. This illustrate that main application of nanotechnology comes from its
primary components, symbolically named nanomaterials. The “nanodevices”
segment, on other hand is much smaller, only 1%, of the market. It is small because
of the complexity of nanodevices, which are made by more than one type of
nanomaterials.

Figure 3: Growth of the global nanotechnology market4 above

In 2015, the global nanotechnology market is about $26B (illustrated by Figure 3),
increased from about $15B in 2010. This market is expected to reach about $64.2
billion by 2019, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.8% from 2014 to
20195. In comparison, the nanotechnology market is slightly smaller than one
twelfth of $337B which is the total sales of the global semiconductor market in
20156.

1.3 Water flow in human activities

5Nanotechnology: A Realistic Market Assessment, BCC Research, July 2014


6Global Billings Report History (3-month moving average) 1976 - March 2016, Semiconductor Industry Association

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Figure 4: Water flow in a modern human civilization7

Water is the origin of all living on earth and plays the primitive but most important
role in human activities. A strikingly distinguished example is that a human cannot
live after 3 days without water, but can live 3 weeks without food. For considering
the involvement of water in human society, it is likely that the flow of water should
be tracked. Figure 4 illustrates all of water flow in a modern human civilization
starting from natural water resources to natural water sink. For the sources, there
are three main types: (i) surface water, (ii) ground water and (iii) rain water. From
these sources, water is either treated or used directly for human activities. The
agriculture uses of water, according to a study of OECD, account for more than 70%
of all surface water supply8.The second type of water uses is for households, which
water must be treated in a good manner. Depending on the level development of
each society, the percentage of water after household uses is treated before putting
in the natural sink is high or low. High level of sanitation corresponds to high
percentage of treated wastewater after uses. In a modern city, a certain portion of
clean water is used for landscaping and for maintaining roads quality. This portion
of water goes often directly to the nature in the rain collection pipe network. The
last use of water in human society is for industrial activities. This water flow has
most impact on environment since the manufacture activities require many
dangerous and toxic substances, and because, by nature, all of the manufacture
activities are for business purposes not for environmental cares. Water for
industrial activities often goes through one or two level of correct treatment before
putting in the natural water sink. Having details and corrects number of volume
water flow in the map (showed by Figure 4) is crucial for all studies related to water
and sanitation including the investment strategy and optimization.

1.4 Water market segments


Air, water and food are metabolic requirement for survival in all living species
including humans. Water is still the most basic need in human society before any
other needs including energy. As a consequence, in human economic activities, the
water market is still the most traditional market. It includes three main activities: (i)
components supporting the treatment and the flow of water, (ii) construction of
pipeline network for water flow and (iii) exploitation of the invested infrastructure.
As long as there are human activities, the third part of the water market exists and
plays the crucial role for people. Figure 5 illustrates the global water market in
detail, divided by activities (components, construction and exploitation) and by
areas (municipality, industry or distributed). By combining these later, the global
water market can be regrouped in five principal segments:

1. Construction of municipal network: $90B

7 Specifically recompiled for this report from “Drops of Energy: Conserving Urban Water to Reduce Greenhouse Gas
Emissions”, Yuanchun Zhou, Bing Zhang, Haikun Wang, and Jun Bi, Environ. Sci. Technol., DOI: 10.1021/es304816h •
Publication Date (Web): 11 Jun 2013
8 Forstering nanotechnology to address global challenges : water, OECD 2011

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2. Construction of municipal water and wastewater treatment (WWWT) plant:
$43B
3. Components (including small systems) and industrial externalization: $47B
4. Distributed system (excluded bottled water of $90B): $19B
5. Municipal internalization: $170B

Municipality Industry
Water Waste Distributed
Water treatment Waste water Water systems
distribution water
treatment treatment
collection Desalination Fresh treatment
Not specific to
Components

water
Chemical
products Construction Componets and industrial externalisation : $47B
Filter/ of municipal
Treatment network
Construction

Conception/ $90B
$19B
Intergration Construction of municipal WWWT
plants $43B
Construction
Operation and
Exploitation

Management
Asset
Management Municipal Expoitation: $170B
Municipal
internalization
Figure 5: Global water market. Exploitation activities, assuring the water need for
humans, account for approximately half of the total market9

2 Global picture and current situation in Vietnam


2.1 Worldwide applications of nanotechnology in water
On the first part of this report, it is showed that water is the most basic and
primitive for human activities. On the other hand, the development of
nanotechnology requires much more advanced technologies and it is born as the
emergence of different subjects basing on the semiconductor industry. If we
consider the size the volume and the weight of mater, in water domain, it is around
millions of cubic meter of water treated per day. For nanotechnology, we are
speaking about one hundred thousand part of the human hair. The difference
between human water activities and nanotechnology is about fifteen orders of
magnitude. The applications of nanotechnology in water for humans are somehow
finding a common place for an extremely small and an extremely giant. There exists
indeed such common place as nanotechnology is continuously developing. During
the recent years, there are more and more scientific papers reporting results of the
coupling between nanotechnology and water treatment. The number of these
9Recompiled from BCG consulting Report (Filière Eau et assainissement), Note : Distributed systems includes $14B of small
systems ; does not include the bottled water market ($90B), Components and industrial externalisation includes intergrated
solutions - Sources: Global Water Intelligence; Freedonia, Dexia, rapport HKC; analyses BCG

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papers is constantly increased giving more ways for applying nanotechnology in
water. Table 1 lists all possible applications of nanotechnology in water including:
- Nanomaterials for absorption of substances in side water for water
purification
- Nanostructured materials and nanomaterials in membranes for water
filtration
- Photocatalytic nanomaterials for enhancing reaction taking place in water
- Nanomaterials for water disinfection
- Nanodevices in sensing for water monitoring purposes

The cutting-edge of these applications in water is based on its new properties


because of nanoscale size in comparison to conventional bulk materials. For
absorption, photocatalyst, disinfection and sensing purpose, the high ratio between
surface area and material volume is the key performance enhancement. For
membrane purpose, the nanoscale size itself plays already the main advantage.

Table 1: Types of applications of nanotechnology in WWWT10,11

10Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment, Xiaolei Qu, Pedro J.J. Alvarez, Qilin Li, Water Research
Volume 47, Issue 12, 2013, Pages 3931–3946
11A review of water treatment membrane nanotechnologies, Mary Theresa M. Pendergast and Eric M.V. Hoek, Energy Environ.

Sci., 2011, 4, 1946

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2.1.1 Nanotechnology-enabled membranes for water purification
In the nanotechnology market, the nanomaterials segment accounts for more than
75%. For applications of nanotechnology in water this number stays generally the
same. Since nanomaterials have their natural advantage for water filtration, because
of the nanoscale size, membranes are the primary application of nanomaterials. For
water purification, revers osmosis (RO) membranes have been in use since the 60s
of last century. Its advantage is that this membrare allows just water molecule (H2O)
to be filtered through. As a consequence, very high purity water is obtained. But the
drawback, this technology requires high inlet pressure, meaning high power pump
and it consumes a lot of water, often more than 70% of the inlet. Recently, other
type of membrane, such as forward osmosis (FO), was introduced in order to
improve the inconveniences of RO technology, such as high power consumption.

Figure 6: Different types of membranes, length scale and corresponding typical


filtered objects12

Thanks to the advancement of nanotechnology, there are more nanomaterials which


can be used for making membranes, so called nanofiltration (NF) membranes.
Figure 6 illustrates different types of membranes having been in used so far, starting
from microfiltration (MF) to RO membranes. According to the scale of size of
substance to be filtered out, there are some overlaps between ultrafiltration (UF)
and nanofiltration, between nanofiltration and RO membranes. The advantage of
nanofiltration over microfiltration and ultrafiltration is that it can filter out smaller
sized objects. For competing against RO membranes, nanofiltration can let partially
some ions, which are very good for human health, go through.
Nanofiltration membranes can be divided in three categories: (i) nanostructured
ceramic membranes such as zeolitic films or reactive/catalytic surfaces, (ii)

12 Toyobo industrial membranes http://www.toyobo-global.com/seihin/hq/

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inorganic-organic membranes such as mixed matrices or zelitenano compositeor
nanoparticle nanocomposite thin films, (iii) biologically inspired membranes such
as aquaporins or aligned carbon nanotubes. Figure 7 shows the performance
enhancement versus potential commercial viability of these membranes in
comparison with the conventional no nanotechnology-enabled membranes. The
biologically inspired membranes have high competitive edge of performance against
other membranes, but they have rather low commercial potential. The zeolite
nanocomposite thin film membranes are more likely the next product to be
appeared in the market.

Figure 7: Performance enhancement versus commercial viability map of


nanotechnology-enabled products11 above

Figure 8: Global market of nanofiltration membranes13

13Global Markets and Technologies for Nanofiltration, BCC Research, June 2014

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Since the nanotechnology-enabled membranes have some advantage against
conventional products, they take a certain share in the global market of water
filtration. The global market for nanofiltration membranes is about $210M in 2014.
It is expected to grow to $445.1 million by 2019, with a five-year CAGR of 15.6%. In
this nanofiltration market, the water and wastewater treatment segment dominates
the overall market with 74.6% market share13 above.

2.1.2 Possible effects of nanotechnology in health and environment

Figure 9: Possible effective pathways of nanotechnology-enabled products for


water on human health and on environment14

Figure 9 illustrates all the possible effective pathways of applications of


nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment (WWWT) in human health and
in ecotoxicological effects. These pathways can be categorized into two main
classes: (i) direct exposure and (ii) penetration through secondary processes. But in
most of the case of applications to WWWT, the retention of nanomaterials is critical
firstly because of its cost, then because of its negative effects on human and

14Nanotechnology for Water and Wastewater Treatment, edited by P. Lens, J.Virkutyte, V. Jegatheesan, Seung-Hyun Kim and S,
Al-Abed, IWA publishing, London, 2013

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environment15. Over the world nowadays, study of these last effects is still in the
infantine phase. The negative effects of nanomaterials should be closely related to
the chemical element that the nanomaterials are composed of. For WWWT, silver
nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are often
used. But there is no clear evidence of nano-Ag and nano-TiO2 toxicity to humans
having been described. The toxicity of nano-Ag to a wide range of organisms has
been extensively reported16,17. For nano-TiO2, it was reported that nano-TiO2could
enhance the accumulation of arsenic in fish, thus could induce into human health
problems18. As there is little information and knowledge of clear toxicity of
nanomaterials for human health and for environment, caution should be taken when
using them in WWWT.

2.2 Water in Vietnam


2.2.1 National strategy and regulations on water and sanitation
Official documents on strategy in water and sanitation sector in Vietnam:
- Decision No. 81/2006/QD-TTg dated 14/04/2006 approving the national
strategy on water resources by 2020.
- Decision No. 1216/QD-TTg of September 5, 2012 approving the National
strategy of Environmental Protection until 2020, vision to 2030.
- Decision No. 2147/QD-TTg of November 24, 2010 approving the National
program against water and economic losses by 2025.
- Decision No 104/2000/QD-TTg approving the National strategy for water
supply and rural sanitation to 2020.
- Decision No. 366/QD-TTg of March 31, 2012 approving the National target
program of clean water and rural sanitation 2012-2015.

Rules and regulation on water and sanitation sector in Vietnam:


- Law of Environment Protection No. 55/2014/QH13 dated 23/06/2014
- Law of Water Resources No. 17/2012/QH13 dated 21/06/2012
- Government Decree No. 80/2014/ND-CP of August 6, 2014 for drainage
and wastewater treatment.
- Government Decree No. 117/2007/ND-CP of July 11, 2007 on the
production, supply and consumption of clean water.
- Government Decree No. 149/2004/ND-CP dated 27 May 2004 07
regulating the licensing of exploration, exploitation and use of water
resources, wastewater discharge into water source.

15 Antimicrobial nanomaterials for water disinfection and microbial control: Potential applications and implications, Qilin Li,
Shaily Mahendra, Delina Y. Lyon, Lena Brunet, Michael V. Liga, Dong Li, Pedro J.J. Alvarez, Water Research, Volume 42, Issue 18,
2008, Pages 4591–4602
16 Environmental Transformations of Silver Nanoparticles: Impact on Stability and Toxicity, Clement Levard, E. Matt Hotze,

Gregory V. Lowry, and Gordon E. Brown, Jr., Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 6900−6914
17 Mechanisms of Silver Nanoparticle Release, Transformation and Toxicity: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge and

Recommendations for Future Studies and Applications, Bogumiła Reidy, Andrea Haase, Andreas Luch, Kenneth A. Dawson and
Iseult Lynch, Materials 2013, 6, 2295-2350
18 Enhanced Accumulation of Arsenate in Carp in the Presence of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles, Hongwen Sun & Xuezhi

Zhang & Qian Niu & Yongsheng Chen & John C. Crittenden, Water Air Soil Pollut (2007), 178, 245–254

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- Government Decree No. 124/2011/ND-CP of December 28, 2011 amending
some articles of the Government Decree No. 117/2007/ND-CP dated July
11, 2007 on production, supply and consumption of clean water.
- Vietnam standard QCVN 01:2009/BYT: National technical standard of
drinking water quality.
- Vietnam standard QCVN02:2009/BYT: National technical standard of
washing water quality.
- Vietnam standard QCVN14:2008/BTNMT: National technical standard of
wastewater.
- Vietnam standard QCVN40:2011/BTNMT National technical standard of
industrial wastewater.

2.2.2 National picture on water and sanitation


Table 2:Water supply and sanitation sector in Vietnam in 2011 and target for 2020
Subsector Base Base Target Note
year coverage 2020
19 20
Urban supply water (access to 2011 76% 85% Target: 90% for cities (grade IV or
public water network) higher) and 70% for towns (grade
V)
21 22
Rural supply water (access to 2011 37% 75% Target for 2020 is still waiting for
clean water compliant with PM’s approval
MOH standards)
23 23
Urban sanitation (wastewater 2009 10% 45% Target: 60% for cities grade II or
treatment percentage) higher; 30% for cities grade III and
IV; 10% for cities grade V
24 22
Rural sanitation (using septic 2011 55% 85% Target for 2020 is still waiting for
tank compliant with MOH PM’s approval
standards)

Table 2 represents the coverage of supply water and sanitation sector in Vietnam
starting from 2011 and targeted for 2020. For urban area, the coverage of supply
water is targeted to increase from 76% to 85%. In contrast, urban wastewater
treatment is intended to increase from 10%, which is very low, to 45%. These
numbers show that there is still a big portion of urban population who does not
have access to the public water network, and that the urban wastewater treatment
is very low, even for grade I cities. For rural areas, the coverage of supply water,
which is compliant to MOH standards, is targeted to increase from 37% to 75%. The
coverage of sanitation is intended to increase from 55% to 85%, mostly by using at
place septic tank which is compliant with MOH standards. Note that the target in
2020 for supply water and sanitation is still waiting for the approval of the Prime
Minister.

19MOC and WB (2013) Vietnam urban supply database 2011, Hanoi, March 2011.
20MOC (2009)Orientation development of urban supply water and industrial zones to 2025, to horizon 2050
21MARD (2012)National target program of clean water and rural sanitation, 2012-2015 phase, Hanoi
22MARD (2012) National strategy for water supply and rural sanitation to 2020,Hanoi.
23MOC (2012) United strategy and action plan for Sanitation domain for Vietnam (U3SAP). Final draft report. Hanoi
24MARD (2011) Report of implementation fo the National target program of clean water and rural sanitation 2006-2010 and

the main contents for the program 2011-2015, Hanoi

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Table 3 shows the calculation of required CAPEX based on the coverage of supply
water and sanitation in the base year and in the targeted year. It is illustrated that
the increasing number of people having access to clean water and sanitation per
year is similar in both urban and rural area. But the required CAPEX for both
subsectors in urban area double the CAPEX in rural area. This is the direct result of
higher CAPEX per capital in urban area. By comparing the required CAPEX with the
scheduled CAPEX obtained from the government, it is showed that there is a big
deficit of investment. Vietnam still needs more than four times the scheduled CAPEX
for water and sanitation sector.

Table 3: Data on coverage and CAPEX for water and sanitation sector in Vietnam
(2012 - 2014)
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Cover Target Population Required Scheduled CAPEX House Difference
(Base 2020 access to CAPEX (2012 - 2014) hold
year) service CAPEX
(est.)

Total Public Domestic Foreign Total


% % (1000/year) (M USD/year)
Rural supply 37% 75% 1,919 520 211 29 36 65 95 -360
water
Urban supply 76% 85% 1,823 1,042 1,042 43 100 143 - -898
water
Total supply 49% 80% 3,742 1,562 1,252 72 136 208 95 -1,258
water
Rural 55% 85% 2,008 372 63 10 16 26 127 -219
sanitation
Urban 10% 45% 1,546 771 771 41 164 205 - -565
sanitation
(WWT)
Total N/A N/A 3,553 1,142 834 51 181 231 127 -784
sanitation

2.2.3 Some concerns over water in Vietnam

2.2.3.1 Arsenic pollution of groundwater in Red River Delta


It is quite difficult to collect complete data for the actual concentration of heavy
metals on surface and ground water in Vietnam. This difficulty is consequence of the
lack of real onsite studies on water performed by the government. Recently, there
was a set of data on arsenic concentration in ground water in the Red river delta
(Figure 10). This study was performed by a foreign scientific group in collaboration
with Vietnam National University Hanoi (VNU). From the map, one can observe that
higher arsenic concentration are often found in ground water near the rivers. This
gives a suggestion that a method of removing arsenic should be taken into
consideration if ground water in these areas is used for everyday needs.

25ServiceDelivery Assessment April 2014, WSP World Bank; and JMP (2013) Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: 2013
Update, UNICEF and WHO

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Figure 10: Estimation of arsenic concentration in ground water in the Red river
delta26

2.2.3.2 Salinity infiltration in Mekong Delta

Figure 11: Salinity infiltration in the Mekong river delta in 201627

26Arsenicpollution of groundwater in Vietnam exacerbated by deep aquifer exploitation for more than a century, Lenny H. E.
Winkela, Pham Thi Kim Trang, Vi Mai Lan, Caroline Stengela, Manouchehr Aminia, Nguyen Thi Hac, Pham Hung Viet, and
Michael Berga, PNAS, 2011, vol. 108, no. 4, 1246–1251
27Map from the Southern Institute of Water Resources Research, 658 Vo Van Kiet, 5th, Ho Chi Minh city

13
During the dry season 2015 – 2016 in the Mekong river delta, the problem of
salinity infiltration became extremely severe. It was observed that the penetration
of salt water could be as far as 90km from the sea. This phenomenon has never
appeared before. It was really difficult to find out the origin of this salinity
infiltration. It might be the combination of the dry season, barrages in the upstream
of the Mekong river and the world climate change. As a consequence, the crops and
the fruit harvest were dropped drastically in compared to precedent years. And
more importantly, there was not enough clean drinking water for people in this
area.

2.2.3.3 Suspected heavy metal in the north central coast

Figure 12: Dead fish in the north central coast provinces due to possible heavy
metals release28

During April – May 2016, in some north central coast provinces, there were
suddenly big quantity of dead sea fish. This strange phenomenon was found first in
Ha Tinh province, later on in Hue (Figure 12). It was estimated that about 70 tons of
dead fish which had been collected along the coast, most of them were fish from
deep sea level. There were some investigations led by Vietnam government
delegation, but the conclusion for the reason of dead fish was quite indecisive. It was
about high concentration of heavy metal because of human activity on the coast.
There, will be more investigation needed to be carried out for making sure the
quality of the sea water, sea fruits and salt production within the area of the
disasters.

28 http://www.baonghean.vn/thoi-su-chinh-tri/201604/hop-bao-nguyen-nhan-ca-chet-chua-tim-thay-doc-to-chua-thay-moi-
lien-he-voi-formosa-2688560/

14
2.2.3.4 Drought in the south central coast
During the dry season some south central coast provinces of Vietnam resist a severe
drought (Figure 13). Before recent years, the provinces of Binh Thuan – Ninh Thuan
– Phu Yen – Binh Dinh were well known for the ideal wind and solar resources. But
now they are more well known for severe drought. The provision of water during
the dry season is extremely difficult. It would be practical to think of desalination
water plant in these provinces for fighting against drought.

Figure 13: Drought map in south central coast provinces in 201529

2.3 Development of nanotechnology in Vietnam


2.3.1 National strategy and law on nanotechnology
- Law of Science and Technology No. 29/2013/QH13 dated 18/06/2013;
- Law of High Technology No. 21/2008/QH12 dated 13/11/2008;
- Resolution of the 6th Conference of the Party Central Committee XI
(Resolution No. 20-NQ/TW) on development of science and technology for
industrialization and modernization in the context of socialist-oriented
market economy and international integration.
- Vietnam’s socio-economic Strategy period 2011 – 2020;
- Decision No. 53/2008/QD-BCT dated 30/12/2008 approving the strategy
of high-tech industries development by 2020;
- Decision No. 418/QD-TTg issued on April 11, 2012 by the Prime Minister
approving the strategy of scientific and technological development for the
period 2011-2020;

29Preliminary Drought Assessment, Unitar 23 July 2015

15
- Decision No. 66/2014/QD-TTg of the Prime Minister on approving the list
of high technologies prioritized for investment and the list of high-tech
products encouraged for development;

2.3.2 Prominent public organizations in the field of nanotechnology


Table 4: Top Vietnamese research organizations by international ISI30 papers31
Organization International papers
(2010 - 2014)
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) 1545
Vietnam National University Hanoi (VNU) 861
Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh city (VNU HCM) 654
Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST) 598
Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) 359
Hanoi Medical University (HMU) 313
Can Tho University 304
Hospital for Tropical Diseases Ho Chi Minh city 299
National Institute Of Hygiene And Epidemiology 213
Hue University 213

Vietnam is a developing country that can import many advanced technologies from
other developed countries. In parallel with this technology "immigration", Vietnam
government also encourages and supports research projects in order to master the
source or the basic of the technology. Nanotechnology can be listed in this kind of
activities. The development of nanotechnology in Vietnam can be observed as both
by: (i) importing nanotechnology-enabled products from overseas because of the
need-offer relation in the market and (ii) investing in research projects because of
the natural need of social advancement. From the point of view of research
development, nanotechnology-related projects have been carried out during the last
ten years in Vietnam within the most prominent research organizations listed on
Table 4.

2.3.2.1 Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology


The Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) is the biggest public
research organization in Vietnam. The main role of VAST is to develop research
projects in the field of science and technology, including nanotechnology. VAST has
under its management many research institutions, for example Institute of Material
Science, Institute of Environmental Technology, or recently established University of
Science and Technology of Hanoi by the help of French government.

30http://ip-science.thomsonreuters.com/mjl/
31Datafrom the National agency for science and technology information, MOST, 2014

16
2.3.2.2 Vietnam National University Hanoi
Vietnam National University Hanoi (VNU) is the second public organization in the
list (Table 4). Under VNU, there have other university members and research
institutes. The main advantage of VNU is its ability to carry out multi-disciplinary
research projects. Multi-discipline is one of the natures of nanotechnology. VNU has
newly founded the Vietnam Japan University by the help of Japanese government,
and founded the Nano and Energy Center. The last one is dedicated on
nanotechnology and energy.

2.3.2.3 Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh city


Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh city (VNUHCM) is the third largest public
organization in Vietnam in publishing research papers. VNUHCM is the analogue
model of VNUHN in Ho Chi Minh city. These two organizations are completely
independent and belong directly to the Vietnam government. VNUHCM recently
hosted the Vietnam Germany University and the Laboratory for Nanotechnology
(LNT). The last one is dedicated on nanotechnology.

3 Potential applications of nanotechnology in water and


sanitation sector in Vietnam
3.1 Stakeholder analysis
In this study, stakeholders who are related to the potential applications of
nanotechnology in water and sanitation sector are listed as following:
- Central and local government
- Water and wastewater utility companies
- High-tech park and industrial zone managing companies
- Academic institutions (including research institutes and universities)
- Multi-National Corporations representing in Vietnam
- Equipment manufacturers and suppliers
- Distribution and trading companies
- Individuals
For each of the stakeholders, there are two analysis matrices applied in order
its role in the potential development of applications of nanotechnology in
first is Importance-Influence matrix, and the second is the Power-Legitimacy-
Urgence matrix. The importance and the influence are weighted by 4 grades: 1
unknown, 2 is little importance/influence, 3 is some importance/influence, 4
importance/influence. The power-legitimacy-urgency is just check box
basis). The result of stakeholder analysis is showed on

Table 5.

17
Table 5: Stakeholder analysis matrix results
Importance Influence Category Power Legitimacy Urgency Category
Central and local government 4 4 A x x Dominant
Water and Waste water utility
4 2 B x Discretionary
companies
High-tech park and Industrial zone
3 2 B x Dormant
managing companies
Academic institutions 4 2 B x Demanding
Multi National Corporations 3 2 B x x Dependent
Equipment manufacturers and
2 2 D x x Dependent
suppliers
Distribution and trading companies 2 3 C x x Dependent

Individual 1 1 D x Demanding

3.2 Water flow analysis

Figure 14: Potential applications of nanotechnology in water viewed flow of water

It is showed previously in this report that more than 75% of the market share of
nanofiltration is for WWWT. If this use of nanotechnology-enabled products is
analyzed by the water flow point of view, the third and sixth column are responsible
(Figure 14 with "nano applicable"). The applications of nanotechnology can also be
extended to point-of-uses (POUs) of water, which are in households and in industry.

18
3.3 Market segment analysis
The water market segments and nanotechnology market segments have been
previously presented in this report. The water market can be typically divided into
three parts: (i) exploitaion, (ii) construction and (iii) components. Whereas the
nanotechnology market is composed of (i) nanomaterials (ii) nanodevices and (iii)
nanotools, it can be seen easily that it should be difficulf to have any applications of
nanotechnology in the segment of (i) exploitation and (ii) construction of water-
related facilities. These segments look traditionnal and have been developed
without any advance in the field of nanotechnology. On the other hand, the
component segment of water market has alot of common point with the
nanotechnology market. Figure 15 illustrates the overlap between the water and
nanotechnology market. A big part of nanomaterials market segment and a small
part of the nanodevices market segment are used for applications in water. The
development of nanotechnology in water should be the enlargement of this overlap
by all means.

Figure 15: The overlap between water market segments and nanotechnology
market segments

3.4 Field work analysis


3.4.1 Field work description
The field work study was organized into two main activities: (i) field work interview
and (ii) online survey. Before the field work interview, a list of stakeholders of the
project was given in a way that at least one interview would be made for each
category of stakeholder. All stakeholder catergories should cover all water market
segments (see Figure 5). The interviews have been carried out in three cities in
Vietnam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh city and Dalat city – Lam Dong province. Since
nanotechnology and the applications of nanotechnology are somehow not familiar
to the interviewers, the team prepared a short presentation of the project (ANNEX
1) in the way that could give enough idea of the rational of the project and of the

19
applications of nanotechnology in water, but not to influence much on the result of
the interview. During the interview, answers of the interviewee were filled in the
field work question sheet (ANNEX 2). For a better statistical interpretation of the
result, an online survey form was also established with Online Google Document
Platform. The content of the survey is similarly to the field work question sheet,
presented in ANNEX 3.

Figure 16: Responders’ categories

Figure 16 illustrates the percentage of responder’ categories which cover not only
three big water market segments (Municipality, Industry or Distributed) but also
other stakeholders who may have influcences on the development of
nanotechnology in water.

Figure 17: Responders’ activity related to water

Figure 17 illustrate the responder’ activities related to water. This information is


used to better fit the stakeholders into water market segments (Components,
Construction and Exploitation).

20
3.4.2 Potential needs and applications of nanotechnology in Vietnam

Figure 18: Map of potential applications of nanotechnology in water and sanitation in Vietnam by subsectors

21
Figure 19: Map of potential applications of nanotechnology in water and sanitation in Vietnam by water flows

22
After the stakeholder interviews and online survey, each positive information about
the need of applications of nanotechnology will be marked as one point. The
position of each point will be attributed to the market segment of the responders or
the place of responders related to the water flow. High total point corresponds to
high potential applications of nanotechnology, some points – some potential, 1 point
– possible potential, no point – no potential. The result of the study of the
potentiality of nanotechnology in water and sanitation is illustrated in Figure 18 by
water market segments and in Figure 19 by water flow.

3.4.3 Nanotechnology-enabled products for water

Figure 20: Nanoozone and Nano water filter in the map performance enhancement
versus commercial viability

3.4.3.1 Nanotechnology-enabled water filter for households


During the field work interview, one nanotechnology-enabled product is identified.
It is a Russian product, Barrier, that is exclusively distributed in Vietnam by a
trading company, Kovin Ltd. This nano water filter is originally aimed for everyday
use of urban households. The main advantage of this product is the replaceable nano
water filter. By using this product, there is no need to boil water before drinking and
there is also no need for electricity as RO-based water filter systems. Each type of
nano water filter can be used for a specific source of water, for example city water
or surface water. The company even makes a demonstration that Saigon river water
can be drinkable directly after being filtered, more tests and measurements should
be made.

23
3.4.3.2 Nanotechnology-enabled ozone wastewater treatment for hospitals
The field study team interviewed aslo a company, Nanoenvironmenta Ltd.,
specializing in wastewater treatment for hospitals by using ozone generator. This
company has been selling nano onzone systems. The term nano ozone is used
because a nanotechnology-enabled component is used in the system. This
component is found in the ferrit core of the electrical transformation required for
high voltage ozone generator inside the systmem. Infact, the ferrit core is a
nanostructured material.
The analysis of these two products is illustrated in Figure 20. It is considered that
these two products are already commercial and they have certain competitive edge
versus other products at the same market segment.

3.4.4 Expectation of nanotechnology-enabled products for water

(a) (b)
Figure 21: (a) percentage of responder knowing nanotechnology and (b)
percentage of responder wanting to use nanotechnology-enabled products

Figure 21a shows the percentage of interviewed people who have had idea of an
application of nanotechnology in water and sanitation before. It is quite supprised
that there are more than 56.8% of the people who have heard about nanotechnology
in water. This high ratio may be the result of our biased set of interviewers since
there are more people in the research community than normally found in the
society. Figure 21 b illustrates, in contrast all of the interviewed people have
positive answer about whether he/she wants to use a nanotechnology-enabled
product in WWWT. This number may exhibit the following reasons: (i) people are
curious about new technology and (ii) people are getting more and more concern
about the quality of water in Vietnam, or (iii) nanotechnology becomes more
familiar with common people. About the purpose of use if such nanotechnology-
enabled products are applied, presented in Figure 22), there are more than 67% of
the people wanting to have a product for drinking water. There are also more than
50% of the people who would like to have a nanotechnology-enabled product for
everyday water usage. These numbers show that people are lack of confidence in
the quality of water they are using.

24
Figure 22: Purposes of use of nanotechnology-enabled products for water

Figure 23: Expectiation of responders for nanotechnology-enabled products in


water

Figure 23 shows the concern of all responders for nanotechnology-enabled products


in water. There are more than 66% of the people who are expecting that the
environmental issues should be resolved, and more than 50% who think that a cost
effective product should be the best to be expected. This proves one fact that a
product that responds to the environmental issues and to the cost effectiveness,
especially if it is the result of a new technology, such as nanotechnology, will be a
“killer” product in the market.

3.4.5 FABLAB dedicated for applications of nanotechnology in WWWT


During the interview, the question about the establishment of a research center
dedicated for applications of nanotechnology in WWWT (FABLAB) was raised
specifically for stakeholder in the academic nanotechnology and in the environment
domain. The direct answer about this establishment is positive with out any
hesitation. The need is quite strong indeed. In reality, there are already some
research institutions in the nanotechnology domain, which have been performing
research projects for the appications of nanotechnology in water (see ANNEX 4).
There are already some investments on nanotechnology infrastucture, but they are
quite dispersed. Another pressing issue is that there is very little overlap between
the research community in nanotechnology and that in environment. It is required
that these two comminities need to stay strong together for the success of such a
FABLAB.

25
4 Benchmark
4.1 Benchmark criterion
In order to see how nanotechnology in the water and sanitation sector is developed
in Vietnam, a benchmark study has been performed. In each continent, one
developed country is chosen for this purpose, and specially one country in the South
East Asia is picked for the direct comparison purpose. These following countries are
selected for benchmarking:

- France for Europe


- United State of America for America
- Japan for Asia and Pacific
- South Africa for Africa
- Singapore for South East Asia

The criteria chosen for benchmarking purpose are as following:


- Capacity building level for application of nanotechnology in water
- Application of nanotechnology in municipal water
- Application of nanotechnology in industrial water
- Application of nanotechnology in distributed system
- FABLAB dedicated for applications of nanotechnology in water

Except for the capacity building level criterion which is more complicated
(illustrated by Figure 24), all other criteria are based on found case study of specific
application and a laboratory for nanotechnology in water. These criteria are based
on YES/NO result. For the capacity building, a mark is applied base on the
development of the capacity building level of the country in question. If the country
possesses all the level of capacity building on Figure 24, then a mark of 4 is given.

Figure 24: Several aspects of capacity building taken into consideration for
benchmarking

26
4.2 Comparison with other countries

Figure 25: Benchmarking result of the application of nanotechnology in WWWT in different countries

27
5 Conclusion and perspectives
5.1 Conclusion
Vietnam is step by step making science and technology to be in the center of its
economic development. Nanotechnology is also developing with more and more
research projects and applications in various sectors. For water and sanitation
sector, the coverage ratio is still quite low in compared to developed countries.
Vietnam still needs more financial investment in this sector. Nanotechnology-
enabled products for water were already commercially available in Vietnam, but all
of them are imported from foreign countries. There are some research projects
dedicated on applications of nanotechnology for water sector, but the results are
still limited to the R&D stage. Vietnam is in the course to increase the water and
sanitation coverage by all means of economical water technology. Therefore, there
are particular needs in applying nanotechnology in water sector. Actually, there is
very few applications of nanotechnology in large scale water and wastewater
treatment while the potentiality of nanotechnology in Vietnam is quite high for
distributed systems and for drinking water, especially in rural areas. For the
research nanotechnology community, the need for a research laboratory dedicated
for applications of nanotechnology in water is highly addressed. There are some
research institutes with already invested infrastructure supporting the development
of nanotechnology in Vietnam. Even though, more investments are still required.

5.2 Perspectives and suggestions for future studies


The exchange of information in water sector of different related research
communities is very limited in Vietnam. Therefore, one of the decisive steps to
develop nanotechnology in water is to organize conferences gathering people from
different expertise, sitting together for one ultimate purpose: to improve the
coverage of water and sanitation level in Vietnam.
The total amount of investment for a laboratory dedicated on applications of
nanotechnology in Vietnam varies, depending on point of view, approach and where
to land the project. The investment should be lower in big cities, such as Hanoi and
Ho Chi Minh city, where there are already infrastructures of nanotechnology
research and there are high quality human resources available. The investment
should be also lower if a cluster of different academic institution is set up. It is also
suggested that the approach for this laboratory is more likely based on chemical
methods, which requires less investment. Details about which type of equipment,
example analytical or manufacture, which scale of pilot water treatment process to
be developed and how this laboratory to be organized should be figured out by
further future studies. Nevertheless, an application oriented for the laboratory
should be intentionally implemented.

28
ANNEX 1: Field work short presentation

A
EXPERTISE FRANCE
THE FRENCH INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL EXPERTISE AGENCY
www.expertisefrance.fr
Project

Supporting Vietnam Water and


Sanitation Sector through the
potentiality of nanotechnology
(funded by ADB)
Mission:
– Understand the Water and Sanitation sector in
Vietnam
– Understand the Potential of nanotechnology for Water
and Sanitation sector in Vietnam
– Understand the need of a FAB LAB of
nanotechnology for water sector in Vietnam
Why water and sanitation sector
– Water treatment and purification is a main challenge for the current
and upcoming generations
– The rising scarcity of drinking water, the rapidly growing urbanization
and the consequences of climate change represent serious
concerns to both developed and developing countries. In the
developing world, if not carefully taken into account, the challenges
raised and the multiple pressures put on water facilities may
seriously hinder sustainable development paths. Solutions brought
up by nanotechnology in the field of safe drinking water, sanitation
and sewerage could appear as cheaper and more efficient
alternatives to traditional technologies.
Examples of Applications of Nanotechnology for water
Representative
Applications Desirable nanomaterial properties Enabled technologies
nanomaterials
Contaminant
High specific surface area, highly assessable adsorption
preconcentration/detection,
Carbon nanotubes sites, diverse contaminant-CNT interactions, tunable
adsorption of recalcitrant
surface chemistry, easy reuse
contaminants
High specific surface area, short intraparticle diffusion
Adsorption distance, more adsorption sites, compressible without Adsorptive media filters, slurry
Nanoscale metal oxide
significant surface area reduction, easy reuse, some are reactors
superparamagnetic
Tailored shell surface chemistry for selective adsorption,
Nanofibers with coree
reactive core for degradation, short internal diffusion Reactive nano-adsorbents
shell structure
distance
High permeability thin film
Nano-zeolites Molecular sieve, hydrophilicity
nanocomposite membranes
Examples of Applications of Nanotechnology for water
Applications Representative nanomaterials Desirable nanomaterial properties Enabled technologies
Photocatalytic activity in UV and possibly visible
Photocatalytic reactors, solar
Nano-TiO2 light range, low human toxicity, high stability, low
disinfection systems
cost
Examples of Solution/Product of Nanotechnology for water
Product How it works Importance
Nanosponge A combination of polymers and glass Rainwater harvesting is increasingly important to countries like
for rainwater nanoparticles that can be printed onto surfaces China, Nepal and Thailand. The nanosponge is much more efficient
harvesting like fabrics to soak up water than traditional mist-catching nets
Magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide suspended
Nanorust to India, Bangladesh and other developing countries suffer thousands
in water bind arsenic, which is then removed
remove arsenic of cases of arsenic poisoning each year, linked to poisoned wells
with a magnet
A combination of polymers and nanoparticles
Desalination Already on the market, this membrane enables desalination with
that draws in water ions and repels dissolved
membrane lower energy costs than reverse osmosis
salts
Field tested to treat drinking water in China and desalinate water in
Nanofiltration Membrane made up of polymers with a pore
Iran, using this membrane requires less energy than reverse
membrane size ranging from 0.1 to 10nm
osmosis
The waterstick cleans as you drink. Doctors in Africa are using a
Nanomesh A straw-like filtration device that uses carbon
prototype and the final product will be made available at an
waterstick nanotubes placed on a flexible, porous, material
affordable cost in developing countries
Filter using a nanofibre layer, made up of Designed specifically for household or community- level use in
World filter polymers, resins, ceramic and other materials, developing countries. The filters are effective, easy to use and
that removes contaminants require no maintenance
Filter using nanosilver to adsorb and then Pesticides are often found in developing country water supplies.
Pesticide filter degrade three pesticides commonly found in This pesticide filter could provide a typical Indian household with
Indian water supplies 6000 litres of clean water over one year
ANNEX 2: Field work question sheet

B
Survey : Supporting Vietnam Water and Sanitation sector throught the potentiality of Nanotechnology
Name of respondent (Optional): Location:

I - Category of respondent
1 - Residential 5 - Industrial water supply 9 - School University
2 - Municipal water supply 6 - Industrial waste water 10 - Company/Corporation
3 - Municipal waste water 7 - Gov Organizations 11 - Other:................
4 - Municipal water pipeline 8 - Nanotechnology/Research

I - bis. If residential:
1 - Sex: 4 - Number of people in the house:
2 - Age:
3 - Profession:

II - Water related activities


1 - Water filter/Treatment supply 5 - Conception/Intergration
2 - Chemical product supplier 6 - Water and waste water operation
3 - Other accessories supplier 7 - Asset management
4 - Construction 8 - Other:...............

III - Have you heard about the application/solution/product of nanotechnology for water ? Yes

No

III - bis. If yes, how:

IV - What is your feeling about application/solution/product of nanotechnology for water?

V - Would you be interested in using such a solution/product? Yes


No

V - bis. If Yes, the solution will be for:


1 - High volume water processing 4 - Drinking water purification
2 - Every day water usage 5 - Other...............................
3 - Septic tank

VI - What do you find interesting in that solution?


1 - More comfortable 4 - Energy savings
2 - Environmental concerns 5 - Cost effective/reduction
3 - Learning skills improvements 6 - Other:..................................

VII - As an individual which price you expect/are you ready to pay for such solution/product

IIX - As a project owner, which range of investment you intend to implement

IX - Any other remarks:


ANNEX 3: Online survey

C
ANNEX 4: Nanotechnology - Water Research activities at LNT –
VNUHCM

D
Clean water
Sludge +
residue
Green electricity
APPLICATIONS OF NANO SILVER IN FRUIT PRESERVATION (DRAGON FRUIT) AND
SHRIMP DISEASE PREVENTION

Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Vietnam National University-Ho Chi Minh City, Community 6, LinhTrung
Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City,Vietnam;

SILVER NANOPARTICLES SOLUTION

 Concentration: 200-100.000 ppm,


 Particle diameter : 2-5 nm
 Characterization: Kills bacteria on fruit
and in water treatment for shrimp farming
(from the Pasteur Institute in Ho Chi Minh
City. HCM):
Salmonella typhimurium : 99,9%
Pseudomonas aeruginosa : 95,7%
Aspergillus niger : 99,9%
Streptococcus pneumonia : 96,5%
Vibrio cholera : 99,9% Transmission electron micrographs of Ag nanoparticles and its
S.faecails : 91,9% size distributions.
E.Coli : 95%
V.Parahaemolyticus : 99,9%

SILVER NANOPARTICLES APPLICATION IN WATER TREATMENT FOR SHRIMP FARMING


AT THAI TUAN COMPANY, CAN GIO, HCM CITY

Water treatment for


shrimp farming by Ag
Drop shrimp in ponds
nanoparticles

SILVER NANOPARTICLES APPLICATION IN DRAGON FRUIT PRESERVATION AT


TROPICAL FRUIT & VEGETABLE COMPANY, HCM CITY

Treatmeant by
Ag nanoparticles Dragon fruits weren’t treated with Ag
Packing nanoparticles after 28 days

Dragon fruits were treated with Ag


nanoparticles after 28 days

Workshop on Applications of Nanotechnology in Agriculture (WANA2013)


Applications of Silver nanoparticles in Fruit Preservation (Dragon Fruit) and Shrimp Disease Prevention
from 5th to 7th June 2013, Ben Tre and Bac Lieu provinces, Vietnam

− Organizing workshop to introduce silver nanoparticles to companies, enterprises and customers in Ben Tre - Tra Vinh
provinces (163 guests)
− Organizing workshop to introduce silver nanoparticles to companies, enterprises and customers in Bac Lieu - Ca Mau
provinces (159 guests)
1. Overview of the Agri-Nanosensors (Green Turtle)
Agri-Nanosensors equipment for monitoring of water quality parameters at
shrimp/ fish ponds has a design of a green turtle (Figure 1). This design has
been registered at National Office of Intellectual Property of Vietnam.

Figure 1. Agri-Nanosensors equipment with the design of a “green turtle”.


Below the head of the “green turtle” is the handle for easy handling. The cover
is used to protect the inside devices including sensor probes, circuit boards,
transmitters, data transder, antenna and batteries. The green turtle can measure
pH, temperature, conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen concentration,
oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), ions concentrations NH4+, NO3-, K+, F-, Cl-
(Table 1).
Table 1. The water parameters which the “Green Turtle” can measure, range and
accuracy.

Optimized
No Parameters Unit Limits Range can be measured
range

1 Dissolved mg/l ≥4 ≥ 3,5 0,5-20, accuracy ± 1 mg/l


oxygen (DO)

2 pH 7,5 ÷ 8,5 7 ÷ 9, fluctutation 0÷14, resolution of 0,01 pH,


not more than 0,5 accuracy ± 0,01
8,0 ÷ 8,3

3 Oxidation- mV 300-500 mV - -1999 mV ÷ 1999 mV,


reduction resolution of 1 mV, accuracy
potential ± 2 mV
(ORP)
o
4 Temperature C 20 ÷ 30 18 ÷ 33 -30 °C ÷ 130 °C, resolution of
0,1 °C, accuracy 0,2 °C
5 Salinity %o 10 ÷ 25 5 ÷ 35 0 - 40%o, accuracy ±2%o

6 NH3 mg/l ≤ 0,1 < 0,3 0,001 - 1000 mg/l, accuracy


±0,01 mg/l

7 NO2 mg/l ≤ 0,25 < 0,35 0,007 - 1000 mg/l, accuracy


±0,01 mg/l

8 F-, Cl-, K+ mg/l - - Cl- : 0,05 ÷ 1000 mg/l


(optional) K+: 0,001 ÷ 1000 mg/l
F- : 0,01 ÷ 1000 mg/l

 The “green turtle” can measure water quality on-site and online at the
shrimp/fish ponds
The “green turtle” is pretty compact, it can float at shrimp/ fish ponds and can
measure water quality parameters in-situ and continuously. The “green turtle”
can measure many parameters at the same time and can freely move around the
pond to measure at different positions. The turtle can transfer data continuously
via wireless data transfer network to a user who is far way from the ponds.
The equipment can measure outdoor without electricity connection to the ponds
thanks to 2 batteries inside the turtle. The equipment can transfer data online
and continuously via wireless network to the users by internet or 3G via laptop,
smartphone, tablet, or SMS message on mobile phones or GPRS.
Measured data (parameters of water quality) can be datalogged continuously to
a computer which is located in a controlling center of the farms/companies. The
data are displayed as plots/charts on the computer screen and data in excel files
can be accessed at any time.
Farm owners can receive these data of water parameters online on their mobile
phones, tablets... They can give orders to adjust these parameters to have a
suitable environment for fish/shrimp in their ponds even when they are far away
from their farms.
Thanks to Agri-Nanosensors water quality of fish/ shrimp ponds can be
monitored and controlled continuously and properly.
2. Activities of the field trips in Soc Trang, Bac Lieu and Ben Tre
We have made field trips in October 2015 to test the product in real shrimp
ponds. We contacted the shrimp farm of Uncle Cao in An Hoa, Vinh Chau, Soc
Trang (Figure 2). We tested the “green turtle” in 2 ponds of this shrimp farm.
The “green turtle” could float well on the water although the wind in this area
was quite strong. The turtle could measure the basic parameters as the farmer
would like to check. pH of the first pond was in the limit, but the pH of the
second pond was quite high 9, the alkanity was a bit more than the allowed
limit. The farmer said that they used large amount of chemicals to treat water
(probably calcium hydroxide), and this chemical increased the alkanity of the
water in their ponds. Salinity was very low, probably water taken from the
channels far away from the sea. The DO, temperature and NO2 were in the limit.

Figure 2. Test of Agri-Nanosensors equipment at a shrimp farm in Soc Trang.


We also tested the turtle at another shrimp farm of Uncle Sau Ngoan in Vinh
Trach Dong, Bac Lieu (Figure 3). All the parameters were in the limit.
After the 3rd Workshop on Applications of Nanotechnology in Agriculture
(WANA 2015), we also tested the “green turtle” at the shrimp company Hoang
Vu, in Binh Dai, Ben Tre (Figure 4).
Figure 3. Test of Agri-Nanosensors equipment at a shrimp farm in Bạc Liêu.

Figure 4. Test of Agri-Nanosensors equipment at a shrimp farm in Ben Tre.


 The “green turtle” can measure indoor the water samples taken from
the ponds:
 The users can take water samples taken from their ponds and use the
“turtle” to measure indoor (Figure 5a).

Figure 5. The “Green turtle” can measure water samples indoor.

3. Introduction of the “green turtle” in WANA2015


The “green turtle” was introduced in the 3rd Workshop on Applications of
Nanotechnology in Agriculture (WANA 2015) in Ben Tre city (Figure 6).
There were 170 attendees, mostly shrimp and fish farmers. In the Workshop, we
demonstrated measurements of the “green turtle” with the water samples taken
from Bac Lieu and Soc Trang and showed the online data on our laptop and
smartphone.
We received many questions and suggestions such as the “turtle” should have a
driven-motor to move by itself in the pond, the probes should be dipped deeper
in the water to measure parameters at different levels of water. We are going to
improve the product to satify the needs of the end-users.
We also declared that we were willing to listen all the suggestions,
recommendations to improve our product.
About the price of the product, we can supply the “green turtle” with different
configurations and corresponding price, i.e. depending on how many water
parameters end-users would like to measure, we can develop the product with a
suitable cost so that the farmers can afford.
Figure 6. The “Green turtle” was introduced in WANA 2015.
ANNEX 5: Binh Hung Hoa wastewater treatment plant process
flow

E
ANNEX 6: Saigon High Tech Park onsite wastewater treatment
plant process flow

F
ANNEX 7: Dalat water supply plant process flow

G
ANNEX 8: Barrier - a nanotechnology-enabled water filter

H
ANNEX 9: Answers to the online survey questions

I
Have you heard about the application/solution/product of
nanotechnology for water, if yes how?
Friend
during the PhD course
internet
Nano/micro devices (filter, film) can filter contaminated water to clean water
Media: Silver nanoparticles
Media and research papers
Organic pollutants treatment
Using Iron oxide for absorbing Arsen in water
Nano filtration equipment for water
Arsen treatment for underground water
Water filtration membrane with recycling ability
Two companies providing solutions for waste water treatment in hospital, using nanotechnology
Using nanozeolit for water filtration
Selling drinking water filter with nanotechnology
Collaborating with other departments for application of nanotechnology in photocatalysis and
membrane
Selling the product of waste water treatment (for hospitals etc.) using ozone tricked by nanotechnology
Using nanomaterial such as: silver nanoparticles, TiO2, Carbon nanotubes
Nano water filtration for family
Water filtered by equipment using nanotechnology is clean, safe and affordable

What is your feeling about the application/solution/product of


nanotechnology for water?
It is great if it can be used at home.
Nice solution
Wonderful
Seems attractive
Interested
Excellent
Potentially good if do it correctly
It is good for Vietnamese to apply nanotechnology for water filter/treatment...
That should be helpful
I would like to know: nanotechnology have a side effect that can affect human health or not
it takes time but this is very important for the future
Strange
Small scale is more likely
High cost, should be used for supply water/drinking water
Effective, not expensive
No use for the moment, in 10 to 20 years should be good
Expensive
Expensive, complicated, can’t apply
It is good for application of nanotechnology for water and water treatment
Combination of nanomaterial, filtration and UV should be good
Certainly good
Good
Need to care about the long-term effect on human health of nanotechnology product
Good

Would you be interested in using such a solution/product, If yes,


the solution/product will be for?
Do not know yet, must see the "result" to decide
For sedimentation process
Recycling water filtration membrane
For military purpose at sea, filtration of sea water
Filtration for water reuse and for industrial high quality water
Under ground water treatment
Use in the country side
Swimming pool cleaning

What do you find interesting in that solution/product?


Doesn't waste water like RO filter.
Concern about the potential problems with nanomaterials before using it

As an individual which price you expect/are you ready to pay for


such solution/product?
1usd/day
2 million VND
$100-$300
It depends on comparison with other solution
10 usd
2 Million VND
the same price of popular method
USD50/month
$2000
less than 500VND/liter for cost of drinking water. 390k - 700k / product
2M-3M / equipment
2-3MVND/product
<500k/product
3MVND/product
3-4MVND/product

As a project owner, which range of investment you intend to


implement?
4 billion VND
25000 usd
Depend on the total investment
200k$
10M VND - 20M VND per m3 of investment
2000-3000m2 of freeland in SHTP, 1M$ support from HCM government for the project of 3M$
10M$/project including plant and pipeline, 3M$ for 5000m3/day of supply water
15M$
350k$/project 200m3/day of water treatment
2-3M$/project
3-4M$/project

Any other remarks


I prefer to link you to my business partner so we can work out some collaboration in the future.
The province of Dalat supports the project
Would like to participate in the FS phase of the FAB LAB
Using the FAB LAB for water quality checking
Need to concern about the conditions and the parameters of the zone (countryside) because this can
change. The cost effective if we want to develop new technology.