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Maslow Theory of Needs

Assoc Prof Dr Hamdan Said
Believe it or Not?
➢ Why?
➢ Justification?
➢ Are apply this theory in our life?
➢ Provide example
Hierarchy of Needs
➢ Instinctoid:
hereditary component
➢ Activate and direct human behavior
➢ We are not driven by all needs at the
same time
Of Needs Self-

Esteem Needs

Belongingness & Love


Safety Needs

Physiological Needs
Hierarchy of Needs
The hierarchy has five levels:

➢ Physiological Needs: oxygen, water, protein, salt, sugar, calcium and

other minerals and vitamins, shelter and sleep etc.

➢ Safety Needs: security, stability, protection from physical and emotional


➢ Belongingness & Love Needs: affection, belonging, acceptance,

friendship, community

➢ Esteem Needs: (Internal ones are need for self-respect, confidence,

autonomy, and achievement. External ones are need for respect of others,
status, fame, glory, recognition and attention.) Maslow feels these are the
roots to many, if not most of our psychological problems.

➢ Self-actualization: (doing that which maximizes one’s potential and fulfills

one’s innate aspirations)
➢ If you don’t have enough of something you have a
“deficit” (need)
 Maslow's hierarchy seems to follow the life cycle. A baby's
needs are almost entirely physiological. As the baby grows, it
needs safety, then love. Toddlers are eager for social interaction,
attention and affection. Teenagers are anxious about social
needs, young adults are concerned with esteem and only more
mature people transcend the first four levels to spend much time

 Under stressful conditions, or when survival is threatened, we

can “regress” to a lower level need.
2. Safety Needs
➢ Second from bottom of hierarchy
➢ Structure, order, stability, predictability
➢ More important to children than normal
3. Belongingness and Love
➢ Middle of hierarchy
➢ Intimate and social relationships
4. Esteem Needs
➢ Fourth from bottom of hierarchy
➢ 2 forms of esteem needs:
 From ourselves: feelings of self-worth
 From others: status, recognition, social
➢ Needs that do not involve balance

➢ Once engaged, they continue to be felt

➢ Continuous desire to fulfill potentials (“be all you can be”)

➢ You need to have lower needs taken care of, at least to a

considerable extent

➢ Only a small percentage of the population is truly, self-actualizing

(approximately 2%)
New Version
5. Cognitive Needs
➢ Include
the need for knowledge and
6. Aesthetic Needs -
➢ Which encompasses the appreciation of
beauty, form, and balance while also
activity seeking it.
7. Self-actualization Needs -
➢ Moved from level five to level seven.
Self-Actualization Needs
➢ Pinnacle of hierarchy
➢ Maximum realization of potentials, talents,
➢ Fullest personality development
➢ Even if satisfy all other needs, person will
feel restless and discontent if not self-
Conditions for Self-Actualization
➢ Free of constraints
➢ Not distracted by lower needs
➢ Secure self-image and relationships
➢ Realistic knowledge of strengths and
Characteristics of Self-
➢ Efficientperception of reality
➢ Acceptance of selves, others, nature
➢ Spontaneity, simplicity, naturalness
➢ Focus on problems outside of themselves
➢ Social interest
➢ Creativeness
Characteristics of Self-
➢ Peak experiences: religious, mystical
➢ Profound interpersonal relationships
➢ Resistance to enculturation
➢ Extremely rare- seen in less than 1% of
the population
8. Transcendence Needs -
➢ Becomes the final stage and includes the
need to help others become self-
actualized (McLeod, 2014).
Research in Malsow’s Theory
➢ Negative correlation between high self-
actualizing scores and alcoholism, mental
disorders, neuroticism
➢ Meeting esteem needs: greater feelings of
self-worth, self-confidence, competence
(similar to Badura’s self-efficacy)
Criticisms of Maslow’s Theory
➢ Weak research methodology
 Small sample size
 Lack of empirical methods
➢ Vague terms (peak experiences)
Contributions of Maslow
➢ Further development of humanism in
➢ Applicable to variety of disciplines
(teaching, religion, business)
➢ Very optimistic- may be more appealing to
some than behavioral or psychoanalytic