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Question 07:

Sand Casting Process Diagram:

In sand casting which is also known as sand molded casting, an object is produced by sand
mold. The process involves pouring of the molten metal in to the mold cavity. The molten metal
is then cooled to the room temperature. The metal is solidified. After cooling, the metal object
is separated from the mold. Sand casting process has its advantages and disadvantages. So care
should be taken while making delicate products.

The six main steps in this process are -


o Pattern making and placing it the sand mold.
o Making a proper gating system in the mold.
o Removing the pattern.
o Pouring the molten metal in the mold cavity.
o Cooling the mold to the room temperature.
o Breaking the mold and getting the casting.

Question 09:
Six Sigma is a method that provides organizations tools to improve the capability of their
business processes. This increase in performance and decrease in process variation lead
to defect reduction and improvement in profits, employee morale, and quality of
products or services. Six Sigma quality is a term generally used to indicate a process is
well controlled (within process limits ±3s from the center line in a control chart, and
requirements/tolerance limits ±6s from the center line).
There are two major methodologies used within Six Sigma, both of which are composed of five
sections.

DMAIC: This method is used primarily for improving existing business processes. The letters
stand for:

 Define the problem and the project goals


 Measure in detail the various aspects of the current process
 Analyze data to, among other things, find the root defects in a process
 Improve the process
 Control how the process is done in the future.

DMADV: This method is typically used to create new processes and new products or services.
The letters stand for:

 Define the project goals


 Measure critical components of the process and the product capabilities
 Analyze the data and develop various designs for the process, eventually picking the
best one
 Design and test details of the process
 Verify the design by running simulations and a pilot program, and then handing over the
process to the client

Question 10:
Lean production is a systematic manufacturing method used for eliminating waste within
the manufacturing system. It takes into account the waste generated from uneven
workloads and overburden and then reduces them in order to increase value and reduce
costs. Lean provides tools and processes to eliminate waste from
the manufacturing process resulting in improved efficiency, effectiveness, and
profitability.

Question 11:
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour
and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may
refer to a range of human activity. from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly
applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished
goods on a large scale. manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials
are transformed into a final product. The manufacturing process begins with the product
design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are
then modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part.

Question 12:

Step 1 – Product Idea

This step comprises of basic drawing revolving your product idea. Therefore, always ask
yourself – what would be your product, for whom you are developing a product, what would be
the features of your product, and how to make it user-friendly?

Step 2 – In-depth Research

Even though you might have a unique product idea, but make a research about whether your
targeted market is ready for it or not. It is necessary to study the existing market trends and
requirements. Therefore, you need to conclude what is currently ruling in the market and is
there anything identical to your product concept. If you find something identical, then how is
your product going to be better?

Step 3 – Product Design and Development

Make the use of information that you have collected from your survey/study. Based on the
collected information, start creating product designs. But wait, when you are outlining the
design of your product, you need to ask yourself the following questions:

1. What is the job of my product?


2. Will the product be reliable?
3. Will my product be able to survive the rough use?
4. Can the product be manufactured at a cost effective price?
5. What will be the quality of my product?
6. What raw material is best for development?

Step 4 – Research and Development of the Final Design

This is the final step to your product designing with dimensions and raw-material selection;
therefore, before you move on to prototyping stage or manufacturing phase, make sure you
have a complete sketch to work from.

Step 5 – CAD

With the help of 3D modelling software (CAD – Computer Aided Design), you will develop a
computerized 3D model of your absolute product design. These 3D models will often show up
problematic areas where the theoretical stresses and strains on the product to be developed
will be exposed. If any problem persists, it is a best phase of product development to handle
the design errors and go back to step 4.

Step 6 – Prototype Development

Once you get the green signal from the previous step, it is the time to create a fully functional
prototype of your product design using computer aided engineering systems. A physical model
of your design is the best option for testing product features.

Step 7 – Prototype Testing and Feedback

Test your product prototype with family, friends, and potential financiers. You must be fair with
your decisions while testing the prototype and listen to the feedback you get back from other
people. Check, whether every part is functioning properly or not. If your prototype is not
perfect, then move back to 3rd step and start on your product designs.

Step 8 – Product Manufacturing

Once you are satisfied with the performance of your product prototype, you can proceed to the
manufacturing stage. Product manufacturing expenses entirely depend on the density of your
product, especially, if there are numerous parts, material selection, high batch product or low
batch numbers. Being a smart business owner, you need to consider these factors to make sure
you manufacture a healthy product for handsome profit.

Question 13:

 Plastics
 Thermo plastic
 Rubber
 Steel
 Elastomers
 Fiber
 Steel

Plastics

Oil and gas are the raw material source of the many plastic components in cars. Chemical
companies are the industry that transforms petroleum byproducts into plastic. Plastics are the
challenger to steel for prominence in auto manufacturing. Altogether, plastic comprises roughly
50% of what goes into the manufacture of a new car. Among the countless car parts made from
plastic are door handles, air vents, the dashboard and airbags. The versatility, durability and
lightweight character of plastics make them an ideal material for various parts.
Aluminum

Aluminum, primarily because of its malleability and lightweight nature, is being increasingly
used in car manufacturing. Aluminum has progressed from accounting for just 2% of the weight
of an average car in 1970 to nearly 15% today. Wheels are commonly made of aluminum, and it
has replaced steel and iron in the construction of many critical auto parts, such as engine
blocks.

Rubber

Rubber is essential for cars, and the auto industry is essential to the rubber industry. Tires are
one of the most important parts of a car. In addition to tires, rubber is also used for making
numerous belts, hoses and seals critical to the functioning of a car's engine. Like plastic, rubber
is durable and easily molded into different shapes. In all, the demand for rubber that comes
from the auto industry accounts for approximately 80% of the world's total rubber production.

Question 14:

1. Analysis of part drawing and assembly drawing


This is the basis of the machining, to understand the use of products, performance and working
conditions for parts in the product position,functional and technical requirements.

2.Technology review
Review the dimensions and drawing view,analysis of technical requirements is
scientific,reasonable and appropriate. Part of the process of review of the structure

3.Determine the type and method of manufacturing semifinished product


Semifinished product is mainly based on the role of the parts in the product,structural
characteristics and dimensions,replacement parts and materials technology production volume
and other characteristics.

4.Draft the machining process flow


Machining process is designed to be machined in the core part of the program,the main
contents are:select the positioning reference to determine the processing method,heat
treatment,surface treatment,inspection etc.

5.Determine the process equipment and machine


Process equipment include fixtures & clamps,measurement tool,machining tool etc.Under the
premise of quality assurance parts processing, and production volume and production capacity
to adapt to each other.We need to give
priority to the use of standardized technology and equipment and make full use of existing
conditions, to reduce production preparation costs.

6.Determining step allowances, calculated step dimensions and tolerances.


7.Determine cutting parameters
For different processing methods, the need to use different cutting parameters. Cutting
parameters selection principle is: to ensure the machining accuracy and surface roughness,Give
full play to the tool cutting
performance, to ensure a reasonable tool life; and give full play to the machine performance,
maximize productivity and reduce costs.

8.Determine each step fixed working hours


According to the production conditions, so that a majority of workers can be achieved through
hard work, some workers may be advanced over a small number of workers can be achieved
through hard work and close to a
reasonable level.

9.Evaluation process flow


For the development of process solutions for technical and economic analysis, and respond to a
variety of technology solutions to compare, or to use optimization methods to determine the
optimal process plan.

10.Fill in a file and print machining process flow chart