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Archaeology - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.


revolutionized the chronological basis of Egyptology. Petrie was the first to scientifically investigate the Great Pyramid
in Egypt during the 1880s.[16] He was also responsible for mentoring and training a whole generation of Egyptologists,
including Howard Carter who went on to achieve fame with the discovery of the tomb of 14th-century BC pharaoh

The first stratigraphic excavation to reach wide popularity with public was
that of Hissarlik, on the site of ancient Troy, carried out by Heinrich
Schliemann, Frank Calvert and Wilhelm Dörpfeld in the 1870s. These
scholars individuated nine different cities that had overlapped with one
another, from prehistory to the Hellenistic period.[17] Meanwhile, the work
of Sir Arthur Evans at Knossos in Crete revealed the ancient existence of an
equally advanced Minoan civilization.[18]

The next major figure in the development of archaeology was Sir Mortimer
Mortimer Wheeler pioneered Wheeler, whose highly disciplined approach to excavation and systematic
systematic excavation in the early coverage in the 1920s and 1930s brought the science on swiftly. Wheeler
20th century. Pictured, are his developed the grid system of excavation, which was further improved by his
excavations at Maiden Castle,
student Kathleen Kenyon.
Dorset, in October 1937.
Archaeology became a professional activity in the first half of the 20th
century, and it became possible to study archaeology as a subject in
universities and even schools. By the end of the 20th century nearly all professional archaeologists, at least in
developed countries, were graduates. Further adaptation and innovation in archaeology continued in this period, when
maritime archaeology and urban archaeology became more prevalent and rescue archaeology was developed as a result
of increasing commercial development.[19]

The purpose of archaeology is to learn more about past societies and the
development of the human race. Over 99% of the development of humanity
has occurred within prehistoric cultures, who did not make use of writing,
thereby no written records exist for study purposes. Without such written
sources, the only way to understand prehistoric societies is through
archaeology. Because archaeology is the study of past human activity, it
stretches back to about 2.5 million years ago when we find the first stone
tools – The Oldowan Industry. Many important developments in human
history occurred during prehistory, such as the evolution of humanity
during the Paleolithic period, when the hominins developed from the Cast of the skull of the Taung child,
australopithecines in Africa and eventually into modern Homo sapiens. uncovered in South Africa. The
Archaeology also sheds light on many of humanity's technological Child was an infant of the
advances, for instance the ability to use fire, the development of stone tools, Australopithecus africanus species,
the discovery of metallurgy, the beginnings of religion and the creation of an early form of hominin

agriculture. Without archaeology, we would know little or nothing about

the use of material culture by humanity that pre-dates writing.[20]

However, it is not only prehistoric, pre-literate cultures that can be studied using archaeology but historic, literate

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