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TTQC-II

Tensile properties

Kamrunnahar, Lecturer, NUB


TTQC-II

Tensile Properties
Tensile properties:

When external force is applied to a material, it is balanced by internal forces developed in


the molecular structure of the material. By increasing the stresses, material will deformed
and follow the stress – strain curve.

Tensile properties:

1. Tenacity
2. Breaking extension
3. Work of rupture
4. Yield stress
5. Yield strain
6. Work factor
7. elastic recovery

Load: The application of a load to a specimen in its axial direction causes a tension to be
developed in the specimen.

The load is usually expressed in gm wt or pounds wt.

Breaking Load: The load at which material breaks is called breaking load. It is usually
expressed in gm –wt or lb-wt.

Stress: Stress is the ratio between the force applied and X-sectional area of the
specimen.

Forceapplied F
So, Stress= =
X  sec tionalarea A

Units: Dynes/ cm2

Mass stress: Mass stress is the ratio of the force applied to the linear density (mass per
unit length).

Forceapplied
So, Mass stress=
Lineardensity

Units: gm-wt/denier or gm –wt/tex.

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Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

Strain: The strain is the term used to relate the stretch or elongation with the initial
length.

Elongation or change in length


Strain=
initial length

BC
=
AB

A B C D

Extension: By expressing the strain as a percentage we obtain extension.

extension
Extension=  100%
initiallength

Extension is sometimes referred to as the strain percent.

Elastic Recovery: It is a property of a material by which it tends to recover its original


size and shape.

Elastic extension CD
Elastic recovery = 
Total extension BD

Tenacity:

The tenacity of a material is the mass stress at break. An alternative term for tenacity is
‘Specific strength’.
Mathematically,

Tenacity

Unit : gm/den, gm/tex etc

Breaking length:

The ‘breaking length’ is the length of the specimen which will just break under its own
weight when hung vertically.

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Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

Unit of breaking length is kilometer.

Problem:

A 100 denier viscose rayon breaks at a load of 185 gm. Find out the breaking length.

Solution:
We know, Tenacity

═ 16650 m

═16.65 km
Work of rupture:

Work of rupture is defined as the energy needed to break a


specimen.

If we may consider a fibre under a load F, increasing in


length dl,

We have,

Work done

= force x displacement

= F. dl

break
So, total works to break =  F  dl
0

break
So, work of rupture =  F  dl
0

= ½ (Breaking load x Breaking extension)

Work factor:

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Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

If the fibre obeyed Hook’s Law, the load elongation curve would be a straight line and the
work of rupture would be given by,

Work of rupture = ½ (Breaking load x Breaking elongation)

So work factor is defined as the ratio of work of rupture to breaking load x breaking
extension.

Work of rupture
Work factor=
Breaking load x Breaking extension
1 x Breaking load x Breaking extension
 2
Breaking load x Breaking extension
1

2

In ideal state, the work factor will be ½.

If the load elongation curves lies mainly above the straight


line the work factor will be more than ½.

If the load elongation curves lies mainly below the straight


line the work factor will be less than ½.

Yield stress and yield strain:

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Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

The point (A) up to which material shows elastic properties (up to elastic deformation) after
which the fiber shows plastic properties is called yield point.

This point is then characterized by its stress and strain –

The yield stress and yield strain.

Draw perpendicular AA ́ from A on the strain line to A ́́ point.

Let the angle of OC and OD is α.

AA
So, tanα =
OA

Here, AA ́́ = Yield stress

OA ́́ = Yield strain.

Basic method of tensile experiment:

1. Constant rate of loading (CRL).


2. Constant rate of elongation (CRE).

Constant Rate of loading:

 A specimen “A” is gripped between the fixed top jaw J1&a movable jaw J2.
 A force “F” is initially zero and increasing at a constant rate along the downward.

 Due to the applied force, the specimen extends & it will continue the extension until it
eventually breaks.
 Thus, here the load causes the elongation.

Constant Rate of elongation:

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Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

 A specimen “B” is gripped between Top jaw “J3” & bottom jaw “J4”. J4 can move
downward by a screw mechanism.
 Initially the tension in “B” is zero. When the bottom jaw “J4” moves downward, the
specimen is extended & increasing tension in specimen which finally causes break.
 In this case extension causes elongation.
Factors affecting yarn strength:

1. Staple length:Longer staple cotton gives higher strength with synthetics where much
longer staple lengths than cotton are available, the increase levels off after the
optimum length.

2. Fiber Fineness:Finer fiber gives greater yarn strength than coarse fibers when spun
into a given size.
3. Fiber strength: Logically, a strong fiber produces a stronger yarn than a weak fiber.
4. Twist: For any single spun yarn, there is always a twist that gives maximum strength.
A twist less than or greater than this optimum amount results in a yarn of lower
strength.
5. Evenness: The greater the uniformity of a spun yarn, the higher is its strength and the
more uneven a yarn, the lower is its strength.
6. Fiber length distribution: Variations in the distribution of fiber lengths will cause a
variation in yarn strength. The greater percentage of short fibers, the lower the
strength of the yarn.
7. Fiber finish: The type and amount of chemical finish applied to fibers, particularly
the man made fibers, has a very definite effect on the strength of the yarn, as well as
on the processing characteristics of the staple.
8. Maturity: If maturity of fiber increases yarn strength also increases.

Factors affecting tensile properties:

a) The test specimen length

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Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

b) The capacity of the m/c


c) The effect of humidity & temperature
d) The rate of loading & the time to break the specimen
e) Previous history of the specimen
f) The form of the test specimen.

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Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB