You are on page 1of 8

# TTQC-II

Tensile properties

## Kamrunnahar, Lecturer, NUB

TTQC-II

Tensile Properties
Tensile properties:

## When external force is applied to a material, it is balanced by internal forces developed in

the molecular structure of the material. By increasing the stresses, material will deformed
and follow the stress – strain curve.

Tensile properties:

1. Tenacity
2. Breaking extension
3. Work of rupture
4. Yield stress
5. Yield strain
6. Work factor
7. elastic recovery

Load: The application of a load to a specimen in its axial direction causes a tension to be
developed in the specimen.

## The load is usually expressed in gm wt or pounds wt.

Breaking Load: The load at which material breaks is called breaking load. It is usually
expressed in gm –wt or lb-wt.

Stress: Stress is the ratio between the force applied and X-sectional area of the
specimen.

Forceapplied F
So, Stress= =
X  sec tionalarea A

## Units: Dynes/ cm2

Mass stress: Mass stress is the ratio of the force applied to the linear density (mass per
unit length).

Forceapplied
So, Mass stress=
Lineardensity

## Units: gm-wt/denier or gm –wt/tex.

2
Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

Strain: The strain is the term used to relate the stretch or elongation with the initial
length.

Strain=
initial length

BC
=
AB

A B C D

## Extension: By expressing the strain as a percentage we obtain extension.

extension
Extension=  100%
initiallength

## Elastic Recovery: It is a property of a material by which it tends to recover its original

size and shape.

Elastic extension CD
Elastic recovery = 
Total extension BD

Tenacity:

The tenacity of a material is the mass stress at break. An alternative term for tenacity is
‘Specific strength’.
Mathematically,

Tenacity

## Unit : gm/den, gm/tex etc

Breaking length:

The ‘breaking length’ is the length of the specimen which will just break under its own
weight when hung vertically.

3
Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

## Unit of breaking length is kilometer.

Problem:

A 100 denier viscose rayon breaks at a load of 185 gm. Find out the breaking length.

Solution:
We know, Tenacity

═ 16650 m

═16.65 km
Work of rupture:

specimen.

## If we may consider a fibre under a load F, increasing in

length dl,

We have,

Work done

= force x displacement

= F. dl

break
So, total works to break =  F  dl
0

break
So, work of rupture =  F  dl
0

## = ½ (Breaking load x Breaking extension)

Work factor:

4
Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

If the fibre obeyed Hook’s Law, the load elongation curve would be a straight line and the
work of rupture would be given by,

## Work of rupture = ½ (Breaking load x Breaking elongation)

So work factor is defined as the ratio of work of rupture to breaking load x breaking
extension.

Work of rupture
Work factor=
Breaking load x Breaking extension
1 x Breaking load x Breaking extension
 2
Breaking load x Breaking extension
1

2

## If the load elongation curves lies mainly above the straight

line the work factor will be more than ½.

## If the load elongation curves lies mainly below the straight

line the work factor will be less than ½.

## Yield stress and yield strain:

5
Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

The point (A) up to which material shows elastic properties (up to elastic deformation) after
which the fiber shows plastic properties is called yield point.

AA
So, tanα =
OA

## Here, AA ́́ = Yield stress

OA ́́ = Yield strain.

## 1. Constant rate of loading (CRL).

2. Constant rate of elongation (CRE).

## Constant Rate of loading:

 A specimen “A” is gripped between the fixed top jaw J1&a movable jaw J2.
 A force “F” is initially zero and increasing at a constant rate along the downward.

 Due to the applied force, the specimen extends & it will continue the extension until it
eventually breaks.
 Thus, here the load causes the elongation.

## Constant Rate of elongation:

6
Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

 A specimen “B” is gripped between Top jaw “J3” & bottom jaw “J4”. J4 can move
downward by a screw mechanism.
 Initially the tension in “B” is zero. When the bottom jaw “J4” moves downward, the
specimen is extended & increasing tension in specimen which finally causes break.
 In this case extension causes elongation.
Factors affecting yarn strength:

1. Staple length:Longer staple cotton gives higher strength with synthetics where much
longer staple lengths than cotton are available, the increase levels off after the
optimum length.

2. Fiber Fineness:Finer fiber gives greater yarn strength than coarse fibers when spun
into a given size.
3. Fiber strength: Logically, a strong fiber produces a stronger yarn than a weak fiber.
4. Twist: For any single spun yarn, there is always a twist that gives maximum strength.
A twist less than or greater than this optimum amount results in a yarn of lower
strength.
5. Evenness: The greater the uniformity of a spun yarn, the higher is its strength and the
more uneven a yarn, the lower is its strength.
6. Fiber length distribution: Variations in the distribution of fiber lengths will cause a
variation in yarn strength. The greater percentage of short fibers, the lower the
strength of the yarn.
7. Fiber finish: The type and amount of chemical finish applied to fibers, particularly
the man made fibers, has a very definite effect on the strength of the yarn, as well as
on the processing characteristics of the staple.
8. Maturity: If maturity of fiber increases yarn strength also increases.

## a) The test specimen length

7
Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB
TTQC-II

## b) The capacity of the m/c

c) The effect of humidity & temperature
d) The rate of loading & the time to break the specimen
e) Previous history of the specimen
f) The form of the test specimen.

8
Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB