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TTQC-II(1) full books

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Tensile properties

TTQC-II

Tensile Properties

Tensile properties:

the molecular structure of the material. By increasing the stresses, material will deformed

and follow the stress – strain curve.

Tensile properties:

1. Tenacity

2. Breaking extension

3. Work of rupture

4. Yield stress

5. Yield strain

6. Work factor

7. elastic recovery

Load: The application of a load to a specimen in its axial direction causes a tension to be

developed in the specimen.

Breaking Load: The load at which material breaks is called breaking load. It is usually

expressed in gm –wt or lb-wt.

Stress: Stress is the ratio between the force applied and X-sectional area of the

specimen.

Forceapplied F

So, Stress= =

X sec tionalarea A

Mass stress: Mass stress is the ratio of the force applied to the linear density (mass per

unit length).

Forceapplied

So, Mass stress=

Lineardensity

2

Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB

TTQC-II

Strain: The strain is the term used to relate the stretch or elongation with the initial

length.

Strain=

initial length

BC

=

AB

A B C D

extension

Extension= 100%

initiallength

size and shape.

Elastic extension CD

Elastic recovery =

Total extension BD

Tenacity:

The tenacity of a material is the mass stress at break. An alternative term for tenacity is

‘Specific strength’.

Mathematically,

Tenacity

Breaking length:

The ‘breaking length’ is the length of the specimen which will just break under its own

weight when hung vertically.

3

Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB

TTQC-II

Problem:

A 100 denier viscose rayon breaks at a load of 185 gm. Find out the breaking length.

Solution:

We know, Tenacity

═ 16650 m

═16.65 km

Work of rupture:

specimen.

length dl,

We have,

Work done

= force x displacement

= F. dl

break

So, total works to break = F dl

0

break

So, work of rupture = F dl

0

Work factor:

4

Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB

TTQC-II

If the fibre obeyed Hook’s Law, the load elongation curve would be a straight line and the

work of rupture would be given by,

So work factor is defined as the ratio of work of rupture to breaking load x breaking

extension.

Work of rupture

Work factor=

Breaking load x Breaking extension

1 x Breaking load x Breaking extension

2

Breaking load x Breaking extension

1

2

line the work factor will be more than ½.

line the work factor will be less than ½.

5

Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB

TTQC-II

The point (A) up to which material shows elastic properties (up to elastic deformation) after

which the fiber shows plastic properties is called yield point.

AA

So, tanα =

OA

OA ́́ = Yield strain.

2. Constant rate of elongation (CRE).

A specimen “A” is gripped between the fixed top jaw J1&a movable jaw J2.

A force “F” is initially zero and increasing at a constant rate along the downward.

Due to the applied force, the specimen extends & it will continue the extension until it

eventually breaks.

Thus, here the load causes the elongation.

6

Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB

TTQC-II

A specimen “B” is gripped between Top jaw “J3” & bottom jaw “J4”. J4 can move

downward by a screw mechanism.

Initially the tension in “B” is zero. When the bottom jaw “J4” moves downward, the

specimen is extended & increasing tension in specimen which finally causes break.

In this case extension causes elongation.

Factors affecting yarn strength:

1. Staple length:Longer staple cotton gives higher strength with synthetics where much

longer staple lengths than cotton are available, the increase levels off after the

optimum length.

2. Fiber Fineness:Finer fiber gives greater yarn strength than coarse fibers when spun

into a given size.

3. Fiber strength: Logically, a strong fiber produces a stronger yarn than a weak fiber.

4. Twist: For any single spun yarn, there is always a twist that gives maximum strength.

A twist less than or greater than this optimum amount results in a yarn of lower

strength.

5. Evenness: The greater the uniformity of a spun yarn, the higher is its strength and the

more uneven a yarn, the lower is its strength.

6. Fiber length distribution: Variations in the distribution of fiber lengths will cause a

variation in yarn strength. The greater percentage of short fibers, the lower the

strength of the yarn.

7. Fiber finish: The type and amount of chemical finish applied to fibers, particularly

the man made fibers, has a very definite effect on the strength of the yarn, as well as

on the processing characteristics of the staple.

8. Maturity: If maturity of fiber increases yarn strength also increases.

7

Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB

TTQC-II

c) The effect of humidity & temperature

d) The rate of loading & the time to break the specimen

e) Previous history of the specimen

f) The form of the test specimen.

8

Kamrunnahar, Lecturer,NUB

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