(Code Division Multiple Access) A method for transmitting realtime signals over a shared portion of the spectrum. The foremost application of CDMA is the digital cellular phone technology that operates in the 800MHz band and 1.9GHz . Unlike GSM and TDMA, which divides the spectrum into different time slots CDMA uses a spread spectrum technique to assign a code to each conversation. After the speech codec converts voice to digital, CDMA spreads the voice stream over the full 1.25MHz bandwidth of the CDMA channel coding each stream separately so it can be decoded at the receiving end. The rate of the spreading signal is known as the “chip rate,” as each bit in the spreading signal is called a “chip” voice conversations use the full bandwidth at the same time. One bit from each conversation is multiplied into 128 coded bits by the spreading techniques, giving the receiving side an enormous amount of data it can average just to determine the value of one bit.

CDMA phones are noted for their excellent call quality and low current draw CDMA is less costly to implement, requiring fewer cell sites than the GSM and TDMA digital cell phone systems and providing three to five times the calling capacity. It provides more than 10 times the capacity of the analog cell phone system (AMPS). CDMA is also expected to become the third-generation (3G) technology for GSM

CDMA transmission has been used by the military for secure phone calls. Unlike FDMA and TDMA methods, CDMA’s wide spreading signal makes it difficult to detect and jam.


One of the most important concepts to any cellular telephone system is that of “multiple access”, meaning that multiple,

simultaneous users can be supported. In other words, a large number of users share a common pool of radio channels and any user can gain access to any channel (each user is not always assigned to the same channel). A channel can be thought of as merely a portion of the limited radio resource which is temporary allocated for a specific purpose, such as someone’s phone call. A multiple access method is a definition of how the radio spectrum is divided into channels and how channels are allocated to the many users of the system.


It is easier to understand CDMA if it is compared with other multiple access technologies. The following sections describe the fundamental differences between a Frequency Division Multiple Access Analog technology (FDMA), a Time Division Multiple Access Digital technology (TDMA) and a Code Division Multiple Access Digital technology (CDMA).

FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDMA is used for standard analog cellular. Each user is assigned a discrete slice of the RF spectrum. FDMA permits only one user per channel since it allows the user to use the channel 100% of the time. Therefore, only the frequency “dimension” is used to define channels.

TDMA - Time Division Multiole Access
The key point to make about TDMA is that users are still assigned a discrete slice of RF spectrum, but multiple users now

CDMA share that RF carrier on a time slot basis. Each of the users alternate their use of the RF channel. Frequency division is still employed, but these carriers are now further sub-divided into some number of time slots per carrier.

A user is assigned a particular time slot in a carrier and can only send or receive information at those times. This is true whether or not the other time slots are being used. Information flow is not continuous for any user, but rather is sent and received in “bursts.” The bursts are re-assembled at the receiving end, and appear to provide continuous sound because the process is very fast.

CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
IS-95 uses a multiple access spectrum spreading technique called Direct Sequence

Each user is assigned a binary, Direct Sequence code during a call. The DS code is a signal generated by linear modulation with wideband Pseudorandorn Noise (PN) sequences. As a result, DS

A single pair of people would enter each small room and hold their conversation. who would like to hold conversations. First. There is no time division. creating a larger number of small rooms. When that . An FDMA environment would be simulated by building walls in the single large room. however. the “International Cocktail Party” analogy will be applied. Wideband signals reduce interference and allow onecell frequency reuse. it is necessary to define the environment for each conversation. Picture a large room and a number of people. The people in each pair only want to talk and listen to each other. and have no interest in what is being said by the other pairs. in pairs. let us apply this analogy to an FDMA system. In order for these conversations to take place. Figure 3: DS-CDMA The International Cocktail Party To illustrate the conceptual differences among the multiple access technologies.CDMA CDMA uses much wider signals than those used in other technologies. all of the time. and all users use the entire carrier.

Pairs of people will enter the single large room. each of these small rooms would be able to accommodate multiple conversations “simultaneously.” For example. with each pair taking turns talking. We can continue to add pairs. each pair is still limited to its 20 seconds per minute. for CDMA. with a 3 slot TDMA system such as IS-54. By controlling the voice volume (signal strength) of all users to no more than necessary. In addition. pair B using 0:21 second through 0:40 second. we maximize the number of conversations which can take place in the room (maximize the number of users per carrier). With pair A able to use 0:01 second through 0:20 second. language “filters” are incorporated. In a TDMA environment. people speaking German will hear virtually nothing from those speaking Spanish. Now. Think of each pair having the right to speak for 20 seconds during each minute. . each speaking a unique language (as defined by the unique code) until the overall “background noise” (interference from other users) makes it too difficult for some of the people to understand the other in their pair (frame erasure rates get too high). etc. The analogy here is that the air in the room is a wideband “carrier” and the languages are represented by the “codes” assigned by the CDMA system. if every pair uses a different language. and pair C using 0:41 second through 0:60 second.CDMA conversation is complete. each “room” would contain up to 3 pairs of people. the pair of people would leave and another pair would be able to enter that small room. get rid of all of the little rooms. they can all use the air in the room as a carrier for their voices and experience little interference from the other pairs. However. Even if there are fewer than three pairs in the small room.

such as those based on the Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) and Total Access Communications System (TACS) standards. . Narrowband AMPS (NAMPS) requires only 10 kHz per channel. AMPS systems use 30 kHz “slices” of spectrum for each channel. per carrier depends on the amount of activity that is going on in each channel. Current Cellular Standards Different types of cellular systems employ various methods of multiple access. TDMA digital standards include North American Digital Cellular (known by its standard number IS-54). TACS channels are 25 kHz wide. the maximum number of users. at the “cost” of a bit more interference to the other users. No other conversations can access this channel until the subscriber’s call is finished. out of the radio spectrum. A common multiple access method employed in new digital cellular systems is Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). only one subscriber at a time is assigned to a channel. or effective traffic channels. and is therefore not precise.CDMA Therefore. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). use Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA). FDMA channels are defined by a range of radio frequencies. It is a “soft overload” concept where an additional user (or conversation. in our analogy) can usually be accommodated if necessary. With FDMA. and Personal Digital Cellular (PDC). For example. usually expressed in a number of kilohertz (kHz). The traditional analog cellular systems. or until that original call is handed off to a different channel by the system.

Each carrier is then divided into time slots.” All users share the same range of radio spectrum. No other conversations can access this channel until the subscriber’s call is finished. or until that original call is handed off to a different channel by the system. The CDMA Cellular Standard With CDMA. The codes are shared by both the mobile station (cellular phone) and the base station. and are called “pseudo Random Code Sequences.CDMA TDMA systems commonly start with a slice of spectrum. referred to as one “carrier”. rather than separate RF frequencies or channels. CDMA is a digital multiple access technique specified by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) as “IS-95”. Only one subscriber at a time is assigned to each time slot. For cellular telephony. or channel. are used to differentiate subscribers. . unique digital codes.

which means that it spreads the information contained in a particular signal of interest over a much greater bandwidth than the original signal. Traditional uses of spread spectrum are in military operations. such as anti. and difficult to identify. it is difficult to jam or interfere with a CDMA signal).6 kilobits per second).jamming (because of the spread signal. Since a wideband spread spectrum signal is very hard to detect. At that point. The standard data rate of a CDMA call is 9600 bits per second (9. Spread Spectrum CDMA is a “spread spectrum” technology. At the receiving end. and secure communications (the spread spectrum signal is very hard to detect). CDMA has been used in many military applications. difficult to interfere with. This is in contrast to technologies using a narrower bandwidth of frequencies. Because of the Wide bandwidth of a spread spectrum signal. leaving only the original information which was to be communicated. This initial data is “spread. each call is once again a unique data stream with a rate of 9600 bits per second.CDMA CDMA TECHNOLOGY Though CDMA application in cellular telephony is relatively new. the digital codes are separated out. up to the transmitted rate of about 1. The data bits of each call are then transmitted in combination with the data bits of all of the calls in the cell. ranging (measuring the distance of the transmission to know when it will be received). it is very difficult to jam. it appears as nothing more than a slight rise in the “noise .” including the application of digital codes to the data bits. it is not a new technology.23 megabits per second.

The independence of the code distinguishes this from standard modulation schemes in which the data modulation will always spread the spectrum somewhat. 3. This pseudo-random code is also called pseudo-noise (PN). With other technologies. The receiver synchronizes to the code to recover the data.CDMA floor” or interference level. . This results in many benefits. In order to protect the signal. the code used is pseudo-random. unlike an. the power of the signal is concentrated in a narrower band. a simple radio receiver will not be able to pick individual digital conversations out of the overall RF radiation in a frequency band. It appears random. CDMA phone calls will be secure from the casual eavesdropper since. analog conversation. such as immunity to interference and jamming and multi-user access 2. The bandwidth is spread by means of a code which is independent of the data. Increased privacy is inherent in CDMA technology. Spread Spectrum communications is distinguished by three key elements: 1. In general. The use of an independent code and synchronous reception allows multiple users to access the same frequency band at the same time. so that the receivefcan reconstruct the code for synchronous detection. but is actually deterministic. which makes it easier to detect. The signal occupies a bandwidth much greater than that which is necessary to send the information. Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications CDMA is a form of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum communications.

Signal transmission consists of the following steps: 1. Direct sequence. A pseudo-random code is generated. the receiver knows how to generate the same code. The code is generated pseudo-randomly. and the receiver knows beforehand when to expect the burst. The modulated carrier is amplified and broadcast. 3. etc. The Information data modulates the pseudo-random code (the Information data is “spread”). Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum CDMA is a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system. modem data. and the receiver knows before hand where to find the signal at any given time. and correlates the received signal with that code to extract the data. The signal is rapidly switched between different frequencies within the hopping bandwidth pseudorandomly. 4. different for each channel and each successive connection. Time hopping.CDMA Three Types of Spread Spectrum Communications There are three ways to spread the bandwidth of the signal: Frequency hopping. The CDMA system works directly on 64 kbit/sec digital signals. The resulting signal modulates a carrier. These signals can be digitized voice. The digital data is directly coded at a much higher frequency. ISDN channels. . The signal is transmitted in short bursts pseudo-randomly. 2.

A pseudo-random code is generated.CDMA Signal reception consists of the following steps: 1. The main Problem with Direct Sequence is the Near-Far effect. The receiver acquires the received code and phase locks its own code to it.reference user is closer to the receiver then the reference-user. . the transmitted power of nonreference users is suppressed by a factor dependent on the (partial) cross correlation between the code of the reference user and the code of a non-reference user. it is possible that the interference caused by this non-reference user (however suppressed) has more power the reference user. The received signal is mixed with a local carrier to recover the spread digital signal. extracting the Information data. The received signal is correlated with the generated code. If there are more then one users active. 4. 5. The carrier is received and amplified. matching the anticipated signal. 2. However when a non. In non-cellular systems the influence of the near-far effect can be reduced by using the frequency-hopping spread spectrum technique. In such systems the base station takes care that all users have such a power that the received power at the base station is equal for all users. 3. this nasty property is called the near-far effect One way to beat the near-far effect can be exploited in cellular systems. Now only the non-reference user will be received.

A second multiplication by a replica of the same +1 sequence in the receiver recovers the original signal.CDMA CDMA uses a form of direct sequence. The SNR is enhanced by the so-called processing gain W/R. Direct sequence is. being uncorrelated with the PN sequence. The noise and interference. become noise-like and increase in bandwidth when they reach the detector. The signal-to. in essence. multiplication of a more conventional communication waveform by a pseudonoise (PN) ±1 binary sequence in the transmitter. entirely in the binary domain.noise ratio can be enhanced by narrowband filtering that rejects most of the interference power. and the transmitted signals are carefully bandlimited. where W is the spread bandwidth and R is the data rate. Spreading takes place prior to any modulation. .

An other advantage is that diversity can be applied. Now error correcting codes are not needed. The process of frequency hop is shown below: There are two kinds of Frequency Hopping Techniques. Every frequency . So we are forced to use error correcting codes.CDMA Frequency Hopping When using Frequency Hopping. In this way the bandwidth is also increased. An advantage is that coherent data detection is possible. • Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH) In this technique one data bit is divided over more Frequency Hops. • Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH) In this case one or more data bits are transmitted within one Frequency Hop. one or more data bits are lost. the carrier frequency is ‘hopping’ according to a known sequence (of length). A disadvantage is that if one frequency hop channel is jammed. If the channels are non-overlapping the factor of spreading is . this factor is equal to the Processing Gain.

Hybrid System: DS/(F)FH The DS/FFH Spread Spectrum technique is a combination of direct-sequence and frequency-hopping. at the end of each data bit a majority decision is made. As nearby non-reference users are not constantly in the same frequency slot a the reference user. In each frequency-hop channel one complete PN-code of length is added to the data signal (see figure. where is taken to be 5). A disadvantage is that coherent data detection is not possible because of phase discontinuities. . Using the FFH scheme in stead of the SFH scheme causes the bandwidth to increase. The applied modulation technique should be FSK or MFSK. One data bit is divided over frequency-hop channels (carrier frequencies). this increase however is neglectable with regard to the enormous bandwidth already in use.CDMA hop a decision is made whether a -1 or a 1 is transmitted. the near-far effect has less influence.

which is below noise level.CDMA CODING CDMA uses unique spreading codes to spread the baseband data before transmission. which is passed through a narrow bandpass filter. The signal is transmitted in a channel. The base station adds together all the coded transmissions for every subscriber. Unwanted signals will not be despread and will not pass through the filter. Generating Pseudo-Random Codes For each channel the base station generates a unique code that changes for every connection. The rate of a spreading code is referred to as chip rate rather than bit rate. The subscriber unit . The receiver then uses a correlator to despread the wanted signal. Codes take the form of a carefully designed one/zero sequence produced at a much higher rate than that of the baseband data.

correlation has a specific mathematical meaning. Code Correlation In this context. this should be as small as possible. the pseudo-random code must have the following properties: 1. There are two correlation functions: Cross-Correlation: The correlation of two different codes. 4. The more they have in common. Note that each subscriber uses several independent channels.e. the harder it is for the receiver to extract the appropriate signal. The subscriber station must be able to independently generate the code that matches the base station code. 2. The cross-correlation between any two codes must be small (see below for more information on code correlation). As we’ve said. 3. it has the statistical properties of sampled white noise). In general the correlation function has these properties: It equals 1 if the two codes are identical It equals 0 of the two codes have nothing in common Intermediate values indicate how much the codes have in common. this function should equal 0 for any time delay other than zero. a long time before the code repeats itself).e. The code must have a long period (i. It must appear random to a listener without prior knowledge of the code (i. It must be deterministic. In order to reject multi-path interference. In order for all this to occur. . Auto-Correlation: The correlation of a code with a time-delayed version of itself.CDMA correctly generates its own matching code and uses it to extract the appropriate signals.

information data (f) and the PN code. Chip: One bit of the PN code. can be approximated by the bandwidth of the PN code. for fc>fi. The bandwidth of the combination of the two.CDMA The receiver uses cross-correlation to separate the appropriate signal from signals meant for other receivers. Pseudo-Noise Spreading The FEC coded Information data modulates the pseudorandom code. The bandwidth of a digital signal is twice its bit rate. System Capacity The capacity of a system is approximated by C max = Gp 1 Eb 1+ β No Where C max Is the maximum number of simultaneous calls Gp Is the processing gain . : . Epoch: The length of time before the code starts repeating itself (the period of the code).. and auto-correlation to reject multi-path interference.Some terminology related to the pseudo-random code: Chipping Frequency (fe): the bit rate of the PN code. Information rate (f): the bit rate of the digital data. The epoch must be longer than the round trip propagation delay (The epoch is on the order of several seconds).

Capacity is also inversely proportional to the signal to noise ratio of the received signal. the larger the system capacity.CDMA Eb β No Is the total signal to noise ratio per bit. This maximizes system capacity.and Is the cell interference factor The capacity is directly proportional to the processing gain. THE SPREADING PROCESS WCDMA uses Direct Sequence spreading. where spreading process is done by directly combining the baseband information to high chip rate binary code. Spreading process gain can in expressed in dBs (Spreading factor 128 = 21dB gain). the smaller the transmitted signal. 84Mchips/s) to baseband information rate. The Spreading Factor is the ratio of the chips (UMTS = 3. Spreading factors vary from 4 to 512 in FDD UMTS. So. Both the RCS and FSU control the power transmitted by the other so that the received signal is as small as possible while maintaining a minimum signal to noise ratio. CDMA spreading .

it is possible to make the connection to the new cell before leaving the current cell. Since all cells in CDMA use the same frequency. and then the connection to the new cell is made. In a traditional “hard” handover. the connection to the current cell is broken. which reduces interference and increases capacity. Soft handovers require less power. This is known as a “break-beforemake” handover. Mobile can be connected to more that two BTS the handover. CDMA soft handover .CDMA HANDOVER Handover occurs when a call has to be passed from one cell to another as the user moves between cells. “Softer” handover is a special case of soft handover where the radio links that are added and removed belong to the same Node B. This is known as a “make-before-break” or “soft” handover.

Multi-path interference is caused by the broadcast signal traveling over different paths to reach the receiver. causing it to fade. . and resort to equalization to mitigate the negative effects of multipath. and add destructively to the desired signal. One of the receivers (fingers) constantly searches for different multipaths and feeds the information to the other three. CDMA uses the multipath signals and combines them to make an even stronger signal at the receivers. The results are then combined together to make the signal stronger. CDMA subscriber units use rake receivers. Each finger then demodulates the signal corresponding to a strong multipath. which are narrow band systems. The receiver then has to recover the signal combined with echoes of varying amplitude and phase.CDMA MULTIPATH AND RAKE RECEIVERS One of the main advantages of CDMA systems is the capability of using signals that arrive in the receivers with different time delays. fingers. Selective fading: The reflected signals are delayed long enough that they are randomly out of phase. This results in two types of interference: Inter-chip interference: The reflected signals are delayed long enough that successive bits (or chips. A common problem with urban communications is multi-path interference. INTERFERENCE REJECTION CDMA technology is inherently resistant to interference and jamming. cannot discriminate between the multipath arrivals. in this case) in the demodulated signals overlap. Due to its wide bandwidth and rake receivers. This is essentially a set of several receivers. creating uncertainty in the data. FDMA and TDMA. This phenomenon is called multipath.

and other factors. It phase shifts the echo signals and adds them to maximize the received signal. As the MS moves around. The relative amplitude and phase of each echo is measured. .CDMA Combating Interference Two methods are commonly used to combat multi-path interference: Rake filter: Correlators are set up at appropriate time intervals to extract all the echoes. internal interference generated by the system is the most significant factor in determining system capacity and call quality. Maximum capacity is achieved when Eb/No of every user is at the minimum level needed for the acceptable channel performance. external interference. and each echo signal is phase corrected and added to the signal. the RF environment continuously changes due to fast and slow fading. the power should be enough to maintain the required Eb/No (signal to noise ratio) for . the propagation characteristics) of the signal path.e. The transmit power for each user must be reduced to limit interference. The aim of the dynamic power control is to limit transmitted power on both the links while maintaining link quality under all conditions. satisfactory call quality. This filter is “matched” to the transfer function (i. POWER CONTROL CDMA is interference limited multiple access system. Adaptive Matched Filter. shadowing. Because all users transmit on the same frequency. however.

CDMA CDMA BENEFITS BENEFIT 1: CDMA CAPACITY INCREASES CDMA anti Cell Reuse Eb/No and Interference Threshold Examples of Capacity Improvements Other influence on Capacity BENEFIT 2: IMPROVED CALL QUALITY Advanced Error Detection and! Error Correction Sophisticated Vocoders Multiple Levels of Diversity Soft Handoff Precise Power Control BENEFIT 3: SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM PLANNING BENEFIT 4: ENHANCED PRIVACY BENEFIT 5: IMPROVED COVERAGE BENEFIT 6: INCREASED PORTABLE TALKTIME BENEFIT 7:BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND .

The following is an overview of the benefits of CDMA. Each benefit will be described in detail in the following subsections. Instead of one channel in 30 kHz as in AMPS. with better and more consistent sound as compared to AMPS systems 3. Bandwidth on demand Benefit 1: CDMA Capacity Increases Capacity gains in cellular systems can be attained in one of two ways: 1. Simplified system planning through the use of the same frequency in every sector of every cell 4.CDMA CDMA BENEFITS When implemented in a cellular telephone system. . NAMPS is an example of a system technology which achieves greater capacity through method #1 (more channels per MHz of spectrum). Increased talk time for portables 7. NAMPS gets three channels in 30 kHz. CDMA technology offers numerous benefits to the cellular operators and their subscribers. Improved coverage characteristics. By getting more channel reuse per unit of geographic area. 2. thereby providing three times the capacity of AMPS. Enhanced privacy 5. Improved call quality. By getting more channels per MHz of spectrum. 1. allowing for the possibility of fewer cell sites 6. Capacity increases of 8 to 10 times that of an AMPS analog system and 4 to 5 times that of a GSM system 2.

Although there are hundreds of channels available. total system capacity would equal to the total number of channels. FREQUENCY REUSE Central to the cellular concept is the concept of frequency reuse. then a planar service area is optimally covered by the classical hexagonal array of cells . By reusing channels in multiple cells the system can grow without geographical limits. Typical cellular reuseis easily rationalized by considering an idealized system. If we assume that propagation is uniformly R and that cell boundaries are at the equisignal points. if each frequency were assigned to only one cell.CDMA GSM is an example of a system which uses method #2 (more channel reuse per unit of geographic area). only a few thousand subscribers per system. This allows GSM to place cell sites closer together and translates to about two times the capacity of TACS. GSM allows for a 9dB C/I (carrier to interference ratio) instead of the traditional 17dB C/I used in TACS (the analog FDMA technology in the 900 MHz band).

This seven-cell unit is then replicated over the service area. Eb/No and Interference Threshold Eb/No provides a measure of the performance of a CDMA link between the mobile and the cell. The capacity of a Kway reuse pattern is simply the total number of available channels divided by K. While real systems do not ever look like these idealized hexagonal tilings of a plane. It is the ratio in dB between the energy of each information bit and the noise spectral density. one set in each colored cell.CDMA Seven sets of channels are used. It represents the signal to noise ratio for a single bit on the reverse link. the sevenway reuse is typical of that achieved in practice. The noise is a combination of background interference and the interference created by other users on the system. No similarly colored cells are adjacent. and therefore there are no adjacent cells using the same channel. . With K=7 and 416 channels. there are approximately 57 channels available per cell.

uses advanced forward error correction coding as well as a digital demodulator. systems based on narrowband digital modulation generally use less sophisticated schemes which use up less bandwidth. therefore. on the other hand. the higher the overall cell site capacity. the CDMA system erases frames of information that contain too many errors. Conversely. In order to keep voice quality high. Using an interference threshold. then. CDMA achieves more capacity and uses less transmitter power than narrowband systems. must be balanced against each other. the higher the acceptable FER. frame erasure rate and voice quality. This leads to a need to limit the number of users on the system. These two parameters. is increasing. The FER. Benefit 2: Improved Call Quality Cellular telephone systems using CDMA are able to provide higher quality sound and fewer dropped calls than systems based on . the FER decreases. as compared to the level of the voice information. lowering CDMA’s required Eb/No ratio. as the Eb/No level increases. describes the number of frames that were erased due to poor quality. CDMA describes Eb/No noise interference in terms of the Frame Erasure Rate (FER). This will lower the voice quality of the conversation. the operators of narrowband systems require a higher Eb/No. and system voice quality is improved. While all digital cellular systems use error correction coding. Therefore. lowering capacity. CDMA.CDMA A decrease in the Eb/No ratio indicates that the relative level of interference. Using a lower Eb/No to reach voice quality standards.

. Sophisticated vocoders offer high speed coding and reduce background noise.CDMA other technologies. “Softer” Handoffs between sectors of the same cell provide similar benefits. Corrupted voice data can be detected and either corrected or manipulated to minimize the impact of data errors on speech quality. A number of features inherent in the system produce this high quality. The voice quality for CDMA has been rated very high in mean opinion score Advanced Error Detection and Error Correction The IS-95 CDMA air interface standard specifies powerflul error detection and correction algorithms.” and actually enhances sound quality) time diversity (interleaving and coding) Soft Handoffs contribute to high voice quality by providing a “make before break” connection. Precise power control assures that all mobiles are very close to the optimum power level to provide the highest voice quality possible. CDMA takes advantage of various types of diversity to improve speech quality: frequency diversity (protection against frequency selective fading) spatial diversity (two receive antennas) path diversity (rake receiver improves reception of a signal experiencing multipath “interference. Advanced error detection and error correction schemes greatly increase the likelihood that frames are interpreted correctly.

Wireless vocoders. which was necessary in the 1 960s. offering operators the choice between higher capacity and better voice quality. such as the inside of cars. The CDMA vocoder also increases call quality by suppressing background noise. but not very efficient. on the other hand.CDMA Sophisticated Vocoders PCM is the vocoding standard used in landline systems. or in noisy public places. Constant background sound is viewed by the vocoder as noise which does not convey any intelligent information.6 kbps. The four types are frequency diversity. is eliminated. . and is removed as much as possible. Multiple Levels of Diversity CDMA takes advantage of a number of types of diversity. Wired communications still uses PCM. are constrained by bandwidth. such as road noise. when overhead and error correction bits are added. path diversity and time diversity. revision IS-96A. spatial diversity. all of which lead to improved speech quality. since bandwidth has become rather inexpensive via fiber optic cable and/or microwave links. It has the sound quality wireless would like to match. Any noise that is constant in nature. Initial CDMA systems use an 8 kilobit per second (kbps) variable rate speech vocoder. This greatly enhances voice clarity in noisy environments. It is simple. The vocoder transmits 8 kbps of voice information at 9. Several types of vocoding standards currently exist.

the effect of the fade is looked at as an average. of course. 400 kHz wide. this is much less of a problem.CDMA Frequency Diversity With radio. but the majority of the signal is unaffected and the overall effect is minimal. Narrow band transmissions are especially prone to this phenomenon. The wide band signal is. Fades occur in a multi-path environment when two or more signals combine and cancel each other out. Figure 5: CDMA Quality Benefits from Frequency Diversity As an example. consider what happens when there is a 12 dB deep. and represents an overall drop in signal of approximately 2 dB. For a wide band CDMA signal which spans 1. . For wide band signals such as CDMA. frequency selective fade. also subjected to frequency selective fading. fades or “holes” in frequency will occur. this fade affects only about 1/3 of the entire signal’s bandwidth.25 MHz. Since the energy of a phone call is spread across the entire signal.

This is a much more serious hit to the signal. This fundamental immunity to interference is one of the most attractive benefits of CDMA. in the CDMA despreading process the energy of the narrow band jammer is spread across the spectrum and does not interfere with the desired signal of interest. The entire 30 kHz signal is then affected by this fade. 12 dB fade falls on top of a narrow band 30 kHz signal. Spatial Diversity Spatial Diversity refers to the use of two receive antennas separated by some physical distance. if this narrow band jammer was at the same frequency as the signal of interest. The principle of spatial diversity recognizes that when a mobile is moving about. A narrow band jammer is a random signal. However.CDMA If this same 400 kHz. or even a dropped call. when the received signal is combined with the original spreading code. a narrow band jammer has little effect on a CDMA signal. Similarly. The result will be an overall drop in signal of the full 12 dB. it would totally disrupt the information signal. as in AMPS or IS-54 TDMA systems. if a second . When one of these nulls falls on one antenna it will cause the received signal strength to drop. the signal of interest correlates with the spreading code and the desired signal “jumps” out of the noise. However. the results are quite different. In the CDMA despreading process. CDMA is more resistant to interference or ‘ In a typical narrow band technology such as AMPS or TDMA. and could lead to severe degradation in voice quality. and was of sufficient magnitude. it creates a pattern of signal peaks and nulls. so it will not correlate with any spreading code. Therefore.

it will be outside of the signal null area and thus receive the signal at an acceptable signal level. these signals. Therefore. the loss of signal and a dropped call Figure6: CDMA Quality Benefits from Path Diversity .). planes. combined with the transmitted signal. more noisy speech quality or if the fading is severe enough. create a moving pattern of signal peaks and nulls. When a narrow band receiver moves through these nulls there is a sudden drop in signal strength. etc. multiple versions of the same signal are usually present at the receiver. This “multipath” effect is created when a transmitted signal is reflected off of objects in the environment (buildings. Path Diversity With radio communications. are all time shifted with respect to each other because of the differences in the distance each signal has traveled. which have arrived along different paths. This fading will cause either lower. These reflections.CDMA antenna is placed some physical distance away. there is usually more than one RF path from the transmitter to the receiver. mountains. trucks. However.

CDMA Although multipath is usually detrimental to an analog or TDMA signal. any disrupted voice data will have been in small pieces over a relatively longer stretch of the actual speech. Soft Handoff With traditional hard handoffs. Adding the multipath signals together enhances the signal rather than degrading it. followed by interleaving. By separating the pieces of data over time. When the frames are pieced back together by the decoder. Even if you lose one small piece of a word. a sudden disruption in the CDMA data will not cause a corresponding disruption in the voice signal. ensures that contiguous pieces of data are not transmitted consecutively. Error correction schemes are most effective when bit errors in the data stream are spread more evenly over time. which are used in all other types of cellular systems. When a call is in a soft handoff condition. Time Diversity CDMA systems use a number of forward error correcting codes. and then sums them together to produce a signal that is better than any of the individual signal components. The CDMA receiver has a number of receive ‘fingers’ which are capable of receiving the various multipath signals. the mobile drops a channel before picking up the next channel. chances are great that the rest of the word will get through clearly. which is common to most digital communication systems. reducing or eliminating the impact on the voice quality of the call. a mobile user . it is actually an advantage to CDMA . The receiver locks onto the three strongest received multipath signals. time shifts them.since the rake receiver can use multipath to improve a signal. Interleaving.

This ensures that the best possible frame is used in the CDMA decoding process. The system can take advantage of the moment-by-moment changes in signal strength at each of the two cells to pick out the best signal. This eliminates the short disruption of speech one hears with non-CDMA technologies when the RF connection breaks from one cell to establish the call at the destination cell during a handoff. Eventually. In CDMA the cells “team up” to obtain the best possible combined information stream. and when Cell B “wins” over Cell A. if that is what is required to select the best frame possible. Cell A will no longer receive a strong enough signal from the mobile. Narrow band technologies “compete” for the signal. Figure 7: CDMA Soft Handoff Improves Frame Quality Soft handoffs also contribute to high call quality by providing a “make before break” connection. The handoff will . the user is dropped by cell A (hard handoff).CDMA is monitored by two or more cell sites and the transcoder circuitry compares the quality of the frames from the two receive cell sites on a frame-by-frame basis. and the transcoder will only be obtaining frames from Cell B. The transcoder can literally toggle back and forth between the cell sites involved in a soft handoff on a frame-by-frame basis.

such a situation increases the chance of a call getting dropped during one of the handoffs. And finally. because a CDMA call can be in a soft handoff condition with up to three cells at the same time. CDMA handoffs do not create the “hole” in speech that is heard in other technologies. A “softer” handoff occurs when a subscriber is simultaneously communicating with more than one sector of the same cell.CDMA have been completed. the chances of a loss of RF connection (a dropped call) is greatly reduced. Figure 8: CDMA Soft Handoff Utilizes Two or More Cells Some cellular systems suffer from the “ping pong effect” of a call getting repetitively switched back and forth between two cells when the subscriber unit is near a cell border. At worst. causes noisier handoffs. undetected by the user. Precise Power Control CDMA power control not only increases capacity (as described earlier) but also increases speech quality by minimizing and . CDMA also provides for “softer” handoffs. CDMA soft handoff avoids this problem entirely. and at a minimum.

CDMA overcoming interference. CDMA’s greater range is due to the fact that CDMA uses a more sensitive receiver than other technologies. both analog and digital. is inherent in CDMA technology. Therefore fewer CDMA cell sites are required to cover the same area. Engineers will no longer have to perform the detailed frequency planning which is necessary in analog and TDMA systems. CDMA’s power control algorithms are all designed to reduce the overall signal strength level to the bare minimum required to maintain a quality call. Benefit 3: Simplified System Planning All users on a CDMA carrier share the same RF spectrum. This N1/S reuse of frequencies (where S = number of sectors per cell) is one factor which gives CDMA its greater capacity over AMPS and other technologies. since the digitized frames of information are spread across a wide slice of spectrum. . In addition. but it also makes certain aspects of system planning more straightforward. it is unlilely that a casual eavesdropper will be able to listen in on a conversation. It is extremely difficult for someone to jam the CDMA signal. Benefit 5: Improved Coverage A CDMA cell site has a greater range than a typical analog or digital cell site. Benefit 4: Enhanced Privacy Increased privacy over other cellular systems.

data. because mobiles utilize the “bandwidth pool” independently. . This provides a tremendous amount of flexibility .a flexibility that can be exploited to provide powerful features. or other applications. At any given time. In addition. these features can easily coexist on the same CDMA channel.CDMA Benefit 6: Increased Portable Talk Time Because of precise power control and other system characteristics. CDMA subscriber units normally transmit at only a fraction of the power of analog and TDMA phones. Benefit 7: Bandwidth on Demand A wideband CDMA channel provides a common resource that all mobiles in a system utilize based on their own specific needs. the portion of this “bandwidth pooi” that is not used by a given mobile is available for use by any other mobile. facsimile. whether they are transmitting voice. This will enable portables to have longer talk and standby time. such as higher data rate services.

The capacity of an effective traffic channel is equivalent to the traffic carrying capacity of an analog traffic channel. actual traffic channels and physical traffic channels. pilot transmit power. With this information the mobile units can establish the System Time as well as the proper transmit power level to use to initiate a call. plus channels allocated for soft handoff. . CDMA Forward Channels Pilot Channel The pilot channel is used by the mobile unit to obtain initial system synchronization and to provide time.CDMA CDMA IMPLEMENTATION CDMA Channels CDMA traffic channels are different: they are dependent on the equipment platform. the Soft Handoff Overhead channels and the Effective (voice and data) traffic channels. and the cell site pilot pseudo-random (PN) phase offset information. Channels are designated in three ways-effective traffic channels. the Paging channels. Sync Channel This channel provides cell site identification. and phase tracking of signals from the cell site. frequency. The number of “Effective” traffic channels includes the traffic carrying channels less the soft handoff channels. The number of “Actual” traffic channels includes the effective traffic channels. The number of “Physical” traffic channels includes the Pilot channels. the Sync channels.

it will communicate to the base station over the access channel. The access channels are paired with a corresponding paging channel. call setup and traffic channel assignment information is then passed on this channel to the mobile unit. responses to pages. Forward Traffic Channel This channel carries the actual phone call and carries the voice and mobile power control information from the base station to the mobile unit. CDMA Reverse Channels Access Channel When the mobile unit is not active on a traffic channel.CDMA Paging Channel The mobile unit will begin monitoring the paging channel after it has set its timing to the System Time provided by the sync channel. . and call originations. Once a mobile unit has been paged and acknowledges that page. Reverse Traffic Channel This channel carries the other half of the actual phone call and carries the voice and mobile power control information from the mobile unit to the base station. This communication includes registration requests.

. CDMA starts with a basic data rate of 9600 bits per second. the coding is removed from the desired signal. 7200. The spreading process applies digital codes to the data bits. This technique decreases the interference to other CDMA signals and thus allows an increase in system capacity. there is no despreading. When the talker speaks. the transmission rate is reduced to a low rate. or chip rate (the transmitted bits are called chips). When the decoding is applied to the other users’ codes. 1800. This technique allows the channel rate to dynamically adapt to the speech or data activity. 3600. or 1200 bps. when a talker pauses. or 1200 bps. The coding gain for the IS-95 CDMA system is 128. the rate can vary from frame to frame.2288 MHz bandwidth.CDMA CDMA Modulation Both the Forward and Reverse Traffic Channels use a similar control structure consisting of 20 millisecond frames. returning it to a rate of 9600 bps. which increases the data rate while adding redundancy to the system. The chips are transmitted using a form of QPSK (quadrature phase shift keying) modulation which has been filtered to limit the bandwidth of the signal. 9600. This is then spread to a transmitted bit rate. The receiver detects the rate of the frame and processes it at the correct rate. For example. the signals maintain the 1. For the system. 2400. frames can be sent at either 14400. For speech. and can be 9600. of 1. 4800. with a Traffic Channel operating at 9600 bps. 4800. The ratio of transmitted bits or chips to data bits is the coding gain. or 21 dB. This is added to the signal of all the other users in that cell.2288 MHz. 2400. When the signal is received. the system instantaneously shifts to using a higher transmission rate.

The Complex Modulation scheme (which we’ll discuss in more detail later). here are some examples: Data Source Voice Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Adaptive Differential Pulse code Modulation (ADPCM) Low Delay Code Excited Linear Prediction (LD-CELP) ISDN Bearer Channel (B-Channel) Data Channel (D-Channel) 64KBits/Sec 16KBits/Sec 16KBits/Sec Data Rate 64KBits/Sec 32KBits/Sec The system works with 64 kBits/sec data. For inputs of less than 64 kbits/sec. or 64 kBits/sec. up to 128 kbits/sec. which doubles the bit rate. each symbol is repeated to bring the transmission rate up to 64 kilosymbols/sec. transmits two bits at a time. Each component of the complex signal carries one bit of the two bit symbol. 16. Dat rates can vary. Inputs of less than 64 kBits/sec are padded with extra bits to bring them up to 64 kBits/sec. in two bit symbols. 32. but can accept input rates of 8. or 64 kBits/sec.CDMA Input data CDMA works on Information data from several possible sources. 16. 32. at 64 kBits/sec. as shown below . such as digitized voice or ISDN channels. For inputs of 8. the system applies Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding.

or Quadrature-phase. ψ(t). The four states are phase shifts of the carrier spaced 90_ apart. each state represents two bits. Both components are then summed together.CDMA Transmitting Data The resultant coded signal next modulates an RF carrier for transmission using Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK). and demodulates each component. 225. component of the data. We end up with two Binary PSK waves superimposed. and Q(t) is called the imaginary. Since 1(t) and Q(t) are binary. These are easier to modulate and later demodulate. The receiver generates the two reference waves. It is easier to detect 1 80_ phase shifts . the phase shifts are 45. can be expressed as a sum of two components. Complex Modulation Algebraically. or In-phase. QPSK uses four different states to encode each symbol. Since there are four possible states used to encode binary information. This two bit “word” is called a symbol. we’ll refer to them as simply I and Q. component of the data. This is not only an algebraic identity. The transmitter generates two carrier waves of the same frequency. but also forms the basis for the actual modulation/demodulation scheme. By convention. a Cosine wave and a Sine wave. a carrier wave with an applied phase shift. as: A(t)Cos(0o t -I (1)) l(t)Cos(o 0 -‘ Q(L)S t) 1(t) is called the real. 135. a sine and cosine. 1(t) and Q(t) are binary. and 315 degrees. modulating each component by phase shifting it either 0 or 180 degrees.

Symbol 00 01 10 11 I +1 +1 -1 -1 Q +1 -1 +1 -1 Phase Shift 45 o 315 o 135 o 225o For Digital Signal Processing. Summing Many Channels Together Many channels are added together and transmitted simultaneously. I +jQ.CDMA than 90_ phase shifts. PNi +jPNq. Note that I and Q are normalized to 1. To spread the Information data the system performs complex multiplication between the complex PN codes and the complex data. The following table summarizes this modulation scheme. the two-bit symbols are considered to be complex numbers. Remember. This addition happens digitally at the chip rate. but those details are beyond the scope of this discussion). let’s say each chip is represented by an 8 bit word (it’s slightly more complicated than that. the conversion of the Information data into complex symbols occurs before the ni The system generates complex PN codes made up of 2 independent components. there are millions of chips in each symbol. For clarity. Working with Complex Data In order to make full use of the efficiency of Digital Signal Processing. .

the second bit is placed in the Q data stream. and hence the phase modulation of the carrier. The complex PN code has two independently generated components. and obeys all the statistical properties of QPSK transmission. For each component (I or Q): At the Symbol Rate Since the PN-code has the statistical properties of random noise. which determine what the symbol is. fluctuations in I and Q. Receiving Data The receiver performs the following steps to extract the Information: • Demodulation • Code acquisition and lock • Correlation of code with signal • Decoding of Information data Demodulation . including Bit Error Rate.CDMA At the Chip Rate Information data is converted to two bit symbols. an I component and a Q component. The complex PN code is generated. The complex Information data and complex PN code are multiplied together. that occur at the chip frequency. it averages to zero over long periods of time (such as the symbol period). The symbol only sees the QPSK. Over the symbol period the modulation averages to one of the four states of QPSK. Therefore. The first bit of the symbol is placed in the I data stream. average to zero.

a Cosine wave and a Sine wave. as described earlier. However. the local code must be phase.locked to the encoded data.CDMA The receiver generates two reference waves. Some of these FSUs are close and their signals are much stronger than FSUs farther away. the received signal is sent to a correlator that multiplies it with the complex PN code.Capacity is also dependant on signal power. both the RCS and FSU measure the received power and send signals to control the other’s transmit power. Code Acquisition and Lock The receiver. Separately mixing each with the received carrier. Automatic Power Control The RCS gets bombarded by signals from many FSUs. For these reasons. the receiver extracts 1(t) and Q(t). generates its own complex PN code that matches the code generated by the transmitter. extracting the I and Q data meant for that receiver. Correlation and Data Despreading Once the PN code is phase-locked to the pilot. This results in the Near/Far problem inherent in CDMA communications. Analog to Digital converters restore the 8-bit words representing the I and Q chips. System . . The receiver reconstructs the Information data from the I and Q data.

cdmaOne: The Family of IS-95 CDMA Technologies cdmaOne describes a complete wireless system based on the TIA/EIA IS-95 CDMA standard.CDMA CONCLUSION The world is demanding more from wireless communication technologies than ever before.and wireless networks are asked to do much more than just a few years ago. The CDMA air interface is used in both 2G and 3G networks. web. CDMA2000 and WCDMA. In a world of finite spectrum resources. And these networks will be asked to do more tomorrow. More people around the world are subscribing to wireless services and consumers are using their phones more frequently. including IS-95A and IS-95B revisions. This is where CDMA technology fits in. 2G CDMA standards are branded cdmaOne and include IS-95A and IS-95B. It represents the end-to-end wireless system and all the necessary . CDMA is the foundation for 3G services: the two dominant IMT-2000 standards. and it is the common platform on which 3G technologies are built. allowing more subscribers to connect at any given time. CDMA consistently provides better capacity for voice and data communications than other commercial mobile technologies. CDMA enables many more people to share the airwaves at the same time than do alternative technologies. digital picture taking/sending and assisted-GPS position location applications .such as wireless email. Add in exciting Third-Generation (3G) wireless data services and applications . are based on CDMA.

CDMA specifications that govern its .unstsworld. It is the platform on which 2G and 3G advanced services are built.rf. CDMA2000: Leads the 3G revolution CDMA2000 represents a family of CDMA2000 lx was the world’s first 3G technology commercially deployed (October 2000).net www.bee. cdmaOne provides a family of related services including cellular. IMT-2000 (3G) standards and includes CDMA2000 l and CDMA2000 1xEV www.tudelft. They deliver increased network capacity to meet growing demand for wireless services and high-speed data services. PCS and fixed wireless (wireless local loop). REFERENCE Wireless Networked Communication -Jay Ranade Principles of Communication Principle of Wireless Network .Kaveh Pahlavan Prashant Krishnamurthi www.Taub & Schilling . CDMA is the fastest growing wireless technology and it will continue to grow at a faster pace than any other technology.

Unlike competing systems. The frequency of the transmitted signal is then made to vary according to a defined pattern (code). CDMA is compatible with other cellular technologies.CDMA ABSTRACT Code-Division Multiple Access. every channel uses the full available spectrum.9GHz bands. CDMA networks use a scheme called soft handoff. so it can be intercepted only by a receiver whose frequency response is programmed with the same code. which minimizes signal breakup as a handset passes from one cell to another. such as GSM. a digital cellular technology that uses spread-spectrum techniques. . this enhances privacy and makes cloning difficult. Instead. CDMA employs analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in combination with spread spectrum technology. There are trillions of possible frequency-sequencing codes. so it follows exactly along with the transmitter frequency. Audio input is first digitized into binary elements. this allows for nationwide Roaming. The CDMA channel is nominally 1. CDMA does not assign a specific frequency to each user.23 MHz wide. The combination of digital and spread spectrum modes supports several times as many signals per unit bandwidth as analog modes. As the term implies. Individual conversations are encoded with a pseudo-random digital sequence. CDMA is a form of multiplexing which allows numerous signals to occupy a single transmission channel. optimizing the use of available bandwidth. that use TDMA. The technology is used in ultra-highfrequency (UHF) cellular telephone systems in the 800-M1-Iz and 1.

Information Technology. Head of the Department. Miss. for their whole-hearted co-operation. for their valuable advice and guidance. support and encouragement. I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Sangeetha Jose and Mr. M N Agnisharman Namboothiri. . Biju. I am deeply indebted to Staff-in-charge. I am also grateful to all other members of the faculty of Information Technology department for their co-operation.CDMA ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I thank God Almighty for the successful completion of my seminar. Finally. I wish to thank all my dear friends.

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