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HIGHWAY AND TRAFFIC ENGINEERING (DCC3113)

CASE STUDY 2 : JUNCTION DESIGN

NAME OF MEMBERS:
1. NURHASLIZANA BINTI NORMA TAMBI 08DKA16F1136
2. VASUNTRA BASKARAN 08DKA16F1124
3. MUHAMMAD IQBAL UKHAIRI BIN MOHD HAMADI
08DKA16F1132
CLASS : DKA3D (2017)
LECTURER NAME : ENCIK SAIFULLIZAM
CONTENTS
NUMBER TITLE PAGES

1 INTRODUCTION 1-2

2 OBJECTIVE 3

3 8 TYPES OF JUNCTION 4 - 20

4 CONCLUSION 21

5 REFERENCE 22
INTRODUCTION
Generally, the road network system and road infrastructure in Malaysia already exists and was
built since or during the British Administration. The road network was built aimed to linking
mining area, agricultures and plantation to urban areas and the harbour. And after several
decades, and when Malaysia was born, the road network system is more developed and become
complexity around the country in line with the growing of our population. Besides, with the
expansion of our technology by producing cars or others vehicles and the increasing of road user
recently also make the demand toward road and infrastructure increase. Began from two lane
carriageway the road network and infrastructure had develop rapidly become a large and width
highway and expressway. This statement is proved when the federal Government decided to
embark on the construction of a toll expressway from Bukit Kayu Hitam near the Thailand
border (north of peninsular) to Johor Bahru in Johor (south of peninsular) as shown on Picture
1.1 below known as the North-South Expressway.

PICTURE : NORTH-SOUTH EXPRESS (PLUS)

The completion of the North-South Expressway is an essence of Malaysian success in enhancing


the nation’s road network and has had reflective effects on the movement of people and goods
within the country. Road users have generally enjoyed using the highway and the improve
standard of service. The intended and the purpose of Expressway have fulfilled its objective and
is ready reminder to a nation that the country is progress towards a developed nation status by
the year 2020. After the completion of the North-South Expressway or more toll highways are
being constructed and completed such as, Kesas Highway, Elite Highway, Linkedua Highway,
Penang Bridge and others. (Othman, 2008)

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Besides, the growths of population in line with enlargement of urbanisation and open a new area
are the reason the need of smooth road system in our country. Especially in a Klang Valley there
are about 7 million people live there and there are many type of expressway and highway around
Klang Valley to cope the demand. By referring to Othman (2008), Kuala Lumpur (KL) is
experiencing rapid development over the last decades. With better job available and much
opportunity, KL will continue to provide impetus for growth. Then, by increasing the cost of
living in KL city, people tend to stay away from the city centre and commute daily to their place
of work within a city such Petaling Jaya, Cheras, Subang Jaya and Shah Alam. Thus the demand
for better roads, highway and mass transit system is increase for city and intercity travel. But as
shown on Picture 1.2 most of the access route from the Suburb to the city centre or Centre
Business District (CBD) always tends to serious traffic congestion. Thus, the need to provide
alternative route and smooth route system is very importance and it also must be look into small
thing like the arrangement of the intersections or junction besides planning to provide alternative
road.

PICTURE : Interchange to link the Suburb with City Centre

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OBJECTIVE

 To identify the purpose of development as well as the type and design of elevated
interchange in Malaysia
 To study how the construction team manage the construction site in term of traffic
management and safety toward public
 To studies the issues and problem arising due to the constructions of elevated
interchanges.

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There are varieties of types and design of the interchange under grade separation intersections
and this design are changing and expand from time to time according to traffic volume and
expansion of technology. According to Mass Highway (2006), after the decision has been made
to apply an interchange on one intersections or an interchange is appropriate for the location, the
selection of interchange type is influenced by factors such as operational effects on the mainline
and cross street, context sensitivity, multimodal accommodation, topography, potential site
impact, cost and anticipated activity levels. Then, each interchange must be designed to fit
individual site conditions. The final design may be a minor or major modification of one of the
basic types, or it may be a combination of the basic types. Commonly, there are two general
types or interchange system which is Directional interchanges or Non-directional interchange.
Non-directional interchanges are the common system that used in many point of grade separate
intersections. Based on the theory from Brocken brough (2009), the most common used types of
interchange where two (2) routes cross each other are the diamond, cloverleaf, and directional
interchanges. And when one route ends at an interchange with another route, a trumpet or three
leg directional interchanged is used. And fundamentally, the interchange design are classified
into several common design and types which is trumpet interchange, three leg directional, one
quadrant, diamond, single-point urban interchange (SPUI), Partial Cloverleaf, Full Cloverleaf
and All Directional Four Leg. But according to Marshall (2011), interchanges are classified into
several major types which are Trumpet Interchange, T-directional, Roundabout Interchange,
Diamond Interchange, Cloverleaf Interchange and Stack Interchange. As an easier way
tounderstand the figure 3.1 below shows the subdivision and classification of interchanges. And
these types of interchange have divided into several sections according to their design and
properties. These basic interchange configurations are described in the following sections.

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PRIORITY JUNCTION
This Standard defines the main types of major/minor priority junction which can be used on new
and improved trunk roads. 1.7 Advice is also given on the choice between the different types of
major/minor priority junction, and on the siting of such junctions.

UNMARKED JUNCTIONS
Unmarked junctions are often found in quieter areas such as residential back-streets or country
lanes. An unmarked junction will not have any give way or stop sign and will have no junction
lines.
Depending on the junction type, in many cases no one has priority at these junctions so often
good judgement on what you think other drivers are going to do is important. For instance, if no
one has priority and another driver is approaching the junction quickly, it’s probably a good idea
to wait and let them go first. Unmarked junction are often taken as part of the driving test to
assess your ability for manoeuvring around narrow roads and dealing with other road users.

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MARKED JUNCTIONS
Marked junction can vary significantly in size from small junctions found in residential streets or
country roads to large multi-lane marked junctions.
A marked junction will have give way or stop lines in place to aid road users who has priority.
Marked junction may or may not have give way signs. As with unmarked junctions, marked
junctions often feature heavily during the driving test. Junctions with stop signs and markings are
likely to feature on the driving test if this junction type is within test routes distance of the test
centre.

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ROUNDABOUT WITH TRAFFIC LIGHT
BULATAN KAYANGAN SHAH ALAM

A modern roundabout is a circular intersection where drivers travel counterclockwise around a


center island. There are no traffic signals or stop signs in a modern roundabout. Drivers yield at
entry to traffic in the roundabout, then enter the intersection and exit at their desired street.
Studies by the Federal Highway Administration have found that roundabouts can increase traffic
capacity by 30 percent to 50 percent compared to traditional intersections.
raffic circles, traffic calming circles and roundabouts

There are many differences between modern roundabouts, traffic circles (also known as rotaries)
often found on the East Coast and in Europe, and neighborhood traffic calming circles.
Comparison of roundabout and traffic circle
Traffic circles, or rotaries, are much larger than modern roundabouts
Traffic circles often have stop signs or traffic signals within the circular intersection. The Arc de
Triomphe in Paris and Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C., are two examples of older-style
traffic cicles.
Drivers enter a traffic circle in a straight line and do not have to yield to traffic already in the
circle. Traffic circles typically become congested if many vehicles enter at the same time.
Neighborhood traffic calming circles are much smaller than modern roundabouts and often
replace stop signs at four-way intersections. They are typically used in residential neighborhoods
to slow traffic speeds and reduce accidents, but are typically not designed to accommodate larger
vehicles. Many drivers often turn left in front of the circles rather than turning around them.

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TRAFFIC CIRCLE NEIGHBORHOOD TRAFFIC CALMING CIRCLES

ROUNDABOUT BENEFITS
Improve safety
Studies have shown that roundabouts are safer than traditional stop sign or signal-controlled
intersections.
Roundabouts reduced injury crashes by 75 percent at intersections where stop signs or signals
were previously used for traffic control, according to a study by the Insurance Institute for
Highway Safety (IIHS). Studies by the IIHS and Federal Highway Administration have shown
that roundabouts typically achieve
A 37 percent reduction in overall collisions
A 75 percent reduction in injury collisions
A 90 percent reduction in fatality collisions
A 40 percent reduction in pedestrian collisions

There are several reasons why roundabouts help reduce the likelihood and severity of collisions:
Low travel speeds – Drivers must slow down and yield to traffic before entering a roundabout.
Speeds in the roundabout are typically between 15 and 20 miles per hour. The few collisions that
occur in roundabouts are typically minor and cause few injuries since they occur at such low
speeds.
No light to beat – Roundabouts are designed to promote a continuous, circular flow of traffic.
Drivers need only yield to traffic before entering a roundabout; if there is no traffic in the
roundabout, drivers are not required to stop. Because traffic is constantly flowing through the
intersection, drivers don't have the incentive to speed up to try and "beat the light," like they
might at a traditional intersection.

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One-way travel – Roads entering a roundabout are gently curved to direct drivers into the
intersection and help them travel counterclockwise around the roundabout. The curved roads and
one-way travel around the roundabout eliminate the possibility for T-bone and head-on collisio.

Reduce delay, improve traffic flow


A single-lane roundabout in Skagit CountyContrary to many peoples' perceptions, roundabouts
actually move traffic through an intersection more quickly, and with less congestion on
approaching roads. Roundabouts promote a continuous flow of traffic. Unlike intersections with
traffic signals, drivers don’t have to wait for a green light at a roundabout to get through the
intersection. Traffic is not required to stop – only yield – so the intersection can handle more
traffic in the same amount of time.
Studies by Kansas State University http://www.ksu.edu/roundabouts/ measured traffic flow at
intersections before and after conversion to roundabouts. In each case, installing a roundabout
led to a 20 percent reduction in delays. Additional studies by the IIHS of intersections in three
states, including Washington, found that roundabouts contributed to an 89 percent reduction in
delays and 56 percent reduction in vehicle stops.
Less expensive
The cost difference between building a roundabout and a traffic signal is comparable. Where
long-term costs are considered, roundabouts eliminate hardware, maintenance and electrical
costs associated with traffic signals, which can cost between $5,000 and $10,000 per year.
Roundabouts are also more effective during power outages. Unlike traditional signalized
intersections, which must be treated as a four-way stop or require police to direct traffic,
roundabouts continue to work like normal.

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Less space
A roundabout may need more property within the actual intersection, but often take up less space
on the streets approaching the roundabout. Because roundabouts can handle greater volumes of
traffic more efficiently than signals, where drivers may need to line up to wait for a green light,
roundabouts usually require fewer lanes approaching the intersection.
Good locations for roundabouts
Roundabouts are safe and efficient, but they are not the ideal solution for every intersection. We
look at several factors when deciding to build a roundabout at a specific intersection. Engineers
consider these characteristics when determining the best solution for a particular intersection:
Accident history – data about the number of accidents, type of crash, speeds, and other
contributing factors are analyzed.
Intersection operation – the level of current and projected travel delay being experienced, and
backups on each leg of the intersection.
Types of vehicles using the intersection – we look at the different kinds of vehicles that use the
intersection. This is especially important for intersections frequently used by large trucks.
Cost – this includes the societal cost of accidents, right-of-way (land purchase) requirements, and
long-term maintenance needs.

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TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLED JUNCTION
TRAFIC LIGHT JALAN KAPAR

Filter lights are often used at busy controlled junctions. It can on occasions be difficult to see a
filter light turn to green, especially as a learner driver. Remaining stationary for too long when a
filter light has turned green can potentially fail the driving test. For an explanation on how to use
traffic filter lights, see traffic lights sequence.
Often found in busier areas, controlled junctions use traffic lights to dictate the flow of traffic.
Busy controlled junctions can often feature multiple lanes at the light and often have a cycle
waiting area just before the lights.
Filter lights are often used at controlled junctions to allow a certain lane of traffic to proceed
when safe. Keep a good eye on the filter light if applicable as it can be easy not to notice. Not
making progress on a green light can lead to test failure. Most types of junctions are taken on the
driving test including controlled junctions.
Box junctions are usually found in busy areas and are often controlled by traffic lights. If a box
junction is within range of your driving test centre, then it is likely to be incorporated into the
test routes.
The yellow box with the crisscross lines is used to keep traffic flowing as a vehicle is not
allowed to proceed into the box unless it’s exit is clear. Stopping in the box is permitted
providing you can safely exit once clear. See Box junction for further information on how box
junctions operate.

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CONTROLLED JUNCTION WITH BOX JUNCTION
TRAFFIC LIGHT
There are three components: traffic lights, queue detectors buried in the road and/or cameras, and
a central control system. The queue detectors tell the control system the state of traffic flow on
all the main roads in the city. The system in turn controls the lights to maintain a free flow of
traffic within the city.
Every two seconds the system uses a model of real-world conditions to decide whether there
would be an advantage in changing the phasing of any of the lights. What the system software
considers an ‘advantage’ may be defined as punctual buses, lower pollution at a particular
location, or fewer vehicles queuing on a motorway slip ramp.

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DIAMOND INTERCHANGE
KLANG VALLEY, SELANGOR

The diamond interchange is the simplest form of grade separated intersection where major and
minor road are intersect and crosses. But this type of interchange has used traffic light system to
change and eliminate the intersections. This type of interchange has four ramps with one way
direction and crossing traffic are eliminated by a bridge or always known as flyovers.
Limitations in implementation of this type of interchange is depends on the operations of these
terminals. So it is suitable for locations where the volume of left or right turn traffic is relatively
low and the important features of this interchange is that it can be design if the major road is
relatively narrow.

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Advantage
 No need large area of land to acquisitions.
 Have low construction cost and it is economical to construct
 Less no of ramp and short distance ramp travel
 Easy to make modification and upgrading.
Disadvantage
 Only suitable for low capacity
 Have to use traffic light system to eliminate the traffic route.
 Traffic conflict always happen at the top cross bridge

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ROUNDABOUT WITH OR WITHOUT TRAFFIC LIGHT
THE BIGGEST ROUNDABOUT IN PUTRAJAYA

A roundabout is a type of circular intersection, but is quite unlike a neighborhood traffic


circle or large rotary. Roundabouts have been proven safer and more efficient than other
types of circular intersections.
Roundabouts have certain distinguishing features and characteristics (as shown in the
adjacent diagram). While these noted features are common to many roundabouts, they
are not always present, as roundabouts are adapted to the context of the location. In fact,
roundabouts don't even need to be perfectly circular! Successful roundabouts come in
all shapes and sizes. Some are oval-, teardrop-, peanut- and dogbone- shaped. Some
have as few as three legs and others as many as six. There are small, simple mini
roundabouts, and larger, more complex multilane roundabouts. However, regardless of
size, circular shape, or number of legs, the fundamental and essential characteristics of
all roundabouts include:
Counterclockwise Flow. Traffic travels counterclockwise around a center island.
Entry Yield Control. Vehicles entering the roundabout yield to traffic already circulating.
Low Speed. Curvature that results in lower vehicle speeds, generally 15-25 MPH,
throughout the roundabout.
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Roundabouts can provide lasting benefits and value in many ways. They are often safer,
more efficient, less costly and more aesthetically appealing than conventional
intersection designs. Furthermore, roundabouts are an excellent choice to complement
other transportation objectives – including Complete Streets, multimodal networks, and
corridor access management – without compromising the ability to keep people and
freight moving through our towns, cities and regions, and across the Nation. The FHWA
Office of Safety identified roundabouts as a Proven Safety Countermeasure because of
their ability to substantially reduce the types of crashes that result in injury or loss of life.
Roundabouts are designed to improve safety for all users, including pedestrians and
bicycles.
Most significantly, roundabouts REDUCE the types of crashes where people are
seriously hurt or killed by 78-82% when compared to conventional stop-controlled and
signalized intersections, per the AASHTO Highway Safety Manual.
By reducing the number and severity of conflict points, and because of the lower speeds
of vehicles moving through the intersection, roundabouts are a significantly safer type of
intersection. The diagram below excerpted from Roundabouts: An Informational Guide,
Second Edition (published as NCHRP Report 672) illustrates the difference in conflict
points between a conventional, four-legged intersection and an equivalent single lane
roundabout. There are 32 conflict points associated with a conventional intersection – 8
merging (or joining), 8 diverging (or separating) and 16 crossing. In contrast, there are
only 8 total conflict points at an equivalent roundabout – 4 merging and 4 diverging.
Not only are conflict points halved with the roundabout, the type of conflicts that remain
are the same-direction variety, which result in substantially less severity, and as a result,
less likelihood of injury. The reduction of both the total number of conflict points and
their severity is also true for pedestrians, also shown below in diagrams excerpted from
the Guide.
The Baiduri roundabout, better known as Jalan 222 roundabout and long thought of as
the smallest of its kind in Petaling Jaya, will be removed and replaced with traffic lights
soon.
Petaling Jaya City Council (MBPJ) public relations officer Zainun Zakariah said traffic
lights were needed here because of heavy traffic in the area.
“There is no date set yet to remove the roundabout but we can confirm it will be replaced
with traffic lights,” she said.
The Baiduri roundabout is sited at the intersection of Jalan 222 and Jalan 229.
The roundabout is about 2m in diameter and may be the smallest in the country but there
are no records to support this as a fact.
In the past, motorists unfamiliar with the road often do not realise there is a roundabout
there and drive over it.
However, over the years the roundabout was raised slightly from the ground to make it
more obvious and prevent motorists from driving over it.
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Zainun said development and challenging traffic management conditions might drive the
council to transform all roundabouts in Petaling Jaya into traffic light crossings in the
future.
Based on MBPJ records, the council now oversees 12 roundabouts. They numbered 15
before Petaling Jaya received its city status in 2006.
Some of the former prominent roundabouts such as the Rothmans roundabout at the
intersection of Jalan Semangat and Jalan Harapan, had been converted to traffic light
intersections.
Similarly the Othman roundabout (Jalan Othman-Jalan Selangor intersection), Majlis
roundabout (Jalan Bahagia-Jalan Majlis-Jalan SS4A/1) and Universiti roundabout (Jalan
16/1-Jalan Universiti) were also converted to traffic light intersections.
The roundabout at Jalan SS20/27 and Jalan SS21/33 intersection gave way to Sprint and
Damansara-Puchong highways.
The council recently upgraded three prominent roundabouts in the city at a total cost of
RM650,000.
The Sultan roundabout has been upgraded with better drainage facility for RM200,000.
This roundabout is located at the intersection of Jalan Sultan-Jalan Selangor-Jalan
Changgai.
The Penchala and Assunta roundabouts are being upgraded at a cost of RM450,000. The
Penchala roundabout is sited at the intersection of Jalan Penchala and Jalan Templer.
Most roundabouts in Petaling Jaya do not have official names but are instead identified
based on the roads or landmarks closest to the roundabout.
The Sri Aman roundabout is named after SMK (P) Sri Aman near it.
Long-time Petaling Jaya resident Uma Maniam said he was surprised to learn that some
of the roundabouts were renamed after an upgrade.
“These roundabouts and roads have some significance for the residents. He said the
council should consult the residents before changing the names.
“We, the residents, never called the Penchala roundabout as it is named now. Instead we
used to call it the F&N or Templer roundabout,” he added.
Uma hopes the Assunta roundabout name will be retained asit is located near the
Assunta Hospital.

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TRUMPET INTERCHANGE
MAJU EXPRESSWAY

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This is one of the most interchange type that being used where one highway terminates
at another highway. The design and alignment of the ramp look simple and easy to be
built. According to Mathew (2014), trumpet interchange involve at least one loop ramp
connecting traffic either entering or leaving the terminating expressway. Generally, these
interchanges are useful for highways as well as toll roads because these roads
concentrate on entering and exiting traffic into a single stretch of roadway where toll
booths can be installed. By referring to Marshall (2001), this trumpet interchange as
shown on diagram above is the most traditional way of grade-separating for three way
junction and this is the basic interchange. Fundamentally, trumpets interchange is
suitable at
Semi-direct ramps Loop ramps Entrance ramp Exit ramp Variations of Trumpet
Interchange

25 the locations where the side road exists on only one side of the freeway, and traffic is
relatively low. Each entrance and exit access consists of acceleration or deceleration
lanes at each end. It requires only one bridge and is the most traditional way of grade
separating a three way junction. 1.

Advantage

 Easy to access and used because less of signing system.


 Low in construction cost due to only one cross bridge.
 Toll booth can be implement when use this type of interchange.

Disadvantage

 Expensive to build in places with high land value


 Leave a redundant patch of land within the loop

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CONCLUSION
For Instance, Malaysia are step by step move forward to be a develop country and for the
highway and expressway system. Furthermore, Malaysia are also heading to be one of the
develop country that provide a high end infrastructure road system. Thus, we are able to see now
that many infrastructures being develop and built all over the country such as Highway, and
Railway System including Light Rail Transit (LRT), Mass Rapid Transit (MRT), and others.
And various type of highway with many design of interchanges being implementing and from
day to day the grade separated interchange becomes necessary to link the highway with the
suburban and major places. According to Othman (2008), until the end year 2007, Malaysia has
16.77 Million registered vehicles where 90% are registered in Peninsular of Malaysia.
Interchange system are now being develop in line with the development of highway

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REFERENCES
 https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ipd/pdfs/us_ppp_case_studies_final_report_7-7-07.pdf
 https://www.academia.edu/13106117/A_STUDY_ON_ELEVATED_INTERCHANGE_I
N_MALAYSIA?auto=download
 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priority_to_the_right
 https://www.google.com/search?q=MAJU+EXPRESSWAY&source=lnms&tbm=isch&s
a=X&ved=0ahUKEwiO9NrZ2ejWAhXBPI8KHelACP4Q_AUIDCgD&biw=1366&bih=
613#imgrc=SzsRk59A-QU97M:
 https://www.google.com/search?q=diamond+interchange+in+malaysia&source=lnms&tb
m=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjO1q_n1ejWAhUNUI8KHeWXDycQ_AUICigB&biw=1
366&bih=662#imgrc=FdUwEO8OQJWLXM:
 BOOK : THE HIGHWAY CODE

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