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White Paper- Fire Risk Management

 Fire Risk Assessment, Management and Assurance


 Fire incidents scenario in India
 Latest Incidents in Delhi NCR

1.1 Background

Experience has shown that a fire system and has two components balanced against each other, one
protection systems are not always designed or is the possibility of a fire occurring and the other, the
specified in sufficient detail to ensure that they meet magnitude of consequences of that fire. For example,
the performance criteria necessary to reliably achieve a metal fabrication workshop has a high possibility of a
their intended role. In some areas this role is not even fire due to the cutting and welding equipment. But
defined. The problem is compounded because often providing the house keeping is good and no
the system designer/specifier has not the operational combustible substances are present, then a fire is not
experience or feedback necessary to ensure system likely to spread, so the consequence is low, therefore
practicality. Also, fire system do not provide a direct the risk can be considered to be normal or even low.
contribution to production and revenue, sometimes There are five steps in fire risk assessment to remove
they are not given the maintenance or inspection the risk completely, or if not possible, reduce to an
priority they deserve. acceptable level.

 Identify the Fire Hazards

 Identify the People at Risk

 Evaluate the Hazards and Risks

 Record the Findings

 Review and Revise

Attempt to classify each area as either high, normal, or


low risk.

Low risk – areas are those where there is little in the


way of heat/flame or fire ignition sources, e.g. a
stonemasons workshop where typically there is not
much to burn and should a fire occur then people
would be able to react in plenty of time.

These situations can result in fire systems not Normal risk – areas will account for nearly all parts of
most premises.
providing the performance required, when called upon
to do so. High risk – areas are where the available time needed
A structured approach from design phase through to to evacuate the area is reduced by the speed of
implementation is required for fire systems to ensure development of a fire, e.g. paint spraying with highly
that they have clearly defined role with respect to fire flammable paints, also where reaction time to the fire
hazards and that they provide appropriate level of risk alarm is slower because of the type of person present
reductions. or the activity in the premises, e.g. the infirm and
elderly or persons sleeping on the premises.
1.2 Fire Risk Assessment
A Risk Value Matrix is an attempt at a quantitative
When considering fire risk assessment it is useful to approach to what is essentially a qualitative process of
understand the definition of fire hazard. A fire hazard fire risk assessment.

Risk Value= Fire Hazard X Fire Risk


TheSafetyMaster™ accepts no liability for any loss that may occur the content of this article, It’s for awareness purpose.
Fire Hazard 1 2 3 4 5 Close cooperation between workers, employers and
fire fightning teams & experts is essential for
Fire Risk successful prevention and control of fire at the
workplace.
1 1 2 3 4 5
1.4 Fire System Risk Assurance
2 2 4 6 8 10
Fire System Risk Assurance is the process of
3 3 6 9 12 15 identifying fire system performance standards decided
upon in design, and evaluating whether they are
4 4 8 12 16 20
appropriate to predict hazardous events. This system
5 5 10 15 20 25 ensures that these standards are not compromised in
the later phasesof the life of a facility, particuarly
installations, operations and maintenance and
confirming that they meet the requirements on an
The above 5X5 matrix assign low risk to values of 1-3, ongoing basis. The following governance model
normal risk to values of 3-15 and high risk to values of includes the all aspects of the fire risk assurance
16-25. system.

1.3 Fire Risk Management

The management of fire risks is a fundamental Risk Management


responsibility for every employer. For many employers
it is possibly their primary occupational safety and Technology Quality
Integrity
health requirement. A serious fire could destroy a
Systems and
business, but it could also result in the deaths of many Standards
innocent people. Effective fire management is a staged performance
process. The stages are logical and small steps can Qualification &
effectively reduce the risks. Capability

The first requirement within the process of effective


risk reduction for an employer is formulation of the Thoughts &
Behaviours
fire safety policy.

Fire safety policy is a set of principles brought together


by a governing body to achieve risk management and
business sustainability.

Policy formulation - 2.0 Fire Incidents Scenario in India

Risk Definition On an average, in India, every year, about 25,000


persons die due to fires and related causes. Female
Objective & RACI
accounts for about 66% of those killed in fire
Performance
accidents. It is estimated that about 42 females and
21 males die every day in India due to fire. According
Consensus to the statistics released by the National Crime
Records Bureau, fire accounts for about 5.9%
Communication
(23,281) of the total deaths reported due to natural and
Acceptance un-natural causes during the year 2012. Probably
many of these deaths could have been prevented, had
Monitor & Evaluate
we taken enough fire protection measures.

TheSafetyMaster™ accepts no liability for any loss that may occur the content of this article, It’s for awareness purpose.
No comprehensive data is available in India on the Trend Analysis:
economic losses suffered on account of fires.
However, according to one estimate the major losses  Major reasons for fire threats can be attributed
reported by the Indian Insurance Companies in the to non-compliance to safety norms and non-
year 2007-2008 indicate, that about 45% of the claims renewal of safety licenses.
are due to fire losses.  Fire related incidents majorly reported from
various sectors like railways, defence,
Fire losses are reported both in industrial and non- industries, city centres, logistics domain and
industrial premises like hospitals, commercial during festivals.
complexes, educational institutions, assembly halls,  Existence of poor infrastructure obsolete
hotels, residential buildings, etc. According to Fire equipment and lack of preparation, including
Risk Survey (FRS) 2013, carried out by Pinkerton & non-up-gradation of skills of firemen amplifies
Federation of Indian Chambers and Industry, in India, the threat.
fire accounted for 8.45% of the overall ranking of risks.
FRS also revealed that fires has been rated as the 3.0 Latest incidents in Delhi NCR
5th highest risk in industry in 2013.
Some incidents happened in past one year in Delhi-
The India Risk Survey 2015 (IRS 2015) attempts to NCR region-
showcase the views and perceptions of key business
leaders, public figures, as well as professionals across Location- Chemical factory
various sectors and geographies regarding Description:-During the night time, workers found the
operational, safety and strategic risks. spark raised to the loose cables, the spark changed
into fire blaze, spread quickly due to storages of the
highly inflammable chemical near this sparking area
and led to a major fire., 100 workers rescued from
factory premises. Fire fighting team came into action to
outcome this situation and fire fighting.

Source: NDRFANDCD, MHA IndiaBelow is the trend of


fire incidents in india-

Location- Electrical industries


Description-During the production work the fire blaze
raised, the blaze spread quickly due to stored plastic
and rubber materials and led to a major fire. Safety
team evacuated the 500 workers in factory premises
and carried out fire fighting.

Source: NDRFANDCD, MHA India


TheSafetyMaster™ accepts no liability for any loss that may occur the content of this article, It’s for awareness purpose.
Location-Manufacturing Unit of edible oil
Description-Sudden fire in factory and quickly spread.
Workers tried to control the fire but factory severely
damaged by the fire.

Location- Mandi house


Cause-The fire broke out on the top floor of the
museum, located in FICCI Building in Mandi House,
where some repair work was underway and quickly
spread to all other floors of the building.

Incident Data Source: www.google.com

4.0 How can we help?

We at TSM TheSafetyMaster Private Limited offer the


following services to enhance the Fire Risk
Management in the industries:

1. Fire Risk Training


2. Fire Risk Assessment & Assurance Study
3. Fire Fighting & Emergency Training
4. Fire Protection System Design
Location-Manufacturer of disposable products 5. National Building Code Training
Description-The fire first broke out in the warehouse 6. Fire Risk Survey
of the factory where the inventory had been stored.
Soon it spread across the warehouse gutting the For any query, kindly contact us
inventory.

TheSafetyMaster™ accepts no liability for any loss that may occur the content of this article, It’s for awareness purpose.