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By Sukanta Adhikari

INTRODUCTION

The turbo-generator forms the heart of a power plant.It is the most vital and

expensive equipment of a power plant complex and is generally housed inside a

turbo-generator building.A turbo-generator consists of a turbine,generator and other

auxiliaries like condenser,pipelines carrying superheated steam etc. Turbo-generator

falls under high speed rotary type machines and its capacity varies from 2 MW to

2000MW. The turbo-generator foundation consists of turbo-generator and its

auxiliaries mounted on a foundation.The foundation can be either made of steel or

RCC.A RCC table top type(fig.1) foundation are commonly adopted.The top

deck,column and bottom raft together constitute the turbo-generator

foundation.Sometimes the turbogenerator foundation is mounted on vibration isolator

as shown in fig. 2.The article deals with the turbogeneartor foundation of a thermal

power station.

FIG 1: FRAME TYPE TURBOGENERATOR FOUNDATION

FIG 2: TABLE TOP TURBOGENERATOR FOUNDATION

WITH VIBRATION ISOLATOR

CRITERIA FOR DESIGN

The basic principal of TG foundation remains same compared to other machine

foundation.ie,

1 )No resonance should occur and hence the natural frequency of foundation system

should not coincide with the operating frequency of the machine. The foundation is

high tuned when its fundamental frequency is greater than the operating speed or

low tuned when its fundamental frequency is lower than the operating speed.

2) The amplitudes of motion at operating frequencies should not exceed the limiting

amplitudes, which are generally specified by machine manufacturers.

3) An eccentricity of 3% of base dimension along which the centre of gravity gets

displaced may be allowed. The reason to limit eccentricities is to minimize secondary

moments that could significantly influence the natural frequencies of the foundation.

INFORMATION NEEDED FOR DESIGN

The following data needs to be provided by machine manufacturer to the designer

for the design of TG foundation.

1 )Loading diagram showing magnitude and location of static and dynamic loads

exerted by machine on its foundation.

2) Speed of turbine and generator

3) critical speeds of the machine

Critical speed.

The angular speed at which the rotating shaft exhibits dynamic instability with rapid

increase in lateral amplitude.This develops when the angular speed is in resonance

with natural frequency of lateral vibration of shaft.The critical speed concept helps to

identify the operational region of rotar bearing system,probable mode shapes and

approximate location of peak amplitude.

4) Mass moment of inertia of machine components

5) Drawings showing the embedded parts,openings,grooves for foundation bolts,etc.

6) Piping layout,ducting etc

7) Temperature

8) Allowable amplitude.

Apart from above the following points shall be taken care while designing a

turbogenerator foundation.

• The total mass of the frame plus the raft shall not be less than three times the mass

of the machine

• The mass of the top deck plus mass of half the length of the column shall not be

less than the mass of the supported turbine and its auxiliaries on the top deck.

A minimum gap of 25 mm shall be maintained between top deck of turbo generator

foundation and floor of turbine building to avoid transfer of vibration to the floor.

• The clear distance in any direction between adjacent foundations and turbo

generator foundation shall be large enough to avoid transmission of detrimental

vibration amplitudes through the surrounding. Foundation spacing is intended to

ensure that the soil response of adjacent foundations is independent as far as

possible. A spacing of 2.5 times the width of the smallest foundation is

recommended,because the volumes of soil under stress from adjacent foundations

will not overlap in that case.In such cases vibration isolation pads are to be installed

on the adjacent sides of the foundations to avoid transfer of vibration.

• The stress in the soil due to turbogenerator foundation depends not only on the

maximum displacement characterizing the vibration,ie, on the amplitude and

frequency ,but also on the static pressure to which the soil is subjected.The

settlement caused by vibration increases with pressure.Therefore the pressure

permitted must be smaller than that permitted for static load. Hence,the stress

induced in soil shall not exceed 50% of the allowable bearing capacity of the soil.

SIZING OF FOUNDATION

1. Top Deck

The proportioning of the deck is basically governed by the machine manufacturer’s

drawing giving the sole plate locations and opening details for the various parts of

the machine.

2. Columns

The following guidelines may be followed for column sizing:

• As far as possible pairs of columns should be provided under each transverse

girder

• Compressive stresses and elastic shortening should be kept uniform in all the

columns as far as possible

3. Base Raft

The bottom of the raft shall not be placed above the level as suggested by the geo-

technical consultant where the thickness (t) of the slab shall not be less than,t =

0.07L

4/3

, where L is the average distance between columns.

PRIMARY LOAD AND LOAD COMBINATION FOR STATIC ANALYSIS

Primary loads.

1) Dead load(DL)

Dead load includes self weight of the foundation and dead weight of machine

and its auxiliaries.The weight of machine component are supplied by machine

manufacturer.

2) Operation load(OL)

The operation loads supplied by machine manufacturer includes friction

forces,torque loads,thermal elongation,vacuum in condenser,piping forces etc

a) Torque loads

Forces due to steam in turbine section impose a torque on the stationary turbine

casing in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of rotar.The turbine

manufacturer provides this data.

FIG 3: TORQUE DUE TO NORMAL OPERATION

b)Vaccum in condenser

In a thermal power plant the mode of cooling the steam in the turbine is done

either by air cooled condenser or water cooled condenser.Water cooled condender

are mounted on the base raft.whereas the air cooled condenser also called ACC is a

separate unit outside the T.G building to which the steam is taken through a

separate pipe.

Incase of turbine mounted on TG raft, load due to vacuum in condenser needs to be

considered.The pressure on the turbine casing is atmospheric and the pressure in

the condender is below atmospheric pressure.The differential pressure between the

turbine casing and the condenser results in a suction or a vacuum load transferred to

the deck slab through turbine base plates.The magnitude of the vaccum load is

significantly large and may be several times the weight of condenser.

c) Frictional load

The heat emmited by pipes carrying superheated steam ,circulation of steam

through turbine casing itself give rise to temperature gradients between foundation

components causing additional stress on them.Heat buildup in turbine casing and

bed plates induces thermal loading on the foundation.The expansion of casing and

base plate of the machine relative to the concrete deck results in frictional loads on

the slab.

3) Normal machine unbalance force(NUL)

Imbalance in rotating machinery is the common source of harmonic excitation.The

cause of this defect may be due to material imperfection,tolerances etc of the rotar

leading to centrifugal force in the system and the vibration force is imparted to the

bearings as a result of centrifugal forces. Due to unsatisfactory balancing of rotating

parts in practice the mass centriod of rotating part does not coincide with center of

rotation(refer figure 1).In the course of operation the initial defective balancing may

be increased at an alarming rate in consequence of thec loosening,corrosion or

breakage of the turbine blades.With generators the warming up of the rotar,a

displacement of the coils or variation in the material of the rotar my upset the

balance.Also the defects of the lubrication system,deficiency of the packing and

uneven warming up rotating parts may cause expansion resulting in vibrations which

do not follow simple harmonic motion. But undergo complicated changes just like the

centrifugal forces produced by them.This fact is however neglected and all

mechanical forces are considered as centrifugal ones.For the computation of

dynamic effect the data of weight of rotating parts & their point of application is

necessary.The weight of generator rotar amounts to about 60% of total weight of all

rotating parts.

FlG 4.

1

FlG. 5

Where,

m=unbalance mass of rotating part.

e=eccentricity.

=angular speed in radian/sec

The coordinate x and y of unbalanced mass are related to angle ,where =t

X=ecos

Y=esin

The acceleration of mass in x direction is obtained by twice differentiating x=e cos t

x..=-e

2

sint

similarly,

y =-e

2

sint

The acceleration produces inertia forces mew square cost and me

2

sint.The

unbalance mass thus exert harmonic forces in both horizontal and vertical

direction.The resultant of the two forces by parallelogram law of forces is given by

me

2

The unbalance forces are supplied by machine manufacturer.In absence of any data

IS2974 recommends the use of formula derived above as given by

F(t)=me

2

.sin(t+)

Where =phase angle

FlG ó.

Calculation of eccentricity e

Many rotating machines are balanced to an initial balance quality either in

accordance with the manufacturer’s procedures or as specified by the purchaser. As

per ISO 1940 balance quality grades G are designated according to the magnitude

of the product e expressed in millimetres/sec. If the magnitude is equal to 6,3

mm/s, the balance quality grade is designated G 6.3.

As per IS 2974(part 3) turbo-generator and other similar machines are classified

under balance grade G2.5.A higher grade is considered for foundation design that is

G6.3,

The eccentricity of rotar mass can be obtain from ,

G=e

Where G=balance grade in mm/sec

e=eccentricity in mm

=operating speed of machine in radian/sec

Calculation of equivalent static force

a)For machines having frequency more than natural frequency of foundation system.

Equivalent static force=(Fatigue factor)x(Dynamic factor)x(Rotating

weight)x(Ne/Nm)

2

Where,

Fatigue factor is taken as 2 as per IS 2974(part 3)

Maximum dynamic factor may be taken as 8

Ne=Speed of machine

Nm=Natural frequency of foundation system.

b)For machines having frequency less than natural frequency of foundation.

Equivalent static force=(Fatigue factor)x(Dynamic factor)x(Rotating

weight)x(Ne/Nm)

2

Where Dynamic factor=1/sqrt((1-(Nm/Ne)

2

)

2

+(2DNm/Ne)

2

Where D=dynamic ratio.

4) Temperature loads in foundation(TLF)

a)Uniform temperature

b)Temperature gradient across members.

Load due to temperature changes are generally taken into account by assuming

differential temperature between upper and lower slabs and between inner and outer

faces of the deck slab.The deck slab is considered as horizontal frame and induced

moment due to differential temperature are accounted for.

In absence of any rigorous calculation the moment due to variation in temperature

and shrinkage may be calculated by considering the modulas of elasticity reduced to

half and moment of inertia of cracked reinforced concrete to about half to one third of

full section.

Values of thermal expansion of concrete.

(for concrete with normal cement content)

Type of aggregate in concrete coefficient of expansion(

0

c)

Limestone 8x10

-6

Granite,Basalt 10x10

-6

Gravel,quartzite 12x10

-6

5)Short circuit forces(SCF).

Short circuit induces a severe loading condition on the turbo-generator foundation.A

fault of this type occurs when any two of three generator phase terminal are

shorted.The short moment affects the foundation via the generator casing in the

form of opposite pairs of vertical forces ,the moment vector being parallel to shaft

axis.The value of short circuit forces is supplied by manufacturer.

6)Loss of blade unbalance(LBL)/Bearing failure load(BFL)

a)LBL

During operation it may happen that one or more blade of the turbine rotar may

break.This may increase the unbalance force on the TG foundation.Since the turbo-

generator is tripped in such a condition and this force occurs for a short time it is

sufficient to check the TG foundation from strength criteria.The machine

manufacturer provides this data.

b)BFL

Bending of rotar induces larger unbalance force due to increase in eccentricity.This

may be due to differential temperatures,rotar fixed too tightly at both end bearings

and improper operation of machine

7)Seismic loads(SL)

Turbogenerator foundations located in zone of high seismicity are analyzed for

seismic loads.Seismic analysis shall be carried out as per IS 1893(part 4)-2005

which classifies turbo generator foundation in category 2 with importance factor 1.75.

8) Wind Load (WL)

This is usually not considered in the analysis of turbogenerator foundations for in

most of the cases the TG foundation is placed inside a building (the power house)

where a the wind load is transferred to the ground through the turbine structure

itself.

Load combination.

IS 2974 gives the following load combination to be considered for design

a)DL+OL+NUL+TLF

b)DL+OL+NUL+TLF+SCF

c)DL+OL+TLF+LBL/BFL

d)DL+OL+NUL+TLF+SL

MODELLING

The analysis of TG foundation shall be done using a simulated mathematical model

of linear elastic properties.

The model for dynamic analysis shall contain the following

1)Geometry :The foundation shall be modelled as a three dimensional space frame

consisting of column,longitudinal beam and transverse beam.However with the

availability of commercial software the same can be modelled and analysis using

finite element package.The nodes in the model has six degree of freedom,ie. three

translational and three rotational.

2)Support condition:The pressure on the soil under turbogenerator foundation is

determined by static load.ie, by weight of foundation and equipment and hence the

TG foundation can be considered to be fixed at base raft level.

3)Mass modelling : Lumped-mass approach shall be used for computing

modal masses of the foundation. The machine shall be modelled to lump its mass

together with the mass of the foundation. The stiffness and damping of the shaft and

casing shall generally be disregarded.

4)Material constant:

E value

The actual modulas of elasticity of material for dynamic analysis is one in which

irreversible part of defomation need to be separated from total deformation.The

modulas of elasticity may be established after determining the relationship between

stress and the elastic part of deformation.The natural frequency of turbogenerator

foundation depend on the value of dynamic young’s modulas value.

Range of values of Dynamic young’s modulas as per IS 2974 for concrete.

Grade of concrete Dynamic young’s modulas(N/mm

2

)

M20 25590-30000

M25 28500-34000

M30 31200-37000

The young’s modulas for static analysis as per IS 456:2000 shall be computed by

5000sqrt fck

5)Damping : Damping is a phenomenon of energy dissipation that opposes free

vibrations of a system.Like the restoring forces, the damping forces oppose the

motion, but the energy dissipated through damping cannot be recovered. A

characteristic feature of damping forces is that they lag the displacement and are out

of phase with the motion.The effect of damping in forced vibration reduces the

amplitude but does not affect the frequency.

Damping as suggested by IS 2974 is 2% of critical damping under normal operating

condition and 5% under emergency condition like blade failure,short circuit ,bearing

failure etc.The effect of damping may be neglected for free vibration analysis but

shall be considered for forced vibration analysis.

6) Moment of Inertia: Rotational inertia may be neglected..Moment of inertia may be

determined for section exhibiting no cracks. shear and torsion deformation may be

accounted for.

METHODS OF ANALYSIS

For design of turbogenerator foundation both static and dynamic analysis are carried

out.

1) Static analysis.

Static loads are principally a function of the weights of the machine and all its

auxiliary equipment.The static analysis of foundation,ie, analysis of forces,moments

and displacement of the foundation system shall be based on load combination as

discussed above.

a)DL+OL+NUL+TLF

b)DL+OL+NUL+TLF+SCF

c)DL+OL+TLF+LBL/BFL

d)DL+OL+NUL+TLF+SL

Design of individual component of the foundation shall be designed as per

IS456:2000.

2) Dynamic analysis

Dynamic loads, which occur during the operation of the machine, result from forces

generated by unbalance . The magnitude of these dynamic loads primarily depends

upon the machine’s operating speed and the type, size, weight, and arrangement

(position) of moving parts within the casing.

Vibration system falls in two major category:forced and free.

a) Free Vibration analysis

A free system vibrates under forces inherient to the system. The natural

frequency(eigen value) and mode shapes(eigen vector) of a structure are the

parameters that affects response of the structure under dynamic loading. This type

of system will vibrate at one or more of its natural frequencies.In this process no

external forcing function is involved ,the natural frequency and mode shapes are

direct functions of the stiffness and mass distribution of the structure.

Frequency ratio

The frequency ratio is a term that relates the operating speed of the equipment to the

natural frequencies of the foundation. Designer requires that the frequency of the

foundation shall differ from the operating speed of the equipment by certain margins

so as to prevent resonance conditions from developing within the foundation-

equipment.The margin can be expressed in terms of fn/fm ratio (natural frequency

to operating frequency) which requires that the fn/fm < 0.8 or fn/fm> 0.8 or in other

words the fundamental natural frequency shall be at least 20 percent away from the

machine operating speed.However 50% frequency separation is preferred as IS

2974 (part 3) .

If there is a potential for resonance, the designer should either adjust to the

foundation size or perform more refined calculations. The size and type of equipment

play an important role in this decision process.

High-Tuned System: A high-tuned system is a machine foundation system in which

the operating frequency (range) of the machinery is below all natural frequencies of

the System.

Low-Tuned System: A low-tuned system is a machine foundation system in which

the operating frequency (range) of the machinery is above all natural frequencies of

the System.

b) Forced vibration analysis.

Forced vibration is vibration caused by external force being impressed on the body.

This type of vibration takes place at frequency of the exciting force, which is an

arbitrary quantity independent of the natural frequency of the system. When

frequency of the exciting force and the natural frequency coincide, a resonance

condition is reached and dangerously large amplitudes may result.

FlG 7: CH/FI SHCWlNG SIEFS lNVCLVED lN DYN/MlC /N/LSYlS CF

IUF8CGENEF/ICF FCUND/IlCN

A TYPICAL TURBO-GENERATOR UNIT

VIBRATION MEASUREMENT

Amplitude

The basic goal in the design of a machine foundation is to limit its motion to

amplitudes that neither endanger the satisfactory operation of the machine nor

disturb people working in the immediate vicinity (Gazettes 1983). Allowable

amplitudes depend on the speed, location, and criticality or function of the machine.

The amplitude serves as an important parameter in computing the vibration

measurement.

The vibration limits applicable to the machine are normally set by the equipment

manufacturer. The limits are usually predicated on either limiting damage to the

equipment or ensuring proper performance of the equipment. The normal criterion

limits vibration displacements or velocities at the bearings of the rotating shaft.

Excessive vibrations of the bearings increase maintenance requirements and lead to

premature failure of the bearings.

ACI 20351.3R (04) and DIN 4024 suggests that when the equipment manufacturer

does not establish vibration limits, ISO 10816-Part 2 may be referred.Transient

Vibration.

MISCELLENEOUS

1) Transient vibration.

When the natural frequency of the foundation is lower than the operating speed, the

maximum dynamic forces at the starting or stopping will be significant for the

foundation. Turbine are started gradually in order to secure the “starting time”

necessary to start the machine and usually this process takes 20 to 40 minutes. The

“stopping time” may be even longer than the starting time which is of the order of 40

to 60 hindering this process the rotary of the machine will rotate within +-5 percent of

all frequency for 1 to 2 min.With deep under tuning a resonance may therefore occur

for a few minutes because the natural frequency may coincide with the speed. And

shall be given due care even thought it is of transient nature.

2) Dynamic soil structure interaction (DSSI)

For large capacity turbo generator consideration may be taken for dynamic soil

structure interaction so as to avoid any risk to the foundation during

earthquake/machine induced load. Ignoring the soil stiffness in the overall response

and treating it as a fixed base problem the dynamic response of structure (i.e.,

natural frequencies, amplitude) can be in significant variation to the reality in certain

cases. Using Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction this gap can be bridged by coupling

conventional techniques applied in structure and soil dynamics together to

understand the overall response of the structure and the supporting soil medium

system.

Soil can be considered as a deformable elastic medium, the stiffness of soil gets

coupled to the stiffness of the structure and changes it elastic property. Based on

this the characteristic response of the system also gets modified.

The two classes of problems under which dynamic soil structure interaction plays a

Significant role are

•Foundation systems subjected to vibration from turbogenerator, .ie,from the

machine

• Foundation systems subjected to earthquake.

Soil dynamics deals with engineering properties and behavior of soil under dynamic

stress. For the dynamic analysis of machine foundations, soil properties, such as

Poisson’s ratio, dynamic shear modulus, and damping of soil, are generally required.

a) Dynamic shear modulus (G) or shear wave velocity (vs)

Dynamic shear modulus G is the most important soil parameter influencing the

dynamic behavior of the soil-foundation system. Together with Poisson’s ratio, it is

used to calculate soil impedance.The dynamic shear modulus represents the slope

of the shear stress versus shear strain curve. Most soils do not respond elastically to

shear strains; they respond with a combination of elastic and plastic strain. For that

reason,plotting shear stress versus shear strain results in a curve not a straight line.

The value of G varies based on the strain considered. The lower the strain, the

higher the dynamic shear modulus

b) Poisson’s ratio (v) :—Poisson’s ratio which is the ratio of the strain in the direction

perpendicular to loading to the strain in the direction of loading, is used to calculate

both the soil stiffness and damping. Poisson’s ratio can be computed from the

measured values of wave velocities traveling through the soil. These computations,

however, are difficult. The stiffness and damping of a foundation system are

generally insensitive to variations of Poisson’s ratio common in soils.Generally,

Poisson’s ratio varies from 0.25 to 0.35 for cohesionless soils and from 0.35 to 0.45

for cohesive soils. If no specific values of Poisson’s ratio are available, then, for

design purposes, the engineer may take Poisson’s ratio as 0.33 for cohesionless

soils and 0.40 for cohesive soil.

c) Damping value of soil

Damping is a phenomenon of energy dissipation that opposes free vibrations of a

system. Like the restoring forces, the damping forces oppose the motion, but the

energy dissipated through damping cannot be recovered. A characteristic feature of

damping forces is that they lag the displacement and are out of phase with the

motion. Damping of soil includes two effects—geometric and material

damping.Geometric, or radiation, damping reflects energy dissipation through

propagation of elastic waves away from the immediate vicinity of a foundation and

inelastic deformation of soil. It results from the practical infinity of the soil medium,

and it is close to viscous in character.Material damping reflects energy dissipation

within the soil itself due to the imperfect elasticity of real materials.

3) Shaft Alignment

Shaft connects the turbine and the generator may be flexible or rigid

a) Flexible

A rotating shaft of a machine which has a first lateral natural frequency which is

lower than the rotating speed.

b) Rigid

A rotating shaft of a machine which has a first lateral natural frequency which is more

than the rotating speed

If the shaft is flexible, then with increase in the operating speed a slight imbalance in

the rotating mass can induce significant dynamic load on the shaft and also the over

all deformation of the soil, raft and the frame (specially in the flexural mode) can

generate a phenomenon which is know as the bowing of the turbine shaft.Bowing or

bending of the shaft about its center line axis can create damage to the machine

components, induce large forces at the bearing and can also reduce the operating

efficiency of the turbine.

References.

1) Barkan, D.D. (1962). “Dynamics of Bases and Foundations”, McGraw-Hill Book

Company, New York, U.S.A.

2) Major, A. (1980). “Dynamics in Civil Engineering-Analysis and Design, Vols. I–IV”,

Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. 3) Prakash, S. and Puri, V.K. (1988).

“Foundations for Machines: Analysis and Design”, John Wiley & Sons, New York,

U.S.A.

4) Arya, S. C., O’Neill, M. W., and Pincus, G., Design of Structures and Foundations

for Vibrating Machines, Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX

5) Jagmohan L. Humar.(1989) , Dynamics of Structures: Second Edition, Prentice

Hall College Div

6) Chowdhury Indrajit &Dasgupta P ,Dynamics of structure and foundation(2009)-

CRC Press/Balkema

7) BIS (1992). “IS 2974 (Part 3): 1992—Indian Standard Design and Construction of

Machine Foundations—Code of Practice, Part 3: Foundations for Rotary Type

Machines (Medium and High Frequency) (Second Revision)”, Bureau of Indian

Standards, New Delhi

8) DIN: 4024 (Part - 1), 1988: Machine foundations – Flexible structures that support

machines with rotating elements

9) ACI 351.3R(04): Foundations for Dynamic Equipment

10)ISO: 10816-2:2001(E): Mechanical vibrations – Evaluation of machine vibration

by measurements on non-rotating parts – Part 2: Land-based steam turbines and

generators in excess of 50MW with normal operating speeds of 1500 r/min,

1800r/min, 3000 r/min and 3600 r/min.

11) ISO: 1940-1:2003(E): Mechanical vibration – Balance quality requirements for

rotors in constant (rigid) state – Part 1: Specification and verification of balance

tolerances

*********************************************************

Dedicated to my mentor Vijay S kanagi,Thermax Limited

. 3) An eccentricity of 3% of base dimension along which the centre of gravity gets displaced may be allowed. The reason to limit eccentricities is to minimize secondary moments that could significantly influence the natural frequencies of the foundation.FIG 2: TABLE TOP TURBOGENERATOR FOUNDATION WITH VIBRATION ISOLATOR CRITERIA FOR DESIGN The basic principal of TG foundation remains same compared to other machine foundation. The foundation is high tuned when its fundamental frequency is greater than the operating speed or low tuned when its fundamental frequency is lower than the operating speed. 1 )No resonance should occur and hence the natural frequency of foundation system should not coincide with the operating frequency of the machine. 2) The amplitudes of motion at operating frequencies should not exceed the limiting amplitudes. which are generally specified by machine manufacturers.ie.

4) Mass moment of inertia of machine components 5) Drawings showing the embedded parts. • The total mass of the frame plus the raft shall not be less than three times the mass of the machine • The mass of the top deck plus mass of half the length of the column shall not be less than the mass of the supported turbine and its auxiliaries on the top deck. • The clear distance in any direction between adjacent foundations and turbo generator foundation shall be large enough to avoid transmission of detrimental vibration amplitudes through the surrounding.The critical speed concept helps to identify the operational region of rotar bearing system.5 times the width of the smallest foundation is recommended.ducting etc 7) Temperature 8) Allowable amplitude. .openings. 2) Speed of turbine and generator 3) critical speeds of the machine Critical speed. Apart from above the following points shall be taken care while designing a turbogenerator foundation.This develops when the angular speed is in resonance with natural frequency of lateral vibration of shaft.because the volumes of soil under stress from adjacent foundations will not overlap in that case. Foundation spacing is intended to ensure that the soil response of adjacent foundations is independent as far as possible.etc. 1 )Loading diagram showing magnitude and location of static and dynamic loads exerted by machine on its foundation. 6) Piping layout. A minimum gap of 25 mm shall be maintained between top deck of turbo generator foundation and floor of turbine building to avoid transfer of vibration to the floor.INFORMATION NEEDED FOR DESIGN The following data needs to be provided by machine manufacturer to the designer for the design of TG foundation. The angular speed at which the rotating shaft exhibits dynamic instability with rapid increase in lateral amplitude.probable mode shapes and approximate location of peak amplitude. A spacing of 2.grooves for foundation bolts.In such cases vibration isolation pads are to be installed on the adjacent sides of the foundations to avoid transfer of vibration.

but also on the static pressure to which the soil is subjected. where L is the average distance between columns.the stress induced in soil shall not exceed 50% of the allowable bearing capacity of the soil. Top Deck The proportioning of the deck is basically governed by the machine manufacturer’s drawing giving the sole plate locations and opening details for the various parts of the machine. Columns The following guidelines may be followed for column sizing: • As far as possible pairs of columns should be provided under each transverse girder • Compressive stresses and elastic shortening should be kept uniform in all the columns as far as possible 3.thermal elongation.The weight of machine component are supplied by machine manufacturer. Base Raft The bottom of the raft shall not be placed above the level as suggested by the geotechnical consultant where the thickness (t) of the slab shall not be less than.The settlement caused by vibration increases with pressure.torque loads.07L4/3.ie. PRIMARY LOAD AND LOAD COMBINATION FOR STATIC ANALYSIS Primary loads. 2. 2) Operation load(OL) The operation loads supplied by machine manufacturer includes friction forces. on the amplitude and frequency . 1) Dead load(DL) Dead load includes self weight of the foundation and dead weight of machine and its auxiliaries.• The stress in the soil due to turbogenerator foundation depends not only on the maximum displacement characterizing the vibration.vacuum in condenser.t = 0. Hence. SIZING OF FOUNDATION 1.piping forces etc .Therefore the pressure permitted must be smaller than that permitted for static load.

The turbine manufacturer provides this data. Incase of turbine mounted on TG raft. load due to vacuum in condenser needs to be considered.whereas the air cooled condenser also called ACC is a separate unit outside the T. FIG 3: TORQUE DUE TO NORMAL OPERATION b)Vaccum in condenser In a thermal power plant the mode of cooling the steam in the turbine is done either by air cooled condenser or water cooled condenser.G building to which the steam is taken through a separate pipe. .a) Torque loads Forces due to steam in turbine section impose a torque on the stationary turbine casing in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of rotar.The pressure on the turbine casing is atmospheric and the pressure in the condender is below atmospheric pressure.Water cooled condender are mounted on the base raft.The differential pressure between the turbine casing and the condenser results in a suction or a vacuum load transferred to the deck slab through turbine base plates.The magnitude of the vaccum load is significantly large and may be several times the weight of condenser.

Due to unsatisfactory balancing of rotating parts in practice the mass centriod of rotating part does not coincide with center of rotation(refer figure 1).Also the defects of the lubrication system.For the computation of dynamic effect the data of weight of rotating parts & their point of application is necessary.a displacement of the coils or variation in the material of the rotar my upset the balance.deficiency of the packing and uneven warming up rotating parts may cause expansion resulting in vibrations which do not follow simple harmonic motion.This fact is however neglected and all mechanical forces are considered as centrifugal ones.tolerances etc of the rotar leading to centrifugal force in the system and the vibration force is imparted to the bearings as a result of centrifugal forces. But undergo complicated changes just like the centrifugal forces produced by them. .circulation of steam through turbine casing itself give rise to temperature gradients between foundation components causing additional stress on them.The weight of generator rotar amounts to about 60% of total weight of all rotating parts. 3) Normal machine unbalance force(NUL) Imbalance in rotating machinery is the common source of harmonic excitation.Heat buildup in turbine casing and bed plates induces thermal loading on the foundation.corrosion or breakage of the turbine blades.The expansion of casing and base plate of the machine relative to the concrete deck results in frictional loads on the slab.The cause of this defect may be due to material imperfection.In the course of operation the initial defective balancing may be increased at an alarming rate in consequence of thec loosening.With generators the warming up of the rotar.c) Frictional load The heat emmited by pipes carrying superheated steam .

where = t X=ecos Y=esin The acceleration of mass in x direction is obtained by twice differentiating x=e cos x. =angular speed in radian/sec The coordinate x and y of unbalanced mass are related to angle .The unbalance mass thus exert harmonic forces in both horizontal and vertical direction. e=eccentricity.Where. m=unbalance mass of rotating part..=-e 2 t sin t similarly.The resultant of the two forces by parallelogram law of forces is given by me 2 . y =-e 2 sin t The acceleration produces inertia forces mew square cos t and me 2 sin t.

3 mm/s. The eccentricity of rotar mass can be obtain from .sin( t+ ) Where =phase angle Calculation of eccentricity e Many rotating machines are balanced to an initial balance quality either in accordance with the manufacturer’s procedures or as specified by the purchaser.In absence of any data IS2974 recommends the use of formula derived above as given by F(t)=me 2. As per ISO 1940 balance quality grades G are designated according to the magnitude of the product e expressed in millimetres/sec. G=e Where G=balance grade in mm/sec e=eccentricity in mm =operating speed of machine in radian/sec .The unbalance forces are supplied by machine manufacturer. the balance quality grade is designated G 6. As per IS 2974(part 3) turbo-generator and other similar machines are classified under balance grade G2. If the magnitude is equal to 6.3.5.A higher grade is considered for foundation design that is G6.3.

b)For machines having frequency less than natural frequency of foundation. Equivalent static force=(Fatigue factor)x(Dynamic factor)x(Rotating weight)x(Ne/Nm)2 Where.Calculation of equivalent static force a)For machines having frequency more than natural frequency of foundation system. Fatigue factor is taken as 2 as per IS 2974(part 3) Maximum dynamic factor may be taken as 8 Ne=Speed of machine Nm=Natural frequency of foundation system. . 4) Temperature loads in foundation(TLF) a)Uniform temperature b)Temperature gradient across members. In absence of any rigorous calculation the moment due to variation in temperature and shrinkage may be calculated by considering the modulas of elasticity reduced to half and moment of inertia of cracked reinforced concrete to about half to one third of full section.The deck slab is considered as horizontal frame and induced moment due to differential temperature are accounted for. Load due to temperature changes are generally taken into account by assuming differential temperature between upper and lower slabs and between inner and outer faces of the deck slab. Equivalent static force=(Fatigue factor)x(Dynamic factor)x(Rotating weight)x(Ne/Nm)2 Where Dynamic factor=1/sqrt((1-(Nm/Ne)2)2+(2DNm/Ne)2 Where D=dynamic ratio.

This may increase the unbalance force on the TG foundation.Since the turbogenerator is tripped in such a condition and this force occurs for a short time it is sufficient to check the TG foundation from strength criteria.rotar fixed too tightly at both end bearings and improper operation of machine 7)Seismic loads(SL) Turbogenerator foundations located in zone of high seismicity are analyzed for seismic loads.quartzite coefficient of expansion(0c) 8x10-6 10x10-6 12x10-6 5)Short circuit forces(SCF).The short moment affects the foundation via the generator casing in the form of opposite pairs of vertical forces .A fault of this type occurs when any two of three generator phase terminal are shorted.75. 6)Loss of blade unbalance(LBL)/Bearing failure load(BFL) a)LBL During operation it may happen that one or more blade of the turbine rotar may break.Basalt Gravel.the moment vector being parallel to shaft axis. b)BFL Bending of rotar induces larger unbalance force due to increase in eccentricity. (for concrete with normal cement content) Type of aggregate in concrete Limestone Granite.Values of thermal expansion of concrete.This may be due to differential temperatures.The value of short circuit forces is supplied by manufacturer.Seismic analysis shall be carried out as per IS 1893(part 4)-2005 which classifies turbo generator foundation in category 2 with importance factor 1.The machine manufacturer provides this data. . Short circuit induces a severe loading condition on the turbo-generator foundation.

4)Material constant: E value The actual modulas of elasticity of material for dynamic analysis is one in which irreversible part of defomation need to be separated from total deformation. three translational and three rotational. The machine shall be modelled to lump its mass together with the mass of the foundation.longitudinal beam and transverse beam. The model for dynamic analysis shall contain the following 1)Geometry :The foundation shall be modelled as a three dimensional space frame consisting of column. Load combination.However with the availability of commercial software the same can be modelled and analysis using finite element package.ie.The . IS 2974 gives the following load combination to be considered for design a)DL+OL+NUL+TLF b)DL+OL+NUL+TLF+SCF c)DL+OL+TLF+LBL/BFL d)DL+OL+NUL+TLF+SL MODELLING The analysis of TG foundation shall be done using a simulated mathematical model of linear elastic properties.The nodes in the model has six degree of freedom.8) Wind Load (WL) This is usually not considered in the analysis of turbogenerator foundations for in most of the cases the TG foundation is placed inside a building (the power house) where a the wind load is transferred to the ground through the turbine structure itself. by weight of foundation and equipment and hence the TG foundation can be considered to be fixed at base raft level.ie. The stiffness and damping of the shaft and casing shall generally be disregarded. 2)Support condition:The pressure on the soil under turbogenerator foundation is determined by static load. 3)Mass modelling : Lumped-mass approach shall be used for computing modal masses of the foundation.

Grade of concrete M20 M25 M30 Dynamic young’s modulas(N/mm2) 25590-30000 28500-34000 31200-37000 The young’s modulas for static analysis as per IS 456:2000 shall be computed by 5000sqrt fck 5)Damping : Damping is a phenomenon of energy dissipation that opposes free vibrations of a system. 6) Moment of Inertia: Rotational inertia may be neglected. the damping forces oppose the motion.ie.The natural frequency of turbogenerator foundation depend on the value of dynamic young’s modulas value. METHODS OF ANALYSIS For design of turbogenerator foundation both static and dynamic analysis are carried out.Like the restoring forces.The static analysis of foundation. Static loads are principally a function of the weights of the machine and all its auxiliary equipment. Range of values of Dynamic young’s modulas as per IS 2974 for concrete.Moment of inertia may be determined for section exhibiting no cracks. 1) Static analysis. A characteristic feature of damping forces is that they lag the displacement and are out of phase with the motion.The effect of damping in forced vibration reduces the amplitude but does not affect the frequency.moments and displacement of the foundation system shall be based on load combination as discussed above..The effect of damping may be neglected for free vibration analysis but shall be considered for forced vibration analysis.modulas of elasticity may be established after determining the relationship between stress and the elastic part of deformation.bearing failure etc. analysis of forces. .short circuit . but the energy dissipated through damping cannot be recovered. Damping as suggested by IS 2974 is 2% of critical damping under normal operating condition and 5% under emergency condition like blade failure. shear and torsion deformation may be accounted for.

In this process no external forcing function is involved . High-Tuned System: A high-tuned system is a machine foundation system in which the operating frequency (range) of the machinery is below all natural frequencies of the System.The margin can be expressed in terms of fn/fm ratio (natural frequency to operating frequency) which requires that the fn/fm < 0. This type of system will vibrate at one or more of its natural frequencies.8 or in other words the fundamental natural frequency shall be at least 20 percent away from the machine operating speed.8 or fn/fm> 0. Frequency ratio The frequency ratio is a term that relates the operating speed of the equipment to the natural frequencies of the foundation. If there is a potential for resonance. a) Free Vibration analysis A free system vibrates under forces inherient to the system. the designer should either adjust to the foundation size or perform more refined calculations.a)DL+OL+NUL+TLF b)DL+OL+NUL+TLF+SCF c)DL+OL+TLF+LBL/BFL d)DL+OL+NUL+TLF+SL Design of individual component of the foundation shall be designed as per IS456:2000. The size and type of equipment play an important role in this decision process. The natural frequency(eigen value) and mode shapes(eigen vector) of a structure are the parameters that affects response of the structure under dynamic loading. The magnitude of these dynamic loads primarily depends upon the machine’s operating speed and the type.However 50% frequency separation is preferred as IS 2974 (part 3) . Designer requires that the frequency of the foundation shall differ from the operating speed of the equipment by certain margins so as to prevent resonance conditions from developing within the foundationequipment. which occur during the operation of the machine. . and arrangement (position) of moving parts within the casing. size.the natural frequency and mode shapes are direct functions of the stiffness and mass distribution of the structure. Vibration system falls in two major category:forced and free. 2) Dynamic analysis Dynamic loads. weight. result from forces generated by unbalance .

Forced vibration is vibration caused by external force being impressed on the body. This type of vibration takes place at frequency of the exciting force. a resonance condition is reached and dangerously large amplitudes may result. . which is an arbitrary quantity independent of the natural frequency of the system. b) Forced vibration analysis.Low-Tuned System: A low-tuned system is a machine foundation system in which the operating frequency (range) of the machinery is above all natural frequencies of the System. When frequency of the exciting force and the natural frequency coincide.

The limits are usually predicated on either limiting damage to the equipment or ensuring proper performance of the equipment. The normal criterion limits vibration displacements or velocities at the bearings of the rotating shaft. Allowable amplitudes depend on the speed. The vibration limits applicable to the machine are normally set by the equipment manufacturer. The amplitude serves as an important parameter in computing the vibration measurement. Excessive vibrations of the bearings increase maintenance requirements and lead to premature failure of the bearings.A TYPICAL TURBO-GENERATOR UNIT VIBRATION MEASUREMENT Amplitude The basic goal in the design of a machine foundation is to limit its motion to amplitudes that neither endanger the satisfactory operation of the machine nor disturb people working in the immediate vicinity (Gazettes 1983). . and criticality or function of the machine. location.

natural frequencies. ISO 10816-Part 2 may be referred. The “stopping time” may be even longer than the starting time which is of the order of 40 to 60 hindering this process the rotary of the machine will rotate within +-5 percent of all frequency for 1 to 2 min. The two classes of problems under which dynamic soil structure interaction plays a Significant role are •Foundation systems subjected to vibration from turbogenerator. the stiffness of soil gets coupled to the stiffness of the structure and changes it elastic property. .ACI 20351.ie. Using Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction this gap can be bridged by coupling conventional techniques applied in structure and soil dynamics together to understand the overall response of the structure and the supporting soil medium system. MISCELLENEOUS 1) Transient vibration. And shall be given due care even thought it is of transient nature. the maximum dynamic forces at the starting or stopping will be significant for the foundation. Based on this the characteristic response of the system also gets modified. Ignoring the soil stiffness in the overall response and treating it as a fixed base problem the dynamic response of structure (i.from the machine • Foundation systems subjected to earthquake. Soil can be considered as a deformable elastic medium. amplitude) can be in significant variation to the reality in certain cases. . 2) Dynamic soil structure interaction (DSSI) For large capacity turbo generator consideration may be taken for dynamic soil structure interaction so as to avoid any risk to the foundation during earthquake/machine induced load. Turbine are started gradually in order to secure the “starting time” necessary to start the machine and usually this process takes 20 to 40 minutes..3R (04) and DIN 4024 suggests that when the equipment manufacturer does not establish vibration limits. When the natural frequency of the foundation is lower than the operating speed.With deep under tuning a resonance may therefore occur for a few minutes because the natural frequency may coincide with the speed.e.Transient Vibration.

It results from the practical infinity of the soil medium. c) Damping value of soil Damping is a phenomenon of energy dissipation that opposes free vibrations of a system. For that reason. These computations.25 to 0. such as Poisson’s ratio. and it is close to viscous in character. Together with Poisson’s ratio. dynamic shear modulus. the engineer may take Poisson’s ratio as 0. Poisson’s ratio varies from 0.35 for cohesionless soils and from 0.Geometric.Soil dynamics deals with engineering properties and behavior of soil under dynamic stress. then. The value of G varies based on the strain considered. the higher the dynamic shear modulus b) Poisson’s ratio (v) :—Poisson’s ratio which is the ratio of the strain in the direction perpendicular to loading to the strain in the direction of loading. damping reflects energy dissipation through propagation of elastic waves away from the immediate vicinity of a foundation and inelastic deformation of soil.33 for cohesionless soils and 0. the damping forces oppose the motion. for design purposes. are generally required.45 for cohesive soils. is used to calculate both the soil stiffness and damping.Material damping reflects energy dissipation within the soil itself due to the imperfect elasticity of real materials. a) Dynamic shear modulus (G) or shear wave velocity (vs) Dynamic shear modulus G is the most important soil parameter influencing the dynamic behavior of the soil-foundation system. Like the restoring forces. and damping of soil. A characteristic feature of damping forces is that they lag the displacement and are out of phase with the motion. For the dynamic analysis of machine foundations.35 to 0. soil properties. or radiation.plotting shear stress versus shear strain results in a curve not a straight line. If no specific values of Poisson’s ratio are available.40 for cohesive soil.The dynamic shear modulus represents the slope of the shear stress versus shear strain curve. . Poisson’s ratio can be computed from the measured values of wave velocities traveling through the soil. The lower the strain.Generally. Most soils do not respond elastically to shear strains. however. Damping of soil includes two effects—geometric and material damping. it is used to calculate soil impedance. but the energy dissipated through damping cannot be recovered. The stiffness and damping of a foundation system are generally insensitive to variations of Poisson’s ratio common in soils. they respond with a combination of elastic and plastic strain. are difficult.

Bowing or bending of the shaft about its center line axis can create damage to the machine components. . induce large forces at the bearing and can also reduce the operating efficiency of the turbine.3) Shaft Alignment Shaft connects the turbine and the generator may be flexible or rigid a) Flexible A rotating shaft of a machine which has a first lateral natural frequency which is lower than the rotating speed. b) Rigid A rotating shaft of a machine which has a first lateral natural frequency which is more than the rotating speed If the shaft is flexible. raft and the frame (specially in the flexural mode) can generate a phenomenon which is know as the bowing of the turbine shaft. then with increase in the operating speed a slight imbalance in the rotating mass can induce significant dynamic load on the shaft and also the over all deformation of the soil.

3000 r/min and 3600 r/min.. U.. Bureau of Indian Standards. G. (1962). V. 11) ISO: 1940-1:2003(E): Mechanical vibration – Balance quality requirements for rotors in constant (rigid) state – Part 1: Specification and verification of balance tolerances ********************************************************* Dedicated to my mentor Vijay S kanagi. “IS 2974 (Part 3): 1992—Indian Standard Design and Construction of Machine Foundations—Code of Practice. C. 3) Prakash. O’Neill. John Wiley & Sons.A.D.References. “Foundations for Machines: Analysis and Design”. and Puri. (1988). D. New Delhi 8) DIN: 4024 (Part . S.S. A. 1988: Machine foundations – Flexible structures that support machines with rotating elements 9) ACI 351. Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines. Hungary.A. 1800r/min. McGraw-Hill Book Company.(1989) .K. TX 5) Jagmohan L. M. Vols.Dynamics of structure and foundation(2009)CRC Press/Balkema 7) BIS (1992). “Dynamics in Civil Engineering-Analysis and Design.1). Part 3: Foundations for Rotary Type Machines (Medium and High Frequency) (Second Revision)”. New York. New York. (1980). Dynamics of Structures: Second Edition. Humar.S. 2) Major. W. I–IV”. U. Akadémiai Kiadó.. 1) Barkan. 4) Arya.Thermax Limited . S. and Pincus. Budapest. Houston.3R(04): Foundations for Dynamic Equipment 10) ISO: 10816-2:2001(E): Mechanical vibrations – Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts – Part 2: Land-based steam turbines and generators in excess of 50MW with normal operating speeds of 1500 r/min. Prentice Hall College Div 6) Chowdhury Indrajit &Dasgupta P . “Dynamics of Bases and Foundations”. Gulf Publishing.

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