You are on page 1of 8

Aquaculture Research, 2011, 42, 161^168 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2010.02545.

Low-density culture of red abalone juveniles, Haliotis

rufescens Swainson 1822, recirculating aquaculture
system and flow-through system

Miroslava Vivanco-Aranda1, Cristian Jorge Gallardo-EscaŁrate2 & Miguel AŁ ngel del R|¤ o-Portilla1
Laboratorio de Gene¤tica, Departamento de Acuicultura, Centro de Investigacio¤n Cient|¤ ¢ca y de Ecuacio¤n Superior de
Ensenada Ensenada, BC, Me¤xico
Departamento de Oceanograf|¤ a, Centro de Biotecnolog|¤ a, Universidad de Concepcio¤n, Barrio Universitario s/n Casilla 160-C,
Concepcio¤n, Chile

Correspondence: M A del R|¤ o-Portilla, CICESE, Acuicultura, PO Box 434844, San Diego, CA 92143-4844, USA. E-mail: mdelrio@

Abstract est in abalone culture for commercial and stock en-

Commercial abalone culture is carried out using hancement. In Baja California, abalone culture
£ow-through systems with a high water volume ex- started in 1984 with the red abalone, Haliotis rufes-
change in Baja California, Mexico. The objective of cens Swainson 1822 (Mazo¤n-SuaŁstegui, Mucino-D|¤ az
this work was to compare the growth rate and survi- & Bazu¤a-Sicre 1996), although blue, Haliotis fulgens
val of red abalone cultured in two systems. Flow Philippi 1845, and yellow, Haliotis corrugata Wood
through (daily water exchange rate of 800%) and re- 1828, abalone culture are also of interest. The £ow-
through system is commonly used both commer-
circulating systems consisted of a 250 L ¢breglass
tank and constant aeration, but bio¢ltration in the re- cially and for stock enhancement. In this system,
circulating system was provided with a 28 L (1ft3) water is constantly introduced to provide good water
bubble-washed bead ¢lter.Water variables were mea- quality to the organisms with an 800% daily water
sured either daily (dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH exchange. This practice requires large amounts of
and salinity) or three times a week (total ammonia water to be pumped and, thus, yields a high cost.
nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, nitrite-nitrogen and alkali- Recently, the abalone industry has implemented
nity). Shell length was measured every 2 weeks for 18 important technical changes to reduce costs and to
improve the production procedures, and recirculat-
weeks. Only the alkalinity and pH were signi¢cantly
di¡erent due to the addition of sodium bicarbonate to ing systems are considered to be a feasible option to
the recirculating system. Abalone growth rate was reduce the pumping cost, but without reducing aba-
26.1  15.96 mm day  1 in the recirculating systems lone growth. Commercial recirculating systems have
been used for nearly three decades (Masser, Rakocy &
and 22.21  18.69 mm day^1 in the £ow-through sys-
Losordo 1992). This type of system allows high envir-
tems. The ¢nal survival was 78.74% in the recirculat-
onmental control and feasible cultivation conditions
ing systems and 71.82% in the £ow-through systems.
as well as a reduction of water and land (Masser et al.
Signi¢cant di¡erences in the ¢nal size and survival of
the abalones were found between systems (Po0.05).
Abalone requires a good water quality to obtain
Therefore, recirculating aquaculture systems is a fea-
high growth rates (Basuyaux & Mathieu 1999) this
sible alternative for juvenile red abalone culture.
involves the control and monitoring of di¡erent phy-
sical^chemical variables. Among the most important
Keywords: red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, recircu-
are the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity,
lating systems, growth, closed system
concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), ni-
trite-nitrogen (NO2-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and
alkalinity. In general, control of these variables
Abalones, Haliotis, are marine gastropod molluscs, will provide good water quality for abalone growth
with a high commercial value. There is a high inter- and development (Huchette, Koh & Day 2003). The

r 2010 CICESE
Aquaculture Research r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 161
Recirculating and £ow through red abalone culture M.Vivanco-Aranda et al. Aquaculture Research, 2011, 42, 161^168

objective of this work was to evaluate and compare lasted 4 months, beginning on 9 October 2003 and
the growth rate and survival of red abalone cultured concluding on 13 February 2004. Fifty grams of or-
in a recirculating and in a £ow-through system. ganisms were randomly allocated to each tank. The
initial mean shell length was 5.88  0.04 mm for
abalones maintained in the recirculating system and
Materials and methods 6.21  0.01mm in the £ow-through system. All data
Juvenile abalone are average  standard error. Abalones were fed at a
ratio of 70% of abalone weight per week with Macro-
Seven-month-old red abalone (batch 200D, produced cystis pyrifera according to the alimentation of the
by spawning 33 males and 73 females), were obtained abalones in the commercial farms (N. Garc|¤ a, pers.
from the commercial farm ‘Abulones Cultivados S.A. comm.). Every week, macroalgae were removed and
de C.V.’ located in Ejido Ere¤ndira, Baja California, Me¤x- replaced with fresh ones.
ico (31116 03300 N,116122 05300 W). Juvenile abalones were
separated from substrata using CO2 and were trans- Abalone and environmental variable
ported on a wet sponge in plastic bags with oxygen at measurements
the Aquaculture Department (Departamento de Acui-
cultura) at the Centre for Scienti¢c Research and Every 2 weeks, the shell length of 50 randomly se-
Higher Education in Ensenada (Centro de Investiga- lected animals per tank was measured using an elec-
cio¤n Cient|¤ ¢ca y de Educacio¤n Superior de Ensenda, tronic vernier calliper (precision to 0.01mm) model
CICESE). After arriving at our facilities, individual se- S225 (Fowler Company, Newton, MA, USA). Every
paration was not possible; thus, abalone distribution day, temperature and dissolved oxygen were mea-
was based on the weight of several abalones, which sured using an oxymeter model YSI 55 (YSI, Yellow
were then transferred to culture systems. In each tank Springs, OH, USA). On 24 November, in both systems,
50 g of abalones were placed, which corresponds to a a heater (precision of  0.55 1C) model Pro Heat II
low stocking density of 0.070 kg m  2 570 g cm  2 150 W (Won Brother’s, Fredericksburg, VA, USA) was
(2265 organisms m  2). placed to maintain the temperature above 16 1C. Sali-
nity was measured using a temperature-compen-
sated refractometer (conventional refractometer)
Culture systems and pH was measured using a Hanna Hi98127 meter
(Hanna Instruments,Woonsocket, RI, USA). Alkalinity
One £ow-through system and one recirculating sys-
was measured two or three times a week with 1.6 N
tem were used in the growth trial. Three individual
H2SO4 and a bromcresol green-methyl red indicator
£ow-through systems, each one with individual
(Hach Company, Loveland, CO, USA). Because an alka-
water supply plus three individual recirculating sys-
linity concentration between 80 and 200 mg L  1 of
tems, were used. Each one of the recirculating sys-
CaCO3 is optimal for bacterial survival in the bio¢lters
tems consisted of a cylindrical £at-bottom ¢breglass
(Loyless & Malone 1997), when alkalinity values de-
tank (250 L capacity) connected to a magdrive 500
clined below 100 mg L  1 of CaCO3, alkalinity was ad-
pump (Danner Manufacturing, Islandia, NY, USA)
justed to 150 mg L  1 of CaCO3 with the addition of
and a 28.31L (1ft3) bubble wash bead ¢lter (Aquacul-
commercial sodium bicarbonate, Iris quality (Smart
ture System Technologies, New Orleans, LA, USA) as
& Final, Tijuana, BCN, Mexico), to the recirculating
a bioclari¢er (Malone & Beecher 2000), with a back-
systems according to the method described by Loyless
wash frequency of two to three times a week. The
and Malone (1997). The concentrations of TAN, NO2-N
bead ¢lters were acclimated for 60 days at 20 1C be-
and NO3-N were determined two or three times per
fore the experiment as recommended by Malone and
week using a saltwater master liquid test kit (Aqua-
Beecher (2000). In the recirculating systems, the £ow
rium Pharmaceuticals, Chalfont, PA, USA); for colora-
rate was 30 L min  1. The three individual £ow-
tion of each nutrient, the absorbance was read using a
through systems consisted of similar tanks (250 L ca-
spectrophotometer Shimadzu UV-1201 (Shimadzu
pacity) mentioned above. A £ow rate of 1.39 L min  l
Scienti¢c Instruments, Columbia, MD, USA).
was set in the three tanks for a daily water exchange
rate of 800%. The water used was pumped from the
Statistical analyses
ocean and ¢ltered to 70 mm before reaching the
tanks. Constant aeration was provided throughout At the beginning of the experiment, abalone shell
the experiment to both systems. The experiment lengths were compared among tanks with an ANOVA

r 2010 CICESE
162 Aquaculture Research r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Aquaculture Research, 42, 161^168
Aquaculture Research, 2011, 42, 161^168 Recirculating and £ow through red abalone culture M.Vivanco-Aranda et al.

after assumptions of normality and homogeneity of

variances were met. At the end of the experiment,
the abalone shell lengths and the survival between
the two culture systems were compared using a cov-
ariance analysis (ANCOVA) to determine the di¡erences
among the slope of the two culture systems against
time. Di¡erences between treatment means were
considered to be signi¢cant at Po0.05. Growth rates
[(shell length at a given time  shell length at the
time of the previous measurement)/shell length at Figure 2 Growth rate of juvenile Haliotis rufescens in
the time of the previous measurement  100] were two culture systems. Mean  SE. Three £ow-through sys-
calculated for every period of measurement. Survival tem (n 5 50150150 at each time point). Three recirculat-
was estimated by counting empty shells at each mea- ing systems (n 5 50150150 at each time point).
surement time. For the di¡erent physical^chemical
variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, sali-
nity,TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N and alkalinity), paired t-tests
were carried out to determine whether there was a
tendency for the data to have a higher value between
culture systems using [recirculating datum]  [£ow-
through datum] to calculate the t-value in the t-tests
(paired comparisons, Sokal & Rohlf 1995). Statistical
analyses were carried out using MINITAB for WINDOWS
release 10.2 (Minitab, State Collage, PA, USA).

Results Figure 3 Survival (%) of juvenile red abalones Haliotis

The initial mean shell length (10 October) was rufescens in two culture systems. Mean  SE. Three
£ow-through system (n 5 50150150 at each time point).
5.88  0.04 mm for abalones maintained in the recir-
Three recirculating systems (n 5 50150150 at each time
culating system and 6.21  0.01mm in the £ow-
through system (Fig. 1). Signi¢cant di¡erences in the
initial abalone size were found between systems
(F(1,298) 5 12.25; Po0.01). The ¢nal mean shell length
was 9.17  0.03 mm for organisms in the recirculat- in the recirculating system grew more in comparison
ing system and 9.01  0.02 mm for organisms in the with the £ow-through system. Abalone growth
£ow-through system (Fig. 1). Marginally signi¢cant rates ranged from 6.43 to 58.64 (total mean
di¡erences were found between systems in the aba- 26.1) mm day  1 in the recirculating system and from
lone growth rate (F(1,2996) 5 4.16; P 5 0.04). There- 2.3 to 65.87 (total mean 22.21) mm day  1 in the £ow-
fore, throughout the experiment, abalones that were through system (Fig. 2). Juvenile survivals (at day126)
were 78.74% for organisms in the recirculation sys-
tem and 71.82% for organisms in the £ow-through
system (Fig. 3). No signi¢cant di¡erence was found
in abalone survival (F(1,4) 5 3.78, P 5 0.12).
Temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen did not
show a signi¢cant di¡erence between treatments
(Table 1). The values of dissolved oxygen found in this
work were below the saturation point (72.54% for the
recirculating system and 71.62% for the £ow-
through system), but never below 5 mg L  1.
Figure 1 Shell length (mm) of juvenile Haliotis rufescens Although in the £ow-through system, there was
in two culture systems. Mean  SE. Three £ow-through a tendency (paired samples test) to have a higher
system (n 5 50150150 at each time point). Three recircu- temperature (n 5128, t 5  13.89, Po0.001), lower
lating systems (n 5 50150150 at each time point). NO2-N concentration (n 5 45, t 5 2.53, P 5 0.015),

r 2010 CICESE
Aquaculture Research r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Aquaculture Research, 42, 161^168 163
Recirculating and £ow through red abalone culture M.Vivanco-Aranda et al. Aquaculture Research, 2011, 42, 161^168

Table 1 Water quality parameters measured in two systems of culture of juvenile red abalones Haliotis rufescens

Recirculating system Flow-through system

Water parameters Mean  SE Min^Max Mean  SE Min^Max

Temperature ( 1C) 16.07  0.98 10.40–20.80 16.77  0.88 12.90–20.90

Dissolved oxygen (mg L  1) 7.08  0.51 5.34–8.50 6.89  0.55 5.23–8.28
Salinity (g L  1) 35.35  0.38 35.00–38.00 35.23  0.29 34.00–37.00
pH 8.13  0.04 7.90–8.30 8.01  0.03 7.80–8.20
Alkalinity (mg L  1) of CaCO3 139.00  7.99 100.00–165.00 115.11  4.76 95.00–140.00
TAN (mg L  1) of CaCO3 0.11  0.04 0.00–0.36 0.12  0.05 0.01–0.49
NO2-N (mg L  1) of CaCO3 0.04  0.05 0.00–0.65 0.01  0.01 0.00–0.05
NO3-N (mg L  1) of CaCO3 1.08  1.21 0.02–17.29 0.83  0.33 0.01–4.61

Temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH (n 5128). Alkalinity, TAN, nitrite-nitrogen and nitrates-nitrogen (n 5 45).

lower dissolved oxygen concentration (n 5128, obtained in this study were similar to other GR/ISL
t 513.51, Po0.001) and higher salinity (n 5128, values. Furthermore,Table 3 shows a comparison be-
t 5 2.45, P 5 0.016). tween studies carried out with arti¢cial diets against
Alkalinity and pH were signi¢cantly di¡erent be- macroalgae with other abalone species. The highest
tween systems (Table 1) due to the addition of sodium growth rates in most of these works were achieved
bicarbonate in the recirculating system, where alkali- by feeding abalones with an arti¢cial diet. This may
nity and pH were higher (n 5 45, t 511.2, Po0.001; be explained by the fact that both the arti¢cial diets
n 5128, t 5 25.8, Po0.001 respectively). had higher protein and fat contents and produced
There were no di¡erences between systems with the best growth rates in terms of the total weight
TAN (n 5 45, t 5  0.45, P 5 0.66) and NO3-N and shell length (Capinpin & Corre1996), which sug-
(n 5 45, t 5 0.94, P 5 0.35) between systems (Table 1). gests that diet type has a direct e¡ect on abalone
growth rate.
In contrast to this study, for other abalone species of
similar sizes growth rates of the100 mm day  1 growth
rate of similar abalone size were obtained with aba-
Abalone growth is in£uenced by environmental con- lone juveniles of Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758)
ditions, water quality (Leitman 1992; Hoshikawa, Sa- fed with an arti¢cial diet (Lopez et al. 1998) and with
kai & Kijima 1998; Harris, Maguire, Edwards & Johns Japanese abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino,1953 (Hos-
1999), diet type (Viana, Cervantes-Trujano & Solana- hikawa et al. 1998) fed with diatoms. The highest
Sansores 1994; Capinpin Jr & Corre 1996; Viana, growth rates have been reported in juveniles between
Cervantes-Trujano & Solana-Sansores 1996; Haaker, 10 and 40 mm shell length in other abalone species:
Parker, Barsky & Chun 1998; Lopez, Tyler & Viana Haliotis asinina Linnaeus, 1758 (Capinpin & Corre,
1998; Bautista-Teruel & Millamena 1999; Capinpin Jr, 1996; Fermin 2002), black abalone Haliotis cracherodii
Toledo, Encena & Doi 1999), culture density (Day & Leach, 1814 (Leighton & Boolootian 1963), paua aba-
Fleming 1992; Mgaya & Mercer 1995; Mgaya, Gosling, lone Haliotis iris Gmelin, 1791 (Clarke & Creese 1998),
Mercer & Donlon 1995; Clarke & Creese 1998; Valdes- H. fulgens (Leighton, Byhower, Kelly, Hooker & Morse
Urriolagoitia 2000) and abalone size at the beginning 1981), greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata Donovan,
of the experiment (Corazani & Illanes 1998; Trevel- 1808 (Gilroy & Edwards 1998) and H. tuberculata (Lo-
yan, Mendoza & Buckley 1998; Steinarsson & Ims- pez et al.1998), all fed with an arti¢cial diet.
land 2003). Abalone size is a principal factor An other aspect that a¡ects the growth rate is the
a¡ecting the feeding rates of gastropods. Generally, culture density. For abalone cultured in £ow-through
feeding rates per biomass unit are higher in smaller systems, growth is inversely related to density
and faster growing juveniles than in larger abalone (Mgaya & Mercer1995; Capinpin et al.1999;Valde¤s-Ur-
(Marsden & Williams, 1996). riolagoitia 2000). Culture density has an inverse ef-
H. rufescens fed with arti¢cial diets and di¡erent fect on abalone survival and may a¡ect abalone
types of macroalgae produce similar growth rates growth directly through competition for food
as macroalgae (Table 2). It can be observed that red and space. However, in this study, density was not a
abalone growth rate/initial shell length (GR/ISL) critical factor for the growth rate because a low

r 2010 CICESE
164 Aquaculture Research r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Aquaculture Research, 42, 161^168
Aquaculture Research, 2011, 42, 161^168 Recirculating and £ow through red abalone culture M.Vivanco-Aranda et al.

Table 2 Data from di¡erent studies on the growth juvenile red abalones Haliotis rufescens

Initial shell Growth rate

length (mm) (mm month^1) GR GR/ISL Diet Source

10.00 0.47 0.047 Macroalgae Leitman (1992)

34.51 1.23 0.036 Lessonia trabeculata Corazani and Illanes (1998)
33.70 1.67 0.049 Macadamia integifolia
34.88 0.70 0.020 Utricularia rigida
35.94 1.34 0.037 Artificial diet
8.26 1.03 0.125 Macrocystis Trevelyan et al. (1998)
8.26 1.79 0.217 Microcladia
4.00 1.13 0.283 Artificial diet Valdés-Urriolagoitia (2000)
4.00 1.00 0.250
4.00 0.58 0.145
21.00 2.97 0.141 Caminaria digitataand Palmaria Steinarsson and Imsland (2003)
palmata (9:1)
25.00 3.15 0.126
33.00 3.27 0.099
66.00 2.67 0.040
81.00 2.13 0.026
98.00 1.83 0.018
Present study
5.88 0.78 0.133 Macrocystis pyrifera Recirculating system
6.21 0.67 0.108 Flow through system

Initial shell length (ISL) is the average length of the abalone’s shell in the beginning of the experiment and growth rate (GR) is the
monthly growth of the abalones shell (evaluated in millimetres).

Table 3 Data of di¡erent relating experimental studies for the growth juvenile of diverse species

Initial shell Growth rate

Species length (mm) (mm month^1) GR/ISL Diet Source

Haliotis fulgens 10.00 2.71 0.271 Egregia laevigata and Leighton et al. (1981)
25.00 1.74 0.070 Macrocystis pyrifera
42.00 0.71 0.017
Haliotis tuberculata 15.30 1.75 0.114 Palmaria palmata Mgaya and Mercer (1995)
15.20 1.07 0.070
19.60 1.61 0.082
23.80 1.67 0.070
16.80 1.81 0.108
Haliotis asinina 15.80 4.07 0.258 Gracilaria bailinae Bautista-Teruel and Millamena (1999)
15.20 6.67 0.439 Artificial diet
15.80 7.33 0.464 Artificial diet
15.90 7.43 0.467 Artificial diet
Haliotis asinina 19.00 4.20 0.221 Gracilaria heteroclada Capinpin et al. (1999)
Haliotis rubra 33.91 1.30 0.038 Artificial diet Huchette et al. (2003)
34.23 0.90
Present study
Haliotis rufescens 5.88 0.78 0.133 Macrocystis pyrifera Recirculating system
6.21 0.67 0.108 Flow through system

Initial shell length (ISL) is the average length of the abalone’s shell in the beginning of the experiment and growth rate (GR) is the
monthly growth of the abalones shell (evaluated in millimetres).

stocking density was used for both culture systems to Also, the di¡erences may be due to the size of the or-
eliminate potential complications due to a high stock- ganisms and the duration of the experiment. There-
ing rate. The low stocking density used in this study fore, it is possible to obtain high growth rates of H.
can explain the highest survival rate obtained com- rufescens even on feeding with macroalgae if the phy-
pared with the survival rates reported in other stu- sical^chemical variables are within the ranges of
dies (Nie, Ji & Yan 1996, Park, Rho & Song 1995). good water quality and low stocking density.

r 2010 CICESE
Aquaculture Research r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Aquaculture Research, 42, 161^168 165
Recirculating and £ow through red abalone culture M.Vivanco-Aranda et al. Aquaculture Research, 2011, 42, 161^168

Mortality not only depends on the culture density Table 4 Cost analysis of the two systems of culture of juve-
but also on inadequate handling (stress) of food nile red abalones Haliotis rufescens
transfer (Searcy-Bernal, Salas-Garza & Flores-Agui-
lar 1992). The mortality rate is also associated with Cost (US$)

the organism’s size and stage of development (Ma- Recirculating Flow-through

zo¤n-SuaŁstegui et al.1996).Water quality variables like system system
salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and ni-
Equipment cost
trogen wastes are also important factors governing Bubble wash bead filter 571.67
the growth of abalones (Harris, Maguire, Edwards & Fibreglass tank 154.30 154.30
Hindrum 1998). The results obtained in the present PVC pipes 30.86 30.86
work for all physical^chemical variables are within Magdrive 500 pump 51.02
Electric energy
the ranges of good water quality.
Pumping cost (per day) 0.09 1.76
Special attention should be paid to the pH and al- Pumping total cost (127 days) 11.43 223.52
kalinity variables, because they were the only two Total 819.28 408.68
quality parameters that di¡ered considerably be- Difference between systems 410.60
tween the £ow-through and the recirculating system Costs calculated by tank in the experiment time. The cost of
due to the addition of sodium bicarbonate to the re- water pumped from the ocean and the equipment associated
circulating system. However, the pH range observed was not considered.
in the recirculating system was similar to those
shown in other studies with di¡erent abalone species Basuyaux and Mathieu (1999) reported that H. tuber-
(Nie et al.1996; Harris, Maguire, Edwards & Hindrum culata supports (without a¡ecting growth) a concen-
1997; Harris et al. 1998; Basuyaux & Mathieu 1999; tration range of 100^250 mg of NO3-N L  1. The low
Bautista-Teruel & Millamena 1999). The pH interval concentration of the waste nitrogen compounds
obtained in this study is within the pH values that (TAN, NO2-N and NO3-N) presented in this study was
promoted the activities of nitrifying bacteria and pre- probably due to the low density of abalones used and
vents ammonia toxicity (Loyless & Malone 1997, Mal- had no e¡ect on abalone growth.
one & Beecher 2000). To our knowledge, there are no In the £ow-through system, nearly 15^30% of the
studies on the in£uence of alkalinity on abalone me- production costs are associated with the mainte-
tabolism; however, the alkalinity values in the recir- nance of a high rate of exchange. One way to de-
culating system (100^165 mg L  1 CaCO3) were crease the cost of production associated with
within the ranges recommended for bacterial survi- constantly pumping water through the abalone
val in bio¢lters (Masser et al. 1992; Loyless & Malone grow-out tanks can be with the use of recirculating
1997; Malone & Beecher 2000). Further studies on systems (Badillo, Segovia & Searcy-Bernal 2007). For
the e¡ect of alkalinity on abalone growth could be a recirculating system to be considered a closed sys-
carried out; however, it is considered that low alkali- tem, it should have o10% of water exchange per day
nity and pH values may have a higher e¡ect on aba- of the total volume of the system (Masser et al. 1992;
lone growth than alkalinity values between 100 and Loyless & Malone 1997). In our experiment, the water
165 L  1 CaCO3, because these values were close to exchange was 4.8% of the total volume per day and
the alkalinity values found in the £ow-through sys- the only water replaced was that lost by evaporation
tem and in nature. and bio¢lter back£ushes; thus, it can be considered as
In the case of the waste nitrogen compounds, the a closed system.
TAN, NO2-N and NO3-N concentrations presented in Table 4 shows a cost analysis of the two culture
this study are below the toxic levels reported for aba- systems used in this study. In the recirculating sys-
lone (Harris et al. 1997; Harris et al. 1998). Basuyaux tem, the high initial costs are due to the equipment
and Mathieu (1999) found that H. laevigata mortality purchased (bead ¢lter). However, with the saving of
and growth were a¡ected by a concentration of the rate of water exchange in the recirculating sys-
1mg TAN L  1; they also found that a concentration tems, it is possible to recover the initial investment
of 1^5 mg NO2-N L  1 does not in£uence abalone in a short period of time. In this case, the investment
growth, and in contrast, a concentration of recovery time is close to 8 months.
2 mg NO2-N L  1 stimulates the growth in H. tubercu- An economic analysis to the commercial level is
lata. On the other hand, they report that toxic levels necessary and will be important for the choice of the
are from 8.5 to 15.4 NO2-N L  1. For the NO3-N, optimum stocking density to maximize the produc-

r 2010 CICESE
166 Aquaculture Research r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Aquaculture Research, 42, 161^168
Aquaculture Research, 2011, 42, 161^168 Recirculating and £ow through red abalone culture M.Vivanco-Aranda et al.

tion of H. rufescens in recirculation culture systems. growth of abalone, Haliotis asinina (Linnaeus). Aquacul-
With the present work, it is possible to state that recir- ture Research 33,197^202.
culating systems are a feasible alternative for the Gilroy A. & Edwards S.J. (1998) Optimum temperature for
culture of juvenile red abalone at a low density. growth of Australian abalone: preferred temperature
and critical thermal maximum for blacklip abalone, Ha-
liotis rubra (Leach), and greenlip abalone, Haliotis laeviga-
ta (Leach). Aquaculture Research 29, 481^485.
Acknowledgments Haaker P.L., Parker D.O., Barsky K.C. & Chun C.S.Y. (1998)
Growth of red abalone, Haliotis rufescens (Swainson), at
The CONACYT supported the M.Sc. studies of M.V.-A.
Johnsons Lee, Santa Rosa Island, California. Journal of
with a scholarship. This study was partially ¢nanced
Shell¢sh Research 17,747^753.
by means of the CONACYT project ‘Genetic markers Harris J.O., Maguire G.B., Edwards S.J. & Hindrum S.M.
of abalone, Haliotis spp.’ (33018 B) and by CICESE pro- (1997) E¡ect of nitrite on growth and oxygen consump-
ject number 655. The authors are particularly grate- tion for juvenile greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata Dono-
ful to the commercial farm ‘Abulones Cultivados S.A. van. Journal of Shell¢sh Research 160, 395^401.
de C.V.’ for providing the abalone used in this research. Harris J.O., Maguire G.B., Edwards S.J. & Hindrum S.M.
The authors also thank Marisela Aguilar-JuaŁrez for (1998) E¡ect of ammonia on the growth rate and oxygen
the support provided and Oscar B. Del R|¤ o Zaragoza consumption of juvenile greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevi-
for the technical assistance. gata Donovan. Aquaculture 160, 259^272.
Harris J.O., Maguire G.B., Edwards S.J. & Johns D.R. (1999)
Low dissolved oxygen reduces growth rate and oxygen
consumption rate of juvenile greenlip abalone, Haliotis
References laevigata Donovan. Aquaculture 174, 265^278.
Hoshikawa H., Sakai Y. & Kijima A. (1998) Growth charac-
Badillo L., Segovia M. & Searcy-Bernal R. (2007) E¡ect of two
stocking densities on the growth and mortality of the teristics of the hybrid between pinto abalone, Hatiotis
pink abalone Haliotis Corrugata in recirculating and kamtsckatkana Jonas, and ezo abalone, H. discus hannai
£ow-through systems. Journal of Shell¢sh Research 26, Ino, under high and low temperature. Journal of Shell¢sh
801^807. Research 17, 673^677.
Basuyaux O. & Mathieu M. (1999) Inorganic nitrogen and its Huchette S.M.H., Koh C.S. & Day R.W. (2003) Growth of juvenile
e¡ect on growth of the abalone Haliotis tuberculata Lin- blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) in aquaculture tanks: e¡ects
naeus and the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck. of density and ammonia. Aquaculture 219, 457^470.
Aquaculture 174, 95^107. Leighton D.L. & Boolootian R.A. (1963) Diet and growth
Bautista-Teruel M.N. & Millamena O.M. (1999) Diet develop- in the black abalone Haliotis cracherodii. Ecology 44,
ment and evaluation for juvenile abalone, Haliotis asinina: 227^238.
protein/energy levels. Aquaculture 178, 117^126. Leighton D.L., Byhower M.J., Kelly J.C., Hooker G.N. & Morse
Capinpin E.C. Jr & Corre K.G. (1996) Growth rate of the Phi- D.E. (1981) Acceleration of development and growth in
lippine abalone, Haliotis asinina fed an arti¢cial diet and young green abalone (Haliotis fulgens) using warmed ef-
macroalgae. Aquaculture 144, 81^89. £uent seawater. Journal of the World Mariculture Society
Capinpin E.C. Jr, Toledo J.D., Encena V.C. II & Doi M. (1999) 12, 170^180.
Density dependent growth of the tropical abalone Haliotis Leitman A. (1992) The e¡ects of gas supersaturation on the
asinina in cage culture. Aquaculture 171, 227^235. behaviour, growth and mortality of red abalone, Haliotis
Clarke C.B. & Creese R.G. (1998) On-growing cultured aba- rufescens (Swainson). In: Abalone of the World (Biology,
lone (Haliotis iris) in northern New Zealand. Journal of Fisheries and Culture). Proceedings of the 1st International
Shell¢sh Research 17, 607^613. Symposium on Abalone (ed. by S.A. Shepherd, M.J. Tegner
Corazani D. & Illanes J.E. (1998) Growth of juvenile abalone, & S.A. GuzmaŁn del Pro¤o), pp. 75^85. Fishing News Books,
Haliotis discus hannai Ino 1953 and Haliotis rufescens Oxford, UK.
Swainson 1822, fed with di¡erent diets. Journal of Shell¢sh Lopez L.M.,Tyler P.A. & Viana M.T. (1998) The e¡ect of tem-
Research 17, 663^666. perature and arti¢cial diets on growth rates of juvenile
Day R.W. & Fleming A.E. (1992) The determinants and mea- Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758). Journal of Shell¢sh
surement of abalone growth. In: Abalone of theWorld (Biol- Research 17, 657^662.
ogy, Fisheries and Culture). Proceedings of the 1st Loyless J.C. & Malone R.F. (1997) A sodium bicarbonate dos-
International Symposium on Abalone (ed. by S.A. Shepherd, ing methodology for pH management in freshwater-recir-
M.J. Tegner & S.A. GuzmaŁn del Pro¤o), pp.141^168. Fishing culating aquaculture systems. American Fisheries Society
News Books, Oxford, UK. 59,198^205.
Fermin A.C. (2002) E¡ects of alternative starvation and re- Malone R.F. & Beecher L.E. (2000) Use of £oating bead ¢lters
feeding cycles on food consumption and compensatory to recondition recirculating waters in warm water aqua-

r 2010 CICESE
Aquaculture Research r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Aquaculture Research, 42, 161^168 167
Recirculating and £ow through red abalone culture M.Vivanco-Aranda et al. Aquaculture Research, 2011, 42, 161^168

culture production systems. Aquacultural Engineering 22, Marine Research Institute, Cheju National University 19,
57^73. 93^102.
Marsden I.D. & Williams P.M.J. (1996) Factors a¡ecting the Searcy-Bernal R., Salas-Garza A.E. & Flores-Aguilar R.A.
grazing rate of the New Zealand abalone Haliotis iris Mar- (1992) Research in Me¤xico on the critical stage of abalone
tyn. Journal of Shell¢sh Research 15, 401^406. (Haliotis spp.) seed production. In: Abalone of the World
Masser M.P., Rakocy J. & Losordo T.M. (1992) Recirculating (Biology, Fisheries and Culture). Proceedings of the 1st Inter-
aquaculture tank production systems. Management of re- national Symposium on Abalone (ed. by S.A. Shepherd, M.J.
circulating systems. Louisiana State University. Agricul- Tegner & S.A. GuzmaŁn del Pro¤o), pp. 547^560. Fishing
tural Center 452, 1–11. News Books, Oxford, UK.
Mazo¤n-SuaŁstegui J.M., Mucino-D|¤ az M. & Bazu¤a-Sicre L.A. Sokal R.R. & Rohlf F.J. (1995) Biometry. The Principles and
(1996) Cultivo de abulo¤n Haliotis spp. In: Estudio del Po- Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. State University
tencial Pesquero y Acu|¤ cola de Baja California Sur, Vol. II of New York at Stony Brook. W. H. Freeman and Company,
(ed. by M. Casas-Váldez & G. Ponce-Dı́az), pp. 475– NewYork, NY, USA, 887pp.
511. SEMARNAP, Gobierno del Estado de Baja Steinarsson A. & Imsland A.K. (2003) Size dependent varia-
California Sur, FAO, Instituto Nacional de la Pesca, tion in optimum growth temperature of red abalone (Ha-
UABCS, CIBNOR, CICIMAR, CETMAR. Baja Cali- liotis rufescens). Aquaculture 224, 353^362.
fornia Sur, México. Trevelyan G.A., Mendoza J.L. & Buckley B. (1998) Increasing
Mgaya Y.D., Gosling E.M., Mercer J.P. & Donlon J. (1995) the yield of red abalone with the alga, Microcladia coulteri.
Genetic variation at three polymorphic loci in wild Journal of Shell¢sh Research 17, 631^633.
and hatchery stocks of the abalone Halitios tuberculata Valde¤s-Urriolagoitia A.A. (2000) Efecto de tres densidades
Linnaeus. Aquaculture 136,71^80. de cultivo en la sobrevivencia y crecimiento de juveniles
Mgaya Y.D. & Mercer J.P. (1995) The e¡ects of size grading de abulo¤n rojo Haliotis rufescens en un laboratorio
and stocking density on growth performance of juvenile comercial. Tesis de Licenciatura, UABC. Ensenada, Me¤xico,
abalone, Haliotis tuberculta Linnaeus. Aquaculture 136, 52pp
297^312. Viana M.T., Cervantes-Trujano M. & Solana-Sansores R.
Nie Z.Q., Ji M.F. & Yan J.P. (1996) Preliminary studies on (1994) Attraction and palatability activities in juvenile
increased survival and accelerated growth of overwinter- abalone (Haliotis fulgens): nine ingredients used in arti¢-
ing juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Aquacul- cial diets. Aquaculture 127,19^28.
ture 140, 177^186. Viana M.T., Cervantes-Trujillo M. & Solana-Sansores R.
Park M.E., Rho S. & Song C.B. (1995) Density e¡ect on the (1996) The use of silage made from ¢sh and abalone
growth of juvenile abalones (Haliotis discus hannai) reared viscera as an ingredient in abalone feed. Aquaculture
in the closed recirculating water system. Bulletin of 140, 87^98.

r 2010 CICESE
168 Aquaculture Research r 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Aquaculture Research, 42, 161^168