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1:- The quantity of fuel used by an engine performing a given amount of work is called BSFC

( brake specific fuel comsumption). It is expressed as pounds per horse power hour lb/hp/hr? Or
grams per kilowatt hour gm/kwh

2:- is correct

3:- is correct

4:- correct at the moment but this is changing, in 10 years expect to see a different answer

5:- I think this is correct.

6:- Counter weights are used on most engines. It is not for balance, it is to counter the forces applied
to the main bearings by the rotating conrod (lower part of the rod) and crankpin. Observe the front
wheel of a childs trike when you push it fast, the handle bars will shake from side to side caused by
the weight of the pedals.

7 a:- Yes it does give greater horizontal clearance, this helps create the hydrodynamic wedge (check
the bearing book to confirm this) and compensates for some housing misalignment
b:- Centrifugal force throws oil out to the bigend but can be so great that it causes air to be drawn
in from the edge of the main bearings which results in disrupted oil flow.

8a :- These slots are not used in high performance applications because they weaken the piston.
They disrupt the heat path to the piston skirt therefore lowering skirt temperature so smaller cold
clearances can be used. They also allow oil to drain from the oil ring groove.
b:- Interference fit of gudgeon pin in conrod, may also be clamped.
Circlips in piston at each end of pin is correct
9:- I think this question should be location not variation however it corrects itself when it asks
layout variations. This question is open to interpretation
1:- Valve position, side valve and pushrod OHV engines have the cam in the block.
2:- Cost, DOHC engines are more expensive to produce
3:- Performance requirements, performance engines are almost universally DOHC

10 a:- The relief valve limits the maximum oil pressure, you are thinking of the filter bypass valve.
b:-A rotating shaft drags a film of oil between itself and the bearing. (the exact wording is in the
bearing book)

11:-correct, also head gasket, cylinder plating, bearings and in exteme cases the block and conrods.

12a:- 60%
b:- prevents corrosion, raises boiling point
c:- both answers are correct

Element 2

1:- Correct, also broken components

2a:- Visual= no measure ment. Bent, broken, worn on the ends

b:- I think it is correct, it used to 1/32” whisch is about 0.75mm

3a:- Correct
b:- To cause the lifter to rotate, if it does not rotate it will wear rapidly (does not lubricate

4:a- to simulate distortion cause by cylinder head clamping forces, when the plate is removed the
bore will not be round but hopefully wil return to a round condition when the head is fitted.
b:-All are wrong, Mitsubishi specifiy 2,4,1,3 (or something similar) so that 2 adjacent bore are not
honed one after the other. I need to get this question corrected.

5:- The distance from the centreline of the gudgeon pin to the top of the piston. The height of the
piston in the block is refered to as deck height/clearance

6:- correct

7:- They require a measurement not the method of achieving it. Check the bearing book.

8:- bearing spread refers to the bearing in its free state being wider than the housing, when it is
pushed in it conforms to the housing and is held tight for assembly purposes. If a bearing has lost its
spread it can be adjusted with a rubber hammer and a block of wood.

9:- talking about runout, a dynamic balance holds the shaft (on rollers)by the end journals (6
cylinder shafts #2 &6 to reduce whipping) and spins it, out of balance is measured electronically
(the rollers are mounted on slides which move horizontally to measure vibration) A similar method
is used by wheel balancers

10a:- The lip faces in. Your drawing is correct


That took about an hour