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# GTU Paper Analysis

## Chapter 1 – Gear Design

May – 17
Nov – 16
Sr. No. Questions

Theory
Explain the following terms used in helical gears :
1. 04
(a) Helix angle; (b) Normal pitch; (c) Axial pitch; (d) Normal Pressure angle
2. Explain in detail: (i) Law of gearing (ii) Gear tooth failures. 07
3. Explain: (i) Thermal rating of worm gearing (ii) Efficiency of worm gearing. 07
Examples
A pair of straight teeth spur gears, having 20° involute full depth teeth is to transmit 12 kW at 300 r.p.m.
of the pinion. The speed ratio is 3:1. The allowable static stresses for gear of cast iron and pinion of steel
are 60 MPa and 105 MPa respectively. Assume the following:
1. Number of teeth of pinion = 16; Face width = 14 times module; Velocity factor (Cv) = 4.5/ (4.5 + v), v being 07
the pitch line velocity in m / s; and tooth form factor y = [0.154 – (0.912/No. of teeth)]. Determine the
module, face width and pitch diameter of gears. Check the gears for wear; given σes = 600 MPa; EP = 200
kN/mm2 and EG = 100 kN/mm2.
A 90° bevel gearing arrangement is to be employed to transmit 4 kW at 600 r.p.m. from the driving shaft
to another shaft at 200 r.p.m. The pinion has 30 teeth. The pinion is made of cast steel having a static
stress of 80 MPa and the gear is made of cast iron with a static stress of 55 MPa. The tooth profiles of the
gears are of 14.5° composite form. The tooth form factor may be taken as y' = [0.124 – (0.684 / TE)],
2. where TE is the formative number of teeth and velocity factor, Cv = 3/ (3 + v), where v is the pitch line 10
speed in m/s. The face width may be taken as 1/3rd of the slant height of the pitch cone. Determine the
module, face width and pitch diameters for the pinion and gears, from the standpoint of strength and
check the design from the standpoint of wear. Take surface endurance limit as 630 MPa and modulus of
elasticity for the material of gears is EP = 200 kN/mm2 and EG = 80 kN/mm2.

## Machine Design (2171909)

Prof Rushabh Patel
GTU Paper Analysis
The speed reducer unit is to be designed for an input of 2 KW at 1600 rpm. The velocity ratio is 25. The
worm is to be made of hardened steel and the gear of phosphor bronze having a static stress of 70 MPa.
3. The approximate distance between two shafts is 120 mm. Taking a velocity factor Cv = 6/ (6 + v), Tooth 10
form factor, y = [0.154 – (0.912/No. of teeth)] and a wear factor of a 0.7. Find Standard module of gear,
Face Width of the gear & length of worm and Check the design for wear load. Take tooth system 20° full
depth involute.
A pair of bevel gear with 20° pressure angle consists of a 20 teeth pinion meshing with a 30 teeth gear.
The module is 4 mm, while the face width is 20 mm. The material for pinion and gear is steel 50C4
4. (σut=750 N/mm2). The surface hardness of gear is 400 BHN. The pinion rotates at 500 rpm and receives 07
2.5 kW power from the electric motor. The service factor is 1.5. Determine the factor of safety against
bending failure and against pitting failure.
A 17-tooth 20° pressure angle spur pinion rotates at 1800 rev/min and transmits 4 HP to a 52-tooth disk
gear. The diametral pitch is 0.4 teeth / mm, the face width is 38 mm, and the quality standard is No. 6. The
hardness of 240 Brinell tooth surface and through-hardened core. The gear is steel, through-hardened
also, grade 1 material, with a Brinell hardness of 200, tooth surface and core. Poisson’s ratio is 0.30, JP =
0.30, JG = 0.40, and Young’s modulus is 208 x 103 N/mm2. The loading is smooth because of motor and
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load. Assume a pinion life of 108 cycles and a reliability of 0.90, and use load cycle factor YN =1.3558 N-
0.0178, ZN = 1.4488 N-0.023. The tooth profile is uncrowned. This is a commercial enclosed gear unit. Consider
following factors in the AGMA design of gear as per usual notations.
k0=1, kB=1, km=1.22, (ks) P =1.043, (ks) G=1.052, kT=1, kR=0.85, (St) P=31350, (St) G= 28260, kv=1.377.
(a) Find the factor of safety of the gears in bending.
(b) Find the factor of safety of the gears in wear.
A worm drive transmits 15 kW at 2000 rpm to a machine carriage at 75 rpm. The worm is a triple
threaded and has 65 mm pitch diameter. The worm gear has 90 teeth of 6 mm module. The tooth form is
6. to be 20° full depth involute. The coefficient of friction between the mating teeth may be taken as 0.10. 07
Calculate: 1. Tangential force acting on the worm 2. Axial thrust and separating force on worm 3.
Efficiency of the worm drive.

## Machine Design (2171909)

Prof. Rushabh Patel
GTU Paper Analysis
Chapter 2 – Design of Gear Box for Machine Tools

Nov – 16

– 17
Sr. No. Questions

Ma
y
Theory
1. What is structure diagram? Explain the method of drawing structure diagram of gear box. 07
Examples
1. Draw the ray and speed diagram for a nine speed gear box. State the necessary assumptions taken. 05
A 2 x 2 drive is required to be designed for transmitting speeds starting from 400 rpm with a geometric
2. progression of 1.4. Draw a suitable structure and speed diagram. Also draw the layout of the gearbox and 09
determine the number of teeth on each gear.

## Machine Design (2171909)

Prof. Rushabh Patel
GTU Paper Analysis
Chapter 3 – Journal Bearings

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Sr. No. Questions

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Theory

1. Explain the performance of a hydrodynamic bearing with neat curve of coefficient of friction versus 07
bearing characteristic number.
2. Explain the thermal consideration in journal bearing design. 04
3. Classify the bearing and explain the properties of bearing lubricant. 07
Examples
Design a journal bearing from the following data:
Diameter of journal =100 mm
Speed of journal =900 r.p.m.
Oil SAE 10 with viscosity at 550C = 0.017 kg/m-sec
Ambient temperature =15.50C
1. Maximum bearing pressure = 1.5 MPa 09
Permissible rise in oil temperature = 100C
Heat dissipation coefficient = 1232 W/m2/0C
L/D ratio = 1.6
Design parameter ZN/p = 28
Clearance ratio = 0.0013
Specific heat of oil = 1900 J/kg/0C
A 80 mm long journal bearing supports a load of 2800 N on a 50 mm diameter shaft. The bearing has a
2. radial clearance of 0.05 mm and the viscosity of the oil is 0.021 kg / m-s at the operating temperature. If 07
the bearing is capable of dissipating 80 J/s, determine the maximum safe speed.

## Machine Design (2171909)

Prof. Rushabh Patel
GTU Paper Analysis
Chapter 4 – Rolling Contact Bearings

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Sr. No. Questions

Ma
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Theory
1. Explain the static load capacity, dynamic load capacity and equivalent dynamic load capacity of bearing. 05
2. Explain in detail the selection procedure of rolling contact bearing from manufacturer’s catalogue. 05
Examples
It is required to select a ball bearing suitable for a 50 mm diameter shaft rotating at 1500 rpm. The radial
and thrust loads at the bearing are 4500 N and 1600 N respectively. The value of X and Y factors are 0.56
and 1.4 respectively. Select a proper ball bearing from the following table for the rating life of 22500 hr.
1. the inner ring rotates and the service factor is 1. 07
Bearing No. 6010 6210 6310 6410
C (N) 21600 35100 61800 87100
A ball bearing is operating on a work cycle consisting of three parts – a radial load of 3000 N at 1440 rpm
for one quarter cycle, a radial load of 5000 N at 720 rpm for one half cycles, and radial load of 2500 N at
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1440 rpm for the remaining cycle. The expected life of the bearing is 10000 h. Calculate the dynamic load
carrying capacity of the bearing.

## Machine Design (2171909)

Prof. Rushabh Patel
GTU Paper Analysis
Chapter 5 – I. C. Engine Components

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Sr. No. Questions

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Theory
1. Why an I-section is usually preferred to round section in case of connecting rods? 04
2. Explain the design procedure of cylinder of an I. C. engine. 04
3. Explain the construction and working of valve gear mechanism with neat sketch. 05
Examples
The following data is given for a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine having CI Piston:
Cylinder bore = 0.30 m
Stroke length = 0.375 m
Speed = 500 rpm
Break Mean effective pressure=1.15 MPa
1. Maximum gas pressure = 8 MPa 10
Allowable tensile stress = 37.5 N/ mm2
Break specific fuel consumption = 0.22 kg/ kW –h
Temperature difference between centre and edge of piston head is 220° C
Assume 5% of the total heat is developed in cylinder is transmitted by piston.
Design (1) Piston Head (2) Piston pin.
Determine the dimensions of an I-section connecting rod for a petrol engine from the following data:
Diameter of the piston = 110 mm; Mass of the reciprocating parts = 2 kg; Length of the connecting rod
2. 10
from centre to centre = 325 mm; Stroke length = 150 mm; R.P.M. = 1500 with possible over speed of
2500; Compression ratio = 4: 1; Maximum explosion pressure = 2.5 N/mm2.

3. The following data is given for a connecting rod having I-cross-section dimensions (4t x 5t): 09
Engine speed = 1800 rpm, Length of connecting rod = 350 mm, Length of stroke = 175 mm, Density of

## Machine Design (2171909)

Prof. Rushabh Patel
GTU Paper Analysis
material = 7800 kg/m3, Thickness of web or flanges (t) = 8 mm, Mass of reciprocating parts = 2.5 kg,
Permissible tensile stress for bolts = 60 N/mm2. Calculate: (i) Nominal diameter of bolts (ii) Whipping
stress in the connecting rod.
Design the following parts of a cast iron piston for a single acting four stroke engine for the below given
data. (i) Piston Head (ii) Piston Skirt (iii) Piston Pin.
Cylinder bore=100 mm, Stroke=125 mm, Maximum gas pressure= 5 N/mm2, Indicated mean effective
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pressure=0.75 N/mm2, Mechanical efficiency=80%, Fuel consumption=0.15 kg per brake power per hour,
Higher calorific value of fuel=42 x 103 kJ/kg, Speed=2000 rpm. Take for cast iron material σt=38 N/mm2,
Thermal conductivity (k) =46.6 W/m/°C and TC - TE=220 °C.

## Machine Design (2171909)

Prof. Rushabh Patel
GTU Paper Analysis
Chapter 6 – Design of Cranes

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Sr. No. Questions

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Theory
1. Explain design procedure of wire rope drum. 07 07
2. What do you understand by 6 x 37 ropes? Explain with neat sketch the different rope section. 07
Describe the basic objectives of material handling system. State the basic principles in selection of
3. 07
material handling equipment.
Examples
1. Design a crane hook for lifting capacity of 50 KN. It is made from forged steel and has triangular section. 10 07
Take permissible tensile stress 80 N/mm2. Select the most suitable cross section for the hook.

## Machine Design (2171909)

Prof. Rushabh Patel