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Math Chapter 10

Vector Algebra
Chapter 10: Vector Algebra
Exercise – 10.1
Question 1: Graphically represent a 40 km displacement towards 30 o east of north.

(a) In 20 kg, only magnitude is involved. So, it is a scalar quantity.

(b) In 4 meters north – south, both the direction and magnitude are involved. So, it is a vector
quantity

(e) In 10 – 17 coulombs, only magnitude is involved. So, it is a scalar quantity.

(f) In 56 m / s– 2, both the direction and magnitude are involved. So, it is a vector quantity

(d) Velocity (e) work done

(a) In time period, only magnitude is involved. So, it is a scalar quantity.
(b) In distance, only magnitude is involved. So, it is a scalar quantity.

(c) In force, both the direction and magnitude are involved. So, it is a vector quantity

(d) In velocity, both the direction and magnitude are involved. So, it is a vector quantity

(a) Coinitial

(b) Equal

(c) Collinear but not equal

(a) Coinitial vectors are those vectors which have same initial point. So, a→andd→ vectors
are coinitial.
(b) Equal vectors are vectors which have same magnitude and direction.
So, b→andd→ vectors are equal.
(c) Collinear but not equal are those vectors which are parallel but has different directions.
So, a→andc→ vectors are collinear but not equal.

(a) b→and−b−→ vectors are collinear

(b) The magnitudes of the two collinear are always equal.

(c) Collinear vectors are the two vectors having same magnitude.

(a). True because the two vectors are parallel .

(b). False because collinear vectors must be parallel.

(c). False.

Exercise 10.2

Question 1: For the following vectors, calculate the magnitude of the following.

m→=i^+j^+k^;n→=2i^–7j^–3k^;o→=13√i^+13√j^–13√k^

Given, m→=i^+j^+k^;n→=2i^–7j^–3k^;o→=13√i^+13√j^–13√k^
∣∣m→∣∣=(1)2+(1)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=3–
√∣∣n→∣∣=(2)2+(−7)2+(−3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=4+49+9−−−−−−−−√=62−−
√∣∣o→∣∣=(13√)2+(13√)2+(13√)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=13+13+13−−−−−−−−√=1

Question-2: Mention two dissimilar vectors having similar magnitude?

m→=(2i^–2j^+3k^);andn→=(2i^+2j^–
3k^)Itcanbeobservedthat:∣∣m→∣∣=(2)2+(−2)2+(3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=17−−√
and∣∣n→∣∣=(2)2+(2)2+(3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=17−−√
Thus, the two dissimilar vectors m→andn→ having the similar magnitude. Because of
different directions the two vectors are dissimilar.

Question 3: Mention two dissimilar vectors having similar direction?

Consider,a→=i^+j^+k^;andb→=2i^+2j^+2k^Thedirectioncosinesofa→aregiven
by,p=1(1)2+(1)2+(1)2√=13√,q=1(1)2+(1)2+(1)2√=13√,andr=1(1)2+(1)2+(1)2√=13√
Thedirectioncosinesofb→aregivenby,p=2(2)2+(2)2+(2)2√=223√=13√,q=2(2)2+(2)2+(2)2√=22
3√=13√andr=2(2)2+(2)2+(2)2√=223√=13√Thedirectioncosinesofa→andb→aresimilar.
Thus, the direction of the two vectors is similar.

Question 4: 4i^+5j^andpi^+qj^ are the vectors and they are equal. Obtain the values of p
and q

Given, 4i^+5j^andpi^+qj^ are equal.

The equivalent components are equal.

So, the value of p = 4 and q = 5.

Question 5: The initial point of the vector is (3, 2) and the terminal point of the vector is (-
6, 8). Obtain the vector and scalar components of the given vector.

Given,

The initial point of the vector A (3, 2) and the terminal point of the vector is B (- 6, 8).

The vector AB−→−=(−6–3)i^+(8–2)j^AB−→−=–9i^+6j^

The vector components of the given vector are –9i^and6j^.
The scalar components of the given vector are – 9 and 6.

Question 6: The vectors m→=i^+3j^+k^,n→=−2i^–5j^–3k^,ando→=8i^–j^–2k^.

Obtain the sum.

Given:

m→=i^+3j^+k^,n→=−2i^–5j^–3k^,ando→=8i^–j^–2k^m→+n→+o→=(1–
2+8)i^+(3–5–1)j^+(1–3–2)k^=7i^–3j^–4k^
Question 7: Obtain the unit vector of p→=i^+2j^+k^ in the direction of the given vector.

The unit vector p^ in the direction of vector p→=i^+2j^+k^

∣∣p→∣∣=(1)2+(2)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+4+1−−−−−−−√=6–
√p^=p→∣∣p→∣∣=i^+2j^+k^6√=16√i^+16√2j^+16√k^=16√i^+26√j^+16√k^

Question 8: For a vector AB−→−, obtain the unit vector where the point A (2, 3, 4) and
point B (5, 6, 7). The unit vector should be in the direction of given vector.

Given, points A (2, 3, 4) and B (5, 6, 7).

AB−→−=(5–2)i^+(6–3)j^+(7–
4)k^AB−→−=3i^+3j^+3k^∣∣∣AB−→−∣∣∣=(3)2+(3)2+(3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=9
+9+9−−−−−−−√=27−−√=33–
√TheunitvectorinthedirectionofAB−→−isAB−→−∣∣∣AB−→−∣∣∣=3i^+3j^+3k^33√=13√i^+13
√j^+13√k^

Question 9: In the direction of m→+n→, obtain the unit vector for given
vectors m→=3i^–j^+2k^andn→=2i^–3j^–k^.

Given,

The vectors m→=3i^–j^+2k^andn→=2i^–3j^–k^

m→=3i^–j^+2k^n→=2i^–3j^–k^m→+n→=(3+2)i^+(−1–3)j^+(2–1)k^=5i^–
4j^+1k^∣∣m→+n→∣∣=(5)2+(−4)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=25+16+1−−−−−−
−−−√=42−−√
Thus, in the direction of m→+n→, the vector is,
(m→+n→)∣∣m→+n→∣∣=5i^–4j^+1k^42√=142√5i^–142√4j^+142√k^=542√i^–442√j^+142√k^

Question 10: A vector 6i^–2j^+3k^ has a magnitude of 8 units. Find the vector in the
direction of given vector.

Suppose, m→=6i^–
2j^+3k^∣∣m→∣∣=62+(−2)2+32−−−−−−−−−−−−√=36+4+9−−−−−−−−√=49−−√=7
m^=m→∣∣m→∣∣=6i^–2j^+3k^7.
Thus, the vector in the direction of given vector which has 8 units magnitude is given by,

8m^=8(6i^–2j^+3k^7)=487i^–167j^+247k^

Question 11: Prove whether the vectors 3i^–4j^+5k^and9i^–12j^+15k^ are collinear.

Suppose, p→=3i^–4j^+5k^andq→=9i^–12j^+15k^
The condition for the vectors to be collinear is,

q→=λp→
Accordingly,

Hence, proved

Question 12: Obtain the direction cosines of the vectors 2i^–4j^+6k^

m→=2i^–
4j^+6k^∣∣m→∣∣=(2)2+(−4)2+(6)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=4+16+36−−−−−−−−−√
=56−−√Thus,thedirectioncosinesofm→are(256√,−456√,656√)

Question 13: P (1, 2, – 3) and Q (- 1, – 2, 1) are the joining points of a vector directed from
P to Q. Obtain the direction cosines of the vector.

P (1, 2, – 3) and Q (- 1, – 2, 1) are the joining points of a vector.

PQ−→−=(−1–1)a^+(−2–2)b^+(1–
(−3))c^PQ−→−=(−2)a^+(−4)b^+(4)c^∣∣∣PQ−→−∣∣∣=(−2)2+(−4)2+42−−−−−−−−
−−−−−−−√=4+16+16−−−−−−−−−√=36−−√=6
The direction cosines of the vector PQ−→− are (–26,–46,46)=(–13,–23,23)

Question 14: Prove that the i^+j^+k^ is evenly tending to the axes OX, OY and OZ

Suppose, m→=i^+j^+k^Then,∣∣m→∣∣=(1)2+(1)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=3–√
The direction cosines of the vector m→ are (13√,13√,13√)
Now, let α, β, and γ be the angles formed by with the positive directions of x, y, and z axes.

Thus, we obtain,

cosα=13√,cosβ=13√andcosγ=13√
Thus, the vector is evenly tending to the axes OX, OY and OZ
Question 15: The position vectors of a joining points A and B are i^+2j^–k^and–
i^+j^+k^respectively. Obtain the position vector of C which divides the given points in 2 :
1 ratio.
(a) Internally

(b) Externally

The position vector of C which divides the given points in m : n ratio is written as:

(a) Internally: mb→+na→m+n

(b) Externally: mb→–na→m–n
Given,

Position vectors of a joining points A and B,

OA−→−=i^+2j^–k^andOB−→−=i^+j^+k^
(a) The position vector of point C which divides the line joining two points A and B internally in
the ratio 2:1 is given by,

OC−→−=2(−i^+j^+k^)+1(i^+2j^–k^)2+1=(−2i^+2j^+2k^)+(i^+2j^–k^)3=−i^+4j^+k^3=–
13i^+43j^+13k^
(b) The position vector of point C which divides the line joining two points A and B externally in
the ratio 2:1 is given by,

OC−→−=2(−i^+j^+k^)–1(i^+2j^–k^)2–1=(−2i^+2j^+2k^)+(i^+2j^–k^)=–3i^+3k^

Question 16: A (3, 4, 5) and B (5, 2, – 3) are the joining points of a vector. Obtain the
midpoint position vector.

The midpoint position vector with the joining points A (3, 4, 5) and B (5, 2, – 3),

Suppose, OC−→− be the required vector, then,

OC−→−=(3i^+4j^+5k^)+(5i^+2j^+(−3)k^)2=(3+5)i^+(4+2)j^+(5–
3)k^2=8i^+6j^+2k^2=4i^+3j^+k^)

Question 17: Prove that the points P, Q and R with position vectors, p→=3a^–4b^–
4c^,q→=2a^–b^+c^,andr→=a^–3b^–5c^ respectively from the vertices of a right
angled triangle.

Given,

The points P, Q and R with position vectors p→=3a^–4b^–4c^,q→=2a^–

b^+c^,andr→=a^–3b^–5c^
p→=3a^–4b^–4c^,q→=2a^–b^+c^,andr→=a^–3b^–5c^ PQ−→−=q→–p→=(2–
3)a^+(−1+4)b^+(1+4)c^=–a^+3b^+5c^QR−→−=r→–q→=(1–
2)a^+(−3+1)b^+(−5–1)c^=–a^–2b^–6c^RP−→−=p→–r→=(3–
1)a^+(−4+3)b^+(−4+5)c^=2a^–
b^+c^ ∣∣∣PQ−→−∣∣∣2=(−1)2+32+52=1+9+25=35∣∣∣QR−→−∣∣∣2=(−1)2+(−2)2+(−6)
2=1+4+36=41∣∣∣RP−→−∣∣∣2=22+(−1)2+12=4+1+1=6∣∣∣PQ−→−∣∣∣2+∣∣∣QR−→−∣∣∣
2=35+6=41=∣∣∣QR−→−∣∣∣2
Hence, PQR is a right angled triangle.

Question 18: Which of the following is incorrect in the triangle PQR?

(i)PQ−→−+QR−→−+RP−→−=0(ii)PQ−→−+QR−→−–
PR−→−=0(iii)PQ−→−+QR−→−–RP−→−=0(iv)PQ−→−–RQ−→−+RP−→−=0

In a given triangle, applying the triangle law of addition, we get,

PQ−→−+QR−→−=PR−→−….(1)PQ−→−+QR−→−=–
RP−→−PQ−→−+QR−→−+RP−→−=0→….(2)Statement(i)istruePQ−→−+QR
−→−=PR−→−PQ−→−+QR−→−–PR−→−=0→Statement(ii)istrue
From equation (2), we get:

PQ−→−–
RQ−→−+RP−→−=0→Statement(iv)istrueConsideringstatement(iii)PQ−→−+Q
R−→−–RP−→−=0→PQ−→−+QR−→−=RP−→−…..(3)
From equations (3) and (1), we get:

PR−→−=RP−→−PR−→−=–
PR−→−2PR−→−=0→PR−→−=0→,isnottrue.Statement(iii)istrue

Question 19: Check whether the corresponding statements are true if the two
vectors p→andq→are collinear.
(i)q→=λp→,forsomescalarλ(ii)p→=±q→(iii)Thecomponentsofp→andq→arepr
oportional(iv)p→andq→havedifferentmagnitudesandhavesimilardirection.

The two vectors are said to be collinear when they are parallel to each other.

p→andq→ are collinear vectors.

Thus, we have,

q→=λp→,(forsomescalarλ)Suppose,λ=±1,thenq→=±1p→If,p→=p1i^+p2j^+p3k
^,q→=q1i^+q2j^+q3k^,thenq→=λp→. q1i^+q2j^+q3k^=λ(p1i^+p2j^+p3k^)q1i^+q
2j^+q3k^=(λp1)i^+(λp2)j^+(λp3)k^q1=λp1,q2=λp2,q3=λp3=>q1p1=q2p2=q3p3=λ
Hence, the components of p→andq→ are proportional.
Though, vectors p→andq→ can have different directions.
Thus, statement (iv) is incorrect.

Exercise 10.3
Q.1 : Find the angle between two vectors m and n with magnitude 3–√and 2 ,
respectively having m .n =6–√
Solution 1:

It is given that,

|m |=3–√ ,
|n | = 2
And m .n =6–√
m .n =|m ||n |cosθ
Now, we know that

Therefore,

⇒ 6–√=3–√×2×cosθ
⇒ cosθ=6√3√×2
⇒ cosθ=12√
⇒ θ=π4
Therefore, the angle between the given vectors m and n is π4

Solution 2:

m =a^–2b^+3c^andn =3a^–2b^+c^ |m |=12+(–

2)2+32−−−−−−−−−−−−√ |m |=1+4+9−−−−−−−√ |m |=14−−√ |n |=32+(–
2)2+12−−−−−−−−−−−−√ |n |=9+4+1−−−−−−−√ |n |=14−−√ Now,m .n =(a^–
2b^+3c^)(3a^–2b^+c^) Now,m .n =1.3+(–2)(–
2)+3.1 Now,m .n =3+4+3 Now,m .n =10
Also, we know that

Therefore,

10=14−−√14−−√cosθ cosθ=1014 θ=cos−157

Q 3. Find the projection of the vector a^–b^ on the vector a^+b^.

Solution 3:

Let, i^=a^–b^
And j^=a^+b^
Now, projection of vector i on j is given by,
1∣∣j ∣∣(i
.j )=11+1√{1.1+(–1)(1)}=12√(1–1)=0
Hence the projection of vector i on j is 0

Solution 4:

Let i^=a^+3b^+7c^ and j^=7a^–b^+8c^

Now, projection of vector i on j is given by,
1j (i .j )=172+(–1)2+82√{1(7)+3(–1)+7(8)} 1j (i .j )=7–
3+5649+1+64√ 1j (i .j )=60114√

Q 5: Show that each of the given three vectors is a unit vector :

17(2a^+3b^+6c^),17(3a^–6b^+2c^),17(6a^+2b^–3c^)
Also, show that they are mutually perpendicular to each other.

Solution 5:

Leti =17(2a^+3b^+6c^)=27a^+37b^+67c^Letj =17(3a^–6b^+2c^)=37a^–

67b^+27c^Letk =17(6a^+2b^–3c^)=67a^+27b^–37c^
⇒ ∣∣i ∣∣=(27)2+(37)2+(67)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√
∣∣i ∣∣=449+949+3649−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣i ∣∣=1
⇒ ∣∣j ∣∣=(37)2+(–67)2+(27)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√
∣∣j ∣∣=949+3649+449−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣j ∣∣=1
⇒ ∣∣k ∣∣=(67)2+(27)2+(–37)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√
∣∣k ∣∣=3649+449+949−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣k ∣∣=1
Thus, each of the given three vectors is a unit vector.

⇒ i .j =27×37+37×(−67)+67×27
i .j =649–1849+1249 i .j =0
⇒ j .k =37×67+−67×(27)+27×−37
j .k =1849–1249–649 j .k =0
⇒ k .i =67×27+27×(37)+−37×67
k .i =1249–649–1849 k .i =0
Hence, the given three vectors are mutually perpendicular to each other.

Q 6: Find:

|m |and|n |, if (m +n ).(m +n )=8 and |m |=8|n |

Solution 6:

(m +n ).(m –n )=8
⇒ m .m –m n +n m –n .n =8
⇒ |m |2–|n |2=8
⇒ 8|n |2–|n|2=8 . . . . . . . . . [|m =8|n ||]
⇒ 64|n |2–|n |2=8
⇒ 63|n |2=8
⇒ |n |2=863
⇒ |n |2=863−−√ [ magnitude of a vector is non-negative]
⇒ |n |2=22√37√
|m |=8|n | |m |=8×22√37√ |m |=162√37√

Q 7: Find the product of the following : (3m –5n ).(2m +7n )

Solution 7:

(3m –5n ).(2m +7n ) =3m .2m +3m .7n –5n .2m –
5n .7n =6m .m +21m .n –10n .m –35n .n =6|m |2+11m .n –35|n |2
Q 8: Find the magnitude of two vectors m andn , having the same magnitude and such
that the angle between them is 60° and their scalar product is 12

Solution 8:

Let θ be the angle between the vectors m andn .

As given in the question:

We know that:

Therefore,

⇒ 12=|m |2×12
⇒ |m |2=1
⇒ |m |2=|n |2=1

Q 9: Find:

|y | , if for a unit vector b , (y –b ).(y +b )=12

Solution 9:

(y –b ).(y +b )=12
⇒ y .y +y .b –b .y –b .b =12
⇒ |y |2–∣∣b ∣∣2=12
⇒ |y |2–1=12[∣∣b ∣∣=1asb isaunitvector]
⇒ |y |2=13
Therefore,

|y |=13−−√
Q 10: If i
=2a^+2b^+3c^ ,
j =−a^+2b^+c^
and k =3a^+b^ are such that i +λj is perpendicular to k then find the value of λ

Solution 10:

The given vectors are i =2a^+2b^+3c^ , j =−a^+2b^+c^ and k =3a^+b^

Now,

i +λj =(2a^+2b^+3c^)+λ(–a^+2b^+c^)=(2–λ)a^+(2+2λ)b^+(3+λ)c^
If (i +λj ) is perpendicular to k ,then
(i +λj ).k =0
⇒ [(2–λ)a^+(2+2λ)b^+(3+λ)c^](3a^+b^)=0
⇒ [(2–λ)3+(2+2λ)1+(3+λ)0]=0
⇒ 6–3λ+2+2λ=0
⇒ –λ+8=0
⇒ λ=8
Hence, the required value of λ is 8.

Q 11: Show that:

|a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a is perpendicular to |a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a , for any two non zero
vectors a andb

Solution 11:

⇒ (|a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a ).(|a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a )

(|a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a ).(|a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a ) = |a |2b .b –
|a |∣∣b ∣∣b .a +∣∣b ∣∣|a |a .b –∣∣b ∣∣2a .a
=|a |2∣∣b ∣∣2
(|a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a ).(|a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a ) = 0
Hence, |a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a is perpendicular to |a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a
Q 12: If a .a =0anda .b =0, then what can be concluded about the vector b ?

Solution:

It is given that a .a =0anda .b =0

Now,

that a .a =0
⇒ |a |2=0
⇒ |a |=0
Therefore, a is a zero vector
Hence, vector b satisfying a .b =0 can be any vector

Q 13:

If a ,b ,c are unit vectors such that a +b +c = 0, find the value

of a .b +b .c +c .a

Solution 13:

∣∣a +b +c ∣∣2=(a +b +c )(a +b +c )

∣∣a +b +c ∣∣2 = |a |2+∣∣b ∣∣2+|c |2+2(a .b +b .c +c .a )
⇒ 0=1+1+1+2(a .b +b .c +c .a )
⇒ (a .b +b .c +c .a )=–32

Q 14: If either vector a =0 orb =0 , then a .b =0. But the converse need not be
true. Justify your answer with an example.

Solution 14:

Consider a =2i^+4j^+3k^andb =3i^+3j^–6k^

Then,

a .b =2.3+4.3+3(–6)=6+12–18=0
We now observe that :

|a |=22+42+32−−−−−−−−−−√=29−−√
Therefore,

a ≠0 ∣∣b ∣∣=32+32+(−6)2−−−−−−−−−−−−√=54−−√
Therefore,

b ≠0
Hence, the converse of the given statement need not be true

Q 15: If the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC are ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , ( – 1 , 0 , 0 ) , ( 0 , 1 , 2 ) ,

respectively, then find ∠ ABC. [ ∠ ABC is the angle between the vectors BA→andBC→ ]

Solution 15:

The vertices of ∆ABC are given as A ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , B ( – 1 , 0 , 0 ) , and C ( 0 , 1 , 2 ). Also, it is

given that ∠ ABC is the angle between the vectors BA→andBC→
BA→={1–(–1)}i^+(2–0)j^+(3–0)k^=2i^+2j^+3k^ BC→={0–(–1)}i^+(1–
0)j^+(2–0)k^=i^+j^+2k^
Therefore,

BA→.BC→=(2i^+2j^+3k^).(i^+j^+2k^)=2×1+2×1+3×2=2+2+6=10 ∣∣∣BA→∣∣∣
=22+22+32−−−−−−−−−−√=4+4+9−−−−−−−√=17−−√ ∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣=1+1+22−−−−−
−−−√=6–√
Now, it is known that :

BA→.BC→=∣∣∣BA→∣∣∣∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣cos(∠ABC)
Therefore,

10=17−−√×6–√cos(∠ABC)
⇒ cos(∠ABC)=1017√×6√
⇒ ∠ABC=cos−1(10102√)
Q 16: Show that the points A ( 1 , 2 , 7 ) , B ( 2 , 6 , 3 ) and C ( 3 , 10 , – 1 ) are collinear.

Solution 16:

The given points are A ( 1 , 2 , 7 ) , B ( 2 , 6 , 3 ) , and C ( 3 , 10 , – 1 ).

Therefore,

AB→=(2–1)i^+(6–2)j^+(3–7)k^=i^+4j^–4k^ BC→=(3–2)i^+(10–6)j^+(–1–
3)k^=i^+4j^–4k^ AC→=(3–1)i^+(10–2)j^+(–1–7)k^=2i^+8j^–8k^
⇒ ∣∣∣AB→∣∣∣=12+42+(–4)2−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+16+16−−−−−−−−−√=33−−√
⇒ ∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣=12+42+(–4)2−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+16+16−−−−−−−−−√=33−−√
⇒ ∣∣∣AC→∣∣∣=22+82+82−−−−−−−−−−√=4+64+64−−−−−−−−−√=132−−−√ = 23
3−−√
Therefore,

∣∣∣AC→∣∣∣=∣∣∣AB→∣∣∣+∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣
Hence, the given points A, B, and C are collinear.

Q 17: Show that the vectors 2i^+j^+k^,i^–3j^–5k^and3i^–4j^–4k^ form the vertices of

a right angled triangle.

Solution 17:

Let vectors 2i^+j^+k^,i^–3j^–5k^and3i^–4j^–4k^ be position vectors of points A, B, and

C respectively.
i.e , OA→=2i^–j^+k^,OB=i^–3j^–5k^andOC=3i^–4j^–4k^
Therefore,

AB→=(1–2)i^+(–3+1)j^+(–5–1)k^=–i^–2j^–6k^ BC→=(3–1)i^+(–4+3)j^+(–
4+5)k^=–2i^–j^–k^ AC→=(2–3)i^+(–1+4)j^+(1+4)k^=–i^+3j^+5k^
⇒ ∣∣∣AB→∣∣∣=(–1)2+(–2)2+(–
6)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+4+36−−−−−−−−√=41−−√
⇒ ∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣=(2)2+(–1)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+4+1−−−−−−−√=6–√
⇒ ∣∣∣AC→∣∣∣=(–
1)2+(3)2+(5)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+9+25−−−−−−−−√=35−−√
Therefore,

∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣2+∣∣∣AC→∣∣∣2=6+35=41=∣∣∣AB→∣∣∣2
Hence, ∆ ABC is a right – angled triangle.

Q 18:

If a is a nonzero vector of magnitude ‘a’ and λ a nonzero scalar, then λ a is unit vector
if
(A) λ = 1

(B) λ = – 1

(C) a=|λ|
(D) a=1|λ|

Solution 18:

Vector λa is a unit vector if |λa |=1

Now,

|λa |=1
⇒ |λ||a |=1
⇒ |a |=1|λ| . . . . . . . . . . . . [ λ ≠ 0 ]
⇒ a=1|λ| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [|a |=a ]
Therefore, vector λa is a unit vector if a=1|λ|
The correct answer is D.

Exercise 10.4
Q 1: Find ∣∣a ×b ∣∣ , if a =i^–7j^+7k^ and b =3i^–2j^+2k^

Solution 1:

We have,

a =i^–7j^+7k^ and b =3i^–2j^+2k^

a ×b =∣∣∣∣∣i^13j^–7–2k^72∣∣∣∣∣
a ×b = i^(–14+14)–j^(2–21)+k^(–2+21)=19j^+19k^
Therefore,

∣∣a ×b ∣∣=(19)2+(19)2−−−−−−−−−−√=2×(19)2−−−−−−−√=192–√

Q 2: Find a unit vector perpendicular to each of the vector a +b anda –b ,

where a =3i^+2j^+2k^andb =i^+2j^–2k^

Solution 2:

We have,

a =3i^+2j^+2k^andb =i^+2j^–2k^
Therefore,

a +b =4i^+4j^,a –b =2i^+4k^ (a +b )×(a –

b )=∣∣∣∣∣i^42j^40k^04∣∣∣∣∣ (a +b )×(a –b )=i^(16)–j^(16)+k^(–8)=16i^–16j^–
8k^ ∣∣(a +b )×(a –b )∣∣=162+(–16)2+(–
8)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣(a +b )×(a –
b )∣∣=22×82+22×82+82−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣(a +b )×(a –
b )∣∣=822+22+1−−−−−−−−−√=89–√=8×3=24
Therefore, the unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors a +b anda –b is given by
the relation,
= ±(a +b )×(a –b )∣∣(a +b )×(a –b )∣∣=±16i^–16j^–8k^24
= ±2i^–2j^–k^3=±23i^∓23j^∓13k^
Q 3: If a unit vector a makes angle π3withi^,π4anglewithj^ and an acute angle θ
with k , then find θ and hence, the compounds of a

Solution 3:

Let unit vector a have ( a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ) componenets

a =a1i^+a2j^+a3k^
Since, a is a unit vector , |a |=1
Also, it is given that a makes angles π3withi^,π4anglewithj^ and an acute angle θ with k
Then, we have :

cosπ3=a1∣∣a ∣∣
⇒ 12=a1..........[|a |=1]
cosπ4=a2∣∣a ∣∣
⇒ 12√=a2..........[|a |=1]
Also , cosθ=a3∣∣a ∣∣
⇒ a3=cosθ
|a|=1
⇒ a12+a22+a32−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1
⇒ 122+12√2+cos2θ=1
⇒ 14+12+cos2θ=1
⇒ 34+cos2θ=1
⇒ cos2θ=1–34=14
⇒ cosθ=12θ=cos−1(12)θ=π3
Therefore,

a3=cosπ3=12
Therefore, θ=π3andthecomponentsofa are(12,12√,12)

Q 4: Show that:

(a –b )×(a +b )=2(a ×b )

Solution:

To prove:
(a –b )×(a +b )=2(a ×b )
= (a –b )×(a +b )=(a −b )×a +(a –b )×b . . . . . . . . . . . . [ By distributivity of
vector product over addition ]
= a ×a –b ×a +a ×b –b ×b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ again, by distributivity of vector
product over addition ]
= 0 +a ×b +a ×b –0
= 2a ×b

Q 5: Find λandμif(2i^+6j^+27k^)×(i^+λj^+μk^)=0

Solution:

(2i^+6j^+27k^)×(i^+λj^+μk^)=0
⇒ ∣∣∣∣∣i^21j^6λμk^27∣∣∣∣∣ = 0i^+0j^+0k^
⇒ i^(6μ–27μ)–j^(2μ–27)+k^(2λ–6)=0i^+0j^+0k^
On comparing the corresponding components, we have :

6μ–27λ=02μ–27=02λ–6=0
Now,

2λ–6=0⇒λ=3
⇒ 2μ–27=0⇒μ=272
Therefore, λ=3andμ=272

Q 6: Given that:

a .b =0anda ×b =0
What can you conclude about the vectors a andb ?

Solution:

a .b =0
Then ,

1. i) either a =0orb =0,ora ⊥b (incasea andb arenon–zero)a ×b =0

2. ii) Either a =0orb =0,ora ∥b (incasea andb arenon–zero)a ×b =0
But, a andb cannot be perpendicular and parallel simultaneously.
Therefore, |a |=0or∣∣b ∣∣=0

Q 7: Let the
vectors a ,b ,c givenasa1i^+a2j^+a3k^,b1i^+b2j^+b3k^,c1i^+c2j^+c3k^
Then show that = a ×(b +c )=a ×b +a ×c

Solution:

We have,

a1i^+a2j^+a3k^,b1i^+b2j^+b3k^,c1i^+c2j^+c3k^ (b +c )=(b1+c1)i^+(b2+c2)j^+(b
3+c3)k^
Now, a ×(b +c )∣∣∣∣∣i^a1b1+c1j^a2b2+c2k^a3b3+c3∣∣∣∣∣
=i^[a2(b3+c3)–a3(b2+c2)]–j^[a1(b3+c3)–a3(b1+c1)]+k^[a1(b2+c2)–a2(b1+c1)]
=i^[a2b3+a2c3–a3b2–a3c2]+j^[–a1b3–a1c3+a3b1+a3c1]+k^[a1b2+a1c2–a2b1–a2c1]. . .
.............. (1)
⇒ a ×b =∣∣∣∣∣i^a1b1j^a2b2k^a3b3∣∣∣∣∣
= i^[a2b3–a3b2]+j^[a3b1–a1b3]+k^[a1b2–a2b1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 2 )
⇒ a ×c =∣∣∣∣∣I^a1c1j^a2c2k^a3c3∣∣∣∣∣
i^[a2c3–a3c2]+j^[a3c1–a1c3]+k^[a1c2–a2c1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 3 )
On adding (2) and (3), we get:

(a ×b )+(a ×c )=i^[a2b3+a2c3+–a3b2–a3c2]+j^[a3b1+a3c1+–a1b3–
a1c3]+k^[a1b2+a1c2+–a2b1–a2c1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 4 )
Now, from (1) and (4), we have:

a ×(b +c )=a ×b +a ×c
Hence, the given result is proved.

Question 8: Suppose, any of the vector m→orn→=0→, then m→×n→=0→.

Is the above given statement true?
Give reason in support to your answer with an example.

By taking any two non – zero vectors, for the condition m→×n→=0→.
Suppose, m→=i^+2j^+3k^andn→=2i^+4j^+6k^Then,
PQ−→−×QR−→−=∣∣∣∣∣i^12j^24k^36∣∣∣∣∣ i^(4–4)–j^(6–6)+k^(4–
4)=0i^+0j^+0k^=0^Now,wefindthat,[m→]=(1)2+(2)2+(3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√
=14−−√So,m→≠0→[n→]=(2)2+(4)2+(6)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=56−−√So,n→≠
0→
Thus, the above given statement is not true.

Question 9: P (1, 1, 2), Q (2, 3, 5) and R (1, 5, 5) are the vertices of a triangle. Obtain the
area.

Given:

The contiguous sides PQ−→−andQR−→− of the triangle is given as,

PQ−→−=(2–1)i^+(3–1)j^+(5–2)k^=i^+2j^+3k^andQR−→−=(1–2)i^+(5–
3)j^+(5–5)k^=–
i^+2j^AreaofΔtriangle=12∣∣∣PQ−→−×QR−→−∣∣∣PQ−→−×QR−→−=∣∣∣∣∣i^1–
1j^22k^30∣∣∣∣∣i^(−6)–j^(3)+k^(2+2)=–
6i^−3j^+4k^∣∣∣PQ−→−×QR−→−∣∣∣=(−6)2+(−3)2+42−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=36+
9+16−−−−−−−−−√=61−−√
Thus, 61√2 is the area of triangle ABC.

Question 10: m→=i^–j^+3k^andn→=2i^–7j^+k^ are the adjacent sides of a vector.

Obtain the area of the parallelogram.

Given,

m→=i^–j^+3k^andn→=2i^–7j^+k^ are the adjacent sides of a vector.

m→×n→∣∣∣∣∣i^12j^–1–7k^31∣∣∣∣∣i^(−1+21)–j^(1–6)+(−7+2)k^=20i^+5j^–
5k^∣∣m→×n→∣∣=202+52+52−−−−−−−−−−−√=400+25+25−−−−−−−−−−−√=152
–√
152–√ is the area of the given parallelogram.

Question 11: Suppose,

vectors m→andn→insuchawaythat∣∣m→∣∣=3and∣∣n→∣∣=2√3,thenm→×n→ is a
unit vector, suppose the angle between the two vectors is
(i)π6,(ii)π4,(iii)π3(iv)π2

Given, ∣∣m→∣∣=3and∣∣n→∣∣=2√3,thenasweknowm→×n→=1m→×n→=∣∣m→∣∣∣∣n
→∣∣sinθs^, where s is a unit vector perpendicular to both m→andn→ and Θ is the angle
between m→andn→
Now, m→andn→isaunitvectorif∣∣m→×n→∣∣=1∣∣m→×n→∣∣=1∣∣∣∣m→∣∣∣∣n→∣∣sin
Θs^∣∣=1∣∣∣∣m→∣∣∣∣n→∣∣sinΘ∣∣=13×2√3×sinΘ=1sinΘ=12√Θ=π4
The correct answer is option (ii)

Question 12: The area of the rectangle with P, Q, R and S as the vertices with positive
vectors –i^+12j^+4k^,i^+12j^+4k^,i^–12j^+4k^and–i^–
12j^+4k^respectivelyis(i)12,(ii)1(iii)2,(iv)4