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# Math Chapter 10

Vector Algebra
Chapter 10: Vector Algebra
Exercise – 10.1
Question 1: Graphically represent a 40 km displacement towards 30 o east of north.

## (a) In 20 kg, only magnitude is involved. So, it is a scalar quantity.

(b) In 4 meters north – south, both the direction and magnitude are involved. So, it is a vector
quantity

## (e) In 10 – 17 coulombs, only magnitude is involved. So, it is a scalar quantity.

(f) In 56 m / s– 2, both the direction and magnitude are involved. So, it is a vector quantity

## (d) Velocity (e) work done

(a) In time period, only magnitude is involved. So, it is a scalar quantity.
(b) In distance, only magnitude is involved. So, it is a scalar quantity.

(c) In force, both the direction and magnitude are involved. So, it is a vector quantity

(d) In velocity, both the direction and magnitude are involved. So, it is a vector quantity

(a) Coinitial

(b) Equal

## (c) Collinear but not equal

(a) Coinitial vectors are those vectors which have same initial point. So, a→andd→ vectors
are coinitial.
(b) Equal vectors are vectors which have same magnitude and direction.
So, b→andd→ vectors are equal.
(c) Collinear but not equal are those vectors which are parallel but has different directions.
So, a→andc→ vectors are collinear but not equal.

## (a) b→and−b−→ vectors are collinear

(b) The magnitudes of the two collinear are always equal.

(c) Collinear vectors are the two vectors having same magnitude.

## (a). True because the two vectors are parallel .

(b). False because collinear vectors must be parallel.

(c). False.

Exercise 10.2

Question 1: For the following vectors, calculate the magnitude of the following.

m→=i^+j^+k^;n→=2i^–7j^–3k^;o→=13√i^+13√j^–13√k^

Given, m→=i^+j^+k^;n→=2i^–7j^–3k^;o→=13√i^+13√j^–13√k^
∣∣m→∣∣=(1)2+(1)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=3–
√∣∣n→∣∣=(2)2+(−7)2+(−3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=4+49+9−−−−−−−−√=62−−
√∣∣o→∣∣=(13√)2+(13√)2+(13√)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=13+13+13−−−−−−−−√=1

## Question-2: Mention two dissimilar vectors having similar magnitude?

m→=(2i^–2j^+3k^);andn→=(2i^+2j^–
3k^)Itcanbeobservedthat:∣∣m→∣∣=(2)2+(−2)2+(3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=17−−√
and∣∣n→∣∣=(2)2+(2)2+(3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=17−−√
Thus, the two dissimilar vectors m→andn→ having the similar magnitude. Because of
different directions the two vectors are dissimilar.

## Question 3: Mention two dissimilar vectors having similar direction?

Consider,a→=i^+j^+k^;andb→=2i^+2j^+2k^Thedirectioncosinesofa→aregiven
by,p=1(1)2+(1)2+(1)2√=13√,q=1(1)2+(1)2+(1)2√=13√,andr=1(1)2+(1)2+(1)2√=13√
Thedirectioncosinesofb→aregivenby,p=2(2)2+(2)2+(2)2√=223√=13√,q=2(2)2+(2)2+(2)2√=22
3√=13√andr=2(2)2+(2)2+(2)2√=223√=13√Thedirectioncosinesofa→andb→aresimilar.
Thus, the direction of the two vectors is similar.

Question 4: 4i^+5j^andpi^+qj^ are the vectors and they are equal. Obtain the values of p
and q

## Given, 4i^+5j^andpi^+qj^ are equal.

The equivalent components are equal.

## So, the value of p = 4 and q = 5.

Question 5: The initial point of the vector is (3, 2) and the terminal point of the vector is (-
6, 8). Obtain the vector and scalar components of the given vector.

Given,

The initial point of the vector A (3, 2) and the terminal point of the vector is B (- 6, 8).

## The vector AB−→−=(−6–3)i^+(8–2)j^AB−→−=–9i^+6j^

The vector components of the given vector are –9i^and6j^.
The scalar components of the given vector are – 9 and 6.

## Question 6: The vectors m→=i^+3j^+k^,n→=−2i^–5j^–3k^,ando→=8i^–j^–2k^.

Obtain the sum.

Given:

m→=i^+3j^+k^,n→=−2i^–5j^–3k^,ando→=8i^–j^–2k^m→+n→+o→=(1–
2+8)i^+(3–5–1)j^+(1–3–2)k^=7i^–3j^–4k^
Question 7: Obtain the unit vector of p→=i^+2j^+k^ in the direction of the given vector.

## The unit vector p^ in the direction of vector p→=i^+2j^+k^

∣∣p→∣∣=(1)2+(2)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+4+1−−−−−−−√=6–
√p^=p→∣∣p→∣∣=i^+2j^+k^6√=16√i^+16√2j^+16√k^=16√i^+26√j^+16√k^

Question 8: For a vector AB−→−, obtain the unit vector where the point A (2, 3, 4) and
point B (5, 6, 7). The unit vector should be in the direction of given vector.

## Given, points A (2, 3, 4) and B (5, 6, 7).

AB−→−=(5–2)i^+(6–3)j^+(7–
4)k^AB−→−=3i^+3j^+3k^∣∣∣AB−→−∣∣∣=(3)2+(3)2+(3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=9
+9+9−−−−−−−√=27−−√=33–
√TheunitvectorinthedirectionofAB−→−isAB−→−∣∣∣AB−→−∣∣∣=3i^+3j^+3k^33√=13√i^+13
√j^+13√k^

Question 9: In the direction of m→+n→, obtain the unit vector for given
vectors m→=3i^–j^+2k^andn→=2i^–3j^–k^.

Given,

## The vectors m→=3i^–j^+2k^andn→=2i^–3j^–k^

m→=3i^–j^+2k^n→=2i^–3j^–k^m→+n→=(3+2)i^+(−1–3)j^+(2–1)k^=5i^–
4j^+1k^∣∣m→+n→∣∣=(5)2+(−4)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=25+16+1−−−−−−
−−−√=42−−√
Thus, in the direction of m→+n→, the vector is,
(m→+n→)∣∣m→+n→∣∣=5i^–4j^+1k^42√=142√5i^–142√4j^+142√k^=542√i^–442√j^+142√k^

Question 10: A vector 6i^–2j^+3k^ has a magnitude of 8 units. Find the vector in the
direction of given vector.

Suppose, m→=6i^–
2j^+3k^∣∣m→∣∣=62+(−2)2+32−−−−−−−−−−−−√=36+4+9−−−−−−−−√=49−−√=7
m^=m→∣∣m→∣∣=6i^–2j^+3k^7.
Thus, the vector in the direction of given vector which has 8 units magnitude is given by,

8m^=8(6i^–2j^+3k^7)=487i^–167j^+247k^

## Question 11: Prove whether the vectors 3i^–4j^+5k^and9i^–12j^+15k^ are collinear.

Suppose, p→=3i^–4j^+5k^andq→=9i^–12j^+15k^
The condition for the vectors to be collinear is,

q→=λp→
Accordingly,

Hence, proved

## Question 12: Obtain the direction cosines of the vectors 2i^–4j^+6k^

m→=2i^–
4j^+6k^∣∣m→∣∣=(2)2+(−4)2+(6)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=4+16+36−−−−−−−−−√
=56−−√Thus,thedirectioncosinesofm→are(256√,−456√,656√)

Question 13: P (1, 2, – 3) and Q (- 1, – 2, 1) are the joining points of a vector directed from
P to Q. Obtain the direction cosines of the vector.

## P (1, 2, – 3) and Q (- 1, – 2, 1) are the joining points of a vector.

PQ−→−=(−1–1)a^+(−2–2)b^+(1–
(−3))c^PQ−→−=(−2)a^+(−4)b^+(4)c^∣∣∣PQ−→−∣∣∣=(−2)2+(−4)2+42−−−−−−−−
−−−−−−−√=4+16+16−−−−−−−−−√=36−−√=6
The direction cosines of the vector PQ−→− are (–26,–46,46)=(–13,–23,23)

Question 14: Prove that the i^+j^+k^ is evenly tending to the axes OX, OY and OZ

Suppose, m→=i^+j^+k^Then,∣∣m→∣∣=(1)2+(1)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=3–√
The direction cosines of the vector m→ are (13√,13√,13√)
Now, let α, β, and γ be the angles formed by with the positive directions of x, y, and z axes.

Thus, we obtain,

cosα=13√,cosβ=13√andcosγ=13√
Thus, the vector is evenly tending to the axes OX, OY and OZ
Question 15: The position vectors of a joining points A and B are i^+2j^–k^and–
i^+j^+k^respectively. Obtain the position vector of C which divides the given points in 2 :
1 ratio.
(a) Internally

(b) Externally

The position vector of C which divides the given points in m : n ratio is written as:

## (a) Internally: mb→+na→m+n

(b) Externally: mb→–na→m–n
Given,

## Position vectors of a joining points A and B,

OA−→−=i^+2j^–k^andOB−→−=i^+j^+k^
(a) The position vector of point C which divides the line joining two points A and B internally in
the ratio 2:1 is given by,

OC−→−=2(−i^+j^+k^)+1(i^+2j^–k^)2+1=(−2i^+2j^+2k^)+(i^+2j^–k^)3=−i^+4j^+k^3=–
13i^+43j^+13k^
(b) The position vector of point C which divides the line joining two points A and B externally in
the ratio 2:1 is given by,

OC−→−=2(−i^+j^+k^)–1(i^+2j^–k^)2–1=(−2i^+2j^+2k^)+(i^+2j^–k^)=–3i^+3k^

Question 16: A (3, 4, 5) and B (5, 2, – 3) are the joining points of a vector. Obtain the
midpoint position vector.

The midpoint position vector with the joining points A (3, 4, 5) and B (5, 2, – 3),

## Suppose, OC−→− be the required vector, then,

OC−→−=(3i^+4j^+5k^)+(5i^+2j^+(−3)k^)2=(3+5)i^+(4+2)j^+(5–
3)k^2=8i^+6j^+2k^2=4i^+3j^+k^)

Question 17: Prove that the points P, Q and R with position vectors, p→=3a^–4b^–
4c^,q→=2a^–b^+c^,andr→=a^–3b^–5c^ respectively from the vertices of a right
angled triangle.

Given,

## The points P, Q and R with position vectors p→=3a^–4b^–4c^,q→=2a^–

b^+c^,andr→=a^–3b^–5c^
p→=3a^–4b^–4c^,q→=2a^–b^+c^,andr→=a^–3b^–5c^ PQ−→−=q→–p→=(2–
3)a^+(−1+4)b^+(1+4)c^=–a^+3b^+5c^QR−→−=r→–q→=(1–
2)a^+(−3+1)b^+(−5–1)c^=–a^–2b^–6c^RP−→−=p→–r→=(3–
1)a^+(−4+3)b^+(−4+5)c^=2a^–
b^+c^ ∣∣∣PQ−→−∣∣∣2=(−1)2+32+52=1+9+25=35∣∣∣QR−→−∣∣∣2=(−1)2+(−2)2+(−6)
2=1+4+36=41∣∣∣RP−→−∣∣∣2=22+(−1)2+12=4+1+1=6∣∣∣PQ−→−∣∣∣2+∣∣∣QR−→−∣∣∣
2=35+6=41=∣∣∣QR−→−∣∣∣2
Hence, PQR is a right angled triangle.

## Question 18: Which of the following is incorrect in the triangle PQR?

(i)PQ−→−+QR−→−+RP−→−=0(ii)PQ−→−+QR−→−–
PR−→−=0(iii)PQ−→−+QR−→−–RP−→−=0(iv)PQ−→−–RQ−→−+RP−→−=0

## In a given triangle, applying the triangle law of addition, we get,

PQ−→−+QR−→−=PR−→−….(1)PQ−→−+QR−→−=–
RP−→−PQ−→−+QR−→−+RP−→−=0→….(2)Statement(i)istruePQ−→−+QR
−→−=PR−→−PQ−→−+QR−→−–PR−→−=0→Statement(ii)istrue
From equation (2), we get:

PQ−→−–
RQ−→−+RP−→−=0→Statement(iv)istrueConsideringstatement(iii)PQ−→−+Q
R−→−–RP−→−=0→PQ−→−+QR−→−=RP−→−…..(3)
From equations (3) and (1), we get:

PR−→−=RP−→−PR−→−=–
PR−→−2PR−→−=0→PR−→−=0→,isnottrue.Statement(iii)istrue

Question 19: Check whether the corresponding statements are true if the two
vectors p→andq→are collinear.
(i)q→=λp→,forsomescalarλ(ii)p→=±q→(iii)Thecomponentsofp→andq→arepr
oportional(iv)p→andq→havedifferentmagnitudesandhavesimilardirection.

The two vectors are said to be collinear when they are parallel to each other.

## p→andq→ are collinear vectors.

Thus, we have,

q→=λp→,(forsomescalarλ)Suppose,λ=±1,thenq→=±1p→If,p→=p1i^+p2j^+p3k
^,q→=q1i^+q2j^+q3k^,thenq→=λp→. q1i^+q2j^+q3k^=λ(p1i^+p2j^+p3k^)q1i^+q
2j^+q3k^=(λp1)i^+(λp2)j^+(λp3)k^q1=λp1,q2=λp2,q3=λp3=>q1p1=q2p2=q3p3=λ
Hence, the components of p→andq→ are proportional.
Though, vectors p→andq→ can have different directions.
Thus, statement (iv) is incorrect.

Exercise 10.3
Q.1 : Find the angle between two vectors m and n with magnitude 3–√and 2 ,
respectively having m .n =6–√
Solution 1:

It is given that,

|m |=3–√ ,
|n | = 2
And m .n =6–√
m .n =|m ||n |cosθ
Now, we know that

Therefore,

⇒ 6–√=3–√×2×cosθ
⇒ cosθ=6√3√×2
⇒ cosθ=12√
⇒ θ=π4
Therefore, the angle between the given vectors m and n is π4

Solution 2:

## m =a^–2b^+3c^andn =3a^–2b^+c^ |m |=12+(–

2)2+32−−−−−−−−−−−−√ |m |=1+4+9−−−−−−−√ |m |=14−−√ |n |=32+(–
2)2+12−−−−−−−−−−−−√ |n |=9+4+1−−−−−−−√ |n |=14−−√ Now,m .n =(a^–
2b^+3c^)(3a^–2b^+c^) Now,m .n =1.3+(–2)(–
2)+3.1 Now,m .n =3+4+3 Now,m .n =10
Also, we know that

Therefore,

## 10=14−−√14−−√cosθ cosθ=1014 θ=cos−157

Q 3. Find the projection of the vector a^–b^ on the vector a^+b^.

Solution 3:

Let, i^=a^–b^
And j^=a^+b^
Now, projection of vector i on j is given by,
1∣∣j ∣∣(i
.j )=11+1√{1.1+(–1)(1)}=12√(1–1)=0
Hence the projection of vector i on j is 0

Solution 4:

## Let i^=a^+3b^+7c^ and j^=7a^–b^+8c^

Now, projection of vector i on j is given by,
1j (i .j )=172+(–1)2+82√{1(7)+3(–1)+7(8)} 1j (i .j )=7–
3+5649+1+64√ 1j (i .j )=60114√

## Q 5: Show that each of the given three vectors is a unit vector :

17(2a^+3b^+6c^),17(3a^–6b^+2c^),17(6a^+2b^–3c^)
Also, show that they are mutually perpendicular to each other.

Solution 5:

## Leti =17(2a^+3b^+6c^)=27a^+37b^+67c^Letj =17(3a^–6b^+2c^)=37a^–

67b^+27c^Letk =17(6a^+2b^–3c^)=67a^+27b^–37c^
⇒ ∣∣i ∣∣=(27)2+(37)2+(67)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√
∣∣i ∣∣=449+949+3649−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣i ∣∣=1
⇒ ∣∣j ∣∣=(37)2+(–67)2+(27)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√
∣∣j ∣∣=949+3649+449−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣j ∣∣=1
⇒ ∣∣k ∣∣=(67)2+(27)2+(–37)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√
∣∣k ∣∣=3649+449+949−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣k ∣∣=1
Thus, each of the given three vectors is a unit vector.

⇒ i .j =27×37+37×(−67)+67×27
i .j =649–1849+1249 i .j =0
⇒ j .k =37×67+−67×(27)+27×−37
j .k =1849–1249–649 j .k =0
⇒ k .i =67×27+27×(37)+−37×67
k .i =1249–649–1849 k .i =0
Hence, the given three vectors are mutually perpendicular to each other.

Q 6: Find:

## |m |and|n |, if (m +n ).(m +n )=8 and |m |=8|n |

Solution 6:

(m +n ).(m –n )=8
⇒ m .m –m n +n m –n .n =8
⇒ |m |2–|n |2=8
⇒ 8|n |2–|n|2=8 . . . . . . . . . [|m =8|n ||]
⇒ 64|n |2–|n |2=8
⇒ 63|n |2=8
⇒ |n |2=863
⇒ |n |2=863−−√ [ magnitude of a vector is non-negative]
⇒ |n |2=22√37√
|m |=8|n | |m |=8×22√37√ |m |=162√37√

## Q 7: Find the product of the following : (3m –5n ).(2m +7n )

Solution 7:

(3m –5n ).(2m +7n ) =3m .2m +3m .7n –5n .2m –
5n .7n =6m .m +21m .n –10n .m –35n .n =6|m |2+11m .n –35|n |2
Q 8: Find the magnitude of two vectors m andn , having the same magnitude and such
that the angle between them is 60° and their scalar product is 12

Solution 8:

## Let θ be the angle between the vectors m andn .

As given in the question:

We know that:

Therefore,

⇒ 12=|m |2×12
⇒ |m |2=1
⇒ |m |2=|n |2=1

Q 9: Find:

## |y | , if for a unit vector b , (y –b ).(y +b )=12

Solution 9:

(y –b ).(y +b )=12
⇒ y .y +y .b –b .y –b .b =12
⇒ |y |2–∣∣b ∣∣2=12
⇒ |y |2–1=12[∣∣b ∣∣=1asb isaunitvector]
⇒ |y |2=13
Therefore,

|y |=13−−√
Q 10: If i
=2a^+2b^+3c^ ,
j =−a^+2b^+c^
and k =3a^+b^ are such that i +λj is perpendicular to k then find the value of λ

Solution 10:

## The given vectors are i =2a^+2b^+3c^ , j =−a^+2b^+c^ and k =3a^+b^

Now,

i +λj =(2a^+2b^+3c^)+λ(–a^+2b^+c^)=(2–λ)a^+(2+2λ)b^+(3+λ)c^
If (i +λj ) is perpendicular to k ,then
(i +λj ).k =0
⇒ [(2–λ)a^+(2+2λ)b^+(3+λ)c^](3a^+b^)=0
⇒ [(2–λ)3+(2+2λ)1+(3+λ)0]=0
⇒ 6–3λ+2+2λ=0
⇒ –λ+8=0
⇒ λ=8
Hence, the required value of λ is 8.

## Q 11: Show that:

|a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a is perpendicular to |a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a , for any two non zero
vectors a andb

Solution 11:

## ⇒ (|a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a ).(|a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a )

(|a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a ).(|a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a ) = |a |2b .b –
|a |∣∣b ∣∣b .a +∣∣b ∣∣|a |a .b –∣∣b ∣∣2a .a
=|a |2∣∣b ∣∣2
(|a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a ).(|a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a ) = 0
Hence, |a |b +∣∣b ∣∣a is perpendicular to |a |b –∣∣b ∣∣a
Q 12: If a .a =0anda .b =0, then what can be concluded about the vector b ?

Solution:

## It is given that a .a =0anda .b =0

Now,

that a .a =0
⇒ |a |2=0
⇒ |a |=0
Therefore, a is a zero vector
Hence, vector b satisfying a .b =0 can be any vector

Q 13:

## If a ,b ,c are unit vectors such that a +b +c = 0, find the value

of a .b +b .c +c .a

Solution 13:

## ∣∣a +b +c ∣∣2=(a +b +c )(a +b +c )

∣∣a +b +c ∣∣2 = |a |2+∣∣b ∣∣2+|c |2+2(a .b +b .c +c .a )
⇒ 0=1+1+1+2(a .b +b .c +c .a )
⇒ (a .b +b .c +c .a )=–32

Q 14: If either vector a =0 orb =0 , then a .b =0. But the converse need not be

Solution 14:

## Consider a =2i^+4j^+3k^andb =3i^+3j^–6k^

Then,

a .b =2.3+4.3+3(–6)=6+12–18=0
We now observe that :

|a |=22+42+32−−−−−−−−−−√=29−−√
Therefore,

a ≠0 ∣∣b ∣∣=32+32+(−6)2−−−−−−−−−−−−√=54−−√
Therefore,

b ≠0
Hence, the converse of the given statement need not be true

## Q 15: If the vertices A, B, C of a triangle ABC are ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , ( – 1 , 0 , 0 ) , ( 0 , 1 , 2 ) ,

respectively, then find ∠ ABC. [ ∠ ABC is the angle between the vectors BA→andBC→ ]

Solution 15:

## The vertices of ∆ABC are given as A ( 1 , 2 , 3 ) , B ( – 1 , 0 , 0 ) , and C ( 0 , 1 , 2 ). Also, it is

given that ∠ ABC is the angle between the vectors BA→andBC→
BA→={1–(–1)}i^+(2–0)j^+(3–0)k^=2i^+2j^+3k^ BC→={0–(–1)}i^+(1–
0)j^+(2–0)k^=i^+j^+2k^
Therefore,

BA→.BC→=(2i^+2j^+3k^).(i^+j^+2k^)=2×1+2×1+3×2=2+2+6=10 ∣∣∣BA→∣∣∣
=22+22+32−−−−−−−−−−√=4+4+9−−−−−−−√=17−−√ ∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣=1+1+22−−−−−
−−−√=6–√
Now, it is known that :

BA→.BC→=∣∣∣BA→∣∣∣∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣cos(∠ABC)
Therefore,

10=17−−√×6–√cos(∠ABC)
⇒ cos(∠ABC)=1017√×6√
⇒ ∠ABC=cos−1(10102√)
Q 16: Show that the points A ( 1 , 2 , 7 ) , B ( 2 , 6 , 3 ) and C ( 3 , 10 , – 1 ) are collinear.

Solution 16:

## The given points are A ( 1 , 2 , 7 ) , B ( 2 , 6 , 3 ) , and C ( 3 , 10 , – 1 ).

Therefore,

AB→=(2–1)i^+(6–2)j^+(3–7)k^=i^+4j^–4k^ BC→=(3–2)i^+(10–6)j^+(–1–
3)k^=i^+4j^–4k^ AC→=(3–1)i^+(10–2)j^+(–1–7)k^=2i^+8j^–8k^
⇒ ∣∣∣AB→∣∣∣=12+42+(–4)2−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+16+16−−−−−−−−−√=33−−√
⇒ ∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣=12+42+(–4)2−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+16+16−−−−−−−−−√=33−−√
⇒ ∣∣∣AC→∣∣∣=22+82+82−−−−−−−−−−√=4+64+64−−−−−−−−−√=132−−−√ = 23
3−−√
Therefore,

∣∣∣AC→∣∣∣=∣∣∣AB→∣∣∣+∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣
Hence, the given points A, B, and C are collinear.

## Q 17: Show that the vectors 2i^+j^+k^,i^–3j^–5k^and3i^–4j^–4k^ form the vertices of

a right angled triangle.

Solution 17:

## Let vectors 2i^+j^+k^,i^–3j^–5k^and3i^–4j^–4k^ be position vectors of points A, B, and

C respectively.
i.e , OA→=2i^–j^+k^,OB=i^–3j^–5k^andOC=3i^–4j^–4k^
Therefore,

AB→=(1–2)i^+(–3+1)j^+(–5–1)k^=–i^–2j^–6k^ BC→=(3–1)i^+(–4+3)j^+(–
4+5)k^=–2i^–j^–k^ AC→=(2–3)i^+(–1+4)j^+(1+4)k^=–i^+3j^+5k^
⇒ ∣∣∣AB→∣∣∣=(–1)2+(–2)2+(–
6)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+4+36−−−−−−−−√=41−−√
⇒ ∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣=(2)2+(–1)2+(1)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+4+1−−−−−−−√=6–√
⇒ ∣∣∣AC→∣∣∣=(–
1)2+(3)2+(5)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1+9+25−−−−−−−−√=35−−√
Therefore,

∣∣∣BC→∣∣∣2+∣∣∣AC→∣∣∣2=6+35=41=∣∣∣AB→∣∣∣2
Hence, ∆ ABC is a right – angled triangle.

Q 18:

If a is a nonzero vector of magnitude ‘a’ and λ a nonzero scalar, then λ a is unit vector
if
(A) λ = 1

(B) λ = – 1

(C) a=|λ|
(D) a=1|λ|

Solution 18:

## Vector λa is a unit vector if |λa |=1

Now,

|λa |=1
⇒ |λ||a |=1
⇒ |a |=1|λ| . . . . . . . . . . . . [ λ ≠ 0 ]
⇒ a=1|λ| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [|a |=a ]
Therefore, vector λa is a unit vector if a=1|λ|

Exercise 10.4
Q 1: Find ∣∣a ×b ∣∣ , if a =i^–7j^+7k^ and b =3i^–2j^+2k^

Solution 1:

We have,

## a =i^–7j^+7k^ and b =3i^–2j^+2k^

a ×b =∣∣∣∣∣i^13j^–7–2k^72∣∣∣∣∣
a ×b = i^(–14+14)–j^(2–21)+k^(–2+21)=19j^+19k^
Therefore,

∣∣a ×b ∣∣=(19)2+(19)2−−−−−−−−−−√=2×(19)2−−−−−−−√=192–√

## Q 2: Find a unit vector perpendicular to each of the vector a +b anda –b ,

where a =3i^+2j^+2k^andb =i^+2j^–2k^

Solution 2:

We have,

a =3i^+2j^+2k^andb =i^+2j^–2k^
Therefore,

## a +b =4i^+4j^,a –b =2i^+4k^ (a +b )×(a –

b )=∣∣∣∣∣i^42j^40k^04∣∣∣∣∣ (a +b )×(a –b )=i^(16)–j^(16)+k^(–8)=16i^–16j^–
8k^ ∣∣(a +b )×(a –b )∣∣=162+(–16)2+(–
8)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣(a +b )×(a –
b )∣∣=22×82+22×82+82−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√ ∣∣(a +b )×(a –
b )∣∣=822+22+1−−−−−−−−−√=89–√=8×3=24
Therefore, the unit vector perpendicular to each of the vectors a +b anda –b is given by
the relation,
= ±(a +b )×(a –b )∣∣(a +b )×(a –b )∣∣=±16i^–16j^–8k^24
= ±2i^–2j^–k^3=±23i^∓23j^∓13k^
Q 3: If a unit vector a makes angle π3withi^,π4anglewithj^ and an acute angle θ
with k , then find θ and hence, the compounds of a

Solution 3:

## Let unit vector a have ( a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ) componenets

a =a1i^+a2j^+a3k^
Since, a is a unit vector , |a |=1
Also, it is given that a makes angles π3withi^,π4anglewithj^ and an acute angle θ with k
Then, we have :

cosπ3=a1∣∣a ∣∣
⇒ 12=a1..........[|a |=1]
cosπ4=a2∣∣a ∣∣
⇒ 12√=a2..........[|a |=1]
Also , cosθ=a3∣∣a ∣∣
⇒ a3=cosθ
|a|=1
⇒ a12+a22+a32−−−−−−−−−−−−√=1
⇒ 122+12√2+cos2θ=1
⇒ 14+12+cos2θ=1
⇒ 34+cos2θ=1
⇒ cos2θ=1–34=14
⇒ cosθ=12θ=cos−1(12)θ=π3
Therefore,

a3=cosπ3=12
Therefore, θ=π3andthecomponentsofa are(12,12√,12)

Q 4: Show that:

(a –b )×(a +b )=2(a ×b )

Solution:

To prove:
(a –b )×(a +b )=2(a ×b )
= (a –b )×(a +b )=(a −b )×a +(a –b )×b . . . . . . . . . . . . [ By distributivity of
= a ×a –b ×a +a ×b –b ×b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ again, by distributivity of vector
= 0 +a ×b +a ×b –0
= 2a ×b

Q 5: Find λandμif(2i^+6j^+27k^)×(i^+λj^+μk^)=0

Solution:

(2i^+6j^+27k^)×(i^+λj^+μk^)=0
⇒ ∣∣∣∣∣i^21j^6λμk^27∣∣∣∣∣ = 0i^+0j^+0k^
⇒ i^(6μ–27μ)–j^(2μ–27)+k^(2λ–6)=0i^+0j^+0k^
On comparing the corresponding components, we have :

6μ–27λ=02μ–27=02λ–6=0
Now,

2λ–6=0⇒λ=3
⇒ 2μ–27=0⇒μ=272
Therefore, λ=3andμ=272

Q 6: Given that:

a .b =0anda ×b =0
What can you conclude about the vectors a andb ?

Solution:

a .b =0
Then ,

## 1. i) either a =0orb =0,ora ⊥b (incasea andb arenon–zero)a ×b =0

2. ii) Either a =0orb =0,ora ∥b (incasea andb arenon–zero)a ×b =0
But, a andb cannot be perpendicular and parallel simultaneously.
Therefore, |a |=0or∣∣b ∣∣=0

Q 7: Let the
vectors a ,b ,c givenasa1i^+a2j^+a3k^,b1i^+b2j^+b3k^,c1i^+c2j^+c3k^
Then show that = a ×(b +c )=a ×b +a ×c

Solution:

We have,

a1i^+a2j^+a3k^,b1i^+b2j^+b3k^,c1i^+c2j^+c3k^ (b +c )=(b1+c1)i^+(b2+c2)j^+(b
3+c3)k^
Now, a ×(b +c )∣∣∣∣∣i^a1b1+c1j^a2b2+c2k^a3b3+c3∣∣∣∣∣
=i^[a2(b3+c3)–a3(b2+c2)]–j^[a1(b3+c3)–a3(b1+c1)]+k^[a1(b2+c2)–a2(b1+c1)]
=i^[a2b3+a2c3–a3b2–a3c2]+j^[–a1b3–a1c3+a3b1+a3c1]+k^[a1b2+a1c2–a2b1–a2c1]. . .
.............. (1)
⇒ a ×b =∣∣∣∣∣i^a1b1j^a2b2k^a3b3∣∣∣∣∣
= i^[a2b3–a3b2]+j^[a3b1–a1b3]+k^[a1b2–a2b1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 2 )
⇒ a ×c =∣∣∣∣∣I^a1c1j^a2c2k^a3c3∣∣∣∣∣
i^[a2c3–a3c2]+j^[a3c1–a1c3]+k^[a1c2–a2c1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 3 )
On adding (2) and (3), we get:

(a ×b )+(a ×c )=i^[a2b3+a2c3+–a3b2–a3c2]+j^[a3b1+a3c1+–a1b3–
a1c3]+k^[a1b2+a1c2+–a2b1–a2c1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( 4 )
Now, from (1) and (4), we have:

a ×(b +c )=a ×b +a ×c
Hence, the given result is proved.

## Question 8: Suppose, any of the vector m→orn→=0→, then m→×n→=0→.

Is the above given statement true?

By taking any two non – zero vectors, for the condition m→×n→=0→.
Suppose, m→=i^+2j^+3k^andn→=2i^+4j^+6k^Then,
PQ−→−×QR−→−=∣∣∣∣∣i^12j^24k^36∣∣∣∣∣ i^(4–4)–j^(6–6)+k^(4–
4)=0i^+0j^+0k^=0^Now,wefindthat,[m→]=(1)2+(2)2+(3)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√
=14−−√So,m→≠0→[n→]=(2)2+(4)2+(6)2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=56−−√So,n→≠
0→
Thus, the above given statement is not true.

Question 9: P (1, 1, 2), Q (2, 3, 5) and R (1, 5, 5) are the vertices of a triangle. Obtain the
area.

Given:

## The contiguous sides PQ−→−andQR−→− of the triangle is given as,

PQ−→−=(2–1)i^+(3–1)j^+(5–2)k^=i^+2j^+3k^andQR−→−=(1–2)i^+(5–
3)j^+(5–5)k^=–
i^+2j^AreaofΔtriangle=12∣∣∣PQ−→−×QR−→−∣∣∣PQ−→−×QR−→−=∣∣∣∣∣i^1–
1j^22k^30∣∣∣∣∣i^(−6)–j^(3)+k^(2+2)=–
6i^−3j^+4k^∣∣∣PQ−→−×QR−→−∣∣∣=(−6)2+(−3)2+42−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√=36+
9+16−−−−−−−−−√=61−−√
Thus, 61√2 is the area of triangle ABC.

## Question 10: m→=i^–j^+3k^andn→=2i^–7j^+k^ are the adjacent sides of a vector.

Obtain the area of the parallelogram.

Given,

## m→=i^–j^+3k^andn→=2i^–7j^+k^ are the adjacent sides of a vector.

m→×n→∣∣∣∣∣i^12j^–1–7k^31∣∣∣∣∣i^(−1+21)–j^(1–6)+(−7+2)k^=20i^+5j^–
5k^∣∣m→×n→∣∣=202+52+52−−−−−−−−−−−√=400+25+25−−−−−−−−−−−√=152
–√
152–√ is the area of the given parallelogram.

## Question 11: Suppose,

vectors m→andn→insuchawaythat∣∣m→∣∣=3and∣∣n→∣∣=2√3,thenm→×n→ is a
unit vector, suppose the angle between the two vectors is
(i)π6,(ii)π4,(iii)π3(iv)π2

Given, ∣∣m→∣∣=3and∣∣n→∣∣=2√3,thenasweknowm→×n→=1m→×n→=∣∣m→∣∣∣∣n
→∣∣sinθs^, where s is a unit vector perpendicular to both m→andn→ and Θ is the angle
between m→andn→
Now, m→andn→isaunitvectorif∣∣m→×n→∣∣=1∣∣m→×n→∣∣=1∣∣∣∣m→∣∣∣∣n→∣∣sin
Θs^∣∣=1∣∣∣∣m→∣∣∣∣n→∣∣sinΘ∣∣=13×2√3×sinΘ=1sinΘ=12√Θ=π4
The correct answer is option (ii)

Question 12: The area of the rectangle with P, Q, R and S as the vertices with positive
vectors –i^+12j^+4k^,i^+12j^+4k^,i^–12j^+4k^and–i^–
12j^+4k^respectivelyis(i)12,(ii)1(iii)2,(iv)4