1. Problem Statement:
A ground plus two storey RC office building of plan dimensions 10.663m x 12.063 m located in seismic
zone IV on medium soil is considered. It is assumed that there is no parking floor for this building. Seismic
analysis is performed using the codal seismic coefficient method.However, the effect of shear deformation is
considered. Detailed design of the beams along the grid line ‘2’ as per recommendations of IS 13920:2016
has been carried out.
Solution:
Plan of the building and sectional elevations of different RC frames are shown in Figures.
Figure 1
Figure 2
1.2 General Grade of concrete: M30
Zone= 4
Reduction Factor = 5
Importance Factor = 1
Damping = 5%
No.
Shear Moment Shear Moment Shear Moment
3 1.2(DL+LL*EQY) 80 82 45 14 5 27
* Appropriate fraction of live load has been used 1.4.2 Check for Member Size
L
D = 5,840600 = 8.33> 4, hence ok
Minimum reinforcement
(Clause 6.1.3 of IS: 139202016)
= 487 mm2
Maximum reinforcement
= 2.5%
= 3,806 mm2
= 1,441 mm or 5,840 mm
Referring to SP: 16,
= 349 mm2
Astat bottom = 652mm2> 415 mm2
< Minimum reinforcement (487 mm2)
0.87 fy
A
st
xu=
The beam is designed as T beam. The limiting But Asc must be at least 50% of Ast hence,
capacity of the Tbeam assuming xu< Dfand revise to 652 /2 = 326 mm2
(Annex G of IS 456: 2000) 487 mm2 and 326 m2. Hence, provide
487 mm2.
Where,
Lo
= + bw + 6dfor c/c of beams
6
In an external joint, both the top and bottom bars 1.9.2 Shear Force Due to Plastic Hinge
of the beam shall be provided with an anchorage Formation at the ends of the Beam
16 #
τ c= 0.45 MPa (IS 456:2000 Table 19)Design
shear strength of concrete
= τ cb d
bfd
f
ck
2
bd
= 111 kNm
Hogging
(kNm)
Astat top
1.46% 
1.47%
Ascat
0.54% 0.55%
bottom
< 1.46/2 < 1.47/2

Hence revise to 0.73% Hence revise to 0.7335%
Bottom reinforcement
Sagging
(kNm)
Astat Astrequired = 1512 mm2 Astrequired = 335 mm2 Astrequired = 1264 mm2
reinforcement 520Φ +116Φ extra 2 Steel Provided = 603 mm2 16Φ extra 2
reinforcement Steel Provided = 1,545 mm2 Steel Provided = 603 mm2 20φ) extra 2
+
61.8 kN
 61.8 kN  61.8 kN
21.6 kN +
1.2 DL + 1.2 DL +
21.6 kN
 21.6 kN 
21.6 kN
1.2 LL
1.2 LL +
+
186 kN
175 kN +
+
186 kN  175 kN

Shear due to sway to
left
Shear due to sway to =
right =
103 kN
259 kN
270 kN

 92 kN
Similarly, for the right end of the beam we obtain, = ±1.4 (286 + 377) / 5
MuBh= 377 kNm and MuBs= 246 kNm,
= ±186 kN
Shear is calculated as below:
1.4(MuAh+ MuBs)
Vswaytoleft = ±
± 1.4(MuAs + MuBh) L
Vswaytoright=
L = ±1.4(377 + 246)/5
= ±175 kN
= 16.5 x (1 + 5) /2 + 10.575 x 5
= 259 kN
= 103 kN
Shear at right end for sway to right,
LL = 12 x (1 + 5) / 2 = 36 kN
Shear at left end for sway to right, = 1.2 x (103 +36) /2 + 186
= 270 kN
Vu,a= 1.2(DL+LL) − 1.4(MuAs+MuBh )
= 103 kN 2 L
= 92 kN
Referring to Table 62 of SP:16, we get the However, it need not be less than 100 mm.
required spacing of 2 legged 8φ stirrups as 145
mm, 165 mm and 135 mm respectively at left
end, centre and right end. Hence, provide 2 Legged  8 φ stirrups @125mm
c/c at left and at right end over a length of 2d = 2
x 532 = 1,064 mm.
As per Clause 6.3.5 of IS 13920:1993, the spacing
of stirrups in the midspan shall not exceed d/2 =
532/2 = 266 mm. Elsewhere, provide stirrups at 165 mm centers.
A straight B C
600
A B C
316Ø straight +
320Øextra
straight 120Ø+216Ø extra @ 165mm c/c @ 125mm c/c
5000 5000
316Ø straight +
316Ø straight
316Ø straight +
520Ø +116Øextra
520Ø + 116Øextra
316Ø straight +
316Ø straight +
300
300 300
Cross Section BB
Table 1.7 Comparison of bill of quantities for steel in the beam ABC
required in
95 25 93 14 135 28
kg
kg
A 212Ø+116Ø B C
straight
600
A B C
5000 5000
212Ø+116Ø
+ 3 20Ø
8Ø  2 legged links
Figure 1.9: Reinforcement details for the beam ABC as per IS 456:2000 (with R = 5)
212Ø+116Ø straight + 212Ø+116Ø straight+
625Ø+120Ø extra
212Ø+116Ø
625Ø+116Ø extra
A straight B C
600
A 212Ø+116 Ø B C
500
1250 1250 500 1250 500
5000 5000
212Ø+116Ø straight+
425Ø+112Ø+116Ø extra
600 600
600 @ 145 mm c/c
212Ø+116Ø str + 212Ø+116Ø straight +
Figure 1.10: Reinforcement details for the beam ABC as per IS 456:2000 (with R = 3)
Table 1.3a Force resultants in the beam AB for various load cases with
Case
3 Problem Statement:
For the ground plus four storey RC office building of Example1 (Refer Figures 1.11.4 of Example 1),
design of an interior column element is explained here. The column marked AB in Figure 3.1 for frame 2 is
considered for design.
B
T
600
BB
300
AT
A
600
AB 300
400
500
Solution:
3.1 Load Combinations
Since the column must be designed for
earthquake in both X direction and Y direction,
Load combinations derived from all 13 load combinations as shown in Table 1.4
recommendations of Clause 6.3.1.2 of IS (Example1) need to be considered. It is necessary
1893(Part 1): 2002 and given in Table 1.4 of to check the column for each combination of
Example1 are considered for analysis. loads. Checking the column for all load
combinations at all the sections is indeed tedious
if carried out by hand. Hence, a computer
program is best suited for column design. In the
3.2 Force Data absence of a computer program, one can make a
judgment of which two or three load cases out of
the thirteen may require the maximum
For column AB, the force resultants for various reinforcement and design accordingly.
load cases and load combinations are shown in
Tables 3.1 and 3.2.
Referring to Table 3.2, it can be observed that out
of the various load combination, one design load
In case of earthquake in X direction, column gets combination with earthquake in either (X or Y)
a large moment about Y axis and a small moment direction can be identified, which is likely to be
about X axis due to gravity, minimum eccentricity critical. These critical design forces are
and torsional effect. Similarly earthquake in Y summarised in Table 3.3. Table 3.4 and Table 3.5
direction causes a large moment in column about
X axis and a small moment about Y axis. Column
needs to be designed as a biaxial member for
these moments.
Load AB AT BB BT
case
AB AT BB BT
M
M2 M3 M2 3 Axia M2 M3 M2 M3
Load Axial Axial l Axial
(kN (kNm) (kN (kNm) (kN (kNm) (kN (kN
Combinations (kN) (kN) (kN) (kN)
m) m) m) m) m)
1.5(DL+LL) 534 15 3.1 398.8 25.6 3.78 30.3 36 4.02 142.2 50 4.77
1.2(DL+LL+EQX) 359 32 3.4 265.1 30.5 6.01 250 29 6.57 96.4 14.2 5.74
 
1.2(DL+LLEQX) 494 8.6 1.44 373.1 71.5 0.04 358 87 0.14 131 59.3 1.9
1.2(DL+LL+EQZ) 434 11 23.4 329 21.8 72.2 314 31 80.9 116 37.5 48.5
 
1.2(DL+LLEQZ) 420 12 18.5 309.2 19.2 66.2 294 27 74.5 112 36 40.9
1.5(DL+EQX) 417 42 4.34 299.4 39.6 7.34 281 40 7.9 110 11.6 6.80
 
1.5(DLEQX) 587 9.5 1.92 434.4 87.8 0.1 416 104 0.47 153 68.2 1.99
1.5(DL+EQZ) 511 15 29.4 379.3 25.8 90.1 361 34 101 134 40.8 60.4
1.5(DLEQZ) 493 17 23 354.5 22.4 82.9 336 30 93 129 38.9 51.5
0.9DL + 1.5 EQX 216 35 3.13 152.7 49.3 5.9 142 53 6..43 58 5.04 4.27
 
0.9DL  1.5 EQX 356 16 0.67 287.6 78.2 1.6 276 92 1.96 101 52.1 0.23
0.9DL + 1.5 EQZ 310 9 28.1 232.6 16.2 88.7 221 21 99.4 81 24.9 58.6
0.9DL  1.5 EQZ 292 10 24 207.7 12.8 84.4 197 17 95 76 23 53.3
= 1,600 mm2
(Clause 7.1.2; IS 13920:1993)
D 400
Reinforcement at AB End
Mu2= 297 kNm
Pu 1,442 ×103
First approximate design is done and finally it
is checked for all force combinations. = = 0.36
In this case, the moment about one axis fck bD 2 = 20 × 400 × 500 × 500 = 0.15
dominates and hence the column is designed as
an uniaxially loaded column. The column is
oriented in such a way that depth of column is Referring to Charts 44 of SP16
400 mm for X direction earthquake and 500 mm
for Y direction earthquake force. For d’/D = (40 + 25 / 2) /500 = 0.105, we get p/fck
= 0.11
Design for Earthquake in Xdirection
Longitudinal Steel
Pu= 1,475 kN
fck bD 2 = 0.175
Provide 1025Φ + 416Φ bars with
total Ascprovided = 5,714 mm2 M
u 2,1 = 0.175 × 20 × 400 × 400 × 500 /(1×106)
The column should be checked for biaxial Puz= 0.45fck Ac+ 0.75fy Asc
moment. Moment about other axis may occur due
to torsion of building or due to minimum
eccentricity of the axial load. (Clause 39.6 of IS 456:2000)
= 18.33 mm < 20 mm
Hence, design eccentricity = 20 mm
Mu3= 1,475 x 0.02 = 29.5 kNm
P
u
The constant αn which depends on factored axial Mu2= 1,442 x 0.02146 = 31 kNm
compression resistance Puz is evaluated as
Pu
0.42−0.2
αn= 1.0 + (2.0−1.0) For fck bD = 0.355 andp/fck= 0.143,
=1.3670.8 − 0.2
Referring to Chart 44 of SP: 16, we get
Using the interaction formula of clause 39.6 of IS M
456: 2000) u 2,1
= 0.18
α α
M n M n 255 1.367 29.5 1.367
u2 u3 fck bD 2
+ = +
M
M
u 2,1
M
u3,1
280 350 u 2,1 = 0.18 × 20 × 400 × 400 × 500 /1×106
= 288 kNm
= 0.88 +0.04
M = 0.18 × 20 × 400 × 500 × 500 /1×106
u3,1
Puz= 3,527
Checking for Critical Combination with
Earthquake in Y Direction (Transverse kNαn= 1.35
direction)
Using the interaction formula
Width = 400 mm; Depth = 500
mm Pu= 1,442 kN α α
M n M n 31 1..367 297 1.367
u2 u3
Load AB AT BB BT
Combination P M2 M3 P M2 M3 P M2 M3 P M2 M3
Critical
comb with 1,475 255 0 1,163 255 0 1,140 261 0 840 224 0
EQX
Critical
comb with 1,442 2 297 1,146 2 287 1,124 2 291 834 2 249
EQY
Load AB AT BB BT
P M M
Comb u M2 p Pu 2 p Pu 2 p Pu M2 p
2 f ck bD f ck b 2 D f ck bD f ck b 2 D f ck bD fck b 2 D
f ck bD fck b D
Gravity 0.45 0.00 0.8 0.36 0.00 0.8 0.35 0.00 0.8 0.26 0.00 0.8
Critical
comb
0.37 0.16 2.8 0.29 0.16 2.4 0.29 0.16 2.4 0.21 0.14 2.0
with
EQX
Load AB AT BB BT
Comb Pu M3 p Pu M3 p Pu M3 p Pu M3 p
Critical
comb
0.36 0.145 2.8 0.29 0.133 1.8 0.28 0.1455 2.2 0.21 0.124 1.6
with
EQY
Column AB Longitudinal
at A Steel provided =
1025 # + 825 # +
2.86%
500
500
Reinforcement 825Φ+ 616Φ
at B Steel provided=
400 400
2.57%
Load Combination EQX EQY EQX EQY EQX EQY EQX EQY
1.5(DL+LL) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
3Pu
Multiplying factor = δ = 1+ =1.49 < 1.5
V
A f u
br bl
g ck
Mu + Mu
= 291 kN
Referring to Figure 3.3, the shear force
corresponding to plastic hinge formation in the
longitudinal beam is evaluated as:
3.6.4 Design Shear
Vu= 1.4 (M ubl+ M ubr )
The design shear force for the column shall be the
h higher of the calculated factored shear force as
st per analysis (Table 3.7) and the shear force due to
plastic hinge formation in either of the transverse
= 1.4 x (288 +221) /3 or the longitudinal beam.
3.7.2 Design of Links in Y Direction ((400 – 40 – 40 25)/2 +(8 x 2) +25) =188.5
kNSpacing of 3 legged 8 Φ
Links Whichever is higher, i.e,. h = 188.5 mm.
mm 1,00,000
Ak= (400 2 x 40 +2 x 8) x (500 2 x 40 +2 x 8)
The area of cross section, Ash, of the bar forming Substituting we get S = 84 mm.
rectangular hoop, to be used as special confining
reinforcement shall not be less than
Link spacing for confining zone shall not exceed:
(Clause 7.4.8 of IS 13920:1993).
(a) ¼ of minimum column dimension i.e,
A 400 / 4 =100 mm
0.18 ×S ×h×f
ck
g
(b) But need not be less than 75 mm nor more
Ash= −1
than 100 mm. (Clause 7.4.6 of IS 13920:1993).
f A
y k
R = 5) per R = 5) R = 3)
needs to be
Main steel 128 128
redesigned.
(kg)
CAUTION