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46 2 Hydrogeological Parameters Calculation

orifice and water pipe, as well as the connection method of orifice. If the flange
plate is used, then:

E ¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ¼ 0:606 þ 1:25ðB  0:41Þ2 ð2:4Þ
1  B4

B ¼ d=D ð2:5Þ

where K is the drainage coefficient.

(3) YKS-1 impeller orifice instantaneous flowmeter
The flow velocity, which is used to calculate the flow, can be measured by the
impeller speed. The impeller speed is measured by electronic device. This type of
flowmeter is small, light, and easy to use, which however is also not suitable for air
(4) Water meter
It is used together with centrifugal pump or deep-well pump. The water should
be clear and there should be no sand or mud in it to keep the water meter work
normally. The measurement error is ±2–3 %.
3. Water table indicator
The common water table indicators include electronic ones and float-type ones. The
former ones indicate the water table by an ammeter, a bulb, or a loudspeaker.
Recently, the pressure indicators and capacitor-based indicators are getting recog-
nized. All the above-mentioned types belong to contact measurement. The
no-contact ultrasonic water gauge is a new type with bright prospects. Comprehensive Analysis of Pumping Test Data

1. Site data analysis

During the pumping test, the water table and flow should be observed and recorded
carefully. Besides, following diagrams should be drawn to know the test progress,
find out anomaly, and lay a foundation for indoor data statistic.
(1) Steady flow pumping test
(a) Draw water discharge versus time and drawdown versus time curves for
main well.
The normal curve is drawn in Fig. 2.5. At the beginning of pumping, the values
of drawdown and water discharge are all big and unstable. Over time, they become
stable. According to the changing trend of these curves, the start and end of the
stable phase can be determined reasonably.
(b) Draw drawdown versus time curves for observation wells if there is, such as
s1 curves for OW1, OW2 et al. in Fig. 2.5.
(c) Draw flow versus drawdown curves (Q = f(s) curves).
Draw the point that represents a certain flow under certain second stable
drawdown. Connect all the points to get the flow versus drawdown curve, as shown
in Fig. 2.6. The meanings of these curves are: