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# Chapter 2 Describing Data:

##  Frequency Tables, Frequency Distributions, and Graphic Presentation

The first procedure to organize and summarize a set of data is a frequency table. Frequency table
is a grouping of qualitative data into mutually exclusive classes showing the number of observation
in each class. Constructing a frequency distribution involes determining the question to be
addressed, collecting raw data, organizing data (frequency distribution), presenting data (graph),
and drawing conclusions. Class frequency is the number of observations in each class.

## A frequency distribution has several steps:

1. The steps in constructing s frequency distribution are:
a. Decide on the number of classes
b. Determine the class interval
c. Set the individual class limits’tally the raw data into classes
2. The class frequency is the number of observations in each class
3. The class interval is the difference between the limits of two consecutive classes
4. The class midpoint is halfway between the limits of twi consecutive classes

Table 2-1 Frequency table for vehicles sold at Whitner Autoplex Last Month
Car Type Number of
Cars
Domestic 50
Foreign 30

Relative class frequencies to show the fraction of the total number of observations in each class.
The function is to capture relationship between a class total and the total number of obsrvations.
To convert a frequency distribution to a relative frequency distribution, each of the class
frequencies is divided by the total number of observations.

Table 2-2 Relative Frequency table of vehicles sold by type at Whitner Autoplex Last
Month
Vehicle Type Number Sold Relative
Frequency
Domestic 50 0.625
Foreign 30 0.375
Total 80 1.000

Bar chart is a graph in which the classes are reported on the horizontal axis and the class
frequencies on the vertical axis. The class frequencies are proportional to the height of the bars. In
most cases the horizontal axis shows the variable of interest and the vertical axis the amount,
number, or fraction of each of the possible outcomes. A bar chart graphically describes a frequency
table using a series of uniformly wide rectangles, where the height of each rectangle is the class
frequencies.

## Chart 2-1 Vehicle sold by type last month at whitner Autoplex

Pie chart ia a chart that shows the proportion or percent that each class represents of the total
number of frequencies.
Table 2-3 Ohio State Lottery Expenses In 2007
Use the sales Amount (\$ Percent of share
million)
Prizes 1311.1 65
Education 464.3 23
Bonuses 139.8 7
Expenses 109.8 6
Total 2025.0 100

## Chart 2-2 pie chart of Ohio Lottery Expenses in 2007

Frequency distributions (quantitative data) is A grouping of data into non-overlapping classes
(mutually exclusive classes or categories) showing the number of observations in each class. The
range of classes includes all values in the data set (collectively exhaustive categories).

Class of Data on Frequency Distribution. How to determine the number of class in the distribution
frequency table. The formula is found by:

2k > n

Where:
k = the number of class
n = the number of data
example: if the number of data on observations are 180 data, what is the number of classes of data that
can be formed?

answer : assumed that k = 7, then 27 = 128 < 180. Assumed that k = 8, then 28 = 256 > 180. So
that the number of classes are 8 class

Data Interval on Frequency Distribution. How to determine width or interval in the frequency
distribution table. The formula is found by:

𝑯−𝑳
𝒊=
𝑲

Where:
I is the interval of class, Rounding up with a multiple of 10,100, 1000 ect.
H is highest value
L is lowest value

Example:

What is the width of the data interval if the lowest data as \$ 294, and the highest data \$ 3,292 and
the data class is 8?

𝐻−𝐿 \$3.292−\$294
Answer: Interval data = 𝑖 = = = \$400
𝐾 8
Graph of a Frequency Distribution, for Quantitative Data

Histogram for a frequency distribution based on quantitative data is very similar to the bar chart
showing the distribution of qualitative data. The classes are marked on the horizontal axis and the
class frequencies on the vertical axis. The class frequencies are represented by the heights of the
bars.

Frequency Polygon is a frequency polygon also shows the shape of a distribution and is similar
to a histogram. It consists of line segments connecting the points formed by the intersections of
the class midpoints and the class frequencies.

Cumulative Frequency Distribution shows the number or percent of observations below given
value.
Exercise:

Answer: