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THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR

YANGON CITY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (YCDC)

PREPARATORY SURVEY
FOR
GREATER YANGON
WATER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT
(PHASE II)

SUMMARY

FEBRUARY 2017

JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY


TEC INTERNATIONAL CO., LTD.
NIPPON KOEI CO., LTD.
NJS CONSULTANTS CO., LTD.

1R

JR

17- 027
THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR
YANGON CITY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (YCDC)

PREPARATORY SURVEY
FOR
GREATER YANGON
WATER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT
(PHASE II)

SUMMARY

FEBRUARY 2017

JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY


TEC INTERNATIONAL CO., LTD.
NIPPON KOEI CO., LTD.
NJS CONSULTANTS CO., LTD.
Foreign Exchange Rate

1 USD = 109.2 JPY


1 USD = 1183.0 Kyat
1 Kyat = 0.0923 JPY
(As of July 2016)
Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

Proposed site for Intake


facility

Location Map

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

Phase 1 Feasibility Study:


Target Zone 7 and 8

Phase 2 Feasibility Study:


Target Zone 1 and 9

Map of 33 townships in YCDC Area and 10 Water Supply Zones

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR GREATER YANGON WATER SUPPLY


IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (PHASE2)

Location Map
Map of 33 townships in YCDC Area and 10 Water Supply Zones
Table of Contents
List of Tables/ Figures
List of Abbreviations
Abbreviation for The Relevant Studies
Unit

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 1


1.1 Outline of Phase 2 Project......................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Outline of This Study ................................................................................................................ 1

CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF YANGON CITY............................................................. 3

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF MASTER PLAN .................................................................................. 4


3.1 Review of Planning Framework ............................................................................................... 4
3.2 Revised Supply Capacity Development.................................................................................... 5
3.3 Water Allocation to 10 Zones.................................................................................................... 6
3.4 Revised Main Water Supply Facilities ...................................................................................... 7

CHAPTER 4 WATER TREATMENT PLANT .............................................................................. 10


4.1 Appropriateness of The Site Location .................................................................................... 10
4.2 Water Quality and Treatment Process ..................................................................................... 10
4.3 Project Sites of WTP............................................................................................................... 12
4.4 Planning of Intake Facility ...................................................................................................... 13
4.5 Planning of Kokkowa WTP .................................................................................................... 14

CHAPTER 5 TRANSMISSION FACILITY .................................................................................. 22


5.2 Summary of Transmission Facilities for Zone 9 ..................................................................... 23
5.3 Summary of Transmission Facilities for Zone 1 ..................................................................... 23

CHAPTER 6 DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES OF ZONE 9 .......................................................... 28

CHAPTER 7 DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES OF ZONE 1 .......................................................... 31

CHAPTER 8 OPERATION, MANAGEMENT AND CAPACITY .............................................. 35

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

8.1 Current Challenges to Existing Facilities ............................................................................... 35


8.2 Organization Structure for Maintenance ................................................................................. 35
8.3 Technical Assistance by the JICA Technical Assistance Project and by this Project .............. 35

CHAPTER 9 IMPLEMENTATION SCHEME OF THE PROJECT .......................................... 36


9.1 Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project ......................................................................................... 36
9.2 Preparation of Implementation Schedule ................................................................................ 40
9.3 Organizational Structure for Implementing The Project ......................................................... 40

CHAPTER 10 FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ..................................................... 43

CHAPTER 11 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................... 44


11.1 Environmental and Social Condition ...................................................................................... 44
11.2 Land Acquisition and Resettlement Issue ............................................................................... 44
11.3 Stakeholder Meetings for WTP Site ....................................................................................... 45
11.4 Social and Economic Interview Survey on the Proposed Alignment of Transmission
Pipeline along the Route No. 5 .............................................................................................. 45

CHAPTER 12 PROJECT EFFECTS ............................................................................................ 47


12.1 Quantitative Effects ................................................................................................................ 47
12.2 Qualitative Effects .................................................................................................................. 48

CHAPTER 13 RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................... 50

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3-1 Revised Water Demand and Service Level Targets for Yangon City ............................4
Table 3-2 Water Demand for Yangon City as per 2014 JICA Water MP (reference) ....................4
Table 3-3 Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City under This Study ......................5
Table 4-1 Target Water Quality after Treatment with Reference to Other Standards..................10
Table 9-1 Detailed Project Scope of Phase 2 Project ..................................................................37
Table 9-2 Roles and Responsibilities of Project Organizations ..................................................41
Table 12-1 Evaluation and Performance Indicators ....................................................................47
Table 12-2 Monitoring of Operation and Effect Indicators .........................................................48

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3-1 Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City.................................................6


Figure 3-2 Revised Water Supply System (2025) for This Project ...............................................8
Figure 3-3 Revised Water Supply System (2040) for This Project ...............................................9
Figure 4-1 Proposed Water Treatment Process ...........................................................................12
Figure 4-2 Land Acquisition Status of YCDC as of 31 July 2016 ..............................................12
Figure 4-3 Setting of Intake Location under Consideration ........................................................13
Figure 4-4 Proposed Layout of WTP (for 140 MGD) .................................................................15
Figure 4-5 Proposed Layout of WTP (1st Stage of 60 MGD)......................................................15
Figure 4-6 Layout Plan (1/2) .......................................................................................................17
Figure 4-7 Layout Plan (2/2) .......................................................................................................18
Figure 4-8 Water Level Chart......................................................................................................19
Figure 4-9 Flow Sheet (Intake) ...................................................................................................20
Figure 4-10 Flow Sheet (WTP) ...................................................................................................21
Figure 5-1 Stepwise Transmission Plan to Zone 9 SR/RPS ........................................................22
Figure 5-2 Layoutplan of Zone 9 SR and Relay Pump Station ...................................................24
Figure 5-3 Index MAP (Htantabin and Hlaing Tharyar TS) .......................................................25
Figure 5-4 Hlaing River Crossing Plan and Longitudinal Section ..............................................26
Figure 5-5 Index MAP (Yangon City).........................................................................................27
Figure 6-1 Distribution Main Pipe for Zone 9 in 2025 ...............................................................29
Figure 6-2 Distribution Pipe with DMA for Zone 9....................................................................30
Figure 7-1 Distribution Pipe with DMA for Zone 1....................................................................31
Figure 7-2 Distribution Main Pipes for Low Subzone by Gravity System from Kokine SR
(upper figure) and for High subzone by Pump System from Central SR (lower
figure)...................................................................................................................... 32
Figure 7-3 Layout Plan of Kokine SR.........................................................................................33
Figure 7-4 Layout Plan of Central SR.........................................................................................34
Figure 9-1 Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project ............................................................................37
Figure 9-2 Proposed Organizational Arrangement for Project Implementation .........................41
Figure 10-1 Financing Structure of JICA ODA Loan .................................................................43
Figure 10-2 Case of Grant Subsidy from Union Government ....................................................43

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ACH Aluminum Chlorohydrate
CIP Cast Iron Pipe
DCIP Ductile Cast Iron Pipe
DMA District Metered Area
EDWS Engineering Department (Water & Sanitation)
EHS Environmental, Health and Safety
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EIRR Economic Internal Rate of Return
FIRR Financial Internal Rate of Return
FS Feasibility Study
GIS Geographical Information System
HDPE High-Density Polyethylene
HHWL Highest High Water Level
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HWL High Water Level
IEE Initial Environmental Examination
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
JPY Japanese Yen
Kyat Myanmar Kyat
L/A Loan Agreement
LLWL Lowest Low Water Level
LPCD (or lpcd) Liters Per Capita per Day
LWL Low Water Level
MG Million Gallons
MGD Million Gallons per Day
MoAI Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation
MP Master Plan
MS Mild Steel Pipe
MVA Megavolt-Ampere
N/A Not Available
NRW Non Revenue Water
NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Unit
ODA Official Development Assistance
O&M Operation & Maintenance
PCP Prestressed Concrete Pipe
PS Pumping Station
RPS Relay Pumping Station
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SHM StakeHolder Meeting
SR Service Reservoir
US$, USD United States Dollars
VFD Variable Frequency Drive
WHO World Health Organization
WTP Water Treatment Pant
YCDC Yangon City Development Committee
YRG Yangon Region Government

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

ABBREVIATION FOR THE RELEVANT STUDIES


The Project for the Improvement of Water Supply, Sewerage and 2014 JICA Water MP or
Drainage System in Yangon City (JICA) Phase 1 FS
Greater Yangon Water Supply Improvement Project (Phase 1) Phase 1 Project
The Project for Urgent Improvement of Water Supply System in
Japanese Grant Aid Project
Yangon City
Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
This Study
Improvement Project (Phase 2)
Greater Yangon Water Supply Improvement Project (Phase 2) This Project

UNIT

Area
1 Acre = 4046.86 m2 (square meter) = 0.404686 ha (hectare)

Length
1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m (meter)
1 mi (mile) = 1.61 km (kilometer)

Volume
1 Gallon (imperial gallon) = 0.004546 m3 (cubic meter) = 4.546 l (liter)
1 MG (million imperial gallon) = 4546 m3 (cubic meter)

Pressure
1 MPa (Mega Pascal) = 10 bar ≒ 100 mAq as water head

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Outline of Phase 2 Project

(1) Objectives
The project aims at improving water supply services to meet the increasing water demand by using
raw water from the Kokkowa River and constructing a new WTP and construction and rehabilitation
of associated transmission and distribution facilities, which in turn will contribute the improvement of
living environment and economic development of Yangon City.

(2) Implementing Organization


Engineering Department (Water and Sanitation), Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC)

(3) Assistance Activities Related to The Japanese Project


・ Japanese ODA Loans (Japanese ODA-loan) for “Greater Yangon Water Supply Improvement
Project (Phase-1)”
・ Japanese Technical Cooperation for “The Project for Improvement of Water Supply
Management of YCDC”
・ Advisor on Water Supply and Sanitation Improvement in Yangon City

1.2 Outline of This Study

(1) Study Objectives


JICA study team is to firstly study and analyze the background, objectives and scope of the Project to
decide whether the Project is necessary or not. If the Project is confirmed necessary, JICA study team
is to study on appraisal items required for implementing the Project under the ODA loan project, such
as objectives, scope, cost, implementation schedule, implementation method (procurement and
construction), implementing organization, operation and maintenance organization, environmental and
social considerations, and so on. However, the Study itself does not mean that JICA promises ODA
loan to Myanmar counterpart.

(2) Study Method and Schedule


“The project for the improvement of water supply, sewerage and drainage system in Yangon city” was
conducted from 2012 to 2014 by JICA. It includes the preparation of water supply MP (2014 JICA
Water MP) and feasibility study of Zone 1. In this study, JICA study team has reviewed the MP and
updated in terms of future population, reflecting the 2014 census to confirm future water demand and
water balance in Yangon. Based on the updated demand, facility plan of Zones 1 and 9 was formulated
and compiled as Interim Report 1 (August 2015) and Interim Report 2 (February 2016). Considering
the comments in the Interim Reports and outcome of financial analysis, Draft Final Report was

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

prepared and submitted (April 2016). Subsequently, the Final Report was prepared and submitted
(February 2017) based on result of all the study outcomes and considering comments of counterpart on
the Draft Final Report.

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF YANGON CITY

(1) Topography
Yangon city is situated at 34 km inland from the mouth of the Yangon River which traverses parts of
the Ayeyarwady delta. The relief of the city varies from flat plains to lowland hills in the central part.
Flat plains are extensive and occur mostly in the eastern and western parts as wide flat bottoms along
the rivers. These flat lands have elevation between about 3m (10ft) to 6m (20ft) above mean sea level.

Yangon city has, in the center, lowland hills commonly known as the faulty zone ponds with artificial
dams namely Kandawgyi Lake, Inya Lake, Hlawga Reservoir, Gyobyu Reservoir and Phugyi
Reservoir which used to be or are main sources of water supply system for YCDC. There are three
service reservoirs are located on the hills. A long and narrow spur of Pegu Yomas in the central area
runs almost in N-S direction with an average height of 30 m (100 ft) and slopes gradually into flat
plains towards east and west.

(2) Climate
Yangon has a tropical monsoon climate which consists of three seasons as listed below. It has an
annual rainfall of 2,700 mm, annual evaporation of 1,347 mm, average temperature of 27.4 oC,
maximum mean temperature of 33 oC, and minimum mean temperature of 21.8 oC.
- Summer season: March–mid May
- Rainy season: Mid May–October
- Dry season: October–February

(3) Rainfall
The annual mean rainfall is 2,700 mm. About 95% of the total annual rainfall occurs during the rainy
season from May to October based on data of 2001 to 2008 in Yangon (Kaba Aye).

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF MASTER PLAN

3.1 Review of Planning Framework

The outline of the 2014 JICA Water MP was reviewed. The population data of 2011 used in the MP
was estimated and not reliable. Now the reliable data of 2014 census data, is available and the study
team compared the census data with the data used in the MP in order to confirm whether the planning
framework is still valid or need to be modified. After the review, the study team has confirmed that the
framework is still valid with some minor modifications.

After the confirmation, water allocation up to 2040 (target year of the MP) is revised. The revised
water allocation is almost the same as in the MP with some numbers changed and the study team has
confirmed on the necessity of the 60 MGD Kokkowa system till 2025, target year of this study.

Table 3-1 Revised Water Demand and Service Level Targets for Yangon City
Item Unit/ Year 2014 2025 2040
Population 1,000 person 5,211 6,464 8,520
Served Population 1,000 person 1,845 3,618 6,661
Water Supply Coverage Ratio % 35 56 78
Unit Consumption (Domestic) City/suburbs* Lpcd 111/69 150/100 200/150
Unit Consumption (Non-domestic) Lpcd 74/46 100/67 133/100
City/suburbs *
Leakage Ratio % 50 25 10
Daily Average Water Demand 1,000 m3/day 643 1,072 2,174
Daily Maximum Water Demand 1,000 m3/day 708 1,179 2,391
Daily Average Water Demand MGD 142 237 477
Daily Maximum Water Demand MGD 156 258 525
Water Pressure MPa 0.075 More than 0.15Mpa
Supply Duration (average) Hour 8 24
Not
Water Quality - Drinkable
drinkable
Note: * The numbers in the Right are applied to South of CBD and New Suburbs Zone, and in the Left are for
other area.
Source: JICA Study Team

Table 3-2 Water Demand for Yangon City as per 2014 JICA Water MP (reference)
Item Year 2011 2025 2040
Population 1,000 person 5,142 6,464 8,520
Served Population 1,000 person 1,934 3,764 6,810
Water Supply Coverage Ratio % 38 58 80
Unit Consumption (Domestic) * Lpcd 95 150/100 200/150
Unit Consumption (Non-domestic) Lpcd 63 100/67 133/100
City/suburbs *
Leakage Ratio % 50 25 10
Daily Average Water Demand 1,000 m3/day 612 1,126 2,243
Daily Maximum Water Demand 1,000 m3/day 673 1,238 2,467
Daily Average Water Demand MGD 135 248 493
Daily Maximum Water Demand MGD 148 272 543

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

Item Year 2011 2025 2040


Water Pressure MPa 0.075 More than 0.15Mpa
Supply Duration (average) Hour 8 24
Not
Water Quality - Drinkable
drinkable
Note: * The numbers in the Right are applied to South of CBD and New Suburbs Zone, and in the Left are for
other area.
Source: 2014-JICA Water MP

3.2 Revised Supply Capacity Development

(1) Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City


Although the Kokkowa River and the Toe River have been selected as additional water sources to
meet the demand after 2025 in the 2014 JICA Water MP, YCDC has identified the Pan Hlaing River as
another water source after the MP study. Considering the new water source of Pan Hlaing, water
development scenario proposed in the MP is revised in this Study as below.

Table 3-3 Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City under This Study
(Unit: MGD)
Year 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
Daily Maximum Demand 156 199 258 334 422 525
Water Source
(Reservoir (Dam) System)
Gyobyu Reservoir 27 27 27 27 27 27
Phugyi Reservoir 54 54 54 54 54 54
Hlawga Reservoir 14 14 14 14 14 14
Ngamoeyeik Reservoir 90 90 90 90 90 90
Wells 8 8 0 0 0 0
Lagunbyin Reservoir* - 30 30 30 30 30
Sub-total (1) 193 223 215 215 215 215
(River System)
Kokkowa Ph 1 - - 60 60 60 60
Pan Hlaing Ph 1 - - - 60 60 60
Kokkowa Ph 2 or Pan Hlaing Ph 2 -
- - - 100 190
or Toe
Sub-total (2) - - 60 120 220 310
Water Source Total 193 223 275 335 435 525
Balance (Supply – Demand) +37 +24 +17 +1 +13 0
Note: * Excluding 10 MGD capacity for Thilawa SEZ,
Source: JICA Study Team

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

600
Water Demand 525
Water Demand and Source Development (MGD)

500
422
190 MGD
Kokkowa
400 Pan Hlaing
334 Toe
Pan Hlaing : 60 MGD
300 258

199 Kokkowa Phase1 : 60 MGD


200 Lagunpyin 30 MGD (Excluding 10 MGD for Thilawa SEZ)
148 156
Ngamoeyeik Phase2 : 45 MGD
Ngamoeyeik Phase1 : 45 MGD
100 Hlawga : 14 MGD
Phugyi : 54 MGD
Gyobyu : 27 MGD Tube wells : 0 MGD (Backup Source)
0 Tube wells : 8 MGD
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
Year
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 3-1 Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City

(2) Expansion Plan of Kokkowa WTP


The overall capacity in the plan of Kokkowa WTP will be set to be 140-180 MGD as it changes
depending on the amount of water rights which can be obtained for Pan-Hlaing River. Based on a
series of discussions with EDWS, the following expansion plan is tentatively formulated for this
Study.
Kokkowa Stage 1: 60 MGD (Total 60 MGD)
Construction of Pan-Hlaing WTP: Total 60-100 MGD (Under negotiation with MoAI)
Kokkowa Stage 2: +40 MGD (Total 100 MGD)
Kokkowa Stage 3: +40 MGD (Total 140 MGD)
Kokkowa Stage 4: +40 MGD (Total 180 MGD) Will be decided depending on the capacity
of Pan-Hlaing WTP.

Although Stage 4 is indefinite, YCDC’s current targets are 140 MGD until Stage 3. The target of this
study is Stage 1 (60 MGD) from overall plan of Kokkowa WTP.

3.3 Water Allocation to 10 Zones

(1) Changed Points from the 2014 JICA Water MP


The areas in 10 zones proposed in the MP are not changed; however, locations of the two SRs for
Zones 2 and 3 are changed by EDWS considering SRs’ sites availability. Location of the Zone 2 SR is
shifted from the western side to the eastern side of the zone with name change from Tamway to
Thingangyun.

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

(2) Allocation to Zones 1 and 9 in 2025


Additional water source is required to meet water demand of Yangon city in 2025. According to the
proposed water balance, water from the Kokkowa supply system (60MGD) will cover all demand of
Zone 9 and partial demand of Zone 1 in 2025. Out of the 60 MGD treated water, 20 MGD water and
40 MGD water will be conveyed respectively to Zone 9 and Zone 1 separately. On the other hand, the
remaining 20 MGD water for Zone 1 will continue to be supplied via Yegu pumping station of the
existing reservoir system.

3.4 Revised Main Water Supply Facilities

The revised plans of facilities which will be built by 2025 and by 2040 are illustrated in Figures 3-2
and 3-3.

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-2 Revised Water Supply System (2025) for This Project

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-3 Revised Water Supply System (2040) for This Project

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

CHAPTER 4 WATER TREATMENT PLANT

4.1 Appropriateness of The Site Location

The Kokkowa WTP site is selected based on following considerations.

Since there is no appropriate place for development of dam as water source, River source
needs to be developed newly for Yangon.
High priority project within the proposed new resource developments
The raw water quality near intake point must satisfy standards in terms of salt concentration.
Stabilization of the River Course
Downstream Water User
Availability of large land area in the Yangon region.
Location has good access using the Route No. 5.
Flood Protection

The considered location is one of the best options, and is determined to be appropriate in consideration
of the technical viewpoint and O&M. Consequently, it is judged that the selected site is the most
appropriate one.

4.2 Water Quality and Treatment Process

(1) Drinking Water Quality Standard


The target treated water quality is set as the same as in the 2014 JICA Water MP, considering standards
in Myanmar and WHO.

Table 4-1 Target Water Quality after Treatment with Reference to Other Standards
Parameters Allowable Value WHO standards Myanmar standards
pH 6.5 – 8.5 N/A 6.5 – 8.5
Taste Foul smell and taste are not detected Acceptable Acceptable
Odor Foul smell and taste are not detected Acceptable Acceptable
Color 5 true color units 15 true color units 15 true color units
5 NTU (1 NTU for target turbidity of treated
Turbidity 1 NTU for target 5 NTU
water in WTP)
Standard plate
< 100CFU/mL N/A N/A
count
Fecal
Not to be detected Not to be detected 0
coliforms
To be detected (at service tap by direct supply
and before storage tank of customer)
Residual
The residual chlorine at the exit of WTP shall < 5.0 mg/L N/A
chlorine
be set separately, considering the travel time to
the end of the service area.
Zinc (Zn) < 1.0 mg/L N/A < 3.0 mg/L
Aluminum < 0.2 mg/L N/A < 0.2 mg/L

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

Parameters Allowable Value WHO standards Myanmar standards


(Al)
Iron (Fe) < 0.3 mg/L N/A < 1.0 mg/L
Copper (Cu) < 1.0 mg/L < 2.0 mg/L < 2.0 mg/L
Manganese
< 0.05 mg/L < 0.4 mg/L < 0.4 mg/L
(Mn)
Hardness < 100 mg/L N/A < 500 mg/L
Chloride ion < 200 mg/L N/A < 250 mg/L
Sulfide < 200 mg/L N/A < 250 mg/L
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP, WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality, fourth edition and National drinking water quality
standards Myanmar (September 2014)

(2) Raw Water Quality


EDWS’s laboratory has started water quality tests of the Kokkowa River since May 2015. Variation in
average turbidity is 517 NTU in rainy season and 150 NTU in dry season based on combined results of
these tests, Phase 1 study and other F/S(s). The following salient features are observed in terms of
water quality of Kokkowa River.
In general, high level of Turbidity, Color and Iron are observed.
These parameters generally increase during rainy seasons.

(3) Sedimentation Characteristics


The study team investigated sedimentation characteristic of Kokkowa River water. The water sample
was filled in measuring cylinder, and turbidity of surface water was measured at specified intervals of
settling in rainy season (May – October, 2015) and in dry season (November, 2015- April, 2016).
Trend of turbidities indicates that average turbidity reaches a constant level after 12 hours of settling.
On the other hand, the turbidity of river water exceeding 1,000 NTU was observed during about ten
(10) days when the long duration rain continued during the end of July to early August 2015. In case
of such high level of turbidity, just after settlement of 36 hours the turbidity reduces to less than 100
NTU, and it attains steady value of nearly 50 NTU after 48 hours of settlement. Therefore, the team
proposes that size of pre-sedimentation pond should be equivalent to 48 hours of storage volume based
on these results.

(4) Water Treatment Process


The main aim of water treatment is to reduce turbidity, color, iron and manganese to acceptable levels.
High turbidity, color, iron and manganese concentration can be removed by process of
coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration. Therefore, conventional treatment process is
applicable considering raw water quality of Kokkowa River.

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

Pre- Chemical
chlorination Dosing Intermediate-
chlorination
M
Post-
chlorination
Leading Canal

Pre-sedimentation
Pond Receiving Rapid Flocculation Sedimentation Filter

Well Mixing Basin Basin

Basin Clear Water Transmission
Reservoir Pump
Intake Gate Lift Pump Wash Water Drainage Basin

Sludge Sludge Sun Drying


Basin Thickener Bed
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 4-1 Proposed Water Treatment Process

4.3 Project Sites of WTP

(1) Land Acquisition Status of YCDC


Existing situation of the land obtained by YCDC is as follows (as of July 2016). An illustration of the
acquisition of the Project sites that would be required for Project facilities is shown in the following
Figure. However, the acquired land is insufficient with 20 Acres for 60MGD of pre-sedimentation
pond with 48 hours retention time.
For Intake Facility : 16,187 m2 (4 Acre)
First obtained land for WTP : 137,593 m2 (34 Acre)
Additional obtained land for WTP : 31,379 m2 (7.754 Acre)
Total of obtained land by YCDC : 185,159 m2 (45.754 Acre)

Source: YCDC and edited by JICA Study Team


Figure 4-2 Land Acquisition Status of YCDC as of 31 July 2016

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

(2) Additional Land for Pre-sedimentation Pond


60MGD of pre-sedimentation pond with 48 hours retention time requires large areas of lands; however
that could be compensated by small amount of ACH dosing that has a high-cost. Therefore, the result,
land acquisition cost could be recovered in a short period of time. The cost comparison of
pre-sedimentation pond for 12 and 48 hours retention time is made. Pre-sedimentation pond with 48
hours can reduce the chemical cost of about 28.2 million USD in ten years. Therefore, the study team
proposed and agreed that size of pre-sedimentation pond should be equivalent to 48 hours of storage
volume based on the result of jar tests by YCDC (refer to Figure 4-5).

4.4 Planning of Intake Facility

(1) Intake Point/ Form of Leading Canal for WTP


The intake point is to be drawn directly from Kokkowa River based on discussion between MoAI,
YCDC and Study Team. The form of leading canal for WTP will be finally decided according to the
availability of land form which will be purchased under 2016/17 budget of YCDC.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4-3 Setting of Intake Location under Consideration

(2) Proposed Capacities of Intake


There exists the MOAI’s embankment along the Kokkowa River that is an important facility to protect
against flood water. Therefore, repeated construction of the intake facilities should be avoided and
one-time construction is proposed. Hence, intake facilities need to be constructed with 154 MGD (140
MGD x 110%) capacity which is the final capacity at this moment. It is considered that
pre-sedimentation pond and lift pumps of 66 MGD (60 MGD x 110%) be the candidate under this
plan.

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(3) Planning Policy of Intake Facility


The location of intake point and WTP in this project is close to the Kokkowa River. Since fluctuation
in water level of the river is large, fluctuation in pump head is also large. However, using the river
water level effectively as natural power at the time of high-water level in river, the pump head
becomes small and electric power cost can be reduced. Therefore, Kokkowa water is led to WTP by
gravity, and lift pumps are installed at the starting point of treatment process. In addition, policy of
intake planning is as follows.
Effective use of natural power sources
In order to avoid interruption in operation of WTP, intake gates are set below LLWL of the
Kokkowa River.
High turbidity in raw water is reduced using pre-sedimentation pond in order to reduce
consumption of chemical.
To use surface water with low turbidity (of pre-sedimentation pond) than using low layer water.

4.5 Planning of Kokkowa WTP

(1) Planning Policy of Kokkowa WTP


For planning of Kokkowa WTP, the following 5 targets are considered to be achieved and this WTP
can provide as a model in Myanmar.

Target- 1: Scalable System


A simple train system with easy extension: One train unit is planned from lift pump to clear
water tank, one train has the capacity of 20 MGD, and then, 7 trains will be installed to achieve
the planned capacity of 140 MGD finally.
Target- 2: Stable Supply
Secure stabilized amount of water from the river
Secure the process of sludge treatment to deal with large amount of mud
Raising up of WTP’s ground level as measure against flood and inundation
Target- 3: Water Quality Control
Process that can treat raw water having high turbidity
Water quality monitoring by introduction of automatic measuring equipment
Avoiding dangerous chemicals by using sodium hypochlorite for disinfection
Target- 4: Operation and Maintenance
Collection of data on flow rate in each treatment process by SCADA
Adjustable equipment of chemical injection considering the fluctuation in raw water quality
Target- 5: Environmental Consideration
Reduction of power consumption of pump by inverter control
Introduction of back-washing method for filters to reduce consumption of unnecessary pump
power

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(2) Layout Plan of Kokkowa WTP


As is proposed in the preceding section and as YCDC has agreed to acquire additional land in the
fiscal year 2016/17 to have 60 MGD of pre-sedimentation pond with 48 hours retention time, layout of
the WTP is planned for 60 MGD capacity. Firstly, layout of the 140 MGD WTP is considered and then,
layout of the 60 MGD WTP is proposed.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4-4 Proposed Layout of WTP (for 140 MGD)

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4-5 Proposed Layout of WTP (1st Stage of 60 MGD)

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(3) Proposed Facilities for WTP


The facilities of Intake/WTP are planned as listed in the Table 9-1.

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Layout Plan (1/2)
Figure 4-6
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Layout Plan (2/2)
Figure 4-7
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Water Level Chart
Figure 4-8
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Flow Sheet (Intake)
Figure 4-9
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Flow Sheet (WTP)
Figure 4-10
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CHAPTER 5 TRANSMISSION FACILITY


(1) Outline of Planning
This facility is planned to convey treated water from Kokkowa WTP to Zone 9 SR. From the WTP, all
treated water is planned to be conveyed to Zone 9 SR because of the geographical conditions;
therefore water which is to be conveyed to the Zones on the eastern side of the river passes through
Zone 9. The distance between WTP and Zones is far. As a result, Zone 9 SR is planned to perform both
as a service reservoir for Zone 9 and as a Relay PS (hereinafter referred to as “RPS”) to convey water
to other Zones.

Development of
Transmission Pipeline (60 MGD) Zone 9 Pump & Network
60 MGD WTP P P To Zone 9
SR/RPS
Area
P

To Zone 1
SR
Pumps and Pipelines
for Transmission
(i) Planned Water Supply in 2025 (For This Project)

Development of
Pump & Network
Transmission Pipeline (60 MGD) Zone 9 To Zone 9
60 MGD WTP P SR/RPS P
Area
P P
Additional Transmission Pipeline
Expanded WTP P To SRs in
Zone 1 +
Pumps and Pipelines Other Zones
for Transmission
(expansion)
(ii) Planned Water Supply in the Future
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 5-1 Stepwise Transmission Plan to Zone 9 SR/RPS

(2) Route and Laying Position of Transmission Pipeline


During the 60 MGD Kokkowa WTP development by 2025, following large diameter pipelines are
planned to be laid along the Route No. 5;
Transmission pipeline from the WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS (This Project)
Transmission pipeline from the Zone 9 SR/RPS to Zone 1 SRs (This Project)
Distribution main from Zone 9 SR to Zone 9 area (YCDC Project)

Since Route No. 5 is the only road connecting between the WTP and Zone 9 SR, pipelines mentioned
above are planned to be laid along the Route No. 5. The transmission facilities are planned as listed in
the Table 9-1. This facility is divided roughly into the following two based on functions.

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5.2 Summary of Transmission Facilities for Zone 9

This facility transmits all 60 MGD treated water from Kokkowa WTP to RPS. RPS is combined with
Zone 9 SR and constructed in the same site. The facilities are planned as listed in the Table 9-1.

5.3 Summary of Transmission Facilities for Zone 1

This facility transmits 40 MGD treated water from Relay Pump Station to existing Kokine SR for Low
subzone in Zone 1 by gravity. On the other hand, reservoir water of 22.1 MGD is transmitted from
existing Yegu Pump Station to Central SR reconstructed for High subzone in Zone1 by pumping. The
facilities are planned as listed in the Table 9-1.

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Layoutplan of Zone 9 SR and Relay Pump Station
Figure 5-2
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Index MAP (Htantabin and Hlaing Tharyar TS)
Figure 5-3
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Figure 5-4 Hlaing River Crossing Plan and Longitudinal Section
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Index MAP (Yangon City)
Figure 5-5
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CHAPTER 6 DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES OF ZONE 9

The daily maximum demand of 1 MGD will increase to 19 MGD by 2025 and to 49 MGD by 2040.
For equitable distribution of water, the entire area of Zone 9 is divided into 23 DMAs and 27 DMAs in
2025 and 2040 respectively. As a result of the hydraulic analysis, distribution main pipe network for
the demands of 2025 have been decided as given in the Figure 6-1, 6-2 and Table 9-1.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6-1 Distribution Main Pipe for Zone 9 in 2025

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6-2 Distribution Pipe with DMA for Zone 9

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CHAPTER 7 DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES OF ZONE 1

The daily maximum demand of 44 MGD in the Zone1 will increase to 54 MGD by 2025 and to 71
MGD by 2040. Distribution main facilities are planned for the demand in 2040 considering that it is
not easy to lay large diameter pipelines in densely populated city area with heavy traffic on roads. Two
SRs are planned in Zone 1; From Kokkowa system, 40 MGD of water is planned to be delivered to
existing Kokine SR to be distributed in Low subzone through gravity. On the other hand, water from
existing Yegu system is planned to be conveyed to Central SR to be distributed in High subzone. Zone
1 (Figure 7-1) has been divided into 37 DMAs (19 DMAs in Low subzone and 18 DMAs in High
subzone). The distribution facilities are planned as listed in the Table 9.1.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-1 Distribution Pipe with DMA for Zone 1

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-2 Distribution Main Pipes for Low Subzone by Gravity System from Kokine SR
(upper figure) and for High subzone by Pump System from Central SR (lower figure)

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Layout Plan of Kokine SR
Figure 7-3
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Layout Plan of Central SR
Figure 7-4
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CHAPTER 8 OPERATION, MANAGEMENT AND CAPACITY

8.1 Current Challenges to Existing Facilities

There are some challenges in the fields of operation and maintenance, equipment, quality control and
structure in the Nyaunghnapin WTP, maintenance and standardization of specification, manuals and
procedures on transmission and distribution pipes and water supply equipment, and customer
management.

8.2 Organization Structure for Maintenance

It is necessary to practice operation and maintenance methods of existing facilities and equipment by
their manuals and by suppliers’ demonstration for prolonging their lives.

Operation and maintenance methods in the Kokkowa WTP should be considered in reference to ones
in Japan because many kinds of mechanical and electrical equipment will be installed in the Kokkowa
WTP that will treat river water for the first time in Yangon. Some operation and maintenance manuals
are developed as reference for establishing the organization structure and preparing manuals for
Kokkowa system and for developing capacities of YCDC engineers.

It is also necessary to improve on the maintenance of pipes, meter reading, billing and water charge
collection. In addition, public relations and awareness activities should be implemented positively to
execute projects in good relationships with customers.

8.3 Technical Assistance by the JICA Technical Assistance Project and by this
Project

As of July 2016, the ongoing JICA technical assistance project includes capacity development of
YCDC for improvement of water utility management, NRW reduction and water quality management.

In this project, it is proposed that experts will be dispatched to assist design of distribution facility with
DMAs and procurement of SCADA in Zone 9 by YCDC own budget.

Moreover, Techniques of operation and maintenance such as information analysis and operation
manual improvement will also be transferred to YCDC by dispatching experts and by sharing
information about 60 MGD facilities on SCADA system with a Japanese local government and/or a
Japanese maintenance company in Japan online.

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CHAPTER 9 IMPLEMENTATION SCHEME OF THE PROJECT

9.1 Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project

The outline of the scope of works of Phase 2 project is summarized as below.

Candidate scopes of work under Japanese ODA loan


Scope 1: Construction of Kokkowa WTP (60 MGD)
Scope 2: Construction of transmission facilities from Kokkowa WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS (Zone
9 SR/RPS, transmission pipeline from WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS)
Scope 3: Construction of transmission facilities from Zone 9 SR/RPS to Zone 1 (transmission
pipeline from Zone 9 SR/RPS to Zone 1 and River crossing)
Scope 4: Modernization and restructuring of distribution facilities of Low subzone in Zone 1
(Repair of Kokine SR, distribution main pipes, distribution pipe network with 19 DMAs)
Scope 5: Modernization and restructuring of distribution facilities of High subzone in Zone 1
(Reconstruction of Central SR with PS, distribution main pipes, distribution pipe network with
18 DMAs)
Scope 6: Procurement of vehicles (for use during the detailed design and construction
supervision; eight (8) four-wheel drive vehicle)

Scopes of work under YCDC’s own budget


Scope 7: Landfill for WTP
Scope 8: Distribution facilities of Zone 9

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 9-1 Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project

The detailed project scope to be considered under Phase 2 project is given in the Table below.

Table 9-1 Detailed Project Scope of Phase 2 Project


Facility Name Quantity Capacity Type Remarks
Eligible
Scope 1: Construction of Kokkowa WTP
Leading Canal with River W 1500 mm x H 1500 mm of
Bank Protection, 1 Unit 140 MGD Square Gate with screen x 6 nos.
1 Intake Facilities
Surface Area: 100,000 m2
Pre-Sedimentation pond 1 Unit 60 MGD
Storage volume =812,000 m3
Lift Pump House (Civil
2a 1 Unit 60 MGD Auto Screen x 2 nos.
work)
Lift Pump House Pump Unit: 5 nos. 20 MGD x H
Double suction volute pump by
2b (Mechanical and (3 operation + 2 18m x Approx.
A VFD control
Electrical) stand-by) 300 kW
3 Receiving Well 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD
Rapid Mixing Basin 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD Flash mixer, Overflow weir
Horizontal and vertical zigzag
Flocculation Basin 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD
4 flow
Upflow type with tube settler
Sedimentation Basin 1 Unit (6 Basins) 60 MGD
and Mechanical sludge collector
5 Rapid Sand Filter 1 Unit (24 Filters) 60 MGD Self-backwashing type
6 Clear Water Tank 1 Unit (3 Lots) V=4125 m3 x3

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Facility Name Quantity Capacity Type Remarks


Lots
Chemical Dosing Liquid ACH, Liquid
7 1 Unit (3 Lots) 60 MGD
Facilities Hypochlorite
Transmission Pump
8a 1 Unit 60 MGD
Station (Civil work)
Transmission Pump Pump Unit: 4 nos. 20 MGD x H Double suction volute pump
8b (Mechanical and (3 operation + 1 38m x Approx. with Flywheel by ON-OFF
Electrical) stand-by) 720kW control
Wash Water Drainage
9 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD Discharge Pump x 9 nos.
Basin
Sludge Withdrawal Pump x 6
10 Sludge Basin 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD
nos.
11 Thickener 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD
12 Drying Bed 1 Unit (9 Basins) 60 MGD
Central Administration
Administration Facility,
Building, Laboratory, SCADA
Laboratory,
13 1 Unit 60 MGD Room, Warehouse, Road,
Accomodation Building
Lighting, Drainage, Fence,
for WTP staff, etc
Landscaping etc.
Sub Power Station
Diesel engine generator 6MVA,
14 Facilities, 1 Unit 60 MGD
built-in radiator
Generator System
15 SCADA System of WTP 1 Unit 60 MGD
Scope 2: Construction of Transmission Facilities from Kokkowa WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS
Diameter: 1600
B 1a Transmission Pipe Length: 21.4 km Pipe Material: DCIP and/or MS
mm
Zone9 SR including
Relay Tank (Civil work)
a 1 Unit 12.2 MGD
including Administration
Facility (Civil work)
Relay Pumps Station at
Pump Unit: 4 nos. 16.3 MGD x H
Zone9 SR/RPS Double suction volute pump
(3 operation + 1 87 m x Approx.
C (Mechanical and with Flywheel by VFD control
stand-by) 1250 kW
Electrical) for Zone1
b Sub Power Station
Diesel engine generator 9 MVA,
Facilities, 1 Unit
built-in radiator
Generator System
SCADA System of
1 Unit
Transmission Flow
Pump Unit: 2 nos. Capacity: 76 m3/
Double suction volute pump
Distribution Pumps (1 operation + 1 min x H 40 m x
with Flywheel by VFD control
Station for Zone 9 stand-by) Approx. 720 kW
Z 1
(Mechanical and Pump Unit: 2 nos. Capacity: 32 m3/
Double suction volute pump
Electrical) (1 operation + 1 min x H 40 m x
with Flywheel by VFD control
stand-by) Approx. 375 kW
Scope 3: Construction of Transmission Facilities from Zone 9 SR/RPS to Zone 1
Length: 16.4 km Dia. 1600 mm Pipe Material : DCIP and/or MS
1b Transmission Pipe
Length: 2.9 km Dia. 1400 mm Pipe Material : DCIP and/or MS
Shield Dia. 2400
B Transmission Pipe Under
mm
2 Crossing Hlaing River by Length: 0.6 km Pipe Material : DCIP and/or MS
Pipe Dia. 1600
shield method
mm

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Facility Name Quantity Capacity Type Remarks


Dia. 1400 mm x
1000mm,
Dia. 1050 mm x
Tentative Connection
1000mm,
pipe to Existing pipe by
3 4 locations Dia. 750 mm x
Non-stoppable Tapping
700mm,
method
and Dia. 700
mm Valve
Insertion
Scope 4: Modernization and Restructuring of Distribution Facilities of Zone 1 (Low subzone)
Repair of Kokine SR
including Installation
1 1 Unit 20 MGD
Infrow and Outflow
Valves
Pipe Material: DCIP and/or MS
Distribution Main Pipe
Dia. 300 ~2000 Pipe jacking method (Railway
2 (including Pipe Jacking Length: 38.5 km
mm crossing): 2 nos. ; Dia. 600 mm
method)
and Dia. 1200 mm
D
Distribution Pipe with Dia. 100 ~250 Pipe Material : HDPE and/or
Length: 218.3 km
DMA mm DCIP
Service Connection
103,200 nos.
3 Replacement
Customer Meter
Replacement & 103,200 nos.
Installation
4 SCADA System of DMA 19 nos.
Scope 5: Modernization and Restructuring of Distribution Facilities of Zone 1 (High subzone)
Reconstruction of Central
5a 1 Unit 8.3 MGD
SR (Civil work)
Pump Unit: 2 nos. Capacity: 67 m3/ Type: Double suction volute
Distribution Pumps for (1 operation + 1 min x H 42 m x pump with Flywheel by VFD
Zone 1 (High) stand-by) Approx. 660 kW control
5b
(Mechanical and Pump Unit: 2 nos. Capacity: 32 m3/ Type: Double suction volute
Electrical) (1 operation + 1 min x H 42 m x pump with Flywheel by VFD
stand-by) Approx. 375 kW control
Power Line and Sub
Diesel engine generator 4MVA,
6 Power Station Facilities, 1 Unit
built-in radiator
Generator
Dia. 200 ~1400
D 7 Distribution Main Pipe Length: 22.9 km Pipe Material : DCIP and/or MS
mm
Distribution Pipe with Dia. 100 ~250 Pipe Material : HDPE and/or
Length: 212.0 km
DMA mm DCIP
Service Connection
49,100 nos.
8 Replacement
Customer Meter
Replacement & 49,100 nos.
Installation
9 SCADA System of DMA 18 nos.
Replacement of Pump Capacity: 11
Pump Unit: 3 nos.
Equipment and Related MGD x H 53 m Type: Double suction volute
10 (2 operation + 1
Electrical Facilities at x Approx. 450 pump by ON-OFF control
stand-by)
Yegu Pump Station kW
Scope 6: Procurement of vehicles
Purchasing 4WD Used

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Facility Name Quantity Capacity Type Remarks


Car for Consulting
Service
Non Eligible
Scope 7: Landfill for WTP
Amount of earth
Landfill (Civil work) for
Y 1 fill soil: about
WTP
210,000 m3
Scope 8: Distribution Facilities of Zone 9
Dia. 300 ~2000 Pipe Material : HDPE, DCIP
2 Distribution Main Pipe Length: 43.2 km
mm and/or MS
Z Distribution Pipe with Dia. 100 ~300
3 Length: 636.9 km Pipe Material : HDPE
DMA mm
4 SCADA System of DMA 23 nos.
Source: JICA Study Team

9.2 Preparation of Implementation Schedule

If the Project is financed through Japanese ODA Loan, the Government of Myanmar must follow JICA
procurement guidelines for the selection of the consultants and the contractors to implement the
Project. Implementation of the project is estimated to require the duration of about 9.0 years in total
from the signing of L/A to taking into account of all the necessary steps.

The construction schedule is prepared for pipe works mainly depending on the procedure, work
volume and working party. Construction works might need to be suspended or cancelled/changed for
safety reasons especially for drainage of rain water inside trench in rainy season during May to
October. Construction works of 5 packages of construction are estimated to require about 5.3 years
from start to finish

9.3 Organizational Structure for Implementing The Project

An organizational structure for the Project consists of Project Coordination Committee (PCC) and
Project Management Unit (PMU).

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Table 9-2 Roles and Responsibilities of Project Organizations


Project organization Institutions responsible Role and responsibility
Project Coordination Committee: Regional government, Project coordination for planning and
PCC YCDC, Related ministries implementation
Project Management Unit: PMU EDWS Project management
Supervision
Monitoring and coordination
Allocation of budget
Source: JICA Study Team

Project Coordination Committee (PCC)

Regional Government [ YCDC ] Water & Sanitation,


Development affairs Committee Members office,
Budget & Account, Road &
MoF(Budget Bridge, Township Executive
Department),MOC office

Project Management
Unit (PMU)

Project Director
Deputy Project Director
Project Manager

Project Engineer Financial


(including Procurement) Manager

Accounting
staff

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 9-2 Proposed Organizational Arrangement for Project Implementation

(1) Project Coordination Committee (PCC)


PCC is a supreme organization related to project implementation. The committee meeting will be held
regularly, for instance quarterly in addition to the beginning and completion of the project. PCC shall
be co-chaired by YCDC. The main functions of PCC will be as follows:
Approving work plans and budgets for the project
Monitoring and reviewing progress of activities of various concerned agencies
Opening of regular meetings for committee
Coordinating stakeholders relevant to the project activities of other institutions, dispute
settlement, enhancing smooth project implementation
Monitoring and reviewing the activity progress by the relevant institutions
Identifying problems and bottlenecks in course of implementing various activities by the

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concerned agencies and suggest ways and means to solve the problems and bottlenecks
Identifying issues which need to be considered, discussed, and coordinated
Coordinating follow-up actions

(2) Project Management Unit (PMU)


PMU shall be established within EDWS and ad-hoc entity to be established for the project
implementation. PMU is aimed at enhancing management and monitoring of the project, and be an
independent organization to implement the specified project during the limited period. PMU shall be
tasked with managing and monitoring the day-to-day activities of the project at the field level. The
Project Director has the responsibility and authority for overall activities including coordination
between sections and with construction companies to ensure the progress of the project within the
implementation period. The main functions are listed as follows.
To be comprehensively responsible for project implementation in accordance with the loan
contract
To coordinate and manage the Project activities
To establish a monitoring and evaluation system that would track the progress of the Project
Supervising and monitoring the day-to-day project activities
Preparing project implementation and work plan and reporting the progress of the project with
the assistance of the consultant
Arranging and supervising construction works
Arranging procurement of goods, works and services for the project
Receiving and distributing funds for project activities
Maintaining accounts of the project and arrange audit

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CHAPTER 10 FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

Since the actual water tariff level applied at the base case scenario of the financial analysis is set too
low to even recover the recurrent O&M cost besides the massive initial investment, the projected
financial cash flow is kept negative over almost the whole project lifetime. The financial internal rate
of return (FIRR) is estimated at minus 18.7 % which indicates that the project is not financially viable.
The economic internal rate of return (EIRR) is estimated at 14.3 % thus the project is deemed
economically feasible.

The financial challenge faced by the project is that funding requirement is very large and the YCDC’s
water supply service is not profitable by nature. In order to ensure financial soundness of YCDC, it is
required to increase water tariff to cover O&M cost, initial investment and financial cost that derives
from the ODA loan on-lending through the central government. According to the financial projection
results, water tariff increase should by over 50 % in 2019 and 2023 in 4 scenarios. In order to ease the
drastic hike in water tariff, it is necessary that the central government provides grant subsidy to YCDC
to cover a part of the own-fund portion of initial investment and repayment obligation of subsidiary
loan originated from the JICA ODA loan proceeds (See figures below).

ODA Subsidiary YCDC Own Fund


Loan Loan + Loan Proceeds
Union
JICA
Government
YCDC Project
Loan Loan
Repayment Repayment
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 10-1 Financing Structure of JICA ODA Loan

Grant Subsidy
ODA (Own Fund Portion)
Loan
Union
JICA
Government
YCDC Project
Loan
Repayment Grant Subsidy
(ODA Loan Portion)
Source: JICA Study Team

Figure 10-2 Case of Grant Subsidy from Union Government

On the assumption of 3 to 4 % of household income affordability criteria, the increased water tariff
level in all the four cases are lower than 3 %, indicating the required tariff increase is considered
affordable by the domestic customers.

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CHAPTER 11 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS

11.1 Environmental and Social Condition

Environmental Conservation Law (2012) and Environmental Conservation Rules (2014) have been
instituted in Myanmar and the EIA Procedure was published in January 2016. In the EIA Procedure,
water supply project with surface water is not included in the list of project requiring IEE/EIA
procedure.

During the construction and operation period, the appropriate management shall be executed for
environmental conservation for air quality, water quality, waste disposal, and noise following WHO,
EHS, and Myanmar guidelines. Also, the vulnerability to climate change caused by flood and drought
is not expected by the considerable facility design. There is no cultural heritage building, endangered
species, protected area, and traditional settlement of indigenous ethnic minority groups in the proposed
construction site and project affected area. The project will contribute to the encouragement of gender
equality and be managed with gender consideration and HIV prevention measures.

11.2 Land Acquisition and Resettlement Issue

Currently, there is no law in Myanmar, comprehensively stipulating on land acquisition and


resettlement matters. The Land Acquisition Act, enacted in 1894, is still serves as the legal basis for
land acquisition. Resettlement related issues are described in some existing laws and regulations.
However, in most of cases, details such as procedures and conditions related to resettlement issues are
yet to be determined. Therefore, the land acquisition and resettlement procedure in this project will be
taken following JICA Guidelines and World Bank OP 4.12. Responsible organization will be EDWS
chaired by the Chief Engineer and the resource of compensation, income restoration program and
related operation will be included in the budget of Engineering Department.

(1) The land acquisitions of 42.68 Acre of construction site for WTP were completed in 2015 for
which involuntary resettlement were not required. In addition, land acquisition procedures of
YCDC for the additional land of 20 Acre for the pre-sedimentation pond were initiated by
organizing a procurement committee and a management committee in January of 2017. All 20
Acres are the paddy fields and settlement of households are not identified in. Therefore involuntary
resettlement will be not be required by the acquisition.

(2) Alternatives of transmission pipe laying location are studied and recommended from the technical,
operational, environmental and social viewpoints in this Study. As of January 2017, 41 illegal
occupancies were scattered along the proposed alignment of transmission pipeline. However, a
relocation plan of illegal households along the Route No. 5 by the Yangon region government has
not announced yet.

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(3) Departure shaft and working space for river crossing of transmission pipe will be conducted in
MoAI’s land, and YCDC is waiting for the permission letter for tentative occupation.

(4) The construction sites for service reservoirs are located in YCDC properties. Therefore, land
acquisition and involuntary resettlement will not be required.

(5) The distribution pipes will be installed under the existing city roads owned by YCDC. Therefore,
land acquisition and involuntary resettlement will not be required.

11.3 Stakeholder Meetings for WTP Site

(1) Explanatory Meeting held in April 2015


On 11th and 12th April 2015, an explanatory meeting of Kokkowa WTP construction was held in the
adjacent Anyasu Village. The explanatory meeting was held based on the local traditional custom
including some religious ceremony for praying the success of the Project by inviting local high monks
as well as local people.

(2) Stakeholder Meeting for the Project held in January 2017


On 11th January 2017, a stakeholder meeting of the Project was held by YCDC for explaining the
project components including possible environmental social impacts with proposed countermeasures,
additional land acquisition of 20 Acres for the WTP, JICA policy of land acquisitions with entitlements,
cut-off date and so on. In the meeting, negative opinions and complaints were not expressed by the
participants.

11.4 Social and Economic Interview Survey on the Proposed Alignment of


Transmission Pipeline along the Route No. 5

In 16th and 17th of January 2017, a social and economic interview survey for the illegal occupancies on
the proposed alignment of transmission pipeline along the Route No. 5 was conducted as follows.
As the results of the survey, a total of 41 illegal occupancies were identified around the proposed
alignment of transmission pipeline along the Route No.5, and then six (6) illegal occupancies
(houses/shops) and one (1) local religious facility were situated on the proposed alignment.
At the opening of the social and economic interviews, the following seven (7) points were orally
explained to the illegal occupants by interviewers of JICA Study Team.
1. Explanation of the Project and construction of the transmission pipeline on Right of Way of
the Route No. 5
2. Necessity of involuntary resettlement for the Project and the legal status of the occupation
3. Possible environment and social impacts by the project and mitigation measures
4. Explanation on Project policy and the Entitlements of the involuntary resettlement for the

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

illegal occupation
5. Explanation on the setting up of cut-off date
6. Possible resettlement schedule
7. Contact persons of YCDC for the resettlement
Basically all of the occupancies were willing to implement this Project.

46
Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

CHAPTER 12 PROJECT EFFECTS

12.1 Quantitative Effects

The direct effects by implementation of Phase 2 project, same as Phase 1 project, are expected as listed
below.
1. The service population with treated safe water will be increased.
2. The water consumption per capita will be increased.
3. The quality of supplied water will be improved.
4. The duration of water supply will be increased.

The following Table shows the proposed evaluation and performance indicators and their target values
for the project.

Table 12-1 Evaluation and Performance Indicators


Original Target
Indicator
(Yr 2015) (Yr 2026)
Indicators for Zone 1 and Zone 9
Operation Indicator
Served Population (thousand) 546 1,040
- Zone 1 (Low subzone) 369 457
- Zone 1 (High subzone) 142 219
- Zone 9 36 364
Maximum Amount of Water Supply (MGD) 46 75
- Zone 1 (Low subzone) 32 37
- Zone 1 (High subzone) 12 18
- Zone 9 2 20
Rate of Facility Utilization (%) (Kokkowa WTP ) *1 - 95
Water Pressure in Distribution Network (MPa) *2*3 0.075 0.15
Non-revenue Water Ratio (%) *2*4 66 20
Rate of Continuous Dosing of Disinfection Facility (%) *3 0 100
Minimum Amount of Residual Chlorine (mg/L) *3 0 0.1
Effect Indicator
Served Coverage Rate (%) 36 63
Indicators for Yangon City (for reference)
Served Population (thousand) 1,991 3,789
Maximum Amount of Water Supply (MGD) 162 274
Served Coverage Rate (%) 37 58
Notes:
*1: Rate of Facility Utilization = Max Amount of Water Supply in Zone 1 (Low) and Zone 9 / Capacity of Kokkowa WTP
*2: Base value is set from the average value of Yangon city in 2011
*3: Target value is set from the target service level of 2014 Water MP
*4: Target value is set same as the average value of other cities in the Southeast Asian countries.
Others: Values are set from the water demand of this Study (2016 Phase 2 FS)
2 years after the completion of the implementation works as Yr 2024
Source: JICA Study Team

Monitoring of projects effects are proposed to be implemented as per the following Table.

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

Table 12-2 Monitoring of Operation and Effect Indicators


Indicator for Zone 1 In charge of Monitoring
Means of Verification
and Zone9 monitoring Frequency
Calculation formula = number of water supply
Served Population YCDC Yearly
connections × average number members per household
Maximum amount Amount of distributed water from each service
YCDC Yearly
of water supply reservoir (Zone 9, Kokine and Central SR)
Rate of facility
Calculation formula = Volume of water produced
utilization of YCDC Yearly
annually at Kokkowa WTP / 365 days / WTP capacity
Kokkowa WTP
Measurement at location where the pressure is expected
Water pressure in to be the lowest among the distribution pipe network
YCDC Quarterly
distribution network (the end of distribution pipe network or the location
where the altitude is high)
Calculation formula = Amount of water consumed
NRW ratio YCDC annually by users / Amount of water distributed Yearly
annually (from Zone 9, Kokine and Central SR)
Rate of continuous
dosing of YCDC Measured at Kokkowa WTP Quarterly
disinfection
Measured at the location where residual chlorine
Free residual
concentration is expected to be the lowest in
chlorine YCDC Quarterly
distribution network (the end of distribution pipe
concentration
network)
Calculation formula = Number of water supply
Served Coverage
YCDC connection / (population ÷ average number of Yearly
Rate
members per household)
Source: JICA Study Team

12.2 Qualitative Effects

Qualitative effects envisaged by the project implementation are as follows:

- Improvement of the living environment of Greater Yangon residents


Improvement in water supply conditions mentioned above shall contribute to reduction in
occurrence of water related diseases such as cholera, typhoid and diarrhea, and skin & eye
diseases and is expected to improve health conditions of the people, which will contribute to
reduction in medical expenditure of household.
The current cost for obtaining water will be reduced and the household expenditure on water
will be reduced, which will indirectly contribute to improvement in the livelihood of the
people.
Water use will be more convenient, i.e., whenever required, water will be supplied.
Water fetching time and efforts will be reduced and mitigated. As a result, working and
education opportunity for women and children will be enhanced.

- Establishment of an environment for investment through water supply in Greater Yangon


Working opportunities will be created during construction and operation & maintenance of

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

water supply facilities


It will contribute to the stabilization of people’s livelihood in the area and political stability.
The industry and business that are now affected by dirty water supply will be activated and
contribute to the development of the country.
Occurrence of land subsidence and salinization of ground water is expected to be reduced
due to reduction in groundwater withdrawal.

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) SUMMARY

CHAPTER 13 RECOMMENDATIONS

Major problems of water supply conditions are low service coverage, low water pressure and short
duration of water supply and undrinkable water supply. Major problems related to water supply
facilities are limited water production, old facilities, and absence of disinfection in water supply
system. Major problems related to management of water works include high NRW ratio and
inefficiency of business management basis for waterworks. To tackle these problems, the proposed
priority projects for infrastructure development and capacity building shall be implemented as soon as
possible as a first step.

In addition, the assistance to enhance the capacity of YCDC on waterworks management shall be
obtained from the countries with high technology and management skills such as Japan for effective
and quick transfer of technology and management skills. For this purpose, Phase 1 project, JICA
technical cooperation project and other capacity enhancement projects are being carried out in parallel
currently and are expected to be very beneficial for YCDC.

For long time, investment in infrastructure has been deferred and the service level of public water
supply is at low level. Therefore, development of water supply facilities to improve water supply
services requires input of a large amount of fund. To meet this requirement, the most favorable loan,
soft loan of donor at low interest rate, shall be utilized to reduce financial burden of YCDC, or the
country as a whole. However, due to the project’s massive investment requirement and low
profitability of water supply services sector, YCDC may need subsidy from Union Government as
grant assistance. In such case, both ODA loan obligation and own-fund portion (or either one) should
be borne by the Union Government.

In addition, to improve water supply services on sustainable basis through development of


infrastructure, it is inevitable to raise water tariff level and optimize the system to carry out operation
and maintenance without any subsidy. For this purpose, YCDC has to work with the public through
public awareness activities and consider poor people in tariff setting.

50
THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR
YANGON CITY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (YCDC)

PREPARATORY SURVEY
FOR
GREATER YANGON
WATER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT
(PHASE II)

FINAL REPORT

FEBRUARY 2017

JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY


TEC INTERNATIONAL CO., LTD.
NIPPON KOEI CO., LTD.
NJS CONSULTANTS CO., LTD.

1R

JR (先)
17- 030
THE REPUBLIC OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR
YANGON CITY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (YCDC)

PREPARATORY SURVEY
FOR
GREATER YANGON
WATER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENT PROJECT
(PHASE II)

FINAL REPORT

FEBRUARY 2017

JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY


TEC INTERNATIONAL CO., LTD.
NIPPON KOEI CO., LTD.
NJS CONSULTANTS CO., LTD.
Foreign Exchange Rate

1 USD = 109.2 JPY


1 USD = 1183.0 Kyat
1 Kyat = 0.0923 JPY
(As of July 2016)
Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) FINAL REPORT

Location Map

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) FINAL REPORT

Phase 1 Feasibility Study:


Target Zone 7 and 8

Phase 2 Feasibility Study:


Target Zone 1 and 9

Map of 33 townships in YCDC Area and 10 Water Supply Zones

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PREPARATORY SURVEY FOR GREATER YANGON WATER SUPPLY


IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (PHASE2)

Location Map
Map of 33 townships in YCDC Area and 10 Water Supply Zones
Table of Contents
List of Tables/ Figures
Appendices
List of Abbreviations
Abbreviation for The Relevant Studies
Unit

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................1-1


1.1 Background of The Study ......................................................................................................1-1
1.1.1 Water Supply Service .......................................................................................................1-1
1.1.2 Master Plan (MP) and Feasibility Study (FS)...................................................................1-2
1.1.3 Japanese ODA Loan Project (Phase 1) - Lagunbyin Water Supply System .....................1-2
1.1.4 Feasibility Studies Regarding Kokkowa Water Supply System .......................................1-4
1.2 Outline of Phase 2 Project......................................................................................................1-4
1.3 Outline of This Study .............................................................................................................1-5

CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF YANGON CITY..........................................................2-1


2.1 Natural Condition ..................................................................................................................2-1
2.1.1 Topography .......................................................................................................................2-1
2.1.2 Geology ............................................................................................................................2-2
2.1.3 Meteorology .....................................................................................................................2-2
2.1.4 Hydrology .........................................................................................................................2-3
2.1.5 Hydrogeology ...................................................................................................................2-6
2.2 Wastewater Management Services.........................................................................................2-6
2.2.1 Existing Wastewater Management Services .....................................................................2-6
2.2.2 Outline of Development Policies on The MP ...................................................................2-7
2.2.3 Priorities of Tasks To Be Implemented by YCDC ............................................................2-9
2.3 Current State of Poverty Group ...........................................................................................2-10

CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF MASTER PLAN ...............................................................................3-1


3.1 Outline of The Master Plan ....................................................................................................3-1
3.1.1 Major Technical Issues of Water Supply Service .............................................................3-1

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3.1.2 Service Level Targets .......................................................................................................3-1


3.1.3 Non-revenue Water Ratio .................................................................................................3-2
3.1.4 Population and Water Demand .........................................................................................3-2
3.1.5 Water Source.....................................................................................................................3-3
3.1.6 Policy of Water Supply Plan .............................................................................................3-4
3.1.7 Water Supply Facility Plan ...............................................................................................3-5
3.2 Review of Planning Framework ............................................................................................3-9
3.2.1 Population Growth..........................................................................................................3-10
3.2.2 Current Population and Overall Population....................................................................3-15
3.2.3 Population Allocation .....................................................................................................3-16
3.2.4 Water Demand by Township...........................................................................................3-21
3.2.5 Water Demand by Water Supply Zone ...........................................................................3-28
3.3 Review of Water Allocation .................................................................................................3-29
3.3.1 Supply Capacity Development .......................................................................................3-29
3.3.2 New Water Source (Pan Hlaing River) ...........................................................................3-29
3.3.3 Revised Supply Capacity Development .........................................................................3-30
3.3.4 Water Allocation to 10 Zones .........................................................................................3-32
3.3.5 Revised Main Water Supply Facilities............................................................................3-35
3.4 Necessity of The Project ......................................................................................................3-38

CHAPTER 4 WATER TREATMENT PLANT .............................................................................4-1


4.1 Planning Conditions ...............................................................................................................4-1
4.1.1 Completed/ On-going Plan Related to Kokkowa Project .................................................4-1
4.1.2 Expansion Plan of Kokkowa WTP ...................................................................................4-1
4.1.3 Land Acquisition Status of YCDC ...................................................................................4-2
4.1.4 Appropriateness of The Site Location ..............................................................................4-4
4.1.5 Setting of Intake Location ..............................................................................................4-10
4.1.6 Water Quality and Treatment Process.............................................................................4-13
4.2 Planning Policy of WTP ......................................................................................................4-18
4.3 Intake Facility ......................................................................................................................4-22
4.3.1 Planning Policy ...............................................................................................................4-22
4.3.2 Proposed Capacities........................................................................................................4-24
4.3.3 Intake Point and Leading Canal......................................................................................4-24
4.3.4 Intake Gate......................................................................................................................4-24
4.3.5 Pre-sedimentation Pond ..................................................................................................4-25
4.3.6 Lift Pumping Equipment ................................................................................................4-26
4.4 Treatment Facility ................................................................................................................4-35
4.4.1 Proposed Facilities for WTP...........................................................................................4-35
4.4.2 Treatment Process ...........................................................................................................4-35

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4.4.3 Receiving Well cum Rapid Mixing Basin ......................................................................4-36


4.4.4 Flocculation Basin and Sedimentation Basin .................................................................4-38
4.4.5 Filter ...............................................................................................................................4-42
4.4.6 Clear Water Reservoir (Tank) .........................................................................................4-43
4.4.7 Sludge Treatment ............................................................................................................4-44
4.4.8 Chemical Dosing Facility ...............................................................................................4-45
4.4.9 Chlorination Facility .......................................................................................................4-46
4.4.10 Electrical Facility............................................................................................................4-48
4.4.11 SCADA...........................................................................................................................4-52
4.4.12 Administration Facility ...................................................................................................4-56

CHAPTER 5 TRANSMISSION FACILITY .................................................................................5-1


5.1 Outline of Planning ................................................................................................................5-1
5.2 Transmission Facility for Zone 9 ...........................................................................................5-2
5.2.1 Planning Policy .................................................................................................................5-2
5.2.2 Transmission Facility........................................................................................................5-3
5.3 Transmission Facility for Zone 1 ...........................................................................................5-4
5.3.1 Outline of Planning...........................................................................................................5-4
5.3.2 Outline of Water Operation ..............................................................................................5-5
5.3.3 Planning Policy .................................................................................................................5-9
5.3.4 Transmission Facility...................................................................................................... 5-11
5.3.5 Electrical Facilities for Relay Pump Station...................................................................5-19
5.3.6 SCADA...........................................................................................................................5-20
5.4 Laying Position of Transmission Pipe .................................................................................5-21
5.4.1 Route of Transmission Pipeline from Kokkowa WTP to Hlaing River ..........................5-21
5.4.2 Route of Transmission Pipeline from Hlaing River to Zone 1 .......................................5-29
5.4.3 Hlaing River Crossing ....................................................................................................5-31

CHAPTER 6 DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES OF ZONE 9 .........................................................6-1


6.1 Outline of Planning ................................................................................................................6-1
6.1.1 Concept of Distribution System .......................................................................................6-1
6.1.2 Planning Parameters .........................................................................................................6-1
6.1.3 Water Amount for Distribution .........................................................................................6-2
6.2 Service Reservoir ...................................................................................................................6-4
6.2.1 Zone 9 SR and Distribution Pump ....................................................................................6-4
6.2.2 Distribution Pump ............................................................................................................6-4
6.3 Distribution Main Pipes .........................................................................................................6-5
6.4 Distribution Pipes ................................................................................................................ 6-11
6.4.1 DMA and Distribution Pipe ............................................................................................ 6-11

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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6.4.2 SCADA...........................................................................................................................6-13

CHAPTER 7 DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES OF ZONE 1 .........................................................7-1


7.1 Outline of Planning ................................................................................................................7-1
7.1.1 Review of Master Plan and Existing Condition ...............................................................7-1
7.1.2 Existing Condition of Yegu PS .........................................................................................7-2
7.1.3 Existing Condition of Kokine SR .....................................................................................7-4
7.1.4 Existing Condition of Central SR and Shwedagon Pagoda SR ........................................7-7
7.1.5 Planning Parameters .........................................................................................................7-8
7.1.6 Comparison of Distribution Plan Options ...................................................................... 7-11
7.2 Planned Service Reservoir and Distribution Pump ..............................................................7-14
7.2.1 Kokine SR ......................................................................................................................7-14
7.2.2 Central SR with Distribution Pump ................................................................................7-16
7.2.3 Electrical Facilities for Central SR with Pump...............................................................7-19
7.2.4 SCADA...........................................................................................................................7-19
7.3 Distribution Main Pipe.........................................................................................................7-20
7.4 Distribution Pipes and DMA ...............................................................................................7-26
7.4.1 Distribution Facilities .....................................................................................................7-26
7.4.2 DMA and Distribution Pipe ............................................................................................7-26
7.5 Water Operation Plan during Construction Implementation ................................................7-30
7.5.1 Change from The Existing Distribution System to New System (Additional Water
from Kokkowa WTP) ....................................................................................................7-30
7.5.2 Step 1: Commencement of Water Supply from Kokkowa WTP ....................................7-30
7.5.3 Step 2: DMA Development in Low Subzone (1)............................................................7-30
7.5.4 Step 3: DMA Development in Low Subzone (2)............................................................7-31
7.5.5 Step 4: DMA Development in High Subzone.................................................................7-32

CHAPTER 8 OPERATION, MANAGEMENT AND CAPACITY .............................................8-1


8.1 Summary of Issues .................................................................................................................8-1
8.1.1 Water Treatment Plant ......................................................................................................8-1
8.1.2 Transmission Pipe.............................................................................................................8-2
8.1.3 Distribution Pipe ...............................................................................................................8-2
8.1.4 Water Supply Equipment ..................................................................................................8-2
8.1.5 Customer Management .....................................................................................................8-3
8.1.6 Measures ...........................................................................................................................8-3
8.2 Required Organization Structure for Kokkowa Project .........................................................8-4
8.2.1 O&M Plan of The Kokkowa WTP ...................................................................................8-4
8.2.2 Priority Parameter of EDWS Laboratory for Water Quality Management .....................8-19
8.2.3 Operation and Maintenance Plan for Pipelines ..............................................................8-20

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8.2.4 Improvement in Meter Reading, Billing and Collecting Water Charges ........................8-20
8.2.5 Proper Maintenance Measures of Installed Equipment in Myanmar .............................8-21
8.2.6 Public Relations and Awareness .....................................................................................8-22
8.3 Staffing and Capacity Development Plan ............................................................................8-23
8.3.1 Organization Structure ....................................................................................................8-23
8.3.2 Operation and Maintenance Cost ...................................................................................8-25
8.3.3 Capacity Development Plan ...........................................................................................8-25
8.4 Key Technical Fields of Capacity Development ..................................................................8-26
8.5 Technical Assistance Fields by JICA Technical Assistance Project and by This Project .....8-27
8.5.1 JICA Technical Assistance Project .................................................................................8-27
8.5.2 Proposal of New Technical Assistance Program for This Project and Cooperation with
Japanese Local Governments ........................................................................................8-27

CHAPTER 9 COST ESTIMATION AND IMPLEMENTATION SCHEME OF THE


PROJECT ..........................................................................................................................9-1
9.1 Execution Scheme..................................................................................................................9-1
9.1.1 Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project ...................................................................................9-1
9.1.2 Natural Conditions............................................................................................................9-6
9.1.3 Procurement of Construction Materials and Related Machines/Equipment .....................9-7
9.1.4 Outline of Execution Scheme .........................................................................................9-10
9.1.5 Safety Control .................................................................................................................9-21
9.1.6 Risk Management ...........................................................................................................9-22
9.2 Overall Project Cost .............................................................................................................9-22
9.2.1 Conditions of Cost Estimate ...........................................................................................9-22
9.2.2 Proposed Package ...........................................................................................................9-22
9.2.3 Conditions of Construction Cost Estimate .....................................................................9-22
9.2.4 Estimated Overall Project Cost.......................................................................................9-22
9.3 Preparation of Implementation Schedule .............................................................................9-22
9.3.1 Implementation Schedule ...............................................................................................9-22
9.3.2 Disbursement Schedule ..................................................................................................9-23
9.4 Financing Plan .....................................................................................................................9-23
9.5 Estimated Operation and Maintenance Cost ........................................................................9-24
9.6 Organizational Structure for Implementing The Project ......................................................9-25
9.6.1 Administrative Organization on Water ...........................................................................9-25
9.6.2 Organizational Structure for Implementing The Project ................................................9-28
9.6.3 Project Coordination Committee (PCC) .........................................................................9-28
9.6.4 Project Management Unit (PMU)...................................................................................9-29
9.6.5 Technical Level of Executing Agency and Relevant Experiences..................................9-30
9.6.6 Financial Management Capability of The Executing Agency ........................................9-31

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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9.6.7 Selection Policy for Consulting Firms............................................................................9-31


9.6.8 Consulting Services ........................................................................................................9-31
9.6.9 Bidding Methods and Setting of Contract Conditions ....................................................9-31
9.6.10 Selection Policy for Contractors .....................................................................................9-31

CHAPTER 10 FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS ..................................................10-1


10.1 Financial Analysis ................................................................................................................10-1
10.2 Economic Analysis ..............................................................................................................10-4
10.3 YCDC Financial Projection for This Project .......................................................................10-9

CHAPTER 11 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................ 11-1


11.1 Outline of Project Component ............................................................................................. 11-1
11.2 Environmental and Social Condition ................................................................................... 11-1
11.2.1 Access to Urban Services ............................................................................................... 11-1
11.2.2 Land Use......................................................................................................................... 11-2
11.2.3 Status of Sanitation and Hygiene.................................................................................... 11-3
11.2.4 Air Quality ...................................................................................................................... 11-4
11.2.5 Water Quality and Adaptation to Climate Change.......................................................... 11-5
11.2.6 Waste Disposal ............................................................................................................... 11-6
11.2.7 Noise ............................................................................................................................... 11-6
11.2.8 Ground Settlement .......................................................................................................... 11-8
11.2.9 Cultural Heritage ............................................................................................................ 11-8
11.2.10 Ecosystem ....................................................................................................................... 11-8
11.2.11 Protected area ................................................................................................................. 11-8
11.2.12 Ethnic Minority .............................................................................................................. 11-9
11.2.13 HIV Prevention Measurement ...................................................................................... 11-10
11.2.14 Encouragement of Gender and Handicapped Person Equality ..................................... 11-10
11.3 Legal Framework for Environmental and Social Considerations ...................................... 11-11
11.4 Assessment of Alternatives ................................................................................................ 11-14
11.5 Scoping of Environmental and Social Impact.................................................................... 11-15
11.5.1 Mitigation Measures for Potential Project Impact ........................................................ 11-16
11.5.2 Environmental Monitoring Plan ................................................................................... 11-17
11.5.3 Environmental Check List ............................................................................................ 11-19
11.6 Land Acquisition and Resettlement Issue .......................................................................... 11-22
11.6.1 Necessity of Land Acquisition and Resettlement ......................................................... 11-22
11.6.2 Major Laws for Land Acquisition/ Resettlement.......................................................... 11-30
11.7 Principles of Resettlement Policy ...................................................................................... 11-32
11.7.1 Resettlement Policy ...................................................................................................... 11-32
11.7.2 Scope of Resettlement Impact ...................................................................................... 11-33

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11.7.3 Eligibility Criteria and Income Restoration Program ................................................... 11-34


11.7.4 Grievance Procedures ................................................................................................... 11-37
11.7.5 Implementation Arrangement ....................................................................................... 11-37
11.7.6 Implementation Schedule ............................................................................................. 11-38
11.7.7 Funding Arrangement ................................................................................................... 11-39
11.7.8 Monitoring Procedures ................................................................................................. 11-39
11.7.9 Consultations and Disclosure Arrangements ................................................................ 11-40
11.8 Meeting with Stakeholders and Interviews ........................................................................ 11-42
11.8.1 Meetings with Stakeholders for the Project Site of WTP ............................................. 11-42
11.8.2 Social and Economic Interview Survey on the Proposed Alignment of Transmission
Pipeline ........................................................................................................................ 11-46

CHAPTER 12 PROJECT EFFECTS .........................................................................................12-1


12.1 Quantitative Effects .............................................................................................................12-1
12.2 Qualitative Effects ...............................................................................................................12-2

CHAPTER 13 RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................13-1

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1-1 Performance Parameters of Water Utilities, End of 2011 ......................................... 1-2
Table 1-2 Report Submission .................................................................................................... 1-6
Table 2-1 Tidal Information in Yangon Port ............................................................................. 2-5
Table 2-2 List of Tasks to be Implemented by YCDC and Their Priorities .............................. 2-9
Table 2-3 Monthly Household Income.................................................................................... 2-11
Table 3-1 Overall Service Level Target..................................................................................... 3-2
Table 3-2 Target Level of Non-revenue Water Ratio and Leakage Ratio ................................. 3-2
Table 3-3 Water Demand in Yangon City.................................................................................. 3-2
Table 3-4 List of Existing Water Resources (Reservoirs) ......................................................... 3-3
Table 3-5 Planned Groundwater Source.................................................................................... 3-3
Table 3-6 Policies to Achieve Improvement Target of Water Supply Condition ...................... 3-4
Table 3-7 Review of Water Demand and Estimation Procedures of The MP ........................... 3-9
Table 3-8 Estimated Population in 2011 and 2014 .................................................................. 3-15
Table 3-9 Township Group Population in 2014 by Urban Development Plan and 2014
census .................................................................................................................. 3-16
Table 3-10 Revised Population of Township and Township Group in Yangon City ............... 3-20
Table 3-11 Revised Water Demand and Service Level Targets for Yangon City .................... 3-21
Table 3-12 Water Demand for Yangon City as per The MP (reference) ................................. 3-21

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Table 3-13 Revised Water Coverage Ratio by Township Group in Yangon City (%)............. 3-23
Table 3-14 Revised Water Served Population by Township in Yangon City .......................... 3-24
Table 3-15 Target of Per Capita Average Consumption by Township Group (Lpcd) ............. 3-25
Table 3-16 Connection and Daily Consumption of YCDC between 2009/10 and 1013/14 .... 3-26
Table 3-17 Connection and Daily Consumption of YCDC in 2014/15 ................................... 3-26
Table 3-18 Non-revenue Water Rate and Leakage Rate.......................................................... 3-27
Table 3-19 Revised Water Demand by Township Group (Daily Maximum: MGD)............... 3-27
Table 3-20 Revised Main Features by Distribution Zone in 2014 for Yangon City ................ 3-28
Table 3-21 Revised Main Features by Distribution Zone in 2025 for Yangon City ................ 3-29
Table 3-22 Revised Main Features by Distribution Zone in 2040 for Yangon City ................ 3-29
Table 3-23 Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City under This Study .............. 3-31
Table 3-24 Proposed River System Capacity in 2040 (Unit: MGD) ....................................... 3-31
Table 3-25 Experience of Water- and Mosquito-borne Diseases in 2012 ............................... 3-40
Table 3-26 Unsatisfaction Level with Water Supply ............................................................... 3-41
Table 4-1 Comparison for Proposed WTP Site ......................................................................... 4-5
Table 4-2 Target Water Quality after Treatment with Reference to Other Standards.............. 4-13
Table 4-3 Water Quality in Kokkowa River near Intake Point ............................................... 4-14
Table 4-4 Maximum Raw Water Turbidity for Facility Planning (NTU)................................ 4-16
Table 4-5 Cost Comparison of Obtained Form and Ideal Form for 60 MGD WTP................ 4-18
Table 4-6 Parameters for Facility Planning ............................................................................. 4-19
Table 4-7 Proposed Allocation of Work of WTP Construction ............................................... 4-20
Table 4-8 Proposed Planned Capacities .................................................................................. 4-24
Table 4-9 Outline of Intake Gate ............................................................................................. 4-25
Table 4-10 Outline of Lift Pump Equipment .......................................................................... 4-27
Table 4-11 Comparison of Lift Pump...................................................................................... 4-28
Table 4-12 Methods of Pump Operation Control .................................................................... 4-29
Table 4-13 Summary of The Proposed Facilities for WTP ..................................................... 4-35
Table 4-14 Coagulant Mixing Method .................................................................................... 4-37
Table 4-15 Outline of Sedimentation Equipment .................................................................... 4-39
Table 4-16 Mixing Method of Flocculation Basin .................................................................. 4-40
Table 4-17 Sedimentation Method .......................................................................................... 4-41
Table 4-18 Outline of Rapid Sand Filter Equipment............................................................... 4-42
Table 4-19 Back Washing Method of Filtration Basin ............................................................ 4-43
Table 4-20 Proposed ACH Dosing Rate .................................................................................. 4-46
Table 4-21 Chlorine Dosing Rate ............................................................................................ 4-46
Table 4-22 Chlorination Agents .............................................................................................. 4-47
Table 4-23 Detailed Power Line and Construction Schedule by YCDC ................................. 4-50
Table 4-24 Monitoring Points of Water Quality ...................................................................... 4-52

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Table 4-25 Administration Facility ......................................................................................... 4-56


Table 5-1 Result of Hydraulic Calculation ................................................................................ 5-3
Table 5-2 Comparison of Pipe Material of 1600 mm ................................................................ 5-4
Table 5-3 Transmission Pump Plan for Zone 9 ......................................................................... 5-4
Table 5-4 Planned Transmission Flow (From the WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS)............................. 5-9
Table 5-5 Planned Transmission Flow (From Zone 9 SR/RPS to SRs in Zone 1, 3 and 4) ...... 5-9
Table 5-6 Planned Transmission Flow from Yegu PS ............................................................. 5-10
Table 5-7 Result of Hydraulic Calculation between RPS and Kokine SR .............................. 5-11
Table 5-8 Result of Hydraulic Calculation between Yegu PS and Central SR........................ 5-12
Table 5-9 Comparison of Pipe Material .................................................................................. 5-13
Table 5-10 Comparison of Transmission Systems .................................................................. 5-14
Table 5-11 Transmission Flow from RPS (for Southern Route) ............................................. 5-15
Table 5-12 Transmission Flow from RPS (for Northern Route) ............................................. 5-15
Table 5-13 Comparison of Transmission Pump Specific Plan (for Southern Route) .............. 5-15
Table 5-14 Proposed Transmission Pump of RPS (for Southern Route)................................. 5-16
Table 5-15 Comparison of Transmission Pump Specific Plan (for Northern Route) .............. 5-16
Table 5-16 Proposed Transmission Pump of RPS (for Northern Route)................................. 5-16
Table 5-17 Required Capacity of Zone 9 SR .......................................................................... 5-17
Table 5-18 Transmission Flow from Yegu PS to Central SR .................................................. 5-19
Table 5-19 Proposed Transmission Pump at Yegu PS ............................................................. 5-19
Table 5-20 Proposed Pipeline and Jurisdiction Area of The Route 5 ...................................... 5-21
Table 5-21 Comparison of Pipe-jacking and Shield Method .................................................. 5-32
Table 5-22 Comparison of River Crossing Method ................................................................ 5-33
Table 6-1 Main Features in 2014, 2025 and 2040 ..................................................................... 6-2
Table 6-2 Considered Capacity of Zone 9 SR ........................................................................... 6-4
Table 6-3 Outline of Distribution Facilities at Hlaing Tharyar SR ........................................... 6-5
Table 6-4 Length of Distribution Main Pipe for Zone 9 in 2025 and in 2040 .......................... 6-6
Table 6-5 DMA Planning in Zone 9 by 2025 .......................................................................... 6-11
Table 6-6 Length of Distribution Pipe for Zone 9 ................................................................... 6-11
Table 6-7 Monitoring Items by SCADA for Zone 9 ............................................................... 6-13
Table 7-1 Water Quality Data at Yegu PS in 2015 .................................................................... 7-4
Table 7-2 Existing Characteristics of Kokine SR...................................................................... 7-4
Table 7-3 Forecast of Retention Time of The Kokine SR ......................................................... 7-5
Table 7-4 Existing Characteristics of Central SR...................................................................... 7-7
Table 7-5 Main Features by Distribution Zone in 2014, 2025, and 2040 ............................... 7-10
Table 7-6 Water Supply from Source to Zone 1 ...................................................................... 7-11
Table 7-7 Comparison of Water Distribution Plan Options .................................................... 7-12
Table 7-8 Rehabilitation of Kokine SR and Reconstruction of Central SR ............................ 7-14

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Table 7-9 Outline of Distribution Facilities at Kokine SR ...................................................... 7-14


Table 7-10 Retention Time of Kokine SR (considering Demand of Low Subzone of Zone
1) ......................................................................................................................... 7-14
Table 7-11 Retention Time of Central SR (for High Subzone) ............................................... 7-16
Table 7-12 Outline of Distribution Facilities at Central SR .................................................... 7-17
Table 7-13 Design Parameters of Electrical Facilities for Zone 1........................................... 7-19
Table 7-14 Monitoring Items by SCADA for Zone 1 ............................................................. 7-20
Table 7-15 Length of Planned Distribution Main Pipe of Zone 1 ........................................... 7-21
Table 7-16 DMA Planning for Low subzone of Zone 1 .......................................................... 7-26
Table 7-17 DMA Planning for High subzone of Zone 1 ......................................................... 7-26
Table 7-18 Length of Planned Distribution Pipe for Zone 1 ................................................... 7-27
Table 8-1 Proposed Duties of Each Unit of Kokkowa WTP ..................................................... 8-5
Table 8-2 Proposed Number of Staff in Various Technical Fields for Kokkowa WTP ............. 8-5
Table 8-3 Reference of Duties of Each Unit at WTPs in Fukuoka ........................................... 8-5
Table 8-4 Reference of Number of staffs at WTPs in Fukuoka ................................................ 8-6
Table 8-5 Daily Inspection Checklist (Example) .................................................................... 8-14
Table 8-6 Regular Inspection Checklist (Example) ................................................................ 8-15
Table 8-7 Consignment Inspection Item Description Example (Pump Facility) .................... 8-16
Table 8-8 Consignment Inspection Item Description Example (Chlorine Injection Facility). 8-17
Table 8-9 Consignment Inspection Item Description Example (Electrical Instrumentation
Facility) ............................................................................................................... 8-17
Table 8-10 Priority Parameters of EDWS Laboratory ............................................................ 8-19
Table 8-11 Statutory Durable Years and Target Life for Mechanical Equipment ................... 8-21
Table 8-12 Statutory Durable Years and Target Life for Electrical Equipment....................... 8-22
Table 8-13 Capacity Development Program in WTPs ............................................................ 8-25
Table 8-14 Capacity Development Program on Distribution Management ............................ 8-26
Table 8-15 Proposal of New Technical Assistance Program ................................................... 8-29
Table 9-1 Allocation of The Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project .............................................. 9-2
Table 9-2 Detailed Project Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project................................................. 9-2
Table 9-3 Applications of Japanese Technology to The WTP .................................................. 9-5
Table 9-4 Applications of Japanese Technology to The Transmission and Distribution
Facilities ................................................................................................................ 9-5
Table 9-5 Procurement of Pipe Material ................................................................................... 9-9
Table 9-6 Procurement of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment ............................................. 9-9
Table 9-7 Comparison of Land Filling Method....................................................................... 9-12
Table 9-8 Comparison of Foundation Pile .............................................................................. 9-13
Table 9-9 Candidate Packages of Eligible Portion for JICA ODA Loan Project .................... 9-22
Table 9-10 Non-eligible portion for JICA ODA Loan (YCDC own budget) .......................... 9-22

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) FINAL REPORT

Table 9-11 Breakdown of Construction cost ........................................................................... 9-22


Table 9-12 Estimated Overall Project Cost ............................................................................. 9-22
Table 9-13 Implementation Schedule for Each Package ......................................................... 9-22
Table 9-14 Detailed Implementation Schedule of Selection of Consultant ............................ 9-22
Table 9-15 Detailed Schedule of Selection of Contractor ....................................................... 9-23
Table 9-16 Breakdown Schedule of Construction Works ....................................................... 9-23
Table 9-17 Disbursement Schedule ......................................................................................... 9-23
Table 9-18 Annual Fund Requirement .................................................................................... 9-23
Table 9-19 Preliminary Funding Structure .............................................................................. 9-23
Table 9-20 Breakdown of Cost................................................................................................ 9-23
Table 9-21 Cost by Year (million Yen) .................................................................................... 9-23
Table 9-22 Quantity and Unit Cost ......................................................................................... 9-24
Table 9-23 OM Cost for Phase 2 Project................................................................................. 9-24
Table 9-24 Roles and Responsibilities of Project Organizations ............................................ 9-28
Table 9-25 Proposed Staffing of PMU .................................................................................... 9-30
Table 9-26 Consulting Services............................................................................................... 9-31
Table 10-1 General Assumptions for Financial Analysis ........................................................ 10-1
Table 10-2 Initial Investment Cost .......................................................................................... 10-1
Table 10-3 Reinvestment Cost ................................................................................................ 10-1
Table 10-4 O&M Cost ............................................................................................................. 10-2
Table 10-5 Non-revenue Water Ratio Assumption .................................................................. 10-2
Table 10-6 Weighted Average Cost of Capital ........................................................................ 10-2
Table 10-7 Financial Cash Flow Projection ............................................................................ 10-3
Table 10-8 Initial Investment Cost of Phase 1 Project ............................................................ 10-3
Table 10-9 O&M Cost of Phase 1 Project ............................................................................... 10-3
Table 10-10 Comparison of Average O&M Cost and Water Tariff Revenue (2035) .............. 10-4
Table 10-11 Combined Cash Flow Projection......................................................................... 10-4
Table 10-12 General Assumptions for Economic Analysis ..................................................... 10-4
Table 10-13 Initial Investment Cost ........................................................................................ 10-5
Table 10-14 Reinvestment Cost .............................................................................................. 10-5
Table 10-15 O&M Cost ........................................................................................................... 10-5
Table 10-16 Average Water Consumption without YCDC Water Service .............................. 10-6
Table 10-17 Domestic Tube Well Cost.................................................................................... 10-6
Table 10-18 Average Cost of Domestic Tube Well Water ....................................................... 10-7
Table 10-19 Alternative Water Cost (Combined) .................................................................... 10-7
Table 10-20 Willingness to Pay for Better Water Supply Services ......................................... 10-7
Table 10-21 Water Consumption Volume of Better Water Supply .......................................... 10-8
Table 10-22 Calculation of EIRR ............................................................................................ 10-8

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Table 10-23 Sensitivity Analysis ............................................................................................. 10-9


Table 10-24 Results of Financial Projection ......................................................................... 10-11
Table 11-1 Outline of Phase 2 Project Component ................................................................. 11-1
Table 11-2 Access to Urban Services by Townships ............................................................... 11-2
Table 11-3 Land Use Ratio by Townships............................................................................... 11-2
Table 11-4 Status of Sewage Treatment in Yangon City ......................................................... 11-3
Table 11-5 Number of Patients Suffering from Waterborne Diseases and Mortality Rate in
Yangon District ................................................................................................... 11-3
Table 11-6 Death Rate During Child Birth, Number of Hospitals, and Number of Doctors
by Townships ...................................................................................................... 11-4
Table 11-7 Result of Spot Observation for Air Quality ........................................................... 11-5
Table 11-8 Water Quality Guidelines Value as per EHS Guidelines ....................................... 11-5
Table 11-9 Noise Levels as per WHO Guidelines................................................................... 11-8
Table 11-10 Proportion of Ethnic Composition by Townships ............................................... 11-9
Table 11-11 Required IEE/EIA Procedure for Water Supply Project .................................... 11-14
Table 11-12 Scoping of Environmental Impacts ................................................................... 11-15
Table 11-13 Mitigation Measures for Potential Project Impact ............................................ 11-16
Table 11-14 Environmental Monitoring Plan ........................................................................ 11-17
Table 11-15 Environmental Check List for This Study ......................................................... 11-19
Table 11-16 Comparison between The Government’s Laws/ Regulations and JICA
Guidelines ......................................................................................................... 11-30
Table 11-17 Entitlement Matrix ............................................................................................ 11-34
Table 11-18 Example of Technical Support for Income Earning Activity in IRP ................. 11-36
Table 11-19 Provisional Schedule of The Resettlement Works ............................................ 11-39
Table 11-20 YCDC Explanatory Meeting on the Project at Anyasu Village Monastery ...... 11-42
Table 11-21 Stakeholder Meeting on the Project at Site Office in WTP............................... 11-43
Table 11-22 Discussions in the Stakeholder Meeting ........................................................... 11-45
Table 11-23 Seven (7) Illegal Occupants on the Pipeline ROW ........................................... 11-48
Table 11-24 Explanations on the Project and Policy on Involuntary Resettlement .............. 11-48
Table 11-25 The information of Affected Persons ................................................................ 11-49
Table 11-26 Average Affected Household Expenditure (MMK/Month) ............................... 11-50
Table 11-27 Affected Household/Shop Structures ................................................................ 11-50
Table 11-28 Opinion, Questions, comments and Responses by YCDC ................................ 11-51
Table 12-1 Evaluation and Performance Indicators ................................................................ 12-1
Table 12-2 Monitoring of Operation and Effect Indicators ..................................................... 12-2

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1 Outline of Japanese ODA Loan Project (Phase1).................................................... 1-3


Figure 2-1 Topography in Yangon Region ................................................................................ 2-1
Figure 2-2 Geological Map of Yangon Area ............................................................................. 2-2
Figure 2-3 Mean Maximum and Minimum Temperature in Yangon City (1991-2008)............ 2-3
Figure 2-4 Mean Monthly Rainfall (Yangon: Kaba Aye, 1991-2008)....................................... 2-3
Figure 2-5 Map Showing The Rivers Surrounding Yangon ...................................................... 2-4
Figure 2-6 Salt Water Intrusion in The Rivers Surrounding Yangon City................................. 2-5
Figure 2-7 Groundwater Potential in Yangon City.................................................................... 2-6
Figure 2-8 Sewerage System in Yangon City............................................................................ 2-7
Figure 2-9 Basic Development Policies Concerning Wastewater Treatment ............................ 2-8
Figure 2-10 Monthly Household Income ................................................................................ 2-11
Figure 3-1 Staged Water Source Development on The MP ...................................................... 3-4
Figure 3-2 Conceptual Diagram of 3-Tier Water Distribution System ..................................... 3-6
Figure 3-3 Planned Water Supply System in 2040.................................................................... 3-8
Figure 3-4 Flow Chart of Water Demand Estimation ............................................................. 3-10
Figure 3-5 Planned City Center/ Town Core Area and Main Infrastructure in 2040 .............. 3-13
Figure 3-6 Future Urban Structure and Land Use of Greater Yangon..................................... 3-14
Figure 3-7 Greater Yangon Area and YCDC Area (33 townships) ......................................... 3-17
Figure 3-8 Township Group in YCDC Area............................................................................ 3-18
Figure 3-9 Revised Population Projection by Township Group .............................................. 3-19
Figure 3-10 Revised Water Supply Coverage Ratio by Township Group in Yangon City
(%) ...................................................................................................................... 3-22
Figure 3-11 Revised Township Group Water Served Population in Yangon City (Unit:
1,000 persons) ..................................................................................................... 3-25
Figure 3-12 Revised Daily Maximum Water Demand by Township Group (Unit: MGD) ..... 3-28
Figure 3-13 Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City......................................... 3-31
Figure 3-14 Revised Water Allocation in 2014 (Left) and in 2025 (Right) ............................ 3-33
Figure 3-15 Revised Water Allocation in 2030 (Left) and in 2035 (Right) ............................ 3-33
Figure 3-16 Revised Water Allocation in 2040 (Revision: Left and Alternative: Right) ........ 3-34
Figure 3-17 Revised Water Allocation to Zone 1 for This Project in 2025 ............................. 3-35
Figure 3-18 Revised Water Supply System (2025) for This Project ....................................... 3-36
Figure 3-19 Revised Water Supply System (2040) for This Project ....................................... 3-37
Figure 4-1 Expansion Plan of Kokkowa WTP and Pan-Hlaing WTP ....................................... 4-2
Figure 4-2 Land Acquisition Status of YCDC as of 31 July 2016 ............................................ 4-3
Figure 4-3 Additional Land Acquisition with Already Registered Land of YCDC (Yellow
Area) ..................................................................................................................... 4-4
Figure 4-4 Reasons for Selection of The Kokkowa WTP ......................................................... 4-5

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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Figure 4-5 Salt Water Intrusion in The Hlaing River ................................................................ 4-6
Figure 4-6 Alignment of The Kokkowa River in Past 50 Years................................................ 4-7
Figure 4-7 Inundation Situation at The WTP Site in 2008 and 2015 ........................................ 4-9
Figure 4-8 Setting of Intake Location under Consideration .................................................... 4-11
Figure 4-9 Proposed Drawing of Intake Gates by MoAI ........................................................ 4-12
Figure 4-10 Removal of Turbidity, Color, Iron and Manganese from Raw Waters in 2015 .. 4-15
Figure 4-11 Precipitation Test of Raw Water from Intake Point of Kokkowa River (May
2015 - February 2016) ........................................................................................ 4-16
Figure 4-12 Relation of Raw Water Turbidity and ACH Dosing Rate (Result of Five Jar
Tests) ................................................................................................................... 4-17
Figure 4-13 Proposed Layout of WTP (for 140 MGD) ........................................................... 4-21
Figure 4-14 Proposed Layout of WTP (1st Stage of 60 MGD)................................................ 4-22
Figure 4-15 Fluctuation of Daily Water Level of The Kokkowa River at Pandaing Village
(2008 to 2015) ..................................................................................................... 4-23
Figure 4-16 Layout Planning of Lift Pump Gates ................................................................... 4-26
Figure 4-17 Treatment Process ............................................................................................... 4-36
Figure 4-18 Sludge Treatment Process.................................................................................... 4-44
Figure 4-19 230 kV & 66 kV Network Diagram of YESC in 2015-16 .................................. 4-49
Figure 4-20 Main Power Supply for Zone 9 (Prior Construction) .......................................... 4-50
Figure 4-21 Electrical Transmission Line for Kokkowa WTP ............................................... 4-51
Figure 4-22 Proposed SCADA System for WTP, Transmission, Distribution and DMAs ..... 4-53
Figure 4-23 Proposed Concept of SCADA System Integration in The Future ....................... 4-55
Figure 5-1 Stepwise Transmission Plan to Zone 9 SR/RPS ...................................................... 5-1
Figure 5-2 Water Operation Diagram from 2025 to 2035 ......................................................... 5-7
Figure 5-3 Water Operation Diagram in 2040........................................................................... 5-8
Figure 5-4 Existing System of Yegu PS .................................................................................. 5-10
Figure 5-5 Diameter of Transmission Pipeline for Zone 1 in 2025......................................... 5-12
Figure 5-6 Schematic Flow of Transmission in 2035 ............................................................. 5-14
Figure 5-7 Main Power Supply Diagram ................................................................................ 5-20
Figure 5-8 Transmission Pipeline Route to Zone 9 SR ........................................................... 5-22
Figure 5-9 Irrigation Canals along with Route 5..................................................................... 5-23
Figure 5-10 Cross-section Drawing of Limited Laying Area, North Side .............................. 5-24
Figure 5-11 Schematic Diagram of Transmission Pipeline Route .......................................... 5-27
Figure 5-12 Plan of Transmission Pipeline Position and Sections .......................................... 5-28
Figure 5-13 Proposed Transmission Pipeline Route ............................................................... 5-30
Figure 5-14 Plan of Pipe Bridge.............................................................................................. 5-31
Figure 5-15 Plan of Shield Tunnel .......................................................................................... 5-33
Figure 5-16 Location of The River Crossing Site ................................................................... 5-34

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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Figure 6-1 Existing Water Supply Pipes in Hlaing Tharyar (Zone 9) ....................................... 6-3
Figure 6-2 Simulated Network Analysis Result for Demand of 2025 in Zone 9 ...................... 6-7
Figure 6-3 Simulated Network Analysis Result for Demand of 2040 in Zone 9 ...................... 6-8
Figure 6-4 Distribution Main Pipe for Zone 9 in 2025 ............................................................. 6-9
Figure 6-5 Distribution Main Pipe for Zone 9 in 2040 ........................................................... 6-10
Figure 6-6 DMA and Distribution Pipe for Zone 9 ................................................................. 6-12
Figure 7-1 Existing SRs of Zone 1 ............................................................................................ 7-2
Figure 7-2 Schematic Diagram Showing Water Distribution from Yegu PS ............................ 7-3
Figure 7-3 Reduction in Water Level of Kokine SR ................................................................. 7-6
Figure 7-4 Reduction in Water Level of Kokine SR without Influence of Check Valve .......... 7-6
Figure 7-5 Existing Pipe Network of Zone 1 with Proposed High and Low Sub-Zones .......... 7-9
Figure 7-6 DMAs and Distribution Main Pipes for Zone 1 in 2025 (same as 2040) .............. 7-10
Figure 7-7 Schematic Diagram showing Water Distribution in Case of Plan 1 ...................... 7-13
Figure 7-8 Zone 1 PS and Expected 33 kV Cable Route ........................................................ 7-19
Figure 7-9 Simulated Network Analysis Result for Gravity System (Kokine SR) of Zone 1. 7-22
Figure 7-10 Simulated Network Analysis Result for Pump System (Central SR with PS) of
Zone 1 ................................................................................................................. 7-23
Figure 7-11 Distribution Main Pipes for Zone 1 of Gravity System from Kokine SR (upper
figure) and Pump System from Central SR (lower figure) ................................. 7-24
Figure 7-12 Distribution Main Crossing Railway ................................................................... 7-25
Figure 7-13 DMA and Distribution Pipe for Zone 1 ............................................................... 7-28
Figure 7-14 Existing House Connections................................................................................ 7-29
Figure 7-15 Candidate of House Connection through Backyard ............................................ 7-29
Figure 7-16 Example of Flow Meter ....................................................................................... 7-29
Figure 7-17 Schematic Diagram of Current Water Supply ..................................................... 7-33
Figure 7-18 Water Supply Changing Procedure [Step -1: Commencement of Water Supply
from Kokkowa WTP] ......................................................................................... 7-34
Figure 7-19 Water Supply Changing Procedure [Step -2: DMA Development in Low
Subzone (1)] ........................................................................................................ 7-35
Figure 7-20 Water Supply Changing Procedure [Step -3: DMA Development in Low
Subzone (2)] ........................................................................................................ 7-36
Figure 7-21 Water Supply Changing Procedure [Step -4: DMA Development in High
Subzone] ............................................................................................................. 7-37
Figure 7-22 Locations of Non-stoppable Tapping Connections.............................................. 7-38
Figure 8-1 Proposed Organization Chart of Kokkowa WTP .................................................... 8-4
Figure 8-2 Reference of Basic Organization Chart of WTPs in Fukuoka ................................. 8-5
Figure 8-3 New Organization Chart of EDWS (Tentative) ..................................................... 8-24
Figure 8-4 Schematic Illustration of Support System by Remote Surveillance System ......... 8-29

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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Figure 9-1 The Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project................................................................... 9-1


Figure 9-2 Schematic Diagram of The Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project .............................. 9-2
Figure 9-3 Outline of Removal Method of Existing Structure................................................ 9-16
Figure 9-4 Cross Section of Pipe Installation along Route 5 .................................................. 9-18
Figure 9-5 Financing Structure of JICA ODA Loan ............................................................... 9-24
Figure 9-6 Case of Grant Subsidy from Union Government .................................................. 9-24
Figure 9-7 Yangon Regional Government Organogram ......................................................... 9-25
Figure 9-8 Overall YCDC Organogram .................................................................................. 9-26
Figure 9-9 EDWS Organogram............................................................................................... 9-27
Figure 9-10 Proposed Organizational Arrangement for Project Implementation.................... 9-28
Figure 10-1 Economic Benefit Calculation............................................................................. 10-8
Figure 10-2 Financial Projection (Base Case)....................................................................... 10-10
Figure 10-3 Financial Projection (Case 1) ............................................................................ 10-10
Figure 10-4 Financial Projection (Case 2) ............................................................................ 10-10
Figure 10-5 Financial Projection (Case 3) ............................................................................ 10-11
Figure 10-6 Required Tariff Increase in Four Cases ............................................................. 10-11
Figure 11-1 Location of Project Area ...................................................................................... 11-1
Figure 11-2 Location of Spot Observation for Air Quality ..................................................... 11-4
Figure 11-3 Location of Disposal Site in Yangon City ........................................................... 11-6
Figure 11-4 Location of Noise Level Samples ........................................................................ 11-7
Figure 11-5 Noise Level Observation (Noise-1, Measurement Date: 7-8th March, 2012) ...... 11-7
Figure 11-6 Noise Level Observation (Noise-2, Measurement Date: 8-9th March, 2012) ...... 11-7
Figure 11-7 Protected Area ..................................................................................................... 11-9
Figure 11-8 Required Process and Date for IEE, EIA and On-going Project ....................... 11-13
Figure 11-9 Expected Land Acquisition Area ....................................................................... 11-23
Figure 11-10 Proposed Construction Site for Water Treatment Plant ................................... 11-24
Figure 11-11 Location of Replacement Cost Survey ............................................................ 11-25
Figure 11-12 Transmission Pipeline Alignment along Route No.5....................................... 11-26
Figure 11-13 Proposed Location of River Crossing .............................................................. 11-27
Figure 11-14 Organization Chart for Implementation of ARAP ........................................... 11-38
Figure 11-15 Image of Pipeline Alignment with Pipeline ROW and Illegal Occupants ....... 11-47
Figure 11-16 Location of Affected Household on the Pipeline ROW .................................. 11-47

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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APPENDICES

Appendix 1 Revised Population and Demand for This Study


Appendix 2 Water Source Survey on Master Plan
Appendix 3 Water Quality Test for Kokkowa River
Appendix 4 Result of Soil Investigation Survey
Appendix 5 Design Basis for Kokkowa WTP of 60MGD
Appendix 6 Hydraulic Calculation for Transmission Pipeline
Appendix 7 Study of Transmission Pipeline Laying Position from WTP up to Hlaing River
along Route No. 5
Appendix 8 Distribution Option Plans Considering Water from Kokkowa and Reservoir System
for Zone 1
Appendix 9 Current Situation of Existing Facilities, Operation and Management System and
Capacity
Appendix 10 The Guidance for Management of Safety for Construction Works in Japanese
ODA Projects
Appendix 11 Procurement of Services and Application of Public Private Partnership
Appendix 12 Financial Analysis of YCDC
Appendix 13 Preliminary Drawings of Facilities
Appendix 14 Risk Management Framework
Appendix 15 Minutes of Meetings of SHM prepared by YCDC
Appendix 16 Minutes of Meetings of SHM prepared by JICA Study Team
Appendix 17 Interviews with Six (6) Illegal Occupants and One Local Religious Facility

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ACE Assistant Chief Engineer


ACH Aluminum Chlorohydrate
ACP Asbestos Cement Pipe
ADB Asian Development Bank
AE Assistant Engineer
ARAP Abbreviated Resettlement Action Plan
B/C Cost Benefit Ratio
BOT Build-Operate-Transfer
CAPEX Capital Expenditure
CBD Central Business District
CE Chief Engineer
CIP Cast Iron Pipe
DB Design Build
DBO Design Build Operation & Maintenance
DCIP Ductile Cast Iron Pipe
DICA Directorate of Investment and Companies Administration
DMA District Metered Area
Dy CE Deputy Chief Engineer
EC Electric Conductivity
ECC Environment Conservation Committee
EDWS Engineering Department (Water & Sanitation)
EE Executive Engineer
EHS Environmental, Health and Safety
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EIRR Economic Internal Rate of Return
FC Foreign Currency
FIL Foreign Investment Law
FIRR Financial Internal Rate of Return
FS Feasibility Study
FY Fiscal Year
GIS Geographical Information System
GL Ground Level
GL Guideline
GPCD (or gpcd) Gallons Per Capita per Day
GPS Global Positioning System
HDPE High-Density Polyethylene
HH Hose Hold
HHWL Highest High Water Level
HIS Household Interview Survey
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HWL High Water Level
IEE Initial Environmental Examination
IFC International Finance Corporation
IRP Income Restoration Program
IRPSC Income Restoration Program Implementation Sub-Committee
IUR Inner Urban Ring
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
JPY Japanese Yen
IWA International Water Association
Kyat Myanmar Kyat

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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L/A Loan Agreement


LC Local Currency
LCC Life Cycle Cost
LLWL Lowest Low Water Level
LPCD (or lpcd) Liters Per Capita per Day
LWL Low Water Level
MCA Myanmar Companies Act
M&E Mechanical & Electrical
METI Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (Japan)
MG Million Gallons
MGD Million Gallons per Day
MIC Myanmar Investment Commission
ML Million Liters
MLD Million Liters per Day
MMK Myanmar Kyat
MNPED Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
MoAI Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation
MoC Ministry of Construction
MoEE Ministry of Electricity and Energy
MoFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs
MoNREC Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation
MoPF Ministry of Planning and Finance
MOU Memorandum Of Understanding
MP Master Plan
MS Mild Steel Pipe
MVA Megavolt-Ampere
MWL Mean Water Level
N/A Not Available
New SZ New Suburbs Zone
NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide
NPV Net Present Value
NRW Non Revenue Water
NTU Nephelometric Turbidity Unit
NSZ Northern Suburbs Zone
ODA Official Development Assistance
OJT On-the-Job Training
O&M Operation & Maintenance
Old SZ Older Suburbs Zone
OP (World Bank) Operations Manual
OPEX Operating Expenditure
ORZ Outer Ring Zone
PAC Polyaluminum Chloride
PAPRD Project Appraisal and Progress Reporting Department
PAPs Project Affected Persons
PCP Prestressed Concrete Pipe
PCC Project Coordination Committee
PIs Performance Indicators
PM10 Coarse Particulate Matter
PMU Project Management Unit
ppm parts per million
PPP Public–Private Partnership
PS Pumping Station
PSIF Private Sector Investment Finance

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PVC Polyvinyl Chloride


QCBS Quality and Cost Based Selection
RC Reinforced Concrete
RFP Request For Proposal
RPS Relay Pumping Station
RISC Resettlement Implementation Sub-Committee
ROW Right of Way
RPF Resettlement Policy Framework
SAE Sub-Assistant Engineer
SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
SCBD South of Central Business District
SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment
SEZ Special Economic Zone
SHM StakeHolder Meeting
SMW Soil-cement Mixing Wall
SO2 Sulphur Dioxide
SP Steel Pipe
SR Service Reservoir
SS Suspended Solids
TCU True Color Unit
TDS Total Dissolved Solids
ToR Terms of Reference
TS Township
TS Total Solids
TSP Total Suspended Particulate Matter
US$, USD United States Dollars
VAT Value Added Tax
VFD Variable Frequency Drive
WHO World Health Organization
WTP Water Treatment Pant
YCDC Yangon City Development Committee
YESC Yangon Electricity Supply Corporation
(formerly called YESB: Yangon Electricity Supply Board)
YRG Yangon Region Government

ABBREVIATION FOR THE RELEVANT STUDIES

The Preparatory Study for Urban Development Programme in the 2013-JICA Urban Development
Greater Yangon (JICA) Plan (the urban development
Household Interview Survey (JICA) plan)
2013 JICA-HIS
The Study on Improvement of Water Supply System in Yangon
2002 JICA Water MP
City (JICA)
The Project for the Improvement of Water Supply, Sewerage and 2014 JICA Water MP or
Drainage System in Yangon City (JICA) Phase 1 FS
Greater Yangon Water Supply Improvement Project (Phase 1) Phase 1 Project
The Project for Urgent Improvement of Water Supply System in
Japanese Grant Aid Project
Yangon City
Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
This Study
Improvement Project (Phase 2)
Greater Yangon Water Supply Improvement Project (Phase 2) This Project

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UNIT

Area
1 Acre = 4046.86 m2 (square meter) = 0.404686 ha (hectare)

Length
1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m (meter)
1 mi (mile) = 1.61 km (kilometer)

Volume
1 Gallon (imperial gallon) = 0.004546 m3 (cubic meter) = 4.546 l (liter)
1 MG (million imperial gallon) = 4546 m3 (cubic meter)

Pressure
1 MPa (Mega Pascal) = 10 bar ≒ 100 mAq as water head

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of The Study

1.1.1 Water Supply Service


Yangon City is the national center of economy, business and communication with a population of 5.21
million in 2014, which is about 10 % of the entire population of the country. YCDC is responsible for
planning, operation and management of water supply system in Yangon. The water supply services in
Yangon commenced in 1842, and they cover extensively the central Yangon now. The city center has
been served relatively well with 24 hours water supply. However, the existing water supply system
cannot cover the vast suburban areas fully. In many suburban areas water coverage ratio is relatively
low with daily water supply duration of less than 3 hours. Average water supply duration is about 8
hours a day in the city. The overall water coverage ratio in Yangon is still as low as below 40 %.

As a result, many people are using less-reliable groundwater, rain water and pond water. In addition,
transmission and distribution pipes have not been rehabilitated properly resulting in large quantity of
non-revenue water. Water supply hours are not continuous; water supply pressures are low and so on.
YCDC has managed to implement measures to expand water supply coverage to cater to the needs of
development of new suburban areas; including 1 large WTP and 4 small plants.

The water sources of YCDC water supply services include 4 dams/ reservoirs and many tube wells.
Total raw water capacity is about 215 MGD (0.97 million m3/d) and about 60 % of this amount is
estimated as non-revenue water (NRW) in 2014. With the ongoing development in city, the population
and coverage ratio is expected to increase, and consequently water demand will increase as well.
Hence, development of additional water resources and extension of the transmission and distribution
facilities is needed. The existing transmission and distribution pipes have not been rehabilitated
properly and NRW reduction measures have not been practiced well, resulting in high ratio of NRW.
YCDC has mostly taken emergency measures against frequently occurring breakdowns of equipment
and leakage in water distribution networks to restore water supply services, and the practice of
construction of additional facilities or rehabilitation of the existing facilities to cope with the
increasing water demand is rarely adopted.

The weaknesses in the existing services, i.e., low ratio of population covered with 24 x 7 water supply,
high NRW ratio, low daily consumption amount, is clearly reflected in data of the following Table
which compares the performance indicators of other cities in the Southeast Asian countries. It also
shows low YCDC tariff, suggesting inadequate revenue to finance required system improvement.

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Table 1-1 Performance Parameters of Water Utilities, End of 2011


City Total Service NRW Average Operating Daily
City Population in Connections Coverage (%) Tariff Ratio Consumption
Service Area Ratio (%) (US$/m3) 3
(m / connection)
Yangon 5,211,000 252,898 35 66 0.07 - 0.82
Phnom Penh 2,000,000 219,498 100 6 0.24 0.37 1.32
Jakarta East 4,595,099 388,166 47 0.75 N/A. 1.02
63
Jakarta West 4,500,000 414,470 40 0.88 0.67 1.03
Manila East 6,000,000 857,981 99 11 0.62 0.45 1.32
Manila West 9,379,449 1,005,350 84 42 0.77 0.42 1.20
Bangkok 8,000,000 2,017,531 100 25 0.39 0.67 1.75
Ho Chi Minh 7,541,000 856,655 100 42 0.35 0.71 1.00
Source: For Yangon: YCDC in 2014, For other cities; Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in Southeast Asia, A Guide to
Good Practice, Arthur C. McIntosh, ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK

1.1.2 Master Plan (MP) and Feasibility Study (FS)


After adoption of new liberal policies in Myanmar, JICA initiated discussion with the Yangon regional
government on formulation of comprehensive development plan including water supply, sewerage,
drainage, electricity, road, railways, ports, etc., and the minutes were concluded concerning the
various projects in 2012. The key project was “Project for the Strategic Urban Development Plan of
the Greater Yangon (2013-JICA Urban Development Plan)”.

In parallel to the above project, water MP was formulated (it is called 2014 JICA Water MP or Phase 1
study in this report) between 2012 and 2014 with the assistance of JICA, using the frameworks
developed in the above key project and targeting water demand in 2040. As a result, the following 4
priority projects are recommended in the MP and the feasibility study was carried out:
1) Development of Lagunbyin Water Supply System (to supply water to Zones 7, 8 and Thilawa
special economic zone (SEZ) in the eastern Yangon),
2) Modernization of Water Supply System in Zone 1,
3) Provision of Disinfection Facilities, and
4) Capacity Development.

1.1.3 Japanese ODA Loan Project (Phase 1) - Lagunbyin Water Supply System
The Lagunbyin water supply system in the eastern suburbs was selected as the Japanese ODA loan
project (Phase 1), supplying water to the eastern part of Yangon and Thilawa Special Economic Zone
(SEZ). 40 MGD water treatment plant (WTP) is being constructed by YCDC with the assistance of
JICA and the detailed design of the associated transmission/ distribution pumps and pipes started in
2015 under Japanese ODA loan project (see the Figure 1-1).

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Source: Phase 1 FS
Figure 1-1 Outline of Japanese ODA Loan Project (Phase1)

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1.1.4 Feasibility Studies Regarding Kokkowa Water Supply System


Two separate studies for development of Kokkowa system were conducted with the finance of China
and Korea. Zone 9 was considered as supply area in both studies while Zone 1 is also included in one
study. However, the results of these studies have not been utilized by YCDC except locations of the
intake and WTP sites, and subsequently YCDC requested JICA a feasibility study of the Kokkowa
water supply system including development of water supply system of Zone 9 and modernization of
water supply system in Zone 1.

Development of the Kokkowa water supply system including Zone 9 and Zone 1 is being dealt in this
study to produce materials for appraisal of ODA loan (Phase 2). However distribution facilities in
Zone 9 will be constructed and financed by YCDC.

The contents of this Study covers the 1st stage Kokkowa water supply system proposed in the MP,
which is planned to be constructed in 3 stages; 60 MGD each in the 1st and 2nd stages and 120 MGD
in the 3rd stage. The 1st stage of the Kokkowa system was proposed in the MP with the target of water
demand in 2022. The developed water in the 1st stage was to be transmitted to the city center (Zone 1)
and Hlaing Tharyar TS (Zone 9) located in the western part of Yangon (See the “Location Map” in the
beginning of this report).

1.2 Outline of Phase 2 Project

(1) Objectives
The project aims at improving water supply services to meet the increasing water demand by using
raw water from the Kokkowa River and constructing a new WTP and construction and rehabilitation
of associated transmission and distribution facilities, which in turn will contribute to the improvement
of living environment and economic development of Yangon City.

(2) Scope
The scope of Phase 2 project includes construction of intake facilities to use raw water from the
Kokkowa River and construction of WTP and associated transmission and distribution facilities for
Zone 1 and Zone 9.

a) For Zone 1
・ Intake facility/ Water treatment plant (40 MGD)
・ Transmission pipe (19.9 km including 0.6 km river crossing)
・ District metered area (37 Nos.)
・ Distribution reservoir (2 Nos.)
・ Distribution main pipe (61.4 km)
・ Distribution pipe (430.3 km)

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b) For Zone 9
・ Intake facility
・ Water treatment plant (20 MGD)
・ Transmission pipe (21.4 km)
・ District metered area (23 Nos.)
・ Distribution reservoir (1 No.)
・ Distribution main pipe (43.2 km)
・ Distribution pipe (636.9 km)

(3) Implementing Organization


Engineering Department (Water and Sanitation), Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC)

(4) Assistance Activities Related to The JICA Project


・ Japanese ODA Loans (Japanese ODA-loan) for “Greater Yangon Water Supply Improvement
Project (Phase-1)”
・ Japanese Technical Cooperation for “The Project for Improvement of Water Supply
Management of YCDC”
・ Advisor on Water Supply and Sanitation Improvement in Yangon City

1.3 Outline of This Study

(1) Study Objectives


JICA study team is to firstly study and analyze the background, objectives and scope of the Project to
decide whether the Project is necessary or not. If the Project is confirmed necessary, JICA study team
is to study on appraisal items required for implementing the Project under the ODA loan project, such
as objectives, scope, cost, implementation schedule, implementation method (procurement and
construction), implementing organization, operation and maintenance organization, environmental
and social considerations, and so on. However, the Study itself does not mean that JICA promises
ODA loan to Myanmar counterpart.

(2) Study Method and Schedule


“The project for the improvement of water supply, sewerage and drainage system in Yangon city” was
conducted from 2012 to 2014 by JICA. It includes the preparation of water supply MP (2014 JICA
Water MP) and feasibility study of Zone 1. In this study, JICA study team has reviewed the MP and
updated in terms of future population, reflecting the 2014 census to confirm future water demand and
water balance in Yangon. Based on the updated demand, facility plan of Zones 1 and 9 was
formulated and compiled as Interim Report 1 and Interim Report 2. Considering the comments in the
Interim Reports and outcome of financial analysis, Draft Final Report was prepared and submitted.
Subsequently, the Final Report was prepared and submitted based on the result of all the study

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outcomes and considering comments of counterpart on the Draft Final Report.

Table 1-2 Report Submission


Report Schedule Contents
Review of future water demand and water balance, and
Interim Report 1 August 2015
Facility plan (including cost scale)
Interim Report 2 February 2016 Outline design of facilities (including cost scale)
Draft Final Report April 2016 All study outcome
All study outcome considering comments of counterpart on draft
Final Report February 2017
final report

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CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF YANGON CITY

In this chapter, characteristics of Yangon city are described using the 2014-JICA Water MP.

2.1 Natural Condition

2.1.1 Topography
Yangon city is situated at 34 km inland from the mouth of the Yangon River which traverses parts of
the Ayeyarwady delta. The relief of the city varies from flat plains to lowland hills in the central part
as shown in the following Figure. Flat plains are extensive and occur mostly in the eastern and
western parts as wide flat bottoms along the rivers. These flat lands is formed by delta deposits, areas
of which are swampy and are almost occupied by paddy fields with elevation between about 3 m (10
ft) to 6 m (20 ft) above mean sea level.

Yangon city has, in the center, lowland hills


commonly known as the faulty zone ponds
with artificial dams namely Kandawgyi
Lake, Inya Lake, Hlawga Reservoir, Gyobyu
Reservoir and Phugyi Reservoir which used
to be or are main sources of water supply
system for YCDC. There are three service
reservoirs are located on the hills. A long
and narrow spur of Pegu Yomas in the
central area runs almost in N-S direction
with an average height of 30 m (100 ft) and
slopes gradually into flat plains towards east
and west.

Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 2-1 Topography in Yangon Region

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2.1.2 Geology
The geological Map of Yangon area is presented
in following Figure. The geological structure of
the city is attributed to moderate lowland hills.
The rocks of the Tertiary age contain well-
consolidated marine sandstone and shale of the
Pegu Group and semi-consolidated, continental
deltaic and marginal marine deposits of the
Ayeyarwady Formation.

The synclinal valley west of the Yangon anticlinal


ridge is filled with unconsolidated water laid
deposit of Quaternary age.

Delta sediments consist of sands and gravels,


remarkably free from clayey materials and lies
upon the eroded surface of Ayeyarwady Series.
Recent alluvium consists of gravels, clay, silt and
laterite. These deposits are widely distributed
surrounding the main City area.
Source: Win Naing,1970

The result of geological survey in target site is Figure 2-2 Geological Map of Yangon Area
shown in the Appendix-4.

2.1.3 Meteorology
(1) Climate
Yangon has a tropical monsoon climate which consists of three seasons as listed below. It has an
annual rainfall of 2,700 mm, annual evaporation of 1,347 mm, average temperature of 27.4 oC,
maximum mean temperature of 33 oC, and minimum mean temperature of 21.8 oC.
- Summer season: March–mid May
- Rainy season: mid May–October
- Dry season: October–February

(2) Temperature
The following Figure shows the mean maximum and minimum temperatures in Yangon City
(1991-2008). The difference between the monthly maximum and monthly minimum temperatures is
more than 20 C from December through February and around 10 C from June through August.

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Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 2-3 Mean Maximum and Minimum Temperature in Yangon City (1991-2008)

(3) Rainfall
The following Figure shows the mean monthly rainfall from 2001 to 2008 in Yangon (Kaba Aye).
From the graph, the annual mean rainfall is 2,700 mm. About 95% of the total annual rainfall occurs
during the rainy season from May to October.

Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 2-4 Mean Monthly Rainfall (Yangon: Kaba Aye, 1991-2008)

2.1.4 Hydrology
(1) Rivers
The following Figure shows a map which contains the rivers surrounding Yangon City. Yangon City
lies at the confluence of the Bago River and the Hlaing River. The two rivers downstream of the
confluence is called as the Yangon River, which is connected to the Gulf of Mottama. The Pan Hlaing
River and Twantay Canal, which converge and flow downstream the Yangon River, as well as the
Kokkowa River which connects with the Hlaing River, all obtain its water from the Ayeyarwady River.
Kokkowa, Pan Hlaing and Toe Rivers are candidate water sources for the expansion of Yangon City’s
water demand expected to increase in the future.

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Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 2-5 Map Showing The Rivers Surrounding Yangon

(2) Potential Water Sources


The result of water source survey on the MP is shown in the Appendix 2.

(3) Salinity Intrusion


The rivers mentioned are all tidal rivers. During dry season when the river flow is low, salt water
intrusion occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to consider salt water intrusion when developing potential
water source. As salt water intrusion is possible in the area of performance around Yangon, the
following Figure shows the salinity position having 1000 ppm concentration (circled in red) from
2009 to 2011.

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At the proposed location of intakes along Kokkowa and Toe rivers, no problem related to salinity is
expected based on MP.

Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 2-6 Salt Water Intrusion in The Rivers Surrounding Yangon City

(4) Tides
The following Table shows available tidal information taken from the Myanmar Port Authority (MPA).
Data in the following Table indicates that tidal observations have not been carried out since several
years ago. The information is based on past observation records at Yangon Port (Sule Pagoda Wharf)
and river mouth of Yangon River (Elephant point). At Yangon Port, highest high water level (HHWL)
including tidal condition is +6.74 m, and mean water level (MWL) is + 3.121 m. Ground elevation is
normally assumed as MWL, and the difference between HHWL and MWL around Yangon port is
approximately + 3.619 m (= HHWL + 6.74 – MWL + 3.121 m) on ground elevation basis.

Table 2-1 Tidal Information in Yangon Port


Items Tidal Height (m) Observed Dates
Highest High Water Level (HHWL) +6.74 September 1899
Mean Water Level (MWL) +3.121 Up to 1936
Lowest Low Water Level at Bo Aung Kyaw Street
-0.24 December 1902
Wharf
Indian Spring Low Water Mark +0.338 -
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

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2.1.5 Hydrogeology
From the study on groundwater potential
(see the following Figure) in 2002 JICA-M/P,
the followings are concluded;
Groundwater potential is low in the
central hilly areas.
Iron contents might be high in
groundwater in areas adjacent to
hilly areas.
Groundwater potential is high in the
remaining low land areas.
Groundwater potential is very high
along the rivers.
Salinity might be high in
groundwater in CBD area.

Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 2-7 Groundwater Potential in Yangon City

2.2 Wastewater Management Services

2.2.1 Existing Wastewater Management Services


Wastewater management practices in Yangon are categorized into sewerage, septic tank, pour flush
toilet, and other non-sanitary facilities. According to the “Water Supply Improvement Project Study
for Yangon City and Pathein City, 2014”, only a tiny portion of the population, as small as 7.3 % of
total population is benefitted by sewerage services. Most of the middle and high class houses, public
and commercial buildings are provided with mainly septic tanks, and low income houses in the
peripheral areas are provided with various kinds of toilets without treatment.

The existing sewerage system was originally constructed in 1890 which collects only toilet
wastewater (black water), and gray water is discharged to the nearby drains without any treatment.
The ejector system is used in collection of sewage that has been utilized continuously with periodical
modifications for approximately 120 years. Service area covers 8 townships in CBD. The ejector

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system consists of two compressor stations, a number of ejector stations and two force mains which
run in east-west direction in the service area. Originally 40 ejector stations were constructed and 34
stations are in service at present (see the following Figure). The current situation of wastewater
treatment not only brings forth deteriorated living conditions but also involves potential health risks.

Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 2-8 Sewerage System in Yangon City

2.2.2 Outline of Development Policies on The MP


As for wastewater treatment including sewerage, existing YCDC organization is not capable enough to
undertake full scale development, operation and management. Legal and regulatory framework
concerning wastewater treatment and water environment has not been developed properly, and
accordingly a firm basis for development and provision of finance is not evident. With these
conditions into consideration, establishment of institutional framework towards full-scale development,
staged efforts for the securement of financial resources, and basic policies for development with due
concern to phased employment of and/or shift among various wastewater treatment techniques for
realizing cost-effective treatment are indispensable for realizing efficient wastewater treatment
development.

Based on the above discussion, basic policies and a road map are articulately presented for each time
phase, i.e. short term up to FY 2025, middle term up to FY 2040, and long term from FY 2040 on, and
for each development items are listed below. Outline of development policies is illustrated in the
following Figure.

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Short term Middle term Long term
Target year
Development - FY 2025 - FY 2040 FY 2040 -
items

• Utilization of JICA Vision and M/P • Human resource developme nt by YCDC • Independent management
Institutional strengthening • Formulation of organization staff trained in the short term period • Revision of M/P by YCDC (for
Sewerage plan (construction, management, Development of related legal system • Preparation of sewerage development efficient development)
finance) • Invitation of experts and engineers plan by YCDC • Continuous facility and business
from advance d ountries • Time of full-scale sewerage expansion management system
for institutional framework

• Preparation of various basic policies


Development polcies

• Establishment of Sewerage Law,


Establishment of laws • Implementati on laws and expansion of enforcement regulations
sewerage ordinace, regulation
• Strengthening of supervision by regulation laws
concerning development activities,
regulation for industrial effluent, etc.

• No.1 projects by Japanese government • Implement sewerage development projects • Expansion of areas serviced by
loan with technical assistance in sevaral districts simultaneously sewerage system
Sewerage developmet plan
• Implementati on of C1 and W1 sewerage • Target of 50% sewerage service ratio in • Up-grading of wasterwater treatment to
zones as much as possible terms of population in 2040 sewerage system finally

• Utilization of Japanes e government • Sewerage deveolpme nt by


• Utilization of Japanese government
loan, etc. independent finacial sources
Finacial resources for development loan, etc.
• Revenue of sewerage service charge • Revenue of sewerage service charge
and government subsidies and government subsidies

Pit latrine Se parate sewerage system


De velopment of inte rceptor sewerage Note 1 with individual conne ction
In the sewerage planned areas ( - FY 2040) Exis ting septic tank

Improve d s eptic tank Note 2 or on-s ite compact tre atmeent fcilitie s (johkasou)
2-8

wastewater treatment facilities


Development policies for

Pit latrine Se parate sewerage system


Out of the sewerage planned areas (FY 2040 - ) with individual conne ction
Existing septic tank Improve d s eptic tank Note 2 or on-s ite compact tre atmeent fcilitie s (johkasou)

Es tablis hement of re gulation laws and Implme ntation of s upe rvision and its strengthening
initiation of de velopment s upervision Sewerage developme nt by private enterprises (such as in Malaysia)
Large-scale development areas
• Small sewerage system for housing development, say community plant
• Indivi dual wasterwater treatment facility for larg-sized building such as johkas ou, etc.

Es tablishement of re gulation laws and Stre ngthe ning of s upervision


Measures against industrial effluent initiation of de velopment s upervision
Installation of pretreatment facility for the connection to sewerage

Note 1: For the time being, increase of sewerage service ratio is targeted by temporary sewerage development. In the case of focusing on the increase of wasterwater volume to be treated, the construction of
wastewater treatment plant will be progressed with interceptor system. On the contrary in the case of focusing on the improvemnet of nearby living environment, the construction of sewer network will be the
first priority, leaving wastewater treatment later. Anyway in both cases, enlightment acitivites to citizens' understanding concerning sewerage such as prevention of garbage dumping to sewer, and sewerage
charge (service charge or tax as evironmental imrovement fee) are indispensible.
Note 2: Basically, sptic tanks to be newly installed are to be improved type capable of treating gray water as well as black water and improved type will be introduced at the time of rebuilding of buildings or

FINAL REPORT
redevelopment of the area for the existing buildings in exsting urbanized areas for which improved sptic tank cannot be installed right now technically.

Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 2-9 Basic Development Policies Concerning Wastewater Treatment
Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) FINAL REPORT

2.2.3 Priorities of Tasks To Be Implemented by YCDC


YCDC is supposed to go ahead with the development of wastewater treatment systems and facilities
based on the above-mentioned development policies with the cooperation and support of JICA, etc. In
order to realize quick development and early commencement of the operation of wastewater treatment
systems, however, various tasks are to be implemented efficiently prior to construction of treatment
system. These required tasks are articulately listed as shown in the following Table.

Table 2-2 List of Tasks to be Implemented by YCDC and Their Priorities


Priority
Tasks to be implemented by YCDC 1 5
High 2 3 4 Low
1. Land acquisition or its outlook
2. Preparation of policies on sewerage service operation
a. Study on management organization for sewerage service (Administration,
planning, and operation and maintenance)
b. Role sharing for sewerage services between YCDC and townships
c. Study on the method of securing of financial sources for construction upon
consultation with national and regional governments
d. Study on service charge system for sewerage
e. Enactment of local ordinance for sewerage charge
3. Basic policies on related laws and coordination with national government
a. Study on existing related laws and regulations
b. Drafting of legal systems for environment and wastewater treatment and
consultation with national government
c. Basic policies of laws and regulation concerning environment and wastewater
treatment and consultation with national government
4. Drafting of sewerage-related laws and regulations and consultation with national
government
a. Study on framework of Sewerage Law
b. Drafting of Sewerage Law and consultation with national government
c. Request to national government for the enactment of Sewerage Law
d. Drafting of Sewerage Ordinances by YCDC and townships and consultation
among them
e. Enactment of Sewerage Ordinances
5. Study on environmental and effluent standards and consultation with national
government
a. Drafting of ambient water quality standards
b. Study on laws and regulation concerning solid waste treatment related to
sludge treatment
c. Consultation with national and regional governments, academics, and
entrepreneurs
d. Drafting of uniform effluent standards and request to national government for
enactment
e. Drafting of more stringent local effluent standards by YCDC and its enactment
6. Study on law and regulation for other wastewater treatment facilities and
establishment of subsidizing system
a. Study on methods for improving septic tanks
b. Study on laws and regulations for Johkaso and septic tanks (Structural
standards) and consultation with national government
c. Study on subsidizing system for septic tank improvement and Johkaso
installation
7. Basic policies concerning laws and regulations for development activities and
consultation with national government
a. Study on regulation required and items to be requested for cooperation to
developers
b. Coordination with City Planning Act concerning regulation and consultation
with national government
c. Study on regulation ordinance for developing activities concerning sewerage
and its enactment
8. Enactment of ordinance concerning the receipt of industrial effluent to sewerage
system
a. Water quality survey for industrial effluent for types of industries
b. Consultation with interested parties such as national and regional governments,
other departments of YCDC, and entrepreneurs
c. Enactment of ordinance for the receipt of industrial effluent to sewerage
system
9. PR to citizens concerning sewerage and wastewater treatment

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Priority
Tasks to be implemented by YCDC 1 5
High 2 3 4 Low
a. Preparation of general enlightening materials, introduction of various related
systems
b. Holding of explanation meeting for citizens
10. Procedures towards system commencement and project advancement
a. Procedures and preparation of sewerage ledgers, daily and monthly reports for
operation
b. Preparation of water quality management plan
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

2.3 Current State of Poverty Group

It is important to ensure sufficient and safe water supply to all household, and water tariff collection
system be established with appropriate consideration to poverty level. The poverty threshold in
Yangon used to identify poor people is defined as the earning of US$3 per day (equivalent to 100,000
kyat per month). This amount is considered as the minimum expenses required for survival on food
and non-food commodities mentioned in 2013 JICA Urban Development Plan and JICA-HIS.

According to 2013 JICA-HIS, estimated average household income is 175,000 kyat per month in
Yangon region area and the poor people comprise about 18 % of all household.

Unit rate for domestic water supply is 88 kyat/m3 for metered customers. According to YCDC
officials (Water and Sanitation Department), average cost to have a new water supply connection in a
household is around 100,000 kyat, consisting of 50,000 kyat for permit fee for new connection and
50,000 kyat for plumbing work. Based on the unit rate of 88 kyat/m3, average household expense for
water supply is estimated at 1,289 kyat per month assuming household size of 4.4 persons/household
and unit water consumption of 111 lpcd, whereas the flat rate for unmetered customers is set at 1,800
kyat per month.

An international report by OECD1 states that national and international affordability criteria are often
quoted around 3% to 5% of household income. Taking 75,000 kyat per month for the approximate
average income among poor households, the above mentioned water supply expense (1,289 – 1,800
kyat per month) accounts for 1.7% - 2.4%. The current water tariff level is considered at affordable
level among poor households.

1
“Managing Water for All – An OECD Perspective on Pricing and Financing” OECD, March 2009

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Source: 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan


Figure 2-10 Monthly Household Income

Table 2-3 Monthly Household Income

Source: 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan

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CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF MASTER PLAN

Following a brief description of the outline of the water supply MP (2014 JICA Water MP) in section
1, the MP was reviewed in section 2. The population data of 2011 used in the MP was estimated and
not reliable. Now the reliable data of 2014 census data, is available and the study team compared the
census data with the data used in the MP in order to confirm whether the planning framework is still
valid or need to be modified. After the review, the study team has confirmed that the framework is
still valid with some minor modifications.

After the confirmation, water allocation up to 2040, target year of the MP, is revised in the third
section and necessity of the project is described in the fourth section. The revised water allocation is
almost the same as in the MP with some numbers changed and the study team has confirmed on the
necessity of the 60 MGD Kokkowa system till 2025, target year of this feasibility study.

3.1 Outline of The Master Plan

3.1.1 Major Technical Issues of Water Supply Service


The water supply services in Yangon commenced in 1842, and they cover extensively the central
Yangon now. However, the existing water supply system cannot cover the vast suburban areas fully so
that the water coverage ratio is still as low as 40 % below. As a result, many people are using
less-reliable groundwater, rain water and pond water. In addition, transmission and distribution pipes
have not been rehabilitated properly resulting in large quantity of non-revenue water. Water supply
hours are not continuous; water supply pressures are low.

The followings are identified as major technical issues:


・ Low water coverage
・ High non-revenue water ratio
・ Poor water quality
・ Ageing of facilities
・ Inappropriate layout of facilities
・ Insufficient of operation and maintenance of facilities

3.1.2 Service Level Targets


Overall service level targets are set in the MP as shown below.

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Table 3-1 Overall Service Level Target


2011
Item By Area Unit Year 2018 Year 2025 Year 2040
(Present)
Service YCDC 38 48 58 80
%
Coverage rate Region 35 41 49 69
Served YCDC 1.93 2.74 3.76 6.81
Million
Population Region 1.93 2.74 3.92 8.09
YCDC 95 117 135 178
Per Capita Domestic
Region LPCD 95 117 133 173
Consumption
Non-domestic 40 % of total consumption
Water Pressure MPa 0.075 - More than 0.15 MPa
Supply Duration Hour 8 on average - 24
Water Quality Improvement - Not drinkable Drinkable
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

3.1.3 Non-revenue Water Ratio


Present (2013) non-revenue water ratio on the MP is estimated as 66 % in Yangon. YCDC has
intention to reduce it and the target level is set as 15 % in 2040. Target levels of leakage with
non-revenue water are shown in the Table below at 5 years interval.

Table 3-2 Target Level of Non-revenue Water Ratio and Leakage Ratio
Items 2013 2018 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
Non-revenue Water
66 51 46 35 26 20 15
Ratio (%)
Leakage Ratio (%) 50 37 33 25 18 13 10
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

3.1.4 Population and Water Demand


(1) Population
Population estimated under the 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan was used for the water master
plan.

(2) Water Demand


Water demand is estimated as shown in Table below. Daily maximum demand in 2025 and 2040 is
272 MGD and 543 MGD for Yangon City (YCDC area).

Table 3-3 Water Demand in Yangon City


Items Year 2011 2025 2040
Population person 5,142,128 6,463,609 8,519,527
Served Population Person 1,933,689 3,764,310 6,810,338
Water Coverage Rate % 38 58 80
Unit Consumption Lpcd 95 135 178
Leakage Rate % 50 25 10
Daily Average Water Demand m3/day 611,952 1,125,773 2,242,961
Daily Maximum Water Demand m3/day 673,148 1,238,351 2,467,258
Daily Average Water Demand MGD 135 248 493
Daily Maximum Water Demand MGD 148 272 543
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

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3.1.5 Water Source


(1) Current Water Source
The maximum water demand per day in Yangon City in 2025 and 2040 are 272 MGD and 543 MGD,
respectively. On the other hand, existing reservoirs source is 215 MGD. Therefore, the development
of potential water source from river is required to meet water demand in 2025 and 2040. About 8
MGD of groundwater is used for YCDC water supply system. However, groundwater abstraction need
to be gradually reduced and considered only as back-up sources as surface water will be developed in
the future.

Table 3-4 List of Existing Water Resources (Reservoirs)


Water Source Capacity
Name Remark
m3/day MGD
Gyobyu Reservoir (Surface water) 123,000 27
Phugyi Reservoir (Surface water) 245,000 54
Hlawga Reservoir (Surface water) 64,000 14
Ngamoeyeik Reservoir (Surface 45 MGD (Phase 2) commissioned in
410,000 90
water) 2013.
Excluding 10 MGD for Thilawa SEZ.
Lagunbyin Reservoir (Surface water) 135,400 30
Will be commissioned in 2018.
Total 977,400 215 Excluding 10 MGD for Thilawa SEZ.
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

Table 3-5 Planned Groundwater Source


2011 2020 2025 2030 2040
Intake volume (MGD) 8 8 0 0 0
Intake volume (m3/day) 36,000 36,000 0 0 0
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

(2) Future Water Source


New sources are sought to meet the increased demand. Abstraction of water from the nearest rivers is
not feasible due to either high level of salinity in river water or small water quantity, and consequently
the Kokkowa and Toe Rivers were selected. Firstly, the water supply system using water from
Kokkowa River will be developed due to nearness to Yangon and favorable water quality than the Toe
River.

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Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 3-1 Staged Water Source Development on The MP

3.1.6 Policy of Water Supply Plan


(1) Target Area
Target areas of MP are greater Yangon (YCDC 33 Township and part of surrounding 6 Townships
including Thilawa SEZ). Water sources and transmission facilities are developed for the Greater
Yangon.

(2) Policy of Improvement of Water Supply


In order to solve the problems in water supply facilities of YCDC and achieve improvement in water
supply services, the water supply facilities are planned based on the policies mentioned below.

Table 3-6 Policies to Achieve Improvement Target of Water Supply Condition


Target items New Facilities Existing Facilities
・ New development of river surface
1. Increase of the water and new construction of water ・ Abandon the use of groundwater
water service treatment plant (Water from intake (Maintain it as backup water
coverage reservoir: Lagunbyin R., Water from resource)
river: Kokkowa river and Toe river)
・ Rationalization of transmission and
distribution facilities including
・ Rationalization of transmission and division of transmission and
distribution facilities including distribution function
2. Achievement of
division of transmission and ・ Enhancement of transmission and
24 hr water
distribution function distribution capacity
supply with
・ Improvement of transmission and ・ Rehabilitation of the existing Central
appropriate water
distribution capacity S/R and the existing Kokine S/R
pressure
・ Establishment of distribution ・ Replacement of the existing pumps
facilities in 10 Zones due to rationalization of distribution
・ Abolishment of the existing Yegu
booster P/S

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Target items New Facilities Existing Facilities


・ Installation of chlorination
3. Provision of the equipment in Hlawga
・ Rehabilitation of Gyobyu WTP
treated water ・ Chlorination in new service reservoir
・ Rehabilitation of Nyaunghnapin WTP
with chlorination ・ Establishment of water quality
control center
・ Establishment of DMA in the served
・ Establishment of DMA, Utilization of
4. Reduction of area
SCADA
Leakage Ratio ・ Installation of water meter in all
・ Scheduled replacement of the old
(from 50 % to household
pipes in accordance with the
10 %) ・ Establishment of distribution
establishment of DMA
management center
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

3.1.7 Water Supply Facility Plan

(1) Introduction of 3-Tier Water Distribution System


The water supply method to city center is currently direct distribution system except in south of the
city. The transmission and distribution water amount from WTP and SR is certain fixed volume.
Therefore, in the peak time of water demand, water is consumed in the areas near WTP or SR and
shortage of water occurs in remote places or high altitude areas.

In order to implement equal water supply and non-revenue water control, the 3-tier water distribution
system which consists of transmission from WTP to SR, transmission from SR to DMA and
distribution within DMA to house connection is proposed. The conceptual diagram is shown in Figure
below. The isolation between transmission and distribution function is planned by this 3-tier water
distribution system. Water supply to households from transmission pipes which connect between WTP
and SR is abolished and distribution is implemented from distribution branch pipes in DMA.
Transmission pipes (from WTP to SR) and distribution main pipes (from SR or distribution P/S to
DMA) are set as the specialized pipes.

Since the distribution zones are set up and SR for each zone is planned, the water supply system
corresponds to time fluctuation of water demand. Furthermore, DMA is set up by dividing distribution
zones, to monitor and control the transmission water amount to each distribution zone and water flow
to DMA in distribution zone. Equal water supply and appropriate water pressure are secured by
monitoring and control of water flow between steps. Distribution management is enabled by SCADA
which is a tool of monitoring and control of these items.

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Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 3-2 Conceptual Diagram of 3-Tier Water Distribution System

(2) Creation of Distribution Zone


Whole city is divided into several distribution zones with consideration to topographic condition and
water demand. In each distribution zone, SR is constructed and enough capacity to meet the peak
water demand is secured, it is possible to supply the required amount of water in the peak time of
demand and it finally aims to achieve 24 hours water supply. If 24 hours water supply is actualized,
people will be able to remove private wells, private pumps and roof tanks and it prevents intrusion of
contaminants due to negative pressure in the pipes, thus, it is possible to achieve safe water supply. In
order to secure water supply pressure in distribution zones, the water supply to low altitude area is
done through gravity flow and distribution is done by pumping up to high altitude area.

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(3) Setting Up of DMA


Inside distribution zone, the area is segmented into several blocks of appropriate scale and DMAs are
set up. The inlet pipe to DMA is only one in principle and water pressure and inlet water amount are
monitored and controlled, and then, equal water supply is planned. Another purpose of DMA is
Non-revenue water control. It is easy to calculate non-revenue water by comparison between inlet
water amount to DMA and water consumption in DMA. Commencement of Non-revenue water
control from DMA that has high ratio of non-revenue water is effective method. The DMAs are set up
depending on the pipelines condition and road condition.

YCDC area is divided into 10 water distribution zones each of which has SR and distribution main
pipes leading to DMA with the zones. Water to the SR is conveyed through transmission pipes from
one of the WTP. Following Figure shows transmission facilities connecting the WTP and the SR in 10
Zones.

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Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 3-3 Planned Water Supply System in 2040

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3.2 Review of Planning Framework

YCDC will supply water only to YCDC area and will not supply to the surrounding 6 townships2.
Therefore, in this study, YCDC area or Yangon city is considered for the target area. When facilities
are constructed to cover the surrounding townships, consensus should be reached between the
regional government and YCDC in future. Water demand is reviewed and estimated through the
following procedures described hereafter. This procedure is the same as the MP.

Table 3-7 Review of Water Demand and Estimation Procedures of The MP


Procedure of Water
Item Sections Remarks
Demand Estimation
Population of Yangon
Describes estimation procedure of
3.2.1 Population population in Greater Yangon
Growth including Yangon city in the
2013-JICA Urban Development Plan.
Population in Yangon city estimated
3.2.2 Current
in the above plan is employed after
Population and
comparing with the census
Overall Population
population.
3.2.3 Population Township populations are revised
Township Population A
Allocation using that of the 2014 census.
Water Demand by Township
3.2.4 Water Demand
by Township
Service Coverage 3.2.4(2) Service Township service coverage ratio in
B
Ratio by Township Coverage Ratio 2014 is based on the census data
Served Population by 3.2.4(3) Served
C=AxB
Township Population
Reviewed using additional data from
Per Capita 3.2.4(4) Per Capita 2012 to 2014. Per Capita
D
Consumption Consumption Consumption is the sum total of
Domestic and Non-Domestic.
3.2.4(5) NRW ratio
Leakage Ratio E The targeted values of YCDC
and Leakage Ratio
Peak Factor 110% 3.2.4(6) Peak Factor Same as the MP
Maximum Water F = (C x D) / (1 – E) x 3.2.4(7) Water
demand 110% Demand Estimation
Water Demand by Supply Zone
Converting township 3.2.5 Water Demand Name and location of both township
water demand into by Water Supply and supply zone is shown in Figure
supply zone demand. Zone of page ii.
Source: 2014 JICA Study Team

2
Townships with TS codes 34 to 39 are the surrounding 6 townships shown in Figure 3-7.

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Future Population

Coverage rate

Served Population
Rate of Domestic Consumption and
Unit Domestic Consumption Non Domestic Consumption

Domestic Consumption Non-domestic Consumption

Consumption
Leakage Rate

Daily Average Demand

Peak Factor

Daily Maximum Demand

Source: 2014 JICA Water MP


Figure 3-4 Flow Chart of Water Demand Estimation

3.2.1 Population Growth


Water supply MP was formulated under the framework of the Preparatory Study for Urban
Development Programme in the Greater Yangon (JICA) (2013-JICA Urban Development Plan). The
study areas of the MP and the development plan was Greater Yangon extending over an area of about
1,500 km2, covering YCDC area (784 km2, 33 townships) and parts of adjoining peripheral 6
townships (Kyauktan, Thanlyin, Hlegu, Hmawby, Htantabin and Twantay). Target year for both of the
plans is set as 2040 while that for feasibility study was set as 2025.

Due to absence of reliable data and anticipation of drastic economic development in future stimulated
by the economic liberalization policy of the Myanmar government, the framework (future population)
in the 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan was formulated based on

2011 estimated population and


resemblance to economic development experienced in the cities of the Southeast Asian
countries

The followings are the excerpts from the 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan;

“The JICA Study Team established appropriate socio-economic framework in Greater Yangon
through the examination of various alternatives for socio-economic development from the viewpoint
of different development scenarios.

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(1) Three Demographic Alternatives for Greater Yangon


In the projection of the future population of Greater Yangon, JICA Study Team prepared three
different scenarios using the examples from other Asian cities, e.g., the population growth rate in
Bangkok was 2.61% (1975-2000), the rate in Hanoi was 2.75% (1975-2000), and the rate in Jakarta
was 3.3% (1975-2000). These scenarios are low, middle, and high population growth scenarios,
respectively. The differences of urban growth rates are described in the following table.

Table Assumption of Future Population Growth Rate


Assumption of Annual Growth
Population Growth Scenario Rate Remarks
Low Scenario 2.4 % Less than the past trend of YCDC
Middle Scenario 2.6 % Past Trend of YCDC (Bangkok level)
High Scenario 3.3 % Jakarta level
Source: 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan

Table Population Growth Rate of Major Cities in Neighboring Countries (1975-2000)


City/Country Population Growth Rate
Bangkok/ Thailand 2.61 %
Hanoi Vietnam 2.75 %
Jakarta/ Indonesia 3.30 %
Source: ‘World Urbanization Prospect (The 2001 Revision)’, World Bank

The population volume in Bangkok City was 6.7 million in 2011 while the population in Bangkok
Metropolitan Area, consisting of not only Bangkok City but also the suburban area, was estimated to
be more than 10 million by the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB).
Industrial infrastructure in the eastern seaboard region such as road, railway, seaport, industrial port,
power, water resource, etc., namely the ‘Eastern Seaboard Development Program (ESDP)’ has
progressed remarkably from the 1980s era to the first half of the 1990s era. At the same period of the
progress of ESDP, the rapid rising yen after the Plaza Accord of 1985 has made the Japanese to invest
capital intensively in Thailand especially in the eastern seaboard region. Furthermore, the worldwide
huge production base has been formed with a central focus on the eastern seaboard region. The
appearance of huge production area has brought about absorbing redundant workers in Bangkok City
that have moved from the rural areas, and has influenced the formation of Bangkok Metropolitan Area
remarkably.

The period from the timing of the rapid rising yen to the present time is about 30 years which is the
same as the projection period of the socio-economic framework. Therefore, JICA Study Team assumed
that the future socio-economic scenario of Greater Yangon would be comparable to the past trend of
the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.

In consideration of the abovementioned circumstances, the ‘Middle Scenario’ is the recommendable


scenario to be adopted for deliberation through consultation with JICA Study Team and YCDC
officers.”

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The 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan envisages that Yangon will have extensive economic
development and, proposed sub-centers and green islands system in the radius of 10 to 15 km from
the CBD as shown in Figure 3-5. Urbanization has been taking place in agricultural land and “under
developing” land. These lands are planned to use for developing housing, etc. Planned land use for
2025 is shown in Figure 3-6.

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Source: 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan


Figure 3-5 Planned City Center/ Town Core Area and Main Infrastructure in 2040

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Source: 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan


Figure 3-6 Future Urban Structure and Land Use of Greater Yangon

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3.2.2 Current Population and Overall Population


The 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan used 2011 population as the base population for future
population estimates. The 2011 population was estimated by the Myanmar side in absence of census
data that was available only for 1983. The population in the Greater Yangon was estimated to increase
from 5.57 million in 2011 to 11.73 million in 2040 while for Yangon city it will increase to 8.52
million in 2040 from 5.14 million in 2011.

In 2014, a national population and housing 2014 census was carried out and, Yangon city population
in 2014 is higher than that in 2011. This is remarkable looking at the 2014 national population in
Myanmar that decreased from those in 2011.

JICA study team has compared the 2014 census population with the 2014 projected population. The
projected populations were calculated using the annual growth rate of 2.6 % for Greater Yangon in the
urban development plan. Using the annual growth rates of 1.6 % for Yangon city that were derived
from comparison of populations between 2011 and 2018, population was projected for 2014. Overall,
the projected population in 2014 is higher than the 2014 census population by 3 % (Following Table).

Table 3-8 Estimated Population in 2011 and 2014


Annual growth rate 2014 (Projected in
Items 2011 used in the urban the urban 2014 (Census)
development plan development plan)
Yangon city 5,142,128 1.6 % 5,392,920 5,211,431
Peripheral 6 townships
430,114 11.5 % 597,346 N/A.
(Part)
Greater Yangon 5,572,242 2.6 % 5,808,266 N/A.
Source: 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan for 2011 and Census for 2014

JICA study team considers that the base population and the economic development scenario used in
Yangon can be effective and estimated total population with an annual growth rate of 2.6 % can be
used in this study for the following reasons;
・ This 2.6 % was set formally expecting economic development in Yangon and Myanmar based on
the similar economic development taken place in the Southeast Asian nations.
・ The population estimated in the urban development plan is widely used for not only the water
sector but also for other sectors and, therefore the same population had better be used for all
sectors.
・ The margin of difference between the projected population and the census population in 2014 is
minimal by 3 %. It is difficult to estimate future growth rate accurately so that we cannot forecast
this 3 % may increase or decrease in future. Therefore, it is too early to change the projected
figures.
・ If population needs to be revised reflecting on the actual population, it should not be revised in a
short-term basis but in a medium or long-term basis, say every 10 years.

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If trend of future development differs from the future development scenario adopted in this study, e.g.
population growth rates becomes low, estimated water demand will become lower. That means the
estimated water demand in a specific year will be deferred by some years, depending on actual
population growth. The projected water demand in 2025, for example, will become a water demand in
some years after 2025 and the proposed 60 MGD Kokkowa system can eventually be utilized.

3.2.3 Population Allocation


The urban development plan allocated the increased population of 6.16 million between 2011 and
2040 in the Greater Yangon, taking into account of developable areas and land use. As a result,
increased population was allocated extensively to developing areas, “New Suburbs Zone” and
peripheral 6 townships and not in the existing built-up areas.

Township group population was calculated using the annual growth rates that were derived from the
comparison of those in 2011 and 2018, and is shown in the following Table. The projected township
group populations are larger than the 2014 census populations except in New Suburbs zone.

Table 3-9 Township Group Population in 2014 by Urban Development Plan and 2014 census
(Unit: 1,000 persons)
(B) Calculated Annual 2014
Growth rate between Projected using 2014
Township Group 1998 (A) 2011
2011 and 2018 in the the growth rate of Census
Urban Development Plan (A) x (B)
CBD 256 252 0.03 % 253 225
Outer Ring Zone 598 596 0.17 % 599 525
Inner Urban Ring 664 848 0.27 % 855 764
Older Suburbs Zone 689 778 0.40 % 788 715
South of CBD 103 220 3.59 % 244 207
Northern Suburbs 595 805 2.20 % 860 835
New Suburbs Zone 687 1,642 2.89 % 1,788 1,940
Yangon city Total 3,592 5,142 1.59 % 5,391 5,211
6 suburban TSs (all) - 1,072 7.18 % 1,320 1,289
Grand Total - 6,214 2.60 % 6,711 6,500
6 suburban TSs (part) - 430 11.57 % 926 N/A.
Source: 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan and 2014 census

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Note: Light green color areas indicate YCDC controlled area and light pink plus light green area is Greater Yangon
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP
Figure 3-7 Greater Yangon Area and YCDC Area (33 townships)

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Note: City center is composed of CBD (Orange color), IUR (Light blue color) and a part of ORZ (Light yellow color) areas
Source: 2014-JICA Water MP
Figure 3-8 Township Group in YCDC Area

Future population in each township are either the projected population in the urban development plan
or population in the 2014 census that is lower than the projected population. Then, decreased number
of population is allocated to the New Suburban Zone.
The revision is made in the following manners;
・ Firstly it is set that total projected population remains unchanged.
・ Future population in CBD and Inner Urban Ring Zones of the built-up areas is considered to be

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same as 2014 census population because population has continued decreasing since 1998 and has
been fixed as that in 2014 census.
・ (Inner Urban Ring Zone) Population in Dagon, Bahan and Dawbon is considered to be same as
2014 census population while the projected populations are employed in the remaining
townships.

Populations in Outer Ring Zone and Older Suburbs Zone of the built-up areas will increase slightly.
・ (Outer Ring Zone) Population in Yankin and Thingangyun is considered to be same as 2014
census population while the projected populations are employed in the remaining townships.
・ (Older Suburbs) Population in South Okkalapa and Thakayta is considered to be same as 2014
census population while the projected population is employed in North Okkalapa township.

Population in Northern Suburbs Zone, South of CBD and New Suburbs Zone will increase
considerably.
・ (Northern Suburbs) Population in Mayangon township is adjusted downward while the projected
population is employed in the remaining two townships.
・ (South of CBD) The projected population is employed.
・ (New Suburbs) The projected population, which is still lower than the 2014 census population, is
employed in the 4 townships in east Yangon. Population in Shwepyitha and Hlaing Tharyar
townships is considerably increased compared to the projected ones in Urban Development
Study.

As is shown in the following Figure, future increased population is allocated to the developing areas;
New Suburban Zone, Northern Suburban Zone and South of CBD Zones. The revised population is
given in the following Table.

9,000

8,000

7,000
New Suburbs Zone
6,000
Northern Suburbs
5,000 South of CBD

4,000 Older Suburbs Zone


Outer Ring Zone
3,000
Inner Urban Ring
2,000 CBD

1,000

0
2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 3-9 Revised Population Projection by Township Group

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Table 3-10 Revised Population of Township and Township Group in Yangon City
(Unit: 1,000 persons)
Area
No Township District 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Note
(km2)
1 Latha West 0.60 25 25 25 25 25 25 C
2 Lanmadaw West 1.31 47 47 47 47 47 47 C
3 Pabedan West 0.62 33 33 33 33 33 33 C
4 Kyauktada West 0.70 30 30 30 30 30 30 C
5 Botahtaung East 2.60 41 41 41 41 41 41 C
6 Pazuntaung East 1.07 48 48 48 48 48 48 C
CBD 6.91 225 225 225 225 225 225
7 Ahlon West 3.38 55 66 67 67 68 69 D
8 Kyimyindine West 4.46 112 124 129 135 141 149 D
9 Sangyoung West 2.40 100 106 106 107 108 108 D
10 Dagon West 4.89 25 25 25 25 25 25 C
11 Bahan West 8.47 97 97 98 98 99 99 C
12 Tamway East 4.99 165 193 193 195 196 197 D
Mingala
13 East 4.94 132 158 159 161 163 165 D
Taungnyunt
14 Seikkan West 1.17 3 3 3 3 3 3 D
15 Dawbon East 3.11 75 75 75 75 75 75 C
Inner Urban Ring 37.83 764 847 856 866 877 890
16 Kamayut West 6.47 85 91 94 96 99 103 D
17 Hline West 9.82 160 160 160 160 160 160 D
18 Yankin East 4.79 71 71 71 71 71 71 C
19 Thingangyun East 13.12 209 209 209 209 209 209 C
Outer Ring Zone 34.20 525 532 534 537 540 544
20 Mayangon West 25.83 198 207 208 213 218 223 R
21 Insein North 31.40 305 327 337 349 362 377 D
22 Mingaladon North 127.96 332 427 576 704 832 907 D
Northern
185.19 835 961 1,121 1,266 1,411 1,507
Suburbs
23 North Okkalapa East 27.76 333 355 369 385 403 423 D
24 South Okkalapa East 8.22 161 161 161 161 161 161 C
25 Thakayta East 13.45 221 221 221 221 221 221 C
Older Suburbs
49.42 715 736 750 766 785 805
Zone
26 Dala South 98.41 173 254 302 357 419 490 D
Seikkyi/
27 South 12.10 34 47 53 59 66 74 D
Khanaungto
South of CBD 110.51 207 301 354 416 485 564
28 Shwepyitha North 52.69 344 369 385 448 506 602 R
29 Hlaing Tharyar North 77.61 688 741 769 794 854 962 R
30 Dagon North East 24.18 204 237 247 259 272 287 D
31 Dagon South East 37.51 372 413 441 473 509 550 D
32 Dagon East East 170.87 166 390 552 736 945 1,183 D
33 Dagon Seikkan East 42.04 167 186 229 279 335 399 D
New Suburbs
404.90 1,940 2,335 2,623 2,988 3,421 3,985
Zone
Total 828.96 5,211 5,936 6,464 7,063 7,745 8,520 D
Note:
C: 2014 Census population is used for population in 2014 which is lower than the projected population in the Urban
Development Study.
D: The projected population in the Urban Development Study is employed for future population.
R: Population is re-allocated upward in Shwepyitha and Hlaing Tharyar townships while re-allocated downward in
Mayangon township,
Source: JICA Study Team

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3.2.4 Water Demand by Township


(1) Summary of Water Demand Estimation
Population and coverage ratio have been reviewed using the latest 2014 census results while per
capita consumption has been reviewed using the latest YCDC data (April 2012 to March 2015). As a
result, the frameworks used in the MP can be applicable with some modifications in this study. The
revised frameworks are shown in Table 3-11 together with other service level targets. For reference,
the frameworks used in the MP are presented in Table 3-12.

Table 3-11 Revised Water Demand and Service Level Targets for Yangon City
Item Unit/ Year 2014 2025 2040
Population 1,000 person 5,211 6,464 8,520
Served Population 1,000 person 1,845 3,618 6,661
Water Supply Coverage Ratio % 35 56 78
Unit Consumption (Domestic) City/suburbs* Lpcd 111/69 150/100 200/150
Unit Consumption (Non-domestic) Lpcd 74/46 100/67 133/100
City/suburbs*
Leakage Ratio % 50 25 10
Daily Average Water Demand 1,000 m3/day 643 1,072 2,174
Daily Maximum Water Demand 1,000 m3/day 708 1,179 2,391
Daily Average Water Demand MGD 142 237 477
Daily Maximum Water Demand MGD 156 258 525
Water Pressure MPa 0.075 More than 0.15Mpa
Supply Duration (average) Hour 8 24
Not
Water Quality - Drinkable
drinkable
Note: * The numbers in the Right are applied to South of CBD and New Suburbs Zone, and in the Left are for
other area.
Source: JICA Study Team

Table 3-12 Water Demand for Yangon City as per The MP (reference)
Item Year 2011 2025 2040
Population 1,000 person 5,142 6,464 8,520
Served Population 1,000 person 1,934 3,764 6,810
Water Supply Coverage Ratio % 38 58 80
Unit Consumption (Domestic) * Lpcd 95 150/100 200/150
Unit Consumption (Non-domestic) Lpcd 63 100/67 133/100
City/suburbs*
Leakage Ratio % 50 25 10
Daily Average Water Demand 1,000 m3/day 612 1,126 2,243
Daily Maximum Water Demand 1,000 m3/day 673 1,238 2,467
Daily Average Water Demand MGD 135 248 493
Daily Maximum Water Demand MGD 148 272 543
Water Pressure MPa 0.075 More than 0.15Mpa
Supply Duration (average) Hour 8 24
Not
Water Quality - Drinkable
drinkable
Note: * The numbers in the Right are applied to South of CBD and New Suburbs Zone, and in the Left are for
other area.
Source: 2014-JICA Water MP

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(2) Service Coverage Ratio


In the MP, the service coverage ratio of each township in 2011 was calculated using Household
Interview Survey data in 2012 (2013 JICA-HIS), which is used for the service coverage ratio for 2011
in that project. In the MP, service coverage ratio in 2040 is set as 80%.

The actual data in 2014 based on the census reflects a difference in coverage ratio by township. For
future forecast of the service coverage ratio to approach the target in 2040 set in the MP, increasing
rate of 2% per year is applied to the actual service coverage ratio of each township in 2014. In
addition, townships of Ahlon, Sangyoung, Kamayut and Hlaing Tharyar that have low actual coverage
ratio in Zone 1 and Zone 9 (target area in this Study, and see the Appendix-1), will not have high
coverage ratio in 2025 even if 2% increase per year is applied. Therefore, coverage ratio for these
townships is considered as about 45% in 2025 which is same as coverage ratio of Zone 7 and 8
(including 4 TSs; Dagon North, Dagon South, Dagon East and Dagon Seikkan) of Phase 1 project
under implementation, considering that these townships will also have same development pattern.

Using the population data in the 2014 census and the coverage ratio by township set above, the
service coverage ratio for Yangon city is estimated as 35 %, which is comparable to the coverage ratio
of 38 % in 2011 on the MP based on the 2013 JICA-HIS. With some adjustment in figures of a few
townships, the modified service coverage ratios of township is used for the target coverage ratio in
this Study as shown in the following Table. As a result, the coverage ratio in Yangon city is slightly
changed to 56 % in 2025 and 78 % in 2040 from the corresponding MP figures of 58 % in 2025 and
80 % in 2040, respectively. This decrease results from the fact that more population is allocated to the
developing areas where service coverage ratio is lower than the developed areas.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-10 Revised Water Supply Coverage Ratio by Township Group in Yangon City (%)

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Table 3-13 Revised Water Coverage Ratio by Township Group in Yangon City (%)
No Township 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
1 Latha 85 97 100 100 100 100
2 Lanmadaw 70 82 92 100 100 100
3 Pabedan 88 100 100 100 100 100
4 Kyauktada 96 100 100 100 100 100
5 Botahtaung 98 100 100 100 100 100
6 Pazuntaung 99 100 100 100 100 100
CBD 89 96 98 100 100 100
7 Ahlon 20 32 45 55 65 75
8 Kyimyindine 4 16 26 36 46 56
9 Sangyoung 14 26 45 55 65 75
10 Dagon 47 59 69 79 89 99
11 Bahan 86 98 100 100 100 100
12 Tamway 87 99 100 100 100 100
13 Mingala Taungnyunt 96 100 100 100 100 100
14 Seikkan 66 78 88 98 100 100
15 Dawbon 29 41 51 61 71 81
Inner Urban Ring 55 66 72 77 82 86
16 Kamayut 8 20 45 55 65 75
17 Hline 27 39 49 59 69 79
18 Yankin 89 100 100 100 100 100
19 Thingangyun 48 60 70 80 90 100
Outer Ring Zone 41 52 63 72 80 89
20 Mayangon 48 60 70 80 90 100
21 Insein 26 38 48 58 68 78
22 Mingaladon 30 42 52 62 72 82
Northern Suburbs 33 45 54 64 74 84
23 North Okkalapa 86 98 100 100 100 100
24 South Okkalapa 68 80 90 100 100 100
25 Thakayta 28 40 50 60 70 80
Older Suburbs Zone 64 77 83 88 92 95
26 Dala 10 22 32 42 52 62
27 Seikkyi/ Khanaungto 0 12 22 32 42 52
South of CBD 9 20 31 41 51 61
28 Shwepyitha 8 20 30 40 50 60
29 Hlaing Tharyar 3 15 45 55 65 75
30 Dagon North 34 46 56 66 76 86
31 Dagon South 25 37 47 57 67 77
32 Dagon East 16 28 38 48 58 68
33 Dagon Seikkan 14 26 36 46 56 66
New Suburbs Zone 14 26 42 51 61 71
Total 35 46 56 63 71 78
Source: 2014; Census data and 2020 to 2040; JICA Study Team

(3) Served Population


The served population up to 2040 is calculated using the coverage ratio and township population set
above and shown in the following Table and Figure. The served population in Yangon city area in
2025 will be 3.6 million, which is corresponding to an increase of 1.8 million from that in 2014 or two
times of that in 2014.

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Table 3-14 Revised Water Served Population by Township in Yangon City


(Unit: 1,000 persons)
No Township 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
1 Latha 21 24 25 25 25 25
2 Lanmadaw 33 39 43 47 47 47
3 Pabedan 29 33 33 33 33 33
4 Kyauktada 29 30 30 30 30 30
5 Botahtaung 40 41 41 41 41 41
6 Pazuntaung 48 48 48 48 48 48
CBD 200 215 220 224 224 224
7 Ahlon 11 21 30 37 44 51
8 Kyimyindine 4 20 34 48 65 83
9 Sangyoung 14 28 48 59 70 81
10 Dagon 12 15 17 20 22 25
11 Bahan 83 96 98 98 99 99
12 Tamway 144 191 194 195 196 197
13 Mingala Taungnyunt 128 158 159 161 163 165
14 Seikkan 2 2 2 3 3 3
15 Dawbon 22 31 38 46 53 61
Inner Urban Ring 420 562 620 667 715 765
16 Kamayut 7 18 42 53 65 77
17 Hline 43 63 79 95 111 127
18 Yankin 63 71 71 71 71 71
19 Thingangyun 101 126 147 168 189 209
Outer Ring Zone 214 278 339 387 436 484
20 Mayangon 96 124 146 171 196 224
21 Insein 79 124 162 202 246 294
22 Mingaladon 98 180 299 436 599 744
Northern Suburbs 273 428 607 809 1,041 1,262
23 North Okkalapa 287 348 369 385 403 424
24 South Okkalapa 110 129 145 161 161 161
25 Thakayta 61 88 110 132 154 176
Older Suburbs Zone 458 565 624 678 718 761
26 Dala 18 56 97 150 218 304
27 Seikkyi/ Khanaungto 0 6 12 19 28 39
South of CBD 18 62 109 169 246 343
28 Shwepyitha 29 74 115 179 253 361
29 Hlaing Tharyar 21 111 346 437 555 722
30 Dagon North 70 109 138 171 207 247
31 Dagon South 93 153 207 269 341 424
32 Dagon East 26 109 210 353 548 805
33 Dagon Seikkan 23 48 83 128 188 263
New Suburbs Zone 262 604 1,099 1,537 2,092 2,822
Total 1,845 2,714 3,618 4,471 5,477 6,661
Source: JICA Study Team

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7,000

6,000

5,000 New Suburbs Zone


Northern Suburbs
4,000 South of CBD
Older Suburbs Zone
3,000
Outer Ring Zone

2,000 Inner Urban Ring


CBD
1,000

0
2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-11 Revised Township Group Water Served Population in Yangon City (Unit: 1,000
persons)

(4) Per Capita Consumption


In the MP, two types of per capita consumption was proposed; one for the relatively developed city
area and another for the potential developing area, and the per capita consumption was planned to
increase according to economic development and considering the current suppressed water supply
condition, referring to the patterns of other capital cities in the Southeast Asian countries which
experienced economic developments. This scenario is applicable to this study and the same per capita
consumption as shown in the following is used in this Study.

Table 3-15 Target of Per Capita Average Consumption by Township Group (Lpcd)
Township Group 2011 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
CBD, Inner Urban Ring
Domestic 100 111 132 150 167 183 200
Yangon Outer Ring Zone,
Non-domestic 67 74 88 100 111 122 133
City Northern Suburbs,
Total 167 185 220 250 278 305 333
Older Suburbs Zone
Yangon Domestic 60 69 86 100 117 133 150
South of CBD,
City - Non-domestic 40 46 57 67 78 89 100
New Suburbs Zone
Suburbs Total 100 115 143 167 195 222 250
Source: 2014-JICA Water MP

The study team has collected data of the number of water service connections and billed amount for
years 2012/13 to 2014/15. Then these data are compared with the previous data for years 2009/10 to
2011/12 in the MP. Between 2009/10 and 2013/14 (Table 3-16), the number of connection and total
consumption did not change so much reflecting no additional water source increase. Hence the study
team uses the figures between 2009/10 and 2013/14 to estimate current per capita consumption. As a
result, domestic and non-domestic per capita consumption is calculated as 115 lpcd and 82 lpcd,

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respectively3. These numbers are almost equal to the proposed numbers in years 2011 to 2014 on the
MP and the study team decided to use the numbers in the MP. In addition, the Nyaunghnapin WTP
Phase 2 (45 MGD) was started operation from 2014/15 (Table 3-17).

Table 3-16 Connection and Daily Consumption of YCDC between 2009/10 and 1013/14
Year Domestic Commercial Departm Total
Meter Flat Rate Sub total Meter Flat Rate Sub total ent
Connection
2009/10 145,159 60,465 205,624 13,791 3,510 17,301 1,168 224,093
2010/11 152,405 56,938 209,343 13,749 3,239 16,988 1,168 227,659
2011/12 162,890 54,937 217,827 14,359 2,725 17,084 1,168 238,920
2012/13 178,483 54,000 232,483 17,112 3,797 20,909 1,256 254,648
2013/14 159,480 51,832 211,312 16,359 1,669 18,028 1,256 230,596
Average 159,683 55,634 215,318 15,074 2,988 18,062 1,203 235,183
Daily Consumption (m3)
2009/10 69,544 38,670 108,214 19,942 6,778 26,720 43,104 179,908
2010/11 70,192 35,623 105,815 21,644 6,565 28,209 43,104 179,241
2011/12 75,782 35,552 111,334 25,139 5,828 30,967 43,104 187,186
2012/13 76,588 32,877 109,465 25,311 7,270 32,581 50,250 194,166
2013/14 79,953 31,505 111,458 25,837 3,313 29,150 50,250 192,728
Average 74,412 34,845 109,257 23,574 5,951 29,525 45,962 186,646
Note: Numbers in Italics are estimated one.
Source: JICA Study Team based on YCDC Data

Table 3-17 Connection and Daily Consumption of YCDC in 2014/15


Year Domestic Commercial Departm Total
Meter Flat Rate Sub total Meter Flat Rate Sub total ent
Connection
2014/15 197,234 33,237 230,471 21,259 0 21,259 1,256 252,986
Daily Consumption (m3)
2014/15 100,600 20,352 120,952 34,059 0 34,059 50,250 207,131
Source: JICA Study Team based on YCDC Data

(5) Non-revenue Water Ratio and Leakage Ratio


YCDC supplied water amounting 148 MGD (673,000 m3/day) to 1.85 million people in 2013; and per
capita supply amount is calculated as 365 liters per day. This amount should be adequate to consumers
if delivered properly; however there are many consumers’ complaints about supply pressure, supply
hour and so on according to 2013 JICA HIS. In fact, revenue water ratio is low, estimated to be about
30 % according to the YCDC data from 2011/12 to 2013/14. YCDC has intention to reduce it and the
target level is set as 15 % by 2040.

Leakage reduction requires continuous efforts and strong support from management side with
investment costs for replacement of old pipes, etc. YCDC has set ambitious leakage level as 10 % in
20404. Target levels of leakage with non-revenue water on the MP are shown below. Non-revenue
water ratio and leakage ratio in 2025 are 35 % and 25 %, respectively.

3
Using 4.4 persons per household in 2014 census.
4
Various measures to reduce NRW have already been initiated with assistance of international institutions. In addition, old
pipes will be replaced in Zone 1 proposed in this study and additional pipes will be installed in the eastern Yangon
(JICA-Phase 1 project) and the western Yangon (JICA-Phase 2 project that is being studied in this study). Hence, leakage is
expected to decrease considerably.
Currently, the JICA technical cooperation project, in addition to Japanese Grant Aid, assistance from France, Denmark and
Manila Water are being implemented to formulate measures for leakage rate reduction.

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Table 3-18 Non-revenue Water Rate and Leakage Rate


Items 2013 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
Non-revenue Water Rate (%) 66 46 35 26 20 15
Leakage Rate (%) 50 33 25 18 13 10
Source: 2014-JICA Water MP

(6) Peak Factor


On the MP, referring to the past values of YCDC, Bangkok and the large cities in Japan, the peak
factor is set at 110%. The factor is applicable of the same value on this Study.

(7) Water Demand Estimation


Water demand is estimated as shown below, using an annual peak factor of 110 %.

Table 3-19 Revised Water Demand by Township Group (Daily Maximum: MGD)
No Township 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
1 Latha 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 Lanmadaw 3 3 3 4 4 4
3 Pabedan 3 3 3 3 3 3
4 Kyauktada 3 2 2 3 3 3
5 Botahtaung 4 3 3 3 4 4
6 Pazuntaung 4 4 4 4 4 4
CBD 19 17 17 19 20 20
7 Ahlon 1 2 2 3 4 5
8 Kyimyindine 0 2 3 4 6 7
9 Sangyoung 1 2 4 5 6 7
10 Dagon 1 1 1 2 2 2
11 Bahan 7 8 8 8 9 9
12 Tamway 13 15 16 16 17 18
13 Mingala Taungnyunt 11 13 13 14 14 15
14 Seikkan 0 0 0 0 0 0
15 Dawbon 2 2 3 4 5 5
Inner Urban Ring 36 45 50 56 63 68
16 Kamayut 1 1 3 4 6 7
17 Hline 4 5 6 8 10 11
18 Yankin 6 6 6 6 6 6
19 Thingangyun 9 10 12 14 16 19
Outer Ring Zone 20 22 27 32 38 43
20 Mayangon 9 10 12 14 17 20
21 Insein 7 10 13 17 21 26
22 Mingaladon 9 14 24 37 52 67
Northern Suburbs 25 34 49 68 90 113
23 North Okkalapa 26 28 30 32 35 38
24 South Okkalapa 10 10 12 14 14 14
25 Thakayta 5 7 9 11 13 16
Older Suburbs Zone 41 45 51 57 62 68
26 Dala 1 3 5 9 14 20
27 Seikkyi/ Khanaungto 0 0 1 1 2 3
South of CBD 1 3 6 10 16 23
28 Shwepyitha 2 4 6 11 16 24
29 Hlaing Tharyar 1 6 19 26 35 49
30 Dagon North 4 6 7 10 13 17

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Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
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No Township 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040


31 Dagon South 5 8 11 16 22 28
32 Dagon East 1 6 11 21 35 54
33 Dagon Seikkan 1 3 4 8 12 18
New Suburbs Zone 14 33 58 92 133 190
Total 156 199 258 334 422 525
Source: JICA Study Team

600

500

New Suburbs Zone


400
Northern Suburbs
South of CBD
300
Older Suburbs Zon e
Outer Ring Zone
200
Inner Urban Ring
CBD
100

0
2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 3-12 Revised Daily Maximum Water Demand by Township Group (Unit: MGD)

3.2.5 Water Demand by Water Supply Zone


Demand by township is converted to demand by water supply zone (see the MAP in the top page).
The main futures of water demand by distribution zone in 2014, 2025 and 2040 are shown in Tables
3-20, 3-21 and 3-22, respectively.

Table 3-20 Revised Main Features by Distribution Zone in 2014 for Yangon City
Coverage Served Number of Daily Max. Daily Max.
Population
Zone ratio Population Connection demand demand
1,000 % 1,000 1,000 mld MGD
1 794 62 488 111 199 44
2 637 47 299 68 122 27
3 653 47 310 70 126 28
4 653 58 380 86 155 34
5 501 15 75 17 26 6
6 133 30 39 9 16 4
7 370 26 96 22 24 5
8 539 22 117 26 29 6
9 688 3 21 5 5 1
10 243 8 19 4 5 1
Total 5,211 35 1,845 419 708 156
Source: JICA Study Team

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Table 3-21 Revised Main Features by Distribution Zone in 2025 for Yangon City
Coverage Served Number of Daily Max. Daily Max.
Population
Zone ratio Population Connection demand demand
1,000 % 1,000 1,000 mld MGD
1 866 77 667 152 245 54
2 655 68 445 101 163 36
3 673 69 463 105 170 37
4 746 75 562 128 206 45
5 659 39 258 59 80 18
6 231 52 120 27 44 10
7 799 44 348 79 85 18
8 670 43 290 66 71 15
9 769 45 346 79 85 19
10 397 30 119 27 30 6
Total 6,464 56 3,618 822 1,179 258
Source: JICA Study Team

Table 3-22 Revised Main Features by Distribution Zone in 2040 for Yangon City
Coverage Served Number of Daily Max. Daily Max.
Population
Zone rate Population Connection demand demand
1,000 % 1,000 1,000 mld MGD
1 896 89 793 180 323 71
2 658 91 599 136 244 54
3 697 91 632 144 258 56
4 875 90 791 180 322 71
5 1,034 69 715 163 255 56
6 364 82 298 68 122 26
7 1,471 72 1,052 239 321 71
8 950 72 687 156 210 46
9 962 75 722 164 221 49
10 613 60 370 84 116 25
Total 8,520 78 6,661 1,514 2,391 525
Source: JICA Study Team

3.3 Review of Water Allocation

3.3.1 Supply Capacity Development


The daily maximum demand in Yangon city will be 258 MGD in 2025. On the other hand, the
existing water supply capacity in Yangon city is 215 MGD excluding water from well sources and 10
MGD (out of 40 MGD) of Lagunbyin system which will be sent to Thilawa SEZ, outside of Yangon
city.
Hence, supply capacity and demand will be balanced in 2023 and additional water supply capacity is
required to cater to the demand after 2023. Required additional capacity will be 43 MGD in 2025 and
58 MGD in 2026 and the facilities of 60 MGD capacity at the Kokkowa are planned in this study.

3.3.2 New Water Source (Pan Hlaing River)


Although the Kokkowa River (2nd stage) and the Toe River have been selected as additional water

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sources to meet the demand after 2025 in the MP, YCDC has identified the Pan Hlaing River as
another water source after the MP study. The Pan Hlaing River branches off from the Kokkowa River
and meets the Hlaing River downstream (see the location Map). In the MP, Pan Hlaing River was not
considered as a water source due to presence of high salinity in river water. However, if tide gates are
installed, salinity in river water is expected to reduce within drinkable level. YCDC is now
considering to construct WTP in Zone 9 upon construction of tide gates in order to use Pan Hlaing
river water as a source. This source can be a substitute of the Kokkowa River water source, and if the
Pan Hlaing River water supply system has a capacity of 60 MGD, the required capacity of the
Kokkowa would be reduced by 60 MGD.

Water treated at both Kokkowa and Pan Hlaing will be conveyed firstly to Zone 9 SR from where
water will be either distributed to Zone 9 or conveyed further to Zone 1. Conveyance pipe from Pan
Hlaing River is shorter in length than that from Kokkowa so that Pan Hlaing system is cheaper than
Kokkowa system considering the construction, and operation and maintenance costs. However, Pan
Hlaing system cannot be constructed immediately because long time is required for construction of
tide gate and agreement of water allocation between YCDC (EDWS) and MoAI. Kokkowa 1st stage of
60 MGD should be constructed first to meet water demand in 2025. After the Kokkowa 1st stage and
before the Kokkowa 2nd stage and Toe, Pan Hlaing (60 MGD) can be constructed.

3.3.3 Revised Supply Capacity Development


Considering the new water source of Pan Hlaing, water development scenario proposed in the MP is
revised in this Study as below. Kokkowa 1st stage and Pan Hlaing are to be developed with 60 MGD
capacity each by 2030. By 2040, river water supply system is to be developed for Kokkowa 2nd stage,
Toe proposed in MP, and new Pan Hlaing. Final capacity of the Pan Hlaing system will be between 60
MGD and 100 MGD according to EDWS. Final capacity will be decided after study of MoAI and
allocation agreement of MoAI.

EDWS has decided the combined capacity of the Kokkowa and Pan Hlaing as 240 MGD. Out of the
required capacity of the river system of 310 MGD in 2040, the combined capacity of the Kokkowa
and Pan Hlaing systems will be 240 MGD and Toe system will be 70 MGD. This combination of
systems is called as option “Revision” (Figure 3-16 and Table 3-24). In option “Alternative” (Figure
3-16), the capacity of the Toe system is reduced to 25 MGD, equal to demand of Zone 10 in 2040, and
45 MGD is added to the Kokkowa system.

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Table 3-23 Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City under This Study
(Unit: MGD)
Year 2014 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040
Daily Maximum Demand 156 199 258 334 422 525
Water Source
(Reservoir (Dam) System)
Gyobyu Reservoir 27 27 27 27 27 27
Phugyi Reservoir 54 54 54 54 54 54
Hlawga Reservoir 14 14 14 14 14 14
Ngamoeyeik Reservoir 90 90 90 90 90 90
Wells 8 8 0 0 0 0
Lagunbyin Reservoir* - 30 30 30 30 30
Sub-total (1) 193 223 215 215 215 215
(River System)
Kokkowa Ph 1 - - 60 60 60 60
Pan Hlaing Ph 1 - - - 60 60 60
Kokkowa Ph 2 or Pan Hlaing Ph 2 -
- - - 100 190
or Toe
Sub-total (2) - - 60 120 220 310
Water Source Total 193 223 275 335 435 525
Balance (Supply – Demand) +37 +24 +17 +1 +13 0
Note: * Excluding 10 MGD capacity for Thilawa SEZ,
Source: JICA Study Team

600
Water Demand 525
Water Demand and Source Development (MGD)

500
422
190 MGD
Kokkowa
400 Pan Hlaing
334 Toe
Pan Hlaing : 60 MGD
300 258

199 Kokkowa Phase1 : 60 MGD


200 Lagunpyin 30 MGD (Excluding 10 MGD for Thilawa SEZ)
148 156
Ngamoeyeik Phase2 : 45 MGD
Ngamoeyeik Phase1 : 45 MGD
100 Hlawga : 14 MGD
Phugyi : 54 MGD
Gyobyu : 27 MGD Tube wells : 0 MGD (Backup Source)
0 Tube wells : 8 MGD
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040

Year
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 3-13 Revised Water Source Development for Yangon City

Table 3-24 Proposed River System Capacity in 2040 (Unit: MGD)


Combined system
Option Toe Total
(Kokkowa and Pan Hlaing)
Revision 240 70 310
Alternative 285 25 310
Source: JICA Study Team

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3.3.4 Water Allocation to 10 Zones


(1) Allocation to 10 Zones
Figures 3-14, 3-15, and 3-16 show water source allocation to zones for 2014, 2025, 2030, 2035 and
2040. The areas in 10 zones proposed in the MP are not changed; however, locations of the two SRs
for Zones 2 and 3 are changed by EDWS considering SRs’ sites availability. Location of the Zone 2
SR is shifted from the western side to the eastern side of the zone with name change from Tamway to
Thingangyun. As a result, transmission pipe route to Zone 2 will be changed. On the other hand,
location of the Zone 3 SR is near to the originally proposed site. As is seen in 2025 water allocation,
the Kokkowa water is allocated to the Kokine SR and the Central SR with transmission pipes from the
Kokkowa to both SRs.

(2) Allocation to Zones 1 and 9 in 2025 as The Same as The Master Plan
Additional water source is required to meet water demand of Yangon city in 2025. According to the
proposed water balance, water from the Kokkowa supply system (60MGD) will cover all demand of
Zone 9 and partial demand of Zone 1 in 2025. The remaining demand will continue to be met by
water from the reservoir system in the north of Yangon.

Out of the 60 MGD treated water, 20 MGD water and 40 MGD water will be conveyed respectively
to Zone 9 and Zone 1 separately.

1) Zone 9
The existing water supply facilities in Zone 9 is very limited; covering only industrial zones and a
small part of residential areas with 1 MGD WTP using groundwater and water from the reservoir
system diverted through 300 mm diameter pipe. Similar to Zones 7 and 8 in the Lagunbyin water
supply system, Zone 9 is a developing suburban area and distribution facilities together with new
water source are needed.

2) Zone 1
The distribution network in Zone 1 is widely developed but very old, which is causing frequent leaks
and results in high NRW. Water to some areas in this zone is distributed from the Kokine SR through
gravity and to some areas water is directly pumped from the reservoir system with inadequate
pressure. This has resulted into uneven water distribution with low or negative pressure at customers
end. In the water supply concept of the MP, water is proposed to be supplied through SR with
adequate pressure aiming at equitable water supply to all customers.

The total water demanded of Zone 1 in 2025 is about 60MGD. Out of the allocated 40 MGD water, 20
MGD water is planned to be conveyed to the Central SR, high sub-zone that is equal to demand in the
high sub-zone. On the other hand, the remaining 20 MGD water is planned to be conveyed to the
Kokine SR, low sub-zone where demand is 40 MGD in 2025 and the remaining 20 MGD water will
continue to be supplied via Yegu pumping station of the existing reservoir system.

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Unit: MGD Unit: MGD


Total River Reservoir Groundwater Total River Reservoir Groundwater
Capacity 193 0 185 8 Capacity 275 60 215

Demand 156 0 156 Demand 258 55 203

Gyobyu Ngamoeyeik Gyobyu Ngamoeyeik


27 90 27 90

Phugyi Z6.North Phugyi Z6.North


Hlawga 4 Hlawga 10
68 4 68 10

Z5.Hlawga Z5.Hlawga
6 18
6 Lagunbyin 18 Lagunbyin
30
Z4.Airport Z4.Airport
34 45
Z9.Hlaing Tharyar 34 Z7.Dagon East Z9.Hlaing Tharyar 45 Z7.Dagon East
Kokkowa 1 5 Z8.Dagon South Kokkowa 19 18 Z8.Dagon South
1 Z3.Inya 5 6 60 19 Z3.Inya 18 15
28 6 37 15
28 Z2.Thingangyun 37 Z2.Thingangyun
Pan Hlaing 27 Pan Hlaing 36
Z1.Kokine 27 Z1.Kokine 36
44 37
44 19 18

Z1.Central Z1.Central
17
17

Toe Z10.Dala Toe Z10.Dala


1 6
1 6

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-14 Revised Water Allocation in 2014 (Left) and in 2025 (Right)

Unit: MGD Unit: MGD


Total River Reservoir Groundwater Total River Reservoir Groundwater
Capacity 335 120 215 Capacity 435 220 215

Demand 334 119 215 Demand 422 207 215

Gyobyu Ngamoeyeik Gyobyu Ngamoeyeik


27 90 27 90

Phugyi Z6.North Phugyi Z6.North


Hlawga 15 Hlawga 21
68 15 68 21

Z5.Hlawga Z5.Hlawga
28 41
28 Lagunbyin 41 Lagunbyin
30 30
Z4.Airport Z4.Airport
53 62
Z9.Hlaing Tharyar 53 Z7.Dagon East Z9.Hlaing Tharyar 39 23 Z7.Dagon East
Kokkowa 26 31 Z8.Dagon South Kokkowa 35 48 Z8.Dagon South
60 26 Z3.Inya 31 23 140 35 Z3.Inya 48 34
45 23 50 34
22 23 Z2.Thingangyun 50 Z2.Thingangyun
Pan Hlaing 42 Pan Hlaing 48
60 Z1.Kokine 42 60 Z1.Kokine 48
40 43
40 43

Z1.Central Z1.Central
20 22
20 22

Toe Z10.Dala Toe Z10.Dala


11 20 18
11 18

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-15 Revised Water Allocation in 2030 (Left) and in 2035 (Right)

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Unit: MGD Unit: MGD


Total River Reservoir Groundwater Total River Reservoir Groundwater
Capacity 525 310 215 Capacity 525 310 215

Demand 525 310 215 Demand 525 310 215

Gyobyu Ngamoeyeik Gyobyu Ngamoeyeik


27 90 27 90

Phugyi Z6.North Phugyi Z6.North


Hlawga 26 Hlawga 26
68 26 68 26

Z5.Hlawga Z5.Hlawga
56 56
56 Lagunbyin 56 Lagunbyin
30 30
Z4.Airport Z4.Airport
71 71
Z9.Hlaing Tharyar 55 16 Z7.Dagon East Z9.Hlaing Tharyar 55 16 Z7.Dagon East
Kokkowa 49 71 Z8.Dagon South Kokkowa 49 71 Z8.Dagon South
140 49 Z3.Inya 71 46 180 49 Z3.Inya 71 46
56 46 56 46
56 Z2.Thingangyun 56 Z2.Thingangyun
Pan Hlaing 54 Pan Hlaing 54
100 Z1.Kokine 54 105 Z1.Kokine 54
46 46
46 46

Z1.Central Z1.Central
25 25
25 25

Toe Z10.Dala Toe Z10.Dala


70 25 25 25
25 25

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-16 Revised Water Allocation in 2040 (Revision: Left and Alternative: Right)

(3) Revised Allocation to Zone 1 in 2025 in This Project


During the study period, in consideration of safe water supply, additional method of water allocation
to Zone 1 is considered to avoid mixing of the 40 MGD treated water from the Kokkowa system with
the un-treated water from the Yegu pumping station. Instead, un-treated reservoir water via the Yegu
pumping station will be conveyed to the Central SR. This revised water allocation will increase large
number of population to be served by the treated clean water from Kokkowa system. The revised
water allocation in 2025 is shown in following Figure.

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Unit: MGD
Total River Reservoir Groundwater
Capacity 275 60 215

Demand 258 56 202

Gyobyu Ngamoeyeik
27 90

Phugyi Z6.North
Hlawga 10
68 10

Z5.Hlawga
18
18 Lagunbyin
30
Z4.Airport
45
Z9.Hlaing Tharyar 45 Z7.Dagon East
Kokkowa 19 18 Z8.Dagon South
60 19 Z3.Inya 18 15
37 15
37 Z2.Thingangyun
Pan Hlaing 36
Z1.Kokine 36
37
37

Z1.Central
17
17

Toe Z10.Dala
6
6

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-17 Revised Water Allocation to Zone 1 for This Project in 2025

3.3.5 Revised Main Water Supply Facilities


The revised plans of facilities which will be built by 2025 and by 2040 are illustrated in Figures 3-18
and 3-19.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-18 Revised Water Supply System (2025) for This Project

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 3-19 Revised Water Supply System (2040) for This Project

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3.4 Necessity of The Project

For YCDC, increasing coverage ratio in Yangon suburbs is indispensable for improvement of water
supply service, and for this purpose new water resource requires to be developed. Capital required for
this development is huge and it is not easy for YCDC to accomplish this development on its own.
Phase 1 project, which includes development of water supply facilities including Lagunbyin WTP for
increasing water supply coverage ratio in Zones 7 and 8 in eastern part of Yangon City, is already
being carried out by the Japanese ODA loan at low-interest rate for reduction of financial burden of
YCDC.

The target of this Phase 2 project is increasing water supply coverage ratio of Zone 9 through
construction of Kokkowa WTP. Furthermore, Zone 1 is unique compared to other Zones considering
that piped water supply already exists and coverage ratio is also high. However, downtown area has
been using old pipes of over 100 years from the colonial age, and high leakage ratio from old pipes is
a big issue. The renewal of facilities is not so easy in Zone 1. YCDC is interested that the old water
supply facilities of Zone 1 be updated by high technical and management capabilities of Japan.

In the MP, it was estimated that the amount of available water resources is less than the water demand
in Yangon city. As a result, water resources development, construction of facilities from the sources to
customers, and so on was proposed in the MP. Improvement of the poor water supply services such as
decrease of leakage ratio and safe water supply were proposed. Shortage of the water resources
amount is also confirmed in this study through review of water demand estimation based mainly on
the 2014 census population, and the same measures are still valid and proposed again in this study as
listed below.

Development of New Water Sources for Yangon City


Achievement of Stable Water Supply in Yangon City Center (Distribution Zone 1) and
Other Zones
Decrease in Leakage in Yangon City Center (Distribution Zone 1)
Provision of Safe and Clean Water Supply in Zone 1 and Zone 9

(1) Development of New Water Sources for Yangon City


The maximum water demand per day in Yangon City in 2025 and 2040 are 258 MGD and 525 MGD,
respectively. On the other hand, planned water source is 215 MGD only, which can be supplied from
the existing reservoirs and the development of new reservoir is not possible anymore. To cope with
rapidly increasing water demand, new water sources should be developed. In the MP, river water
sources are planned to meet the increasing demand and at first Kokkowa River will be developed. In
this project, Kokkowa River water system is planned. For this reason, the project requires to initiate
the development of new water source for the Yangon City to meet the increasing water demand.

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(2) Achievement of Stable Water Supply in Yangon City Center (Distribution Zone 1) and
Other Zones
The city center has the largest population area (about 800,000 residents) and a business and economic
center in Yangon City. However, the water supply condition in this area is the worst; low or negative
water supply pressure and intermittent supply due to far distance from the existing water source of
reservoir. Therefore, direct transmission line is required from the new source to this area to improve
supply condition or stable water supply, for the purpose of improved city life and business opportunity
as a center of the economic capital of Myanmar. If additional water is supplied to this area, the
existing water volume supplied to this area will be transferred to the other areas, which indicates
improvement of water supply condition in other areas.

(3) Decrease in Leakage in Yangon City Center (Distribution Zone 1)


The oldest pipe is located in the Yangon city center, which is equivalent to Distribution Zone 1. Many
pipes are older than 100 years and the average age is estimated as 80 years or so in Zone 1. The life of
pipes has expired long ago and pipes have frequent leakage. Currently, this area has low water
pressure but if pressure will become higher for stable water supply in future, leakage will increase
more. To reduce current and potential increasing leakage in future and to increase supply volume,
aged pipes should be replaced by the project. Otherwise, increased water supply by the project will be
reduced considerably by leakage.

(4) Provision of Safe and Clean Water Supply in Zone 1 and Zone 9
Currently, no disinfection is adopted to YCDC piped water supply so that safe and clean water is not
achieved anywhere in Yangon city. To supply safe and clean water to Zone 1 and Zone 9, disinfection
is required in the project. The project will construct new WTP using Kokkowa river water and
disinfection will be adopted.

Implementation of the above measures will have the following effects;

Affordable Safe Water Supply for Poverty Group in Supply Area


Decrease of Water Borne Diseases
Increase of Water Coverage Ratio with Safe and Clean Water in Hlaing Tharyar
(Distribution Zone 9)
Improvement of Water Supply Services in Supply Area

(5) Affordable Safe Water Supply for Poverty Group for Supply Area
Poverty group is most affected by bad water supply conditions; they have to purchase expensive
bottled water for drinking purpose spending large share of their income or rely on unhygienic water
for drinking purpose if they cannot buy bottled water. Therefore, possible water borne disease is more
prevalent in poverty group than average income or richer group. This project is required to provide
safe and clean water to the residents for drinking purpose, including poverty group, for which water

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tariff setting for poverty group will be considered.

(6) Decrease of Water Borne Diseases


The number of incident and frequency of water-borne and mosquito-borne diseases are shown in the
following Table. Although the number and percentage of each disease is low, the resident are
occasionally affected with diarrhea and dysentery. To reduce water borne disease, the project which
adopts disinfection for safe and clean water supply is required.

Table 3-25 Experience of Water- and Mosquito-borne Diseases in 2012

Note: Sample number is 10,069 households


Source: 2013-JICA Urban Development Plan

(7) Increase of Water Coverage Rate with Safe and Clean Water in Hlaing Tharyar
(Distribution Zone 9)
The population and YCDC piped water supply coverage rate in 2014 by township are shown in the
Table 3-13. According to this, the piped water coverage in Hlaing Tharyar is only 3 % and one of the
least in townships. In addition, the total population in Hlaing Tharyar is 688,000 and the largest
township and the number of unserved population is approximately 660,000 the largest, most of whom
are using unhygienic or low water quality shallow wells for living purposes. The project is required to
supply safe and clean water to large un-served population.

(8) Improvement of Water Supply Service for Supply Area


The satisfaction level with water supply by YCDC piped water supply in Zone 1 and Zone 9 is shown
in the following Table. The project is required to improve the satisfaction level of existing YCDC
customers and potential customers, especially water quality in Zone 1 and all items of water supply
condition in Zone 9.

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Table 3-26 Unsatisfaction Level with Water Supply

Note: ×indicates more than 20 % and indicates 10-20 % respondents are unsatisfied respectively with items given in Table
above
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP

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CHAPTER 4 WATER TREATMENT PLANT

4.1 Planning Conditions

4.1.1 Completed/ On-going Plan Related to Kokkowa Project


a) F/S for Kokkowa system in July 2013 by Capital Engineering & Research Incorporation
5
Limited (China)
6
b) F/S for Kokkowa system in March 2013 by SKEC (South Korea)
c) Irrigation project of Pan-Hlaing River: MoAI has constructed two tide gates, one at the
location upstream where river branches out of Kokkowa River and the other one at location
just before its confluence with Hlaing River. The Netherlands prepared design of a
downstream tide gate. The river will stop being affected by salt water intrusion due to high
tide, and the river water is expected to have low salinity. YCDC is planning to obtain the
water rights of 60-100MGD from MoAI to withdraw water from Pan-Hlaing River.
d) Out of 240 MGD of planned expansion of WTP in 2014 JICA Water MP, Kokkowa WTP is
planned to be constructed with a capacity of 140-180 MGD considering that the capacity of
Pan Hlaing project WTP will be about 60-100 MGD.
e) YCDC purchased a part of proposed land for 140 MGD Kokkowa WTP by the end of May
2015, and the site was surveyed by May 2015. They are planning to continue with purchase
of additional required land.
f) Moreover, YCDC constructed the access bridge and expansion of the access road from route
No. 5 to the WTP.

4.1.2 Expansion Plan of Kokkowa WTP


The overall capacity in the plan of Kokkowa WTP will be set to be 140-180 MGD as it changes
depending on the amount of water rights which can be obtained for Pan-Hlaing River. Based on a
series of discussions with EDWS, the following expansion plan is tentatively formulated for this
Study.
Kokkowa Stage 1: 60 MGD (Total 60 MGD)
Construction of Pan-Hlaing WTP: Total 60-100 MGD (Under negotiation with MoAI)
Kokkowa Stage 2: +40 MGD (Total 100 MGD)
Kokkowa Stage 3: +40 MGD (Total 140 MGD)
Kokkowa Stage 4: +40 MGD (Total 180 MGD) Will be decided depending on the capacity
of Pan-Hlaing WTP.

Although Stage 4 is indefinite, YCDC’s current targets are 140 MGD until Stage 3. The target of this
study is Stage 1 (60 MGD) from overall plan of Kokkowa WTP.

5
The report is not disclosed.
6
The report is not disclosed.

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Source: JICA Study Team based on discussion between MoAI and YCDC
Figure 4-1 Expansion Plan of Kokkowa WTP and Pan-Hlaing WTP

4.1.3 Land Acquisition Status of YCDC


Existing situation of the land obtained by YCDC is as follows (as of July 2016). An illustration of the
acquisition of the sites that would be required for Project facilities is shown in the following Figure.
For Intake Facility : 16,187 m2 (4 Acre)
First obtained land for WTP : 137,593 m2 (34 Acre)
Additional obtained land for WTP : 31,379 m2 (7.754 Acre)
Total of obtained land by YCDC : 185,159 m2 (45.754 Acre)

(1) Land Acquisition Status of the Project Sites


Existing situation of land acquisition of sites are described below. Main treatment facilities are
planned in area along the body of Rat - shaped land.
According to YCDC, lands along riverbank for intake have been obtained with difficulty and
negotiations for acquiring other lands has not been successful. Moreover, even for the currently
obtained lands for WTP, in case of many landowners, agreement has not been reached in terms of
expected price. Although the obtained land area is sufficient for construction of only the water
treatment facility with the capacity of 60 MGD, the area of acquired land is insufficient with 20 Acres
for 60MGD of pre-sedimentation pond with the required retention time of 48 hours as proposal of the
studyteam (reasons are described in Section 4.1.6.(6)).

EDWS and JICA Study Team have carried out water quality tests for planning of pre-sedimentation
pond, and discussed with EDWS about insufficient area. As a result, YCDC will re-start negotiation
with land owners for the required land of 60MGD of pre-sedimentation pond with 48 hours retention
time under 2016/17 budget.

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Source: YCDC and edited by JICA Study Team


Figure 4-2 Land Acquisition Status of YCDC as of 31 July 2016

(2) Situation of Land Acquisition for Intake and WTP Site


4 acres of land is already acquired for the construction of intake facility and 34 acres of land is
acquired for the treatment facility. Both lands are already registered as YCDC property.
Compensation has already been made to all 7 farmers.
Additional 7 acres of land is already registered.
Entire rat-shaped land area and access road has been raised up to + 3.5 m through land filling and
levelled.
There is no crop farming in the YCDC registered land.
There exists a natural drain with about 1 m width in the land area proposed for Kokkowa WTP.
Diversion drain to connect to the existing natural drain is planned in affected stretch (refer to
Section 11.6.1 in Chapter 11 for details).

(3) Access Road to Sites


MoAI’s embankment with a top level of about 7 m is used as an access road to Intake/ WTP area.
Access to WTP: can access from the Route No. 5 to WTP (the tip of rat nose) using the existing
road towards ANYASU village. YCDC expanded the existing 1 lane village road to 2 lanes road
and carried out road surface improvement.
ANYASU village is situated to the north-east side of the proposed site for WTP. It has a
population of 1,042 in 240 households, and a typical village in Yangon. Rice is the main crop
there with some vegetables. In the village, pond is used as drinking water while the river water
and salty tube well water are used for miscellaneous purposes.

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(4) Additional Land Acquisition


The size of the acquired land up to July 2016 is adequate for the 60 MGD WTP including the
pre-sedimentation pond (with retention time of 12 hours), sedimentation tank, filter, clear water
reservoir, pumping station and so on, however, is not sufficient for the 60 MGD of pre-sedimentation
pond which will require 48 hours of retention time. This is explained later (reasons are described in
Section 4.1.6.(6)).

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4-3 Additional Land Acquisition with Already Registered Land of YCDC (Yellow Area)

4.1.4 Appropriateness of The Site Location


The above-mentioned obtained lands are selected based on following considerations. The considered
location is one of the best options, and is determined to be appropriate in consideration of the
technical viewpoint and O&M. Consequently, it is judged that the selected site is the most appropriate
one.

(1) Since there is no appropriate place for development of dam as water source, River source
needs to be developed newly for Yangon.

(2) High priority project within the proposed new resource developments
・ Through survey of salt concentration in river stream of Ayeyarwady, MoAI investigated the
locations with salt concentration of 1,000mg/L (Red lines in the following Figure 4-4) which
influences rice crop (2008 to 2010). The salt concentration of less than 250 mg/L is the Myanmar
standard of drinking water.

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・ Four (4) locations, Pan-Hlaing, Kokkowa, Toe, and Hlaing, which are not influenced by salt
water intrusion, were proposed as candidate sites of intake. The order of these locations in terms
of nearness to city center (Shwedagon Pagoda) is Pan-Hlaing, Kokkowa, Toe, and Hlaing (See
Table 4-1 and Figure 4-4).

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4-4 Reasons for Selection of The Kokkowa WTP

Table 4-1 Comparison for Proposed WTP Site


Distance from Conclusi
River Comparison Examination
the center on
① Pan-Hlaing YCDC and MoAI are discussing to develop water supply
25 km source from Pan-Hlaing River, however, the location and
capacity of system has not been decided yet.
② Kokkowa The conditions of access to site, distance from city center,
35 km ○
available water quantity, and land availability are all satisfied.
③ Toe Toe river is distant from the city, therefore preference order of
40 km
this option is after Kokkowa.
④ Hlaing Hlaing was proposed in 2000 MP, however, in 2014 JICA
50 km Water MP this option was not selected considering low
volume.
Source: JICA Study Team

(3) The raw water quality near intake point must satisfy standards in terms of salt
concentration.
Development of Kokkowa has been decided by Yangon Region based on the result of comparison in
the above Table. More detailed information on salt water concentration in Kokkowa River is

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described below.
・ Data on salt water intrusion in Hlaing River was obtained from MoAI. MoAI carries out the
water quality survey in dry season of every year and plots locations with salt concentration
greater than 1000 mg/L. The Figure indicates that the junction of Kokkowa and Hlaing River has
a salt concentration of 1000 mg/L. Although there is no data on salt concentration along
longitudinal direction of Kokkowa River, it is considered that yellow color hatched section in
Figure below is unsuitable for intake location considering standard value of 250 mg/L as source
of drinking water.
・ Water quality can be regarded as almost the same along the entire stretch of the Kokkowa River
excluding the salt concentration. As is clear from Figure 4-4 and 4-5, salt water intrusion in
Hlaing River is up to the stretch upstream of its confluence with the Kokkowa River, and water
intake is preferable at a location upstream.
・ The Kokkowa River is located in the delta region of Ayeyarwady River and Yangon (Hlaing)
River. Since this river is a tidal stream, salinity intrusion occurs at low flow rates during the dry
season. In the MP and this Study, situation of salinity intrusion was investigated during the dry
season (September 2012, March 2013 and February 2016, refer to the Appendix-3). According to
the results of investigation, measured chloride ion is under 100 mg/L at the candidate location of
intake and in the stretch of river about 15-km downstream of the intake location in case of
occurrence of high and low tide. It is confirmed that the water at these locations satisfies the level
of salt concentration as a drinking water source.
・ From these reasons, purchased land located in the upstream stretch of the Kokkowa River which
is not influenced by salt water concentration,

Intake Point

Source: MoAI and edited by JICA Study Team


Figure 4-5 Salt Water Intrusion in The Hlaing River

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(4) Stabilization of the River Course


The alignment of Kokkowa River in the past 50 years is shown in the following Figure for the years
for which data is available. The width of river and its course near the intake point has not changed
from the point upstream, and it is considered that river shape near the intake point is stabilized.

Intake Point Intake Point

In the Year 1955 In the Year 2000


Source: (US) Army Map service, corps of engineers, Souce: JICA and Department Ministry of Forestry of
University of Texas Libraries Myanmar
Figure 4-6 Alignment of The Kokkowa River in Past 50 Years

(5) Downstream Water User


In the 2014-MP, in order to estimate flow of water, the water level and flow near proposed intake
points were observed at the same time, and the relation of flow with water level was produced. This
result estimates that flow of ten-year return-period is 1,045 m3/s (9,861 MGD). It was found that
downstream water use for irrigation is 12.0 m3/s. The proposed WTP of 60 MGD (2025) and 140
MGD (2040) are only 0.6 % and 1.4 % of the flow of ten-year return period, respectively. For that
reason, it is judged that the amount of water in the river is sufficient and withdrawal of water will not
have large influence on the water availability of downstream users.

(6) Availability of large land area in the Yangon region.


Considering the availability of large land area in the Yangon region, and the land use plan of the
Yangon region, construction of WTP is possible at this location.

(7) Location has good access using the Route No. 5.


The distance between Yangon city, particularly Zone 9 and any location along the Kokkowa River is
almost the same (considering Zone 9 SR) so that any intake point can be selected in terms of length of
transmission pipe. The selected location of intake in this plan is near to the Route No. 5 that runs in

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the east-west direction in western Yangon. Therefore, access to the selected site for WTP is easy.
Moreover, Intake facility which is to be installed near the river and treatment facility shall adjoin each
other.

(8) Flood Protection


Western Yangon is a low-lying area with relatively small difference in ground elevation. Along the
bank of the River Kokkowa near the selected site of WTP, there exists a flood protection embankment
constructed by the MoAI. Its crest level is 7 m while the recorded highest water level in Kokkowa
River at this location is about 6 m. Therefore, it is expected that the WTP will not have any impact
due to flood. In addition, YCDC is raising the ground level of proposed area for WTP by 3.5 m to 7.1
m, to make the level same as the crest level. Consequently, the proposed site will be about 4 m higher
than the surrounding area, and even if river water overflows the embankment, it will soon drain to the
surrounding area. At the proposed location of WTP, there has been no damage caused by a flood,
because land is protected by the embankment of MoAI.

The outcome of interview of residents in nearby Anyasu village and some of the photographs along
with maps of historical events are given below.

About 70 years-old man


- Although living in the village since last 40 years, has never observed flood in the village.
- Surrounding rice field is inundated with rain water during the rainy seasons.
- The ditch crossing the proposed site of WTP is drainage canal for rice fields.
- The elevation of village is higher than the rice fields. (Note: The elevation of raised ground of
proposed WTP site and access road are same as the ground level of the village.)
28 years-old man, 28-year living, Farmer
- Has never heard of flood damage in the rice field located in proposed WTP site.
40 years-old man, 7-year living, Farmer
- Rice fields are inundated during rainy season and the footpath along border of fields breaks
sometimes.
30 years-old man, 8-year living, Farmer
- There is a depressed ground in village that gets inundated due to poor drainage.

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WTP WTP

In the Year 2008 In the Year 2015


Figure 4-7 Inundation Situation at The WTP Site in 2008 and 2015

Photo 4-1 Situation of the irrigation canal Photo 4-2 Situation of the WTP site on the same
nearing high water level on 19th August 2015 time of Photo 4.1 (Not flooded)

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Photo 4-3 Situation of the intake point after high


water level on 19th August 2015
Source: JICA Study Team

4.1.5 Setting of Intake Location


The water level of the Kokkowa River almost
reached the record maximum of +5.8 m due to
occurrence of the Komen cyclone as mentioned
above (refer to Photo 4-1 to 4-3). This flood level
exceeded the existing ground level (+3.3 – 4.6 m) of
the acquired land for intake by about 2 m at the
maximum. On the other hand, the irrigation canal in
the dry season causes the back flow to Kokkowa
River and due to low water level in canal, sand
accumulation is visible (refer to Photo 4-4).

Source: JICA Study Team


Photo 4-4 Situation of the irrigation canal nearing low water level on 23rd November 2015

In order to set the intake location considering above-mentioned conditions, JICA Study Team
proposed EDWS to change intake point and then a series of meeting were held during August to
December 2015 among the MoAI, EDWS and the Team. The result of discussion of these meetings is
as follows.

(1) General
・ Water right: There are no ministries and government offices which have jurisdiction over all
rivers. MoAI has jurisdiction over water for irrigation, and Ministry of Transport and
Communications has jurisdiction over the cruise of ships in rivers.
・ It is expected that Yangon region government will allow the development of Kokkowa River
water supply system with water rights in the same procedure as in case of Lagunbyin WTP.
However, clear response is not visible at present.

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(2) Intake Water Amount


・ The capacity of existing Kokkowa irrigation canal is about 900 ft3/s (460 MGD). Total required
flow amount is 1200 ft3/s (614 MGD) including about 300 ft3/s (154 MGD) of raw water for
WTP.
・ Since the total flow rate of 614 MGD is only 6.2% of the minimum water discharge of 9,861
MGD with ten years return period, the withdrawal of water from the Kokkowa River is feasible.

(3) Possibility of Intake from Irrigation Canal


・ The following proposal was discussed in the meeting held in August 2015. If a leading canal for
WTP is branch from the irrigation channel of MoAI, the location of intake point shall be more
than 200 ft (about 60 m) upstream of the existing gate in the canal, and then the start point of
irrigation canal in Kokkowa River shall be excavated and widened in order to secure sufficient
channel width for this required flow (MoAI should construct it).
・ In the meeting on 8 December 2015, MoAI claimed that the effect of amount decrease in the
irrigation canal should be avoided. As a result, it agreed that intake point of WTP is shifted to
Kokkowa River directly.

(4) Intake Point/ Form of Leading Canal for WTP


・ In the above meeting, the Team proposed that the perpendicular alignment from the Kokkowa
River is ideal form for leading canal (Refer the following Figure).
・ The form of leading canal for WTP will be finally decided according to the availability of land
form which will be purchased under 2016/17 budget of YCDC.

Source: JICA Study Team using background map of Google Earth


Figure 4-8 Setting of Intake Location under Consideration

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(5) Proposed Drawing of Gates by MoAI


・ In the above meeting, MoAI proposed that three steps of gates be installed. These gates include
manual gate, electric gate for water level adjustment and flap gate on pre-sedimentation pond
side. A flap gate is installed in order to prevent backflow when the water level in
pre-sedimentation pond is higher than Kokkowa River in case of low water level in the River.
・ Moreover, upon the proposal of MoAI, a removable stop log is set in front of each gate.
・ As measures against the flood, the concrete structure attached to the gate will be built higher than
the flood level (+19.3' and embankment level will be raised to 21'). Based on the following
Figure.

Source: MoAI
Figure 4-9 Proposed Drawing of Intake Gates by MoAI

(6) Construction near the MoAI’s Embankment


・ From the center line of embankment, 30 m wide land on both sides is MoAI’s property. Gate
system within riverbank and concrete structure such as a box culvert for crossing embankment
will be allowed by MoAI.
・ MoAI has jurisdiction over the construction near a river embankment. Since there was no law
and ordinance, they answered that MoAI determined all rules.
・ Discussion with MoAI should be required continuously during detailed design stage.

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4.1.6 Water Quality and Treatment Process


(1) Drinking Water Quality Standard
The target treated water quality is set as shown below, the same as in the 2014 JICA Water MP,
considering standards in Myanmar and WHO.

Table 4-2 Target Water Quality after Treatment with Reference to Other Standards
Parameters Allowable Value WHO standards Myanmar standards
pH 6.5 – 8.5 N/A 6.5 – 8.5
Taste Foul smell and taste are not detected Acceptable Acceptable
Odor Foul smell and taste are not detected Acceptable Acceptable
Color 5 true color units 15 true color units 15 true color units
5 NTU (1 NTU for target turbidity of treated
Turbidity 1 NTU for target 5 NTU
water in WTP)
Standard plate
< 100CFU/mL N/A N/A
count
Fecal
Not to be detected Not to be detected 0
coliforms
To be detected (at service tap by direct supply
and before storage tank of customer)
Residual
The residual chlorine at the exit of WTP shall < 5.0 mg/L N/A
chlorine
be set separately, considering the travel time to
the end of the service area.
Zinc (Zn) < 1.0 mg/L N/A < 3.0 mg/L
Aluminum
< 0.2 mg/L N/A < 0.2 mg/L
(Al)
Iron (Fe) < 0.3 mg/L N/A < 1.0 mg/L
Copper (Cu) < 1.0 mg/L < 2.0 mg/L < 2.0 mg/L
Manganese
< 0.05 mg/L < 0.4 mg/L < 0.4 mg/L
(Mn)
Hardness < 100 mg/L N/A < 500 mg/L
Chloride ion < 200 mg/L N/A < 250 mg/L
Sulfide < 200 mg/L N/A < 250 mg/L
Source: 2014 JICA Water MP, WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality, fourth edition and National drinking water
quality standards Myanmar (September 2014)

(2) Raw Water Quality


EDWS’s laboratory has started water quality tests of the Kokkowa River since May 2015. Report of
EDWS laboratory and Study Team is attached as Appendix-3.

Water quality was also tested during Phase 1 study and other F/S(s). The combined quality results are
shown in the following Table. Variation in average turbidity is 517 NTU in rainy season and 150 NTU
in dry season based on the following Table.

The following salient features are observed in terms of water quality of Kokkowa River.
In general, high level of Turbidity, Color and Iron are observed.
These parameters generally increase during rainy seasons.

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Table 4-3 Water Quality in Kokkowa River near Intake Point

Source: Results compiled by EDWS Laboratory

(3) Water Treatment Process


The main aim of water treatment is to reduce turbidity, color, iron and manganese to acceptable levels.
The removal of turbidity, color, iron and manganese by jar-test conducted by EDWS Laboratory and
the Team are shown in the following Figures. High turbidity, color, iron and manganese concentration
can be removed by process of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration. Therefore,
conventional treatment process is applicable considering raw water quality of Kokkowa River.

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Turbidity Color

Iron Manganese
Source: EDWS Laboratory and JICA Study Team
Figure 4-10 Removal of Turbidity, Color, Iron and Manganese from Raw Waters in 2015

(4) Sedimentation Characteristics


The sedimentation characteristic of Kokkowa River water is shown in the following Figure. The water
sample was filled in measuring cylinder, and turbidity of surface water was measured at specified
intervals of settling. The left graph shows trend of turbidity in rainy season (May – October, 2015),
and the graph on right side is trend of turbidity in dry season (November, 2015- April, 2016).

Both these figures (red lines in the Figures) indicate that average turbidity reaches a constant level
after 12 hours of settling. On the other hand, the turbidity of river water exceeding 1,000 NTU was
observed during about ten (10) days when the long duration rain continued during the end of July to
early August 2015. In case of such high level of turbidity, just after settlement of 36 hours the
turbidity reduces to less than 100 NTU, and it attains steady value of nearly 50 NTU after 48 hours of
settlement (blue dotted line in the left graph).

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Precipitation Test of Kokkowa River Raw Water in Rainy season


1000 Max. 2520 NTU
Precipitation Test of Kokkowa River Raw Water in Dry season
27-May-15 1-Jun-15
900 400
7-Jun-15 14-Jun-15
800 21-Jun-15 28-Jun-15 3-Nov-15 16-Nov-15 30-Nov-15

5-Jul-15 17-Jul-15 18-Dec-15 11-Jan-16 25-Feb-16


700
Turbidity (NTU)

5-Aug-15 11-Aug-15 300


AVERAGE

Turbidity (NTU)
600 17-Aug-15 25-Aug-15

500 7-Oct-15 21-Oct-15


AVERAGE 指数 (11-Aug-15) 200
400
y = 842.58e-0.061x
300 R² = 0.7681
200 100

100

0 0
0 12 24 36 48 60 72 0 12 24 36 48 60 72
Time (hr) Time (hr)

in Rainy Season (From May to Oct 2015) in Dry Season (From Nov 2015 to Feb 2016)
Source: JICA Study Team
Notes: Turbidity shown above is for water sample collected at 1 cm depth from the water surface in measuring cylinder.
Figure 4-11 Precipitation Test of Raw Water from Intake Point of Kokkowa River (May 2015 -
February 2016)

The situation of precipitation test for 0 to 72 hours is shown in the following photographs. There is no
photograph for case of 12 hours of settlement due to limitation of working hours. These photographs
indicate that turbidity is settled gradually with time and surface water becomes clear compared to
water at the bottom.

0hr 3hr 9hr 24hr 36hr 48hr 72hr


Source: JICA Study Team
Photograph 4-5 Situation of Precipitation Test (Sample water: 17 August 2015)

(5) Plan Turbidity and ACH Dosing Rate


Raw water turbidity level for planning is set based on results indicated in the following Table and
from precipitation curve of high turbidity situation in the above left figure (blue dotted line).

Table 4-4 Maximum Raw Water Turbidity for Facility Planning (NTU)
Season Raw Water After 12hrs After 24hrs After 36hrs After 48hrs
Rainy 2500 400 200 100 50
Source: JICA Study Team

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From the result of five jar tests which EDWS laboratory implemented during this study, relationship
between raw water turbidity and ACH dosing rate is shown in the following Figure. Although, small
number of data is available to define correlation coefficient and reliability is low, this graph shows a
trend that ACH injection rate decreases with decrease in raw water turbidity. For inflow turbidity
range of 0 - 200 NTU, flocculation and sedimentation can be done by injection-rate of less than 25
ppm in general.

Initial turbidity and ACH injection ratio

500
450
400
350 y = 47.111x0.4668
R² = 0.3112
300
NTU

250
200
150
100
50
0
0 50 100 150

ACH (ppm)

Source: EDWS laboratory


Figure 4-12 Relation of Raw Water Turbidity and ACH Dosing Rate (Result of Five Jar Tests)

(6) Cost Comparison of Coagulant and Additional Land for Pre-sedimentation Pond
Pre-sedimentation pond with 48 hours retention time requires large areas of lands; however that could
be compensated by small amount of ACH dosing that has a high-cost. Therefore, the land acquisition
cost could be recovered in a short period of time.

As alternate method, the amount of coagulant will increase and as a result, operation cost of chemical
will rise up. Based on the data collected in relation to chemical procurement cost in Yangon, the Team
has estimated that chemical cost of 3.3 million USD/ year will be required for ACH injection at the
rate of 10 mg/L for 60 MGD WTP.

Therefore, the team proposes that size of pre-sedimentation pond should be equivalent to 48 hours of
storage volume based on the result of jar tests. The cost comparison of pre-sedimentation pond for 12
and 48 hours is shown in the following Table. Pre-sedimentation pond with 48 hours can reduce the
chemical cost of about 28.2 million USD in ten years. Therefore, the study team proposed and agreed
that size of pre-sedimentation pond should be equivalent to 48 hours of storage volume based on the
result of jar tests by EDWS laboratory.

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Table 4-5 Cost Comparison of Obtained Form and Ideal Form for 60 MGD WTP
Obtained Land for 60 MGD WTP 60 MGD WTP with 48hrs Pre-Sedimentation
Pond (Ideal Form)

Sketch

Total Area 168,972 m2 (41.754 Acre) About 250,000 m2 (62 Acre)


Pre-Sedim. 12 hrs for 60MGD, Area 37,000 m2 48 hrs for 60MGD, Area 120,000 m2
Technical Since the form is not good, sedimentation Since form is good, sedimentation performance
viewpoint performance like tests is not expected. is expected to be same as test.
Land Additional area required is 81,028 m2 (20.2
Acquisition Acre)
-Excavation, Back filling and Disposal: 4.7 Mil.
Initial Cost
-- USD
Gap
-Land price: 0.08 Mil. USD (3,850 USD/Acre)
Coagulant 5.0 Mil. USD /year as ACH dosing rate = 15
1.7 Mil. USD /year as ACH dosing rate = 5 mg/L
cost/year mg/L
Cost in 10
5.0*10 years =50.0 Mil. USD 4.7 +0.08+1.7*10 years =21.8 Mil. USD
years
Save 28.2 Mil. USD in 10 years
Conclusion
(Ave. 2.8 Mil. USD/year)
Source: JICA Study Team

4.2 Planning Policy of WTP

(1) Facility Planning and Planning Parameters


The facilities are planned for 60 MGD of the daily maximum demand based on the Section 3.3.4
“Water Allocation to 10 Zones”. Treatment facilities are designed as 63 MGD including operational
loss amount within WTP. Transmission facilities will be designed for daily maximum demand of 60
MGD. On the other hand, distribution facilities will be designed for 1.5 times of 60 MGD considering
diurnal fluctuation of demand.

Treatment facilities can be designed for 60 MGD by 2025 and intake facilities are planned for 140
MGD, the final design capacity by Kokkowa WTP Stage 3, because repeated construction of the
intake facilities is not preferable that might damage embankment structure.

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Table 4-6 Parameters for Facility Planning


Item Amount Note Remarks
Intake flow for gates 700,000 m3/day 140MGD x110 % Japanese design guideline
Intake flow for 300,000 m3/day 60MGD x110 % Japanese design guideline
Pre-sedimentation pond
Treated flow 286,400 m3/day 60MGD x105 % Considering loss within WTP
Transmitted flow 272,800 m3/day 60MGD As same as maximum demand
Source: JICA Study Team

(2) Points of Concern in Design of WTP


The following items should be taken into consideration as policies related to design of WTP.

1) Selection of simple method


The type of equipment of facility is selected considering operation and maintenance aspects.
Equipment with many mechanical functions requires periodical rest of equipment for maintenance
and replacement work. Such equipment must stop for a significant period of time when the spare
parts are not ready at the time of a breakdown. Therefore, less maintenance system shall be selected
as much as possible.

2) Knowledge application from existing YCDC’s WTPs


YCDC has constructed the Nyaunghnapin WTP (90 MGD), and the construction of Lagunbyin
WTP (40 MGD) is now ongoing in 2015. For these WTPs, EDWS carried out or is carrying out
detailed design, construction and supervision works. The pre-sedimentation ponds at these WTPs
have been working and will work to remove high turbidity and same process will be planned in this
study.

3) Weak Soil Layers and Pile-driving


WTP needs to be constructed in the western part of Yangon where layers of soil at surface and
shallow depths are relatively weak in most cases. Pile-driving is a counter-measure against this and
the bottom end of pile should reach a strong soil layer below the weaker layers such as bedrock or
basal conglomerate to support weight of structures.

4) Consideration of YCDC and JICA loan scope


Planning of WTP will be decided considering YCDC’s existing facilities and JICA ODA loan of
Phase1 Project.

(3) Concept Related to Planning of Kokkowa WTP


For planning of Kokkowa WTP, the following 5 targets are considered to be achieved and this WTP
can provide as a model in Myanmar.

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Target- 1: Scalable System


A simple train system with easy extension: One train unit is planned from lift pump to clear
water tank, one train has the capacity of 20 MGD, and then, 7 trains will be installed to achieve
the planned capacity of 140 MGD finally.
Target- 2: Stable Supply
Secure stabilized amount of water from the river
Secure the process of sludge treatment to deal with large amount of mud
Raising up of WTP’s ground level as measure against flood and inundation
Target- 3: Water Quality Control
Process that can treat raw water having high turbidity
Water quality monitoring by introduction of automatic measuring equipment
Avoiding dangerous chemicals by using sodium hypochlorite for disinfection
Target- 4: Operation and Maintenance
Collection of data on flow rate in each treatment process by SCADA
Adjustable equipment of chemical injection considering the fluctuation in raw water quality
Target- 5: Environmental Consideration
Reduction of power consumption of pump by inverter control
Introduction of back-washing method for filters to reduce consumption of unnecessary pump
power

(4) Scope of YCDC and Possible JICA Loan


JICA and YCDC agree the proposed scope of the facilities as follows;

Table 4-7 Proposed Allocation of Work of WTP Construction


Pre- Chemical
chlorination Dosing Intermediate-
chlorination
M
Post-
chlorination
Leading Canal

Pre-sedimentation
Pond Receiving Rapid Flocculation Sedimentation Filter

Well Mixing Basin Basin

Basin Clear Water Transmission
Reservoir Pump
Intake Gate Lift Pump Wash Water Drainage Basin

Sludge Sludge Sun Drying


Basin Thickener Bed
Described
Facility JICA Fund YCDC Own Budget
section
4.3.4 Leading canal 140 MGD -
4.3.3 Intake gate 140 MGD -
4.3.5 Pre-sedimentation pond 60 MGD -
4.1.4.(7) Banking up to 7.1 m - 60 MGD
4.3.6 Lift pump 60 MGD -
4.4.3 Receiving Well cum Rapid Mixing Basin 60 MGD -
4.4.4 Flocculation Basin and Sedimentation Basin 60 MGD -

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4.4.5 Filter 60 MGD -


4.4.6 Clear water reservoir 60 MGD -
5.3.4 Transmission pump 60 MGD -
Sludge Treatment (Wash Water Drainage Basin,
4.4.7 Sludge Basin, Sludge Thickener and Sun Drying 60 MGD -
Bed)
4.4.8 Chemical Dosing Facility 60 MGD -
4.4.9 Chlorination Facility 60 MGD -
Electrical Facility (Main Power Supply and
4.4.10 Emergency Power Supply) 60 MGD -
4.4.11 SCADA 60 MGD -
4.4.12 Administration Facility 60 MGD -
Source: JICA Study Team

(5) Layout Plan of Kokkowa WTP


As is proposed in the preceding section and as YCDC has agreed to acquire additional land in the
fiscal year 2016/17 to have 60 MGD of pre-sedimentation pond with 48 hours retention time, layout
of the WTP is planned for 60 MGD capacity. Firstly, layout of the 140 MGD WTP (Kokkowa WTP
3rd Stage) is considered and then, layout of the 60 MGD WTP is proposed for this Study.

Source: JICA Study Team using background map of Google Earth


Figure 4-13 Proposed Layout of WTP (for 140 MGD)

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Source: JICA Study Team using background map of Google Earth


Figure 4-14 Proposed Layout of WTP (1st Stage of 60 MGD)

4.3 Intake Facility

4.3.1 Planning Policy


(1) Policy of Intake Planning
The location of intake point and WTP in this study is close to the Kokkowa River. Since fluctuation in
water level of the river is large, fluctuation in pump head is also large. However, using the river water
level effectively as natural power at the time of high-water level in river, the pump head becomes
small and electric power cost can be reduced. Therefore, Kokkowa water is led to WTP by gravity,
and lift pumps are installed at the starting point of treatment process. In addition, policy of intake
planning considering the below reason is as follows.

【Policy of Intake Planning】


Effective use of natural power sources
In order to avoid interruption in operation of WTP, intake gates are set below L.L.W.L of the
Kokkowa River.
High turbidity in raw water is reduced using pre-sedimentation pond in order to reduce
consumption of chemical.
To use surface water with low turbidity (of pre-sedimentation pond) than using low layer
water.

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(2) Fluctuation of the River Water Level


The periodical water level measurement in the Kokkowa River is carried out at the Pandaing village
(Refer to Figure 4-2 for the village location) by MoAI. They record the river water level three (3)
times (at 6:00, 12:00, and 18:00) every day. Based on the daily data obtained from MoAI, which was
recorded at 12:00, following Figure shows that average water level is +2.81 m (+9.2 feet: January
2011 - November 2015), HHWL as +5.88 m (+19.3 feet in August 2015), and LLWL as +0.30 m
(+1.0 feet on 9 days during January and April 2011) as the extreme value in the record. The range of
fluctuation of water level is as high as about 5.6 m. The difference in water level during one day is
about 2 m.

In recent years, many times water levels of about +1.0 m (about +3 feet) are observed in November -
May, and occurrence of LLWL +0.30 m is expected also in the future. For this reason, leading canal,
intake gates and lift pumps should be installed below LLWL in order to avoid interruption in
operation of WTP.

Source: MoAI and edited by JICA Study Team


Figure 4-15 Fluctuation of Daily Water Level of The Kokkowa River at Pandaing Village
(2008 to 2015)

(3) Measures against high turbidity


In the above Figure, the observed water levels exceeding the average level are occurring mainly
during the months of July - October. In general, and the period of raw water turbidity exceeding 500
NTU (Table 4-3) overlaps with the above period. In addition, occurrence of the turbidity exceeding
1,000 NTU continued for ten days in 2015 and is expected to occur in the future also. Therefore,
pre-sedimentation pond is planned for the purpose of reducing high turbidity in raw water.

The turbidity of inflow to WTP can be reduced, as observed in the precipitation tests (Figure 4-11), by

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increasing the retention time from the Kokkowa River to entrance of WTP. Based on the results of
tests carried out for high turbidity water in the rainy season (left graph in Figure 4-11), retention time
of pre-sedimentation pond is set to over 48 hours where turbidity is stabilized. On the other hand, in
the dry season, river water level is also low, and average turbidity of 150 NTU is within the range of
flocculation, consequently retention time is set to over 12 hours only.

(4) To take Supernatant Water


The result of sedimentation in Figure 4-11 shows that surface water has low turbidity. In order to use
the surface water of low turbidity, the structure of pump well is accordingly planned.

4.3.2 Proposed Capacities


There exists the MOAI’s embankment along the Kokkowa River that is an important facility to
protect against flood water. No facilities had better be constructed across the embankment that might
weaken the embankment. Therefore, repeated construction of the intake facilities should be avoided
and one-time construction is proposed. Hence, intake facilities need to be constructed with 154 MGD
(140 MGD x 110%) capacity which is the final capacity at this moment. It is considered that
pre-sedimentation pond and lift pumps of 66 MGD (60 MGD x 110%) be the candidate under this
plan.
Table 4-8 Proposed Planned Capacities
Facility Overall plan Capacity
Total Intake Flow 154 MGD
Intake point and leading canal 700,000 154 MGD
Intake Gate m3/day 154 MGD
Pre-sedimentation Pond (154 MGD) 66 MGD
Lift Pump 66 MGD
Source: JICA Study Team

4.3.3 Intake Point and Leading Canal


Raw water is to be directly taken from Kokkowa River for WTP.
The section of leading canal is calculated using the following
Manning formula.

=0.7 m/s
Flow rate=A x V=11.92 m3/s > 8.10 m/s =154 MGD
Where:
V: velocity (m/s), n: Gauckler-Manning coefficient 0.017 (as
gravel bottom), R: Hydraulic radius=A/P (A: cross sectional area 17.0 m2, P: wetted perimeter (m)), I:
slope of the hydraulic grade line (1/10,000)

4.3.4 Intake Gate


In order to withdraw water continuously for 24 hours, intake gates are to be installed below LLWL.
Six (6) gates are installed as described below. An intake gate is used in the constantly open condition.

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Planned flow : 154 MGD


Gate Size : 1500 mm x 1500 mm
Installation level : G.L.-1.2 m ∼ +0.3 m as LLWL
Bottom level of leading canal : G.L.-2.2 m (Height of a margin as 0.5∼1.0 m as
Japanese guideline)
Planned velocity : 0.4∼0.8 m/s (as Japanese guideline)
4 Duty+2 Standby : 0.90 m/s > 0.8 m …NG
5 Duty+1 Standby : 0.72 m/s < 0.8 m …OK
6 Duty+0 Standby : 0.60 m/s < 0.8 m …OK

River water level changes by several meters within the same day. Flap gate is installed in order to
prevent backflow when the water level of pre-sedimentation pond is higher compared to Kokkowa
River in case of low water level in Kokkowa River.

Table 4-9 Outline of Intake Gate


Quantity
No Facility Specification
Target In future
1 Intake Gate W 1500 mm x H 1500 mm of Square Gate with Screen 6 units -
2 Flap Gate W 1500 mm x H 1500 mm 6 units -
Source: JICA Study Team

4.3.5 Pre-sedimentation Pond


Pre-sedimentation pond is planned between intake gates and lift PS to improve raw water quality. This
facility will reduce consumption of high-cost coagulant.

As measures against the high-water level in Kokkowa River, the top level of dam body for
pre-sedimentation pond is set to +7.10 m as equivalent to the MoAI embankment level.

Since the target of this plan is only 66 MGD of total volume 154 MGD by the 3rd Stage, increasing the
number of pre-sedimentation pond should be reviewed according to area available for these facilities
in the future. For this purpose, bypass pipe of dia. 1800 mm RC is to be installed between intake gates
and pit of lift pumps.

The result of water quality test of SS indicates that about 20 cm of sediment will accumulate at the
bottom of pond in one year. YCDC backhoes will dredge mud at the bottom during dry season when
water level is low. Before starting the dredging work, a bypass pipe will be used for WTP and
pre-sedimentation pond will be emptied. Therefore, the slope for heavy machines is to be installed in
the pond.

【Design conditions】
Design flow: 66 MGD
Average velocity of pond: 2 - 7 mm/s < 20 - 70 mm/s as the velocity which does not
cause settled sand to float again, as Japanese guidelines
Retention time in case of High turbidity and the highest water level:
About 64 hrs > 48 hrs

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Retention time in case of Average water level: About 40 hrs


Retention time in case of the lowest water level: About 20 hrs > 12 hrs

【Design】
Surface Area: 100,000 m2
Mud Pocket: 0.5 m Height (Not including effective depth)
HWL: +5.88 m (+15.0’), Effective depth 8.12 m (excluding Mud pocket) →
Storage volume = 812,000 m3
MWL: +2.81 m (+9.2’), Effective depth 5.05 m →Storage volume =505,000 m3
LWL: +0.30 m (+1.0’), Effective depth 2.54 m →Storage volume =254,000 m3
Bottom Level: -2.74 m (-9.0’): LWL+0.3 m - Effective depth 2.54 m - Mud pocket 0.5 m
Top Level: +7.10 m > Level of MoAI embankment +7.00 m
Accessories: Bypass pipe; dia. 1800 mm and Slope for heavy machines.

4.3.6 Lift Pumping Equipment


The lift pump equipment consists of auto screen, lift gate and lift pump (see the Table 4-10). The
screen will be installed to prevent fallen leaves or garbage entry into the receiving well.

(1) Lift Gate


Fluctuation in the water level of Kokkowa River is large, and in order to withdraw surface water of
low turbidity (see the Photo 4-5), two or more inflow gates are planned. Here, if maximum water level
fluctuation is 5.6 m, and opening is 1.5 m in height, the number of gates is three tiers (5.6 m / 1.5 m =
3.7≒3). The lift gates are respectively installed in zigzag alignment as shown in the following Figure.
Motor operated gates are employed for easy operation. However, for design of gates operation, the
water level data of Kokkowa River with frequency of at least 5-minute interval is required. Therefore,
water level data shall be collected during the detailed design stage. The automatic water level
measuring instrument, which uses computer is effective for this kind of data collection.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4-16 Layout Planning of Lift Pump Gates

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(2) Auto Screen


A screen is to be installed in order to protect the pump from inflowing trash. The height of this
equipment is 9 m, and since manual operation is difficult, automatic type is adopted.

(3) Lift Pump


5 lift pumps (3 duty and 2 standby) will be installed. Each duty pump should send raw water to the
corresponding attached receiving well one-to-one in order to make easy operation of each of the
3-trains (sedimentation-filter-clear water tank). Standby pumps should be able to send raw water not
only to its corresponding receiving well but also to another well by switching valves, whenever
required.

Because water level fluctuation in the pre-sedimentation pond is large, horizontal double suction
volute pump with variable-frequency drive (VFD) is selected considering the following key points
and the Table 4-11 and 4-12;
Horizontal double suction volute pump has high efficiency.
Horizontal double suction volute pump is widely used at existing WTPs and Pump Stations in
Yangon city and operators of YCDC are skillful in maintenance of this type of pumps.
VFD can follow fluctuation in the water level, and thereby power costs can be reduced.

Table 4-10 Outline of Lift Pump Equipment


Quantity
No. Facility Specification
Duty Standby
Motor operated Lift Gate for
1 W 1500 mm x H 1500 mm 2 units -
HWL
Motor operated Lift Gate for
2 W 1500 mm x H 1500 mm 2 units -
MWL
Motor operated Lift Gate for
3 W 1500 mm x H 1500 mm 2 units -
LWL
4 Auto Screen Auto Fine Screen 2 units -
Double suction volute pump with VFD
5 Lift Pump 3 units 2 unit
67 m3/min x H 18 m x Approx. 300 kW
6 Water gauge in the pre-pond Ultrasonic type for pump control 1 unit 1 unit
Source: JICA Study Team

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Table 4-11 Comparison of Lift Pump


Volute Pump Mixed Flow Pump Axial Flow Pump

Horizontal shaft type Horizontal shaft type

Double Suction Horizontal shaft type


Appearances

Vertical shaft type


Single Suction Vertical shaft type Vertical shaft type
Pump Weight Heavy Medium Light ◎
Required Area for
Large Less than Volute Pump ◎ Almost same as Mixed Flow Pump ◎
Installation
Horizontal shaft: 10-150 m ◎ Horizontal shaft: 2.5-15 m × Horizontal shaft: 6 m or less ×
Pump Head
Vertical shaft: 10-200 m ◎ Vertical shaft: 4-60 m ◎ Vertical shaft: 8 m or less ×
High efficiency in a wide range of
Pump Efficiency ◎ Slightly lower than Volute Pump Slightly lower than Mixed Flow Pump
water discharge
Low in a region of a small water Constant in a wide range of water Shutoff power is more than twice as
Shaft Power ◎
discharge discharge large as that of rated value
Suction Performance High ◎ Slightly lower Low
Narrow
Narrower than Volute Pump,
Operational Range Wide ◎ (Approx. 140% or less than designed
Wider than Axial Flow Pump
pump head)
Experiences in Yangon Many ◎ Little Little
Overall ◎ ×
Source: JICA Study Team

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Table 4-12 Methods of Pump Operation Control


Speed Control (VFD) Valve Control Number of Operating Pumps Control

P H P
H N min-1
P’ P’
H’ N’ min-1 H’ H P
P’
n=1 n=2 n=3
Q’ Q Q Q Q’
Outline Q’= N’/N x Q Q’= Q Q’= n x Q
H’= (N’/N)2 x H H’= H – KQ2 H’= H
L’= (N’/N)3 x L L’= L *n : Number of operating pumps
*N, N’ : Revolution speed *K : Coefficient based on valve opening

The discharge quantity should be controlled The discharge quantity should be controlled The discharge quantity should be controlled
by the changing revolution speed of motor. by changing the valve opening. by the number of operating pumps.

Continuous flow setting is possible. Continuous flow setting is possible.


Special devices are not required.
Power cost will be saved. Operation is simple.
Operation is simple.
Advantage Pump will be operated effectively. Equipment cost will be small.
The risk distribution will be possible by
To cope with the variation of water level is To cope with the variation of water level is
increasing pump number.
possible. possible.

Power cost will be wasteful.


Equipment cost will be slightly expensive. Continuous flow setting is impossible.
Vibration and noise will occur.
Disadvantage Required area for installation of the related To cope with the variation of water level is
In case that the valve-outlet pressure is
equipment will increase. impossible.
low, cavitation will occur.
Running Cost* 1.0 1.4 - (relation condition is different) -
Overall ◎ △
* Numbers show comparative number assuming Speed Control as 1.0.
Source: JICA Study Team

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4.4 Treatment Facility

4.4.1 Proposed Facilities for WTP


Summary of the proposed facilities are shown in Table below and calculation sheet is attached as
Appendix-5.

Table 4-13 Summary of The Proposed Facilities for WTP


Facility Size per unit Total
Design Capacity : 63MGD
1 Receiving Well W 4.5 m x L 4.5 m x H 6.0 m 3
2 Rapid Mixing Basin W 4.5 m x L 4.5 m x H 5.1 m 3
3 Flocculation Basin Average W 1.08 m x L 145.2 m x H 4.35 m 3
4 Sedimentation Basin W 24.2 m x L 31.1 m x H 4.0 m 6
Tube settler of dimension W 23.9 m x L 24.4 m
5 Filter W 9.5 m x L 12.0 m 24
6 Clear Water Reservoir W 25.0 m x L 30.0 m x H 5.5 m = Vol. 4,125m3 3
7 Wash Water Drainage Basin W 12.0 m x L 12.0 m x effective depth 3.0 m 3
8 Sludge Basin W 12.0 m x L 12.0 m x effective depth 3.0 m 3
9 Sludge Thickener Diameter 12.0 m x effective depth 1.5m 3
10 Sun Drying Bed 15.0 m x 18.0 m = Area 270 m2 9
11 Chemical Dosing 3
12 Sub Power Station Facilities 1
13 Administration Facilities 1
Source: JICA Study Team

4.4.2 Treatment Process


Soluble components such as odor, color, organic, inorganic substances and by-products of disinfection,
and insoluble components such as turbidity, algae and microorganism are to be removed in treatment
process. Process of “Coagulation – Sedimentation – Filtration” is generally used for treating surface
water with higher turbidity. This treatment process is employed for the Nyaunghnapin WTP, judging
from the raw water quality analysis. This process has been adopted in other WTPs in Yangon.

The type of chemicals to be used and their dosing rates will be decided based on “jar tests” during the
detailed design stage. For planning purpose, ACH (PAC) as a coagulant is considered. Sodium
hypochlorite is recommended for disinfection in water distribution networks. In addition, three steps
of chlorine injection in treatment process is planned to remove iron/manganese in case if
concentration of these elements are high or coagulation process is not able to remove these elements
effectively. The following is the treatment process adopted for Kokkowa WTP.

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Kokkowa River Intake Gate Pre-Sedimentation Pond Lift Pump

Pre-Chlorine Injection Intermediate-Chlorine Post-Chlorine Injection


Coagulation Injection

Receiving Well Flocculation Basin Rapid Sand Clear Water


Mixing Well Sedimentation Basin Filter Reservoir (Tank)

Sludge Treatment Transmission


Process Pump
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 4-17 Treatment Process

4.4.3 Receiving Well cum Rapid Mixing Basin


The raw water is to be conveyed from pre-sedimentation pond to receiving well. Receiving well cum
rapid mixing basin is attached to sedimentation basin. Chlorine (as pre-chlorination) and coagulant
(ACH) shall be injected and mixing shall be carried out in the receiving well.

Rapid mixing will be made utilizing turbulent flow energy by mechanical mixing because reliable
mixture is required for water with high turbidity (the turbidity of water remains high although it is
reduced significantly by passing it through pre-sedimentation pond).

However, since Myanmar has few suppliers of such equipment, if equipment breaks down, repair will
require long time. Therefore, hydraulic jump for rapid mixing is also adopted between rapid mixing
basin and flocculation basin in consideration of occurrence of any mechanical trouble. In addition, it
is installed with the main purpose of flow rate measurement by overflow weir.

【Design conditions】
Retention time (more than 1- 5 minutes as Japanese guidelines)
Receiving well: 1.8 minutes
Rapid mixing basin: 1.8 minutes
【Design】
Receiving well: W 4.5 m x L 4.5 m x H 6.0 m x 3 nos., RC Structure
Rapid mixing well: W 4.5 m x L 4.5 m x H 5.1 m x 3 nos., RC Structure
Accessories: Flash mixer, Overflow weir, ACH/Chlorine injection point

The following Table shows comparison for selecting rapid mixing method.

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Table 4-14 Coagulant Mixing Method


Hydraulic Jump Pump Mixing Mechanical Mixing
Structure Motor

Treated
water

Treated
Pump water
Raw
Raw water water

Mixing Effect Large due to large water falling ◎ Flexible due to change of water ◎ Flexible due to change of impeller rotation ◎
circulation volume speed
Effect by Flow Agitation Index will change △ Agitation Index will slightly change ○ Agitation Index will be constant. ◎
Volume
Change
Operation and Easy due to no mechanical ◎ Needs operation and maintenance of △ Needs operation and maintenance of △
Maintenance parts. mechanical parts. mechanical parts.
Required
1.5 △ 1.4 ○ 1.0 ◎
Motive Power
Required Area Small ◎ Large (Need Pump Room) △ Small ◎
Initial Cost* 0.1 ◎ 1.6 △ 1.0 ○
Operation
1.5 △ 1.4 ○ 1.0 ◎
Cost*
Experiences Large ◎ Small △ Large ◎
Reliable mixture is required for high turbidity and
Overall ○ △ Advantage of running cost

* Numbers show comparative number assuming mechanical mixing method which has been used widely in Japan, as 1.0.
Source: JICA Study Team

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4.4.4 Flocculation Basin and Sedimentation Basin


(1) Flocculation Basin
Micro flocs will be produced after injection and rapid mixing of coagulants with raw water. These
micro flocs need to be developed into large ones so as to settle down effectively in sedimentation
basin. Flocculation basin is planned for this development after rapid mixing basin and before
sedimentation basin.

Of the mechanical and non-mechanical flocculation methods, non-mechanical one is employed in this
WTP. Horizontal and vertical zigzag flow flocculation method is adopted in which water after rapid
mixing is guided to the flocculation basin from bottom.

【Design conditions】
Retention time: 20.5 minutes (more than 20~40 minutes as per Japanese Guidelines)
【Design】
Dimension: Average W 1.08 m x L 145.2 m x H 4.35 m x 3 nos., RC Structure
Mixing method: Horizontal and vertical zigzag flow
Accessories: Up-and down weir
【Selection reasons (see Table 4-16)】
Since Myanmar has few suppliers of plant equipment, mechanical employment has a high risk
at the time of trouble.
Low initial cost
Low operation cost compared to mechanical type when enough water drop is possible

(2) Sedimentation Basin


Large flocs formed in flocculation basin are settled in sedimentation basin. In general, sedimentation
basin is categorized as three main types: horizontal-flow basin, horizontal-flow basins with inclined
plate or tube settler, and high-speed accelerator (flocculent settling basin).

Horizontal flow with inclined plate and upward flow with tube settler are recommended as
sedimentation basin for raw water with wide fluctuation in turbidity. Horizontal-flow sedimentation
basins with inclined plates require much maintenance in cleaning when sludge is accumulated on the
plates in case of high turbidity raw water. There is high possibility of breaking and falling of inclined
plates. Therefore, inclined tube settler should be selected to reduce required land for sedimentation.

【Design conditions】
Retention time: 1.5 hours (more than 1 hour as per Japanese Guidelines)
Average flow velocity: 0.4 m/min
Average up-flow velocity: less than 80 mm/min
Surface load: less than 7 to 14 mm/min
【Design】
Dimension: W 24.2 m x L 31.1 m x H 4.0 m with Tube settler of dimension W
23.9 m x L 24.4 m x 2 units x 3 trains = 6 basins, RC Structure
Sedimentation method: Upflow type with tube settler and Mechanical sludge collector

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Sludge discharge valve: Automatic eccentric valve with timer control


Accessories: Inclined tube settler, guiding walls, collecting troughs for water
collection, monorail type sludge collector, de-sludging equipment
(valves, pipes)

【Selection reasons (see Table 4-17)】


Requires relatively smaller land area
Many examples of use in neighboring countries

The purpose of installing the tube settler is to help the settlement of coagulated flocs effectively using
a small surface area of sedimentation basin. The settled sludge is collected at the pit at the bottom by
sludge collector, and discharged into the sludge basin periodically through the de-sludging valve.

Table 4-15 Outline of Sedimentation Equipment


Quantity
No Facility Specification
Duty Standby
1 Tube Settler Upflow type 6 units -
2 Sludge Collector Monorail type 6 units -
Source: JICA Study Team

(3) Intermediate Chlorination


Chlorine will be also injected into settled water channel in the sedimentation basin to remove iron and
manganese and prevent formation of hazardous tri-halo-methane, when raw water contains high
amount of organic compound. The injection point of chlorine will be set as the end of sedimentation
basin.

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Table 4-16 Mixing Method of Flocculation Basin


Method Using Flow Energy Mechanical Mixing Method
Vertical and Horizontal Zigzag
Horizontal Zigzag Flow Horizontal Shaft Paddle Vertical Shaft Paddle
Flow
Inflow

Mixing vane
Mixing vane
Water level Inflow Outflow
Structure difference
Inflow Outflow

(2) Horizontal baffled channel method


Outflow
(top view)

0.5 meters water level 0.5 meters water level Better by adjusting rotation Better by adjusting rotation
Mixing Effect ◎ ◎
difference is required. difference is required. numbers in each stage. numbers in each stage.
Effect by Flow Agitation Index will change Agitation Index will change Agitation Index will be constant. ◎ Agitation Index will be ◎
Volume (mixing is stronger than constant.
Change horizontal baffling)
Operation and Easy due to no mechanical ◎ Easy due to no mechanical ◎ Needs operation and Needs operation and
Maintenance parts. parts. maintenance of mechanical maintenance of mechanical
parts. Drive part is submerged parts. Drive part is not
and durability is not so good. submerged and durability is
good.
Required
0.1 ◎ 0.1 ◎ 1.0 1.0
Motive Power
Required Area Large Medium Small ◎ Small ◎
Initial Cost* 0.2 ◎ 0.2 ◎ 1.0 0.6
Running
0.1 ◎ 0.1 ◎ 1.0 1.0
Cost*
Easy due to no mechanical parts
Overall and Advantage of running cost ○

* Numbers show comparative number assuming horizontal-shaft paddle mixing method which has been used widely in Japan, as 1.0.
Source: JICA Study Team

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Table 4-17 Sedimentation Method


Horizontal Flow with Sedimentation Effect Enhancement
Conventional Horizontal Flow
Horizontal Flow with Inclined Plate Upward Flow with Tube Settler
Structure

Retention Time 3-5 hours Approximately 1 hour Approximately 1 hour


Surface Load 15-30 mm/min 4-9 mm/min 7-14 mm/min
Velocity Less than 0.4 m/min Less than 0.6 m/min Less than 0.08 m/min
Basin Depth 3-4 m 4-5 m 4-5 m
Required Area Large (100 %) Small (30 to 40 %) ◎ Medium (50 to 70 %)
Turbidity of Low due to intermediate flow guiding Low due to uniform flow ◎ Low due to uniform flow ◎
Settled Water wall, however, sometimes not low due to
short-circuit and/or density flows
Flexibility to Not good for variation in raw water Good for variation in raw water turbidity. ◎ Good for variation in raw water turbidity. ◎
variation turbidity. Good for variation in raw water temperature. Good for variation in raw water temperature.
Not good for variation in raw water Good for variation in raw water flow volume. Good for variation in raw water flow volume.
temperature.
Good for variation in raw water flow
volume.
Operation and Continuous monitoring is required because ◎ Periodical cleaning is required to remove settled Periodical cleaning is required to remove
Maintenance density flow and short-circuit flow may sludge on the plates. Removal of plates is settled sludge on the tubes. Cleaning is not
occur often. Cleaning is easy. required during cleaning. difficult.
Initial Cost* 1.0 ◎ 2.5 2.0
Running Cost* 0 ◎ 0 ◎ 0 ◎
Experiences Many ◎ Little (however many in Japan) Relatively many ◎
Overall ◎
* Numbers show comparative number assuming conventional horizontal flow basin as 1.0.
Source: JICA Study Team

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4.4.5 Filter
Micro flocs which cannot be settled down in sedimentation basins should be separated out in filters.
Two-layer filter media of anthracite and sand is employed in the Nyaunghnapin WTP. However, its
operation in the existing Nyaunghnapin WTP does not show good results; since particles in the filter
media are small and backwashing speed is high, resulting in filter media being washed away. To
overcome this issue, single-layer filter media (silica sand) is adopted for this WTP. Filter bed
thickness is set as 600 mm considering the particle diameter which can be procured in the Yangon
suburbs. And filtration speed will be reduced to the maximum level of 150 m/day for single layer
filter.

A first example in Yangon, self-back-washing method is adopted for this WTP considering energy
saving. Conventionally, the pump backwash system is employed in other WTPs. In Nyaunghnapin
WTP, valves operation is conducted manually and heavy manpower of operators is required.
Therefore, filtration and backwash processes in this WTP are automatically operated with the
sequence control using motor-operated valve as same as Lagunbyin WTP.

The duration of washing of each filter is considered as 30 minutes, such that back-washing of all the
proposed 24 filters can be finished during daytime within 12 hrs for 60 MGD WTP.

【Design conditions】
Filter flow speed: Less than 150 m/day
Conventional rapid sand filter
【Design】
Dimension: W 9.5 m x L 12.0 m x 8 filters x 3 trains =24 filters, RC Structure
Filter media: Single layer (Silica sand: 600 mm thickness), Uniformity coefficient: less
than 1.7 mm
Washing method: Self-backwashing (see Table 4-19) with Air washing or Surface washing
Accessories: Air wash equipment (blower), under drain plate (porous block), drain
trough, drain pipe, inlet, outlet and drain valves (electrically driven)

Table 4-18 Outline of Rapid Sand Filter Equipment


Quantity
No Facility Specification Duty Standby
1 Rapid Sand Filter Gravity and Single Media Filtration 24 units -
2 Air Blower (Example) Rotary Blower 6 units 3 units
Source: JICA Study Team

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Table 4-19 Back Washing Method of Filtration Basin


Constant Rate Filtration with Back wash
Self-Balancing Filtration with Self-washing
pump or Elevated tank
Schematic
diagram

Configuration Consists of catchment, inflow culvert, Same as in left column


various motor-operated valves, drain
trough, etc.
Filters are independent of each other. All Filters are connected to each other.
Flow Speed 120 - 150 m/day 120 - 150 m/day
Backwashing 0.6 - 0.8 m/minute 0.6 - 0.8 m/minute ◎
Speed and
Method Backwashing is performed by Backwashing is performed using
pressurized water by pumps or filtered water by clear water with
elevated tank via other filters connected, utilizing the
motor-operated valves. difference in water level in clear
water weir and drain trough.
Backwashing pump or elevated water
tank is not required.
Flow Control Requires valves to balance Inflow and outflow volume balance ◎
inflow and outflow volume. naturally.
Requires various valves of
Operation and Requires various valves of inflow,
inflow, outflow, drainage and ◎
Maintenance outflow and drainage.
back-washing.
Initial Cost* 1.0 0.8
Running
1.0 0.3 ◎
Cost*
Experiences Many ◎ Relatively many
Advantage of running cost
Overall

* Numbers show comparative number assuming constant rate filtration control as 1.0.
Source: JICA Study Team

4.4.6 Clear Water Reservoir (Tank)


Theoretically, the amount of treated water and treated water pumping should be the same. However, in
case that the two flows are not same, clear water tank will be required to adjust the flows difference.
The design volume is set as one hour of the daily treatment capacity according to the Japanese Design
Guidelines. Three trains with horizontal-flow mixing by baffle wall are proposed with 1 injection
point per train for post-chlorination.

【Design conditions】
Retention time: 1.0 hour of the daily treatment capacity (more than 1 hour as Japanese
Design Guidelines)
Mixing method: Horizontal zigzag flow type
【Design】
Dimension: W 25.0 m x L 30.0 m x H 5.5 m (Volume 4,125 m3) x 3 trains, RC
Structure
Accessories: Chlorine injection point, water level gauge, overflow pipe, drain
equipment (pipe and valve) and ventilator

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4.4.7 Sludge Treatment


Sludge treatment method is decided considering raw water quality, quantity and quality of waste or
washed water, characteristics of sludge, disposal method of generated sludge, operation requirements,
land size of each method, construction cost of each method and so on. Sludge treatment facilities
generally consist of sludge basin (for sludge from sedimentation basins), wash water drainage basin
(from filters), sludge thickener and dehydration facilities such as lagoon, sun drying bed or
mechanical facilities.

Since satisfactory concentration of sludge is confirmed by the jar test, use of sun drying bed for
dehydration is a cheaper option. Thickened sludge is transferred to sun drying bed where sludge is
dried under natural sunlight. Its supernatant is discharged to drain.

From Sand Filter Return


Wash Water
Pre-Sedimentation Pond
Drainage Basin

Sludge
From Sedim. Basin Dried Sludge
Sludge Basin Thickener Sun Dry Bed
Transport to Landfill

Return Return Return

Drain

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4-18 Sludge Treatment Process

(1) Wash Water Drainage Basin (from Filter)


Wash water drainage basin temporarily stores back-wash water from filters. Volume of basins should
be equal to at least one day’s back-washed water volume. Discharge pumps are provided for the
basins.

【Design】
Dimension: W 12.0 m x L 12.0 m x effective depth 3.0 m x 3 trains
【Facilities Specifications】
Design Parameter: 3 basins, RC Structure
Discharge Pump: 6 duty and 3 standby (2 duty and 1 stand-by for each basin)

(2) Sludge Basin (for sludge from Sedimentation basins)


Sludge basins are installed before thickeners to adjust flow and quality of sludge discharged from
sedimentation basins. Volume of the basins are planned to receive one day’s discharged volumes from
the above basins during rainy season when raw water turbidity is high.

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【Design】
Dimension: W 12.0 m x L 12.0 m x effective depth 3.0 m x 3 trains
【Facilities Specifications】
Design Parameter: 3 basins, RC Structure
Sludge Withdrawal Pump: 3 duty and 3 standby (1 duty and 1 stand-by for each basin)

(3) Sludge Thickener


Thickeners are provided to accelerate dehydration of sludge and reduce sludge volume. Of the three
types of commonly used sludge thickening processes; gravity thickening, floating thickening, and
filtration thickening, generally used gravitational thickening is selected for this WTP. The thickener
will be provided with rotational sludge rake system. Collected sludge at the bottom will be sent to sun
drying beds by gravity flow.

【Design】
Dimension: Diameter 12.0 m x effective depth 1.5m x 3 trains
【Facilities Specifications】
Design Parameter: 3 tanks, RC Structure, Cylindrical-shape type with rotational
sludge rake system
De-sludging valve: 3 duty (1 duty for each tank)

(4) Sun Drying Bed


Sun drying bed is planned to store and settle sludge discharged from thickeners. Supernatant from the
sun drying bed is discharged to canal by gravity. Sludge is dried in the beds, settled and accumulated
sludge is raked and collected. Access road is provided for that purpose. Dried sludge may be used for
land reclamation purpose as land filling for extension area of WTP or as covering materials.

【Design】
Design Parameter: W15.0 m x L18.0 m x 9 basins =Total Area 2,430 m2, RC
Structure

4.4.8 Chemical Dosing Facility


(1) ACH Dosing Equipment
Alum and ACH (PAC) are generally used as coagulants. Although expensive, the use of ACH is
suitable when large variation in raw water quality is expected, and therefore, it is used in YCDC
systems. For this WTP, ACH is recommended same as in other existing WTPs. Accordingly, storage
tanks and dosing pumps are provided for ACH dosing.

(2) ACH Dosing Rate


For this WTP, pre-sedimentation pond with 48 hours of retention time is planned to reduce high
turbidity in raw water. Based on the water quality tests, the raw water turbidity level is reduced to 50
NTU after pre-sedimentation. Considering these values and jar test result, dosing rates are planned in
the range as given below.

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Theoretically, alkalinity of 0.15 mg/L is consumed per ACH 1 mg/L, in case of the proposed injection
rate, alkalinity is expected to drop by 1 - 4 mg/L. Based on the available water quality data it is
analyzed that the alkalinity of raw water is about 20 mg/L, and it is determined that Alkali aid is
unnecessary in this plan.

Table 4-20 Proposed ACH Dosing Rate


Expected turbidity after pre-sedimentation pond Dosing rate
Less than 50 NTU 5 - 25 mg/L
Note: Dosing rate is tentative and needs verification during detailed design period.
Source: JICA Study Team

(3) Design Value of Chemical Dozing Equipment


The chemical dosing facility is designed considering following design criteria.
Chemicals: Liquid ACH
Doing rate: 1 to 30 mg/L
Injection Pump: (1 duty and 1 standby) x 3 trains
Incidental equipment: Chemical storage tank

4.4.9 Chlorination Facility


Chlorination facility is planned to provide safe water to consumers and holding of disinfection in
water distribution pipelines. Moreover, three steps of chlorine injections are recommended for iron/
manganese removal. Key points related to dosing and purposes are as follows:
Pre-chlorination: Average dosing rate is set as the minimum rate in order to prevent algae
generation/ growth and removal of iron/manganese based on the result of chlorine demand test.
Intermediate-chlorination: Removal of iron/manganese and used as an alternative of
pre-chlorination when the raw water is polluted by wastewater along the intake canal.
Post-chlorination: Providing residual chlorine to take care of potential pollutants seeping into
the distribution system.

Chlorine injection rates are set based on the result of water quality test by EDWS and the Study Team
as given in the following Table.

Table 4-21 Chlorine Dosing Rate


Dosing Rate(mg/L)
Item
Maximum Average Minimum
Pre-chlorination 6.0 3.0 1.5
Intermediate chlorination 6.0 3.0 1.5
Post chlorination 1.0 0.5 0.25
Note: Dosing rate should be decided based on water quality tests in the detailed design.
Source: JICA Study Team

Avoiding dangerous chemicals by adopting use of sodium hypochlorite for disinfection, Liquid
sodium hypochlorite is planned as chlorination agents based on the comparison shown in the
following Table. Although hypochlorite’s costs are relatively high, dosing facilities are simple.

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However, considering the outcome of implementation of Phase 1 Project, it is necessary to review


again in detailed design of Phase 2 Project.

Table 4-22 Chlorination Agents


On-site Sodium Hypochlorite
Liquid Chlorine (Gas) Liquid Sodium Hypochlorite
Generator
Liquid Chlorine contained in Liquid, Produced from salt
Characteristics Liquid
Gas Cylinder by electrolysis
Approximately 1 % by
Effective
non-diaphragm type
Chlorine More than 99.4 % Approximately 12.0 %
Approximately 5 % by
Concentration
diaphragm type
High Alkalinity
Low Alkalinity
More unstable when
Less stable than Liquid
effective chlorine
Stability Stable Chlorine but more stable
concentration is higher.
than purchased liquid
More dissolved when salt
hypochlorite.
concentration is higher.
Should follow “Safety
Concentration may become
regulation on general Long-term storage is possible
Storage lower, Long-term storage is
high-pressure gas” etc. in as salt.
difficult.
Japan.
Dosing
Complex Simple Relatively Complex
Devices
- Air bubble is generated by
- Small chances of obstacles
electrolyzing sodium
from air bubble and scale
Careful handling is required hypochlorite.
Handling generation
due to strong poisonous gas - So consideration should be
Remarks - Discharge after dilution of
with irritating odor. taken to prevent pumps and
hydrogen generated during
pipes from airlock
electrolysis.
generation.
Lead to heavy accidents
when chlorine gas leaks. Barrier is required to prevent
Barrier is required to prevent
Gas detector, neutralizer and overflow.
Measures overflow.
absorbers are mandatory for Hydrogen should be
Against Prevention of mixing with
small-sized facility. discharged sufficiently
Leakage ACH is required, which
In addition, neutralizing otherwise it will explode or
generates poisonous chlorine.
reaction towers are required catch fire.
for large-sized facility.
Chlorine dosing device,
Operation and
vaporizer, detector, Dosing device Electrolyzer
Maintenance
neutralizer, absorbers etc.
Running
0.3 1.0 1.6
Cost*
Safest and Simple Devices
Overall 〇 〇

* Numbers show comparative number assuming Liquid Hypochlorite as 1.0.
Source; Guideline of Treatment Technology 2010, Waterworks Technology Research Center, Japan

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4.4.10 Electrical Facility


(1) Basic Philosophy of Electrical Facilities
It is strongly advisable to adopt electrical equipment conforming to IEC standards and/or Japanese
standards (JIS, JEC & JEM) with the type test records, in order to assure the quality and personnel
safety. On the contrary, products of electrical manufacturers in Myanmar are generally used in the
existing YCDC’s WTPs as these products have advantages to EDWS personnel in operation,
maintenance and upgrading. Based on the results of survey, the type-tested electrical equipment is
limited to low capacity transformers only, and therefore there is less chance to apply those until they
proceed with the type tests and pass them. The proposed WTP does not have any critically unsafe
facilities in the system, electrical facilities should have very basic fundamental protection only, and
the WTP does not require any special devices.

Electrical cables have large impact on the WTP operation by their product quality. Cables from India,
China, etc., are normally used in electrical construction in Myanmar, but for many of these, the
factory inspection records for quality control cannot be traced. The cables provided with individual
test records in accordance with IEC standards and/or Japanese standards shall be used in these WTPs.

As for electrical construction, there are several companies involved in the existing YCDC’s WTP
constructions. They are recommended to participate in this WTP construction for YCDC scope so that
they will help EDWS to proceed with proper maintenance and upgrading after start-up. However,
these construction companies shall be strictly evaluated in view of construction safety control.

(2) Electricity Supply in Yangon


YESC governs the electricity transmission and distribution in the area of the proposed WTP located in
Yangon. Their main transmission network is 230kV and the sub network is 66kV and 33kV. YESC
Electricity Network Diagram is shown in the following Figure. The town distribution for industry and
home is 6.6kV and 400V, respectively, and there are planned or accidental power shutdowns very
often. Electricity is available during working hours in the day time in some industrial areas, and the
main receiving switches have been open for several months in some other industrial areas.

The WTP should receive electricity from 33 kV sub network transmission line which corresponds to
the YESC regulation for the WTP with the receiving transformer capacity of 1 MVA and above but
less than 10 MVA. There are existing YESC 33 kV overhead lines dedicated for public utilities such
as existing YCDC’s WTPs, and they are supplying electricity for 24 hours.

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Kokkowa WTP

Source: YESB (now YESC) Infrastructure of Yangon City Electricity Supply Board in July 2013
Figure 4-19 230 kV & 66 kV Network Diagram of YESC in 2015-16

(3) Main Power Supply


Incoming power will be supplied by YESC in 3 phase 33 kV 50 Hz. A sub-station will be located in
WTP. The power received at 33 kV will be stepped down to 6.6 kV by a main transformer to meet the
motor voltage requirement of pump motor. The transformer will be of the outdoor, oil immersed, and
natural cooling type. The capacity of the main transformer is estimated as 6.0 MVA for 60 MGD WTP.
Power Supply Diagram is shown below.

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Note: The component inside thick line indicates the construction to be undertaken by YCDC.
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 4-20 Main Power Supply for Zone 9 (Prior Construction)

(4) Electricity (Incoming Line)


YCDC has already obtained YESC’s permission for new power line for the project provided that
YCDC extend 20 km of transmission line themselves for 33 kV. The permitted capacity by YESC is
for 10.0 MVA instead of required capacity of 6.0 MVA.

The detail of power line and its construction schedule are shown in the following Table and Figure.

Table 4-23 Detailed Power Line and Construction Schedule by YCDC


Transmission Voltage 33 kV 3 Phase 50 Hz
Transmission Method Overhead Line
Transmission Capacity 10.0 MVA (approved)
Short Circuit Capacity 31.5 kA
Expected Commencement Date August 2015
Expected Completion Date August 2016
Source: JICA Study Team

After completion of the work, this transmission line will be handed over to YESC and operation and

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maintenance will be conducted by YESC. Therefore, main power supply is out of scope of the
Japanese ODA loan.

Notes: Yangon – Pathein road is National Highway No. 5


Source: YCDC
Figure 4-21 Electrical Transmission Line for Kokkowa WTP

(5) Emergency Power Supply


Although there is new plan of power transmission for the future expansion of facilities, there is no
plan to make electrical main power supply more reliable such as way of duplex supply or looping
supply. The result of investigation related to power outage in similar facilities in the past 10 years,
where the power is supplied by overhead line, indicate that the longest record of outage was more
than one month due to terrible cyclone “Nargis”. Excluding the case of Nargis, there were 72 outages
for which duration was more than 10 hours and in case of 9 of these 72 outages the duration was more
than 24 hours. The reasons of outage were accidents in the transmission line or power cuts by the
power company. Although supply condition is improving year by year, in consideration of the current
situation, stand-by power generator will be required for stable water supply. Especially, planned water
supply system will use pumps for water transmission and distribution and the interruption of main
power supply will cause total interruption of water supply immediately. Therefore, stand-by generator
will be planned in this study.

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Type of generator will be diesel engine generator, built-in radiator that is required for easy operation
and maintenance and also being used in Yangon in many cases. The capacity of generator will cover
the power requirements of facilities from water intake to water distribution because duration of outage
is much longer than the retention time of tanks. Fuel tank capacity of generator needs to be sufficient
for 72 hours operation in order to cope with 24 hours outage by supplying additional fuel the next day.

Stand-by generators will be included in the scope of Japanese loan because the manufacturer of all
generators should be unified and be synchronized together as single power source.

4.4.11 SCADA
SCADA system will be planned for purposes of monitoring with centralization, automatic control and
supporting better O&M. SCADA System will be divided into three systems which are SCADA for
WTP, SCADA for Zone 9/Relay Pump Station and SCADA for Zone 1. The systems will be installed
in Administration Building at WTP, Relay Pump Station in Zone 9 SR and PS in Central SR,
respectively (see the following Figure).

These systems will be connected with each other by a data backbone which has high speed data
transmission (laying cost of optical fiber cable is included in this project). Important data, such as
equipment alarms and transmission flow, will be shared in real time in each system. Main monitoring
and control items for each SCADA System are shown below.

Water quality monitoring should be carried out continuously for producing good quality treated water
to meet the water quality standards. The water quality parameters and flow to be monitored at
different locations are listed in the following Table.

Table 4-24 Monitoring Points of Water Quality


Item Monitoring location Monitoring items
Raw water - Pre-sedimentation pond ・Turbidity: ACH dosing rate control
・pH: ACH dosing rate control
Settled water - In settled water channel ・Turbidity
・pH
・Residual chlorine
Filtered water - Filtered water channel ・Turbidity
・pH
Treated water - After pumping ・Turbidity
・pH
・Residual chlorine
Distributed - At the distribution points ・Turbidity
water ・pH
・Residual chlorine
Source: JICA Study Team

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Intake

monitoring Intake flow, Pressure, River water level, Water quality,


INTAKE Pump status
Lift pump
SCADA control

for WTP
WTP WTP monitoring Transmission flow, Pressure, Reservoir level, Water
quality, Equipment status
control
Filtration, Transmission pump

data sharing

Pump Station
ZONE 9 monitoring Distribution/Transmission flow, Distribution/Transmission
Pressure, Reservoir level, Water quality, Pump status
SCADA control
Distribution pump, Transmission Pump
for
ZONE 9 DMA for ZONE 9
monitoring DMA flow, DMA pressure (not real time)

data sharing

Pump Station
monitoring Distribution flow, Distribution Pressure, Reservoir level,
ZONE 1
Water quality, Pump status
SCADA control
Distribution pump, Flow control valve
for
ZONE 1 DMA for ZONE 1
monitoring DMA flow, DMA pressure (not real time)

Note: These systems will be linked through optical fiber cable in this Project.
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 4-22 Proposed SCADA System for WTP, Transmission, Distribution and DMAs

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It is assumed that in future there will be many individual SCADA Systems for each WTP and each
distribution zone and these systems will be scattered widely in Yangon city. To monitor water balance
in each supply zone and control water supply comprehensively, centralization of SCADA integrating
each system is recommended. To integrate systems easily in future, it is required to use open system
such as open protocol, open data base and open hardware through the use of OPC server. In this
Project, SCADA system will be designed using such a standard system for future provision and it is
recommended to use open system for other projects also. Concept of SCADA system integration is
shown in the following Figure.

Central Monitoring Room


(Future Plan)
CENTRAL
SCADA

Interface Interface Interface


Server Server Server

SCADA SCADA SCADA SCADA


SCADA SCADA
for for for for
for for
Kokkowa ZONE Lagunbyin ZONE
ZONE 1 ZONE 8
WTP 9 WTP 7

Kokkowa LAN Lagunbyin LAN

SCADAs for Future

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 4-23 Proposed Concept of SCADA System Integration in The Future

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4.4.12 Administration Facility


Administration facilities are planned as shown in the following Table.

Table 4-25 Administration Facility


Item Contents
Central Administration Building Water control room for SCADA with UPS (Uninterruptible Power
Supply)
Water Quality Laboratory Space for Jar test and simple water quality test
Water Supply Small pumps units are installed in transmission PS
Warehouse For chemicals storage
Workshop For pump maintenance
Parking Lot
Security Room and Guard Post
Temporary Road Concrete pavement and green buffer belt: Settlement of landfill is
taken into consideration
Fence Steel and/or brick fence along the boundary
Source: JICA Study Team

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CHAPTER 5 TRANSMISSION FACILITY

5.1 Outline of Planning


(1) Outline of Planning
This facility is planned to convey treated water from Kokkowa WTP to Zone 9 SR. In the JICA Water
M/P, Kokkowa WTP, with capacity of 60 MGD, is planned to be constructed and convey water from
WTP to Zones 1 and 9 in 2025. In the future plan, the WTP will be expanded to convey water to some
other Zones on the eastern side of Hlaing River.

From the WTP, all treated water is planned to be conveyed to Zone 9 SR because of the geographical
conditions; therefore water which is to be conveyed to the Zones on the eastern side of the River
passes through Zone 9. The distance between WTP and Zones is far.
As a result, Zone 9 SR is planned to perform both as a service reservoir for Zone 9 and as a Relay PS
(hereinafter referred to as “RPS”) to convey water to other Zones.

(2) Outline of Water Operation


A total of 56 MGD of treated water is to be conveyed to Zone 9 SR/RPS from the WTP, of which 19
MGD water is to be distributed to Zone 9 by pumps, and 37 MGD water is to be conveyed to Kokine
SRs in Zone 1. Therefore, required capacity of transmission facility in this Study is 60 MGD.

In future, Kokkowa WTP will be expanded to capacity of 140 MGD. Additional transmission facility
will be constructed when the WTP is expanded.
Development of
Pump & Network
Transmission Pipeline (60 MGD) Zone 9
60MGD WTP P P To Zone 9
SR/RPS
Area
P

To Zone 1
Pumps and Pipelines SR
for Transmission
(i) Planned Water Supply in 2025 (For This Project)

Development of
Pump & Network
Transmission Pipeline (60 MGD) Zone 9 To Zone 9
60MGD WTP P P
SR/RPS Area
P P
Additional Transmission Pipeline
Expanded WTP P To SRs in
Zone 1 +
Pumps and Pipelines Other
for Transmission Zones
(expansion)
(ii) Planned Water Supply in the Future
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 5-1 Stepwise Transmission Plan to Zone 9 SR/RPS

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(3) Route and Laying Position of Transmission Pipeline


During the 60 MGD Kokkowa WTP development by 2025, following large diameter pipelines are
planned to be laid along the Route No. 5;
Transmission pipeline from the WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS (This Project)
Transmission pipeline from the Zone 9 SR/RPS to Zone 1 SRs (This Project)
Distribution main from Zone 9 SR to Zone 9 area (YCDC Project)

Since Route No. 5 is the only road connecting between the WTP and Zone 9 SR, pipelines mentioned
above are planned to be laid along the Route No. 5. Detail of route and laying position of these
pipelines are described in the Appendix-7.

In the first section, the transmission facilities for Zone 9 are described while in the following section
those for Zone 1 are described.

5.2 Transmission Facility for Zone 9

5.2.1 Planning Policy


(1) Planned Scale of Transmission Facility
Capacity of Kokkowa WTP is planned to be 60 MGD by 2025. In this Study, 60 MGD of transmission
facility is planned for Zone 9 and Zone 1. Transmission pumps are required due to the ground
elevation difference between the WTP and Zone 9 SR. Therefore, transmission pump equipment and
approximately 21.4 km of transmission pipeline is planned.

(2) Planning Diameter of Transmission Pipe


Pipe diameter in case of pumping flow is planned considering the velocity range of 1 to 3 m/s and the
required pump head.

(3) Planning of Transmission Pump Facility


a) Selection of Pump Type
Basically, double suction volute pump is used considering the type of the existing pumps in Yangon
city. This type of pump is efficient, economical, and easy to maintain. Also, EDWS is familiar with
handling of this type of pumps.

b) Number of Transmission Pump Units


Number of pump units is decided considering installation cost. Minimum units of pumps installed are
two (2) in conformity with the fluctuation in water demand.

c) Countermeasure against Water-Hammer


Generally, if countermeasure against water-hammer is required, flywheel or surge tank are considered

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as candidate for selection of the countermeasure. In this Study, the flywheel method is basically
recommended considering the ease of maintenance and competitiveness of Japanese technology. This
method has been already installed at Intake PS of Lagunbyin WTP.

d) Corresponding to Fluctuation of Water Demand


Basically, advanced control system, such as variable speed control, is not required for transmission PS
at the Kokkowa WTP because relation between WTP and SR/RPS is one-to-one.

5.2.2 Transmission Facility


(1) Transmission Pipeline
a) Diameter of Pipeline and Pump Head
Pipeline diameters and pump head are planned based on the result of the hydraulic calculation. As a
result of the calculation, 1600 mm is planned as the suitable diameter of pipe for 60 MGD of
Transmission.

【Hydraulic calculation sheet is attached as Appendix-6】


Transmission flow : 60 MGD
LWL of Kokkowa WTP : +3.20 m
HWL of Zone 9 SR : +3.00 m
Length of transmission pipeline : 21,350 m
Formula : Hazen-Williams formula, flow rate coefficient C=110
Residual water head : minimum 5.0 m
Water head loss around pumps : 0.5 m
Upper limit of pump head : 100 m

Table 5-1 Result of Hydraulic Calculation


Item Result
Diameter of pipeline 1600 mm
Velocity 1.57 m/s
Friction loss 32.39 m
Transmission pump head 38.0 m
Source: JICA Study Team

(2) Selection of Pipe Material


SP, DCIP and HDPE are selected as candidate materials for transmission pipe. Since this pipeline is
one of the most important facilities for water supply to Zone 9 and Zone 1 and requires durability,
HDPE is excluded and comparison is made between SP and DCIP. Comparison of pipe material of
1600 mm is shown in the following Table. As a result of the comparison, SP is recommended as
material for 1600 mm pipeline because construction cost of SP is reasonable and Japanese
manufacturer has a comparative advantage for manufacturing of SPs. Since the price of iron is always
fluctuating, the material will be decided after the studies of cost and detailed construction method
during the design stage.

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Table 5-2 Comparison of Pipe Material of 1600 mm


Comparative
Item Steel Pipe (SP) Ductile Cast Iron Pipe (DCIP)
Evaluation
High strength of pipe body, sufficient in High strength of pipe body, sufficient in Equivalent
Strength
toughness and strong in shock toughness and strong in shock
Durability Durable Durable Equivalent
Welded joints require expertise. Good workability DCIP is
Workability
preferable
Unit price SP is preferable
222 thousand JPY/m 276 thousand JPY/m
(Direct Cost)
Although, pipe joining is more difficult Construction cost and comparative SP is preferable
Recommen- than DCIP, construction cost is advantage are worse than steel.
dation reasonable and having a comparative
advantage.
Source: JICA Study Team

(3) Transmission Pump Facility Plan


a) Planned Transmission Flow
60 MGD water is to be conveyed to Zone 9 SR/RPS in 2025. In future after 2025, a PS will be added
with expansion of WTP.

b) Pump Equipment Plan


Three (3) units of operational pumps and one (1) stand-by pump are planned.

Table 5-3 Transmission Pump Plan for Zone 9


Item Specification Remarks
20 MGD (63.1 m3/min)×38 m×720 kW×4 units (including 1 stand-by) All pumps under
Pump
Horizontal Double Suction by On/off control method ODA loan
Source: JICA Study Team

5.3 Transmission Facility for Zone 1

5.3.1 Outline of Planning


This facility, to be constructed under JICA loan project, is planned to convey water from Zone 9
SR/RPS to Kokine SR in Zone 1 in 2025 - the target year of this project. In the M/P, water from
Kokkowa WTP is planned to be transmitted to both Kokine and Central SR, and Kokkowa water and
Reservoir water is planned to be mixed at Kokine SR in 2025. YCDC is planning to supply water with
turbidity level of 1 NTU according to the WHO guidelines, and to achieve the target, JICA and YCDC
agreed that the Kokkowa and Reservoir water is to be conveyed separately to Kokine SR and Central
SR respectively in order to avoid mixing water from two sources. Therefore, water is transmitted from
Kokkowa WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS, then from the RPS to Kokine SR. On the other hand, Reservoir
water from Yegu is transmitted to Central SR.

Pumping is required due to the ground elevation difference between the RPS and Kokine SR in Zone
1. Therefore, transmission pump facility at the RPS with approximately 20 km of transmission

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pipeline from the RPS to Kokine SR shall be planned. Since Transmission to the other Zones besides
Zone 1 is planned in the future, facility plan shall consider the future water operation plan as well.

5.3.2 Outline of Water Operation


(1) Change in Transmission Plan Caused by the Change in WTP Construction Plan
In the MP, it is planned to expand the capacity of Kokkowa WTP to 60 MGD by 2025 and to 240
MGD by 2040. However, as mentioned earlier in Chapter 4, YCDC intends to construct both
Kokkowa WTP and Pan Hlaing WTP. Therefore, Zone 9 and some Zones in Yangon city area will be
supplied water from the two (2) WTPs in the future.

In general, operation and control of pumps become complicated in case of Transmission from
multiple numbers of WTPs to multiple numbers of SRs. Therefore, all water conveyed from the two
WTPs should be received once at the RPS in the same site of Zone 9 SR for easy operation. Separate
pipes are also planned; one is along the route No. 5 from the Kokkowa WTP, and another one is along
the YCDC roads within Zone 9 from Pan Hlaing WTP. Consequently, RPS is planned to convey water
from two WTPs to SRs in Zone 1 and some other Zones of Yangon city area in the future.

(2) Water Operation for Zone 1


Transmission facilities are planned based on increase in water demand and capacity of WTP from
2025 to 2035. The water operation for each step is as follows:
2025: 56 MGD of clear water is to be transmitted from Kokkowa WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS.
Then, the 37 MGD water is to be transmitted to Kokine SR by transmission pumps. 17 MGD
of Reservoir water is to be transmitted from Yegu PS to Central SR.
2030: 60 MGD and 48 MGD of clear water is to be transmitted from Kokkowa WTP and Pan
Hlaing WTP respectively to Zone 9 SR/RPS of which 26 MGD water is to be distributed to the
Zone 9 supply area by pumping. The remaining water is to be transmitted to the Zone 1 SRs
and Zone 3 SR by transmission pumps.
2035: 129 MGD and 60 MGD of clear water is to be transmitted from Kokkowa WTP and Pan
Hlaing WTP respectively to Zone 9 SR/RPS of which 35 MGD water is to be distributed to the
Zone 9 supply area by pumping. The remaining water is to be transmitted to the Zone 1 SRs,
Zone 3 SR and Zone 4 SR by transmission pumps.

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Zone 1

Year 2025

Zone 1

Year 2030

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Zone 1

Year 2035
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 5-2 Water Operation Diagram from 2025 to 2035

(3) Water Operation for Zone 1 in 2040


There are two ways of Transmission to Zone 1 in 2040. One option is from Toe WTP and another one
is from RPS. It is too early to decide on it at this stage. Therefore, transmission facilities in this Study
are planned based on the water operation until 2035, and the water operation in 2040 is examined as a
reference.

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Area of Kokkowa WTP System

Year 2040 (Option 1: Water Operation based on the Master Plan)

Area of Kokkowa WTP System

Year 2040 (Option 2: Alternative Water Operation)


Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 5-3 Water Operation Diagram in 2040

(4) Water Operation of System Switching


Direct water distribution from the RPS to Zone 1 is necessary during the process of switching from
the existing system to Kokkowa system due to suspension of using Kokine SR for inspection and
repair works. Therefore, pumps and other facilities at RPS should have sufficient capacity to enable

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temporary water supply to Zone 1 during that period (See the Chapter 7).

(5) Transmission Pipeline for Zone 1


RPS will transmit water not only to Zone 1 SRs but also to other Zones in the future, and two (2)
transmission pipelines are planned for Zone 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the M/P. As mentioned in 5.3.4 (3), to
avoid excessive initial investment, one (1) transmission pipeline out of two (2) is planned as
exclusive-use transmission pipeline for Zone 1 in this Study. Transmission facility for other Zones
will be planned and constructed in the future.

5.3.3 Planning Policy


(1) Planned Scale of Transmission Facility
a) Transmission Facility from Kokkowa WTP to RPS
Capacity of Kokkowa WTP will be 60 MGD by 2025, and 140 MGD by 2035. In the future,
additional transmission pipeline to transmit 80 MGD of water will be constructed. As a result, two (2)
transmission pipelines, with capacity of 60 MGD and 80 MGD respectively, are planned between the
WTP and Zone 9 SR/RPS.

Table 5-4 Planned Transmission Flow (From the WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS)
Year Flow From Destination Diameter/Fund
2025 56 MGD Kokkowa ① 1600/JICA
60 MGD Kokkowa ① 1600/JICA
2030
48 MGD Pan Hlaing ② 1600*/YCDC
Zone 9 SR/RPS
60 MGD Kokkowa ① 1600/JICA
2035 60 MGD Pan Hlaing ② 1600*/YCDC
80 MGD Kokkowa ③ 1800/YCDC
*Diameter calculation condition: critical hydraulic gradient under 2 per mille
Source: JICA Study Team

b) Transmission Facility from RPS to Zones 1, 3 and 4


Transmission flow in years 2025, 2030, and 2035 from RPS to Yangon city area is planned as shown
in the following Table. Transmission facilities are planned to be available for increased flow and
planned destinations.

Table 5-5 Planned Transmission Flow (From Zone 9 SR/RPS to SRs in Zone 1, 3 and 4)
Year Flow From Destination SR Diameter/Fund
2025 37 MGD Kokine SR (Zone 1) ① 1600,1400/JICA
40 MGD Kokine SR (Zone 1) ① 1600,1400/JICA
2030 20 MGD Central SR (Zone 1) ② 1000/YCDC
22 MGD Zone9 SR Inya SR (Zone 3) ③ 1800,1600/YCDC
43 MGD and RPS Kokine SR (Zone 1) ① 1600,1400/JICA
22 MGD Central SR (Zone 1) ② 1000/YCDC
2035
50 MGD Inya SR (Zone 3) ③ 1800,1600 /YCDC
39 MGD Airport SR (Zone 4) ④ 1500/YCDC
Source: JICA Study Team

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c) Transmission Facility from Yegu PS to Central SR


There are two (2) existing PSs (old and new) in Yegu PS. Reservoir water from Gyobyu, Hlawga and
Nyaughnapin is received at underground tank of the new PS in Yegu PS, and then transmitted to
Kokine SR through 56” transmission pipe. Furthermore, water is transmitted to Shwedagon SR, and
distributed to downtown area from there. These transmission pipelines distribute water to a part of
Bahan TS on the way.
Overflow from the tank of the new PS is transmitted to underground tank of the old PS in Yegu PS,
then, distributed to the part of Mayangon TS.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 5-4 Existing System of Yegu PS

Transmission flow in year 2025 from Yegu PS to Central SR is planned as shown in the following
Table. In the future, Transmission from Yegu is not necessary because Central SR is planned to
receive Kokkowa water.

Table 5-6 Planned Transmission Flow from Yegu PS


Year Flow Destination SR
2025 17 MGD Zone 1 (Central SR)
Source: JICA Study Team

(2) Planning Diameter of Transmission Pipeline


Refer to the section 5.2.1 (2).

(3) Planning of Transmission Pump Facility


a) Transmission facility scale considering increasing transmission flow
Scale of pump facility is planned based on the water operation shown in Figure 5-2.

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b) Selection of Pump Type


Refer to the section 5.2.1 (3), a).

c) Number of Transmission Pump Units


Refer to the section 5.2.1 (3), b).

d) Countermeasure against Water-Hammer


Refer to the section 5.2.1 (3), c).

e) Pump Control Method at RPS


Since the RPS is expected to transmit water to two (2) SRs by 2030, pumps should be operated with
monitoring water level of tank and transmission flow. Therefore, automatic pump operation by on/off
control method cannot be used. Furthermore, operation of transmission pump becomes complex
because transmission flow to each SR fluctuates depending on the season and status of distribution
network development. To ease the pump operation and reduce the energy consumption, advanced
pump control which enables complex control shall be selected for Pumps at RPS.

f) Pump Control Method at Yegu PS


Relation between Yegu PS and Central SR is one-to-one and existing pump control is through on/off
control method, therefore on/off control method is adopted for the transmission pump at Yegu PS.

5.3.4 Transmission Facility


(1) Transmission Pipeline
a) Diameter of Pipe and Pump Head between RPS and Kokine SR
Transmission flow from RPS to Zone 1 SRs
2025 : 37 MGD
2030 : 60 MGD
2035 : 65 MGD
LWL of Relay Tank : -3.00 m
HWL of destination
Kokine SR in Zone 1 : +42.60 m
Central SR in Zone 1 : +41.94 m
Formula : Hazen-Williams formula, flow rate coefficient C=110
Residual water head : minimum 5.0 m
Water head loss around pumps : 0.5 m
Upper limit of pump head : 100 m

Table 5-7 Result of Hydraulic Calculation between RPS and Kokine SR


Item Outline of Facilities Remarks
1600 mm x 16.95 km
Diameter/length 1400 mm x 2.85 km Total: 21.95 km
1000 mm x 2.15 km
Pump head 87.0 m Based on the calculation result in 2035
Source: JICA Study Team

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b) Diameter of Pipe and Pump Head between Yegu PS and Central SR


As a result of calculation, replacement of pumps is required to transmit water by using existing
pipeline. Furthermore, pipeline construction between existing 1400 and 1050, and branching by
using non-stoppable tapping method are necessary.

Transmission and Distribution flow from Yegu PS to Central SR in 2025


Transmission : 17 MGD
Distribution : 5.1 MGD (for Bahan Township)
Pipe Diameter/Length : 1400 x 5,360 m, 1050 x 2,670 m (Existing)
Pump Head : 47.0m (Existing)
LWL of Yegu P.S : +3.70 m
HWL of destination : +41.94 m
Formula : Hazen-Williams formula, flow rate coefficient C=110
Residual water head : minimum 5.0 m
Water head loss around pumps : 2.0 m

Table 5-8 Result of Hydraulic Calculation between Yegu PS and Central SR


Item Outline of Facilities Remarks
1400 mm x 5.36 km Existing Pipeline (Yegu – Kokine SR)
1050 mm x 2.67 km Existing Pipeline (Kokine SR- Central SR)
Diameter/length
1050 mm x 0.15 km New Connection Pipeline with non-water
suspension branch
Pump head 53.0 m Pump replacement is necessary.
Source: JICA Study Team

Zone 1

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 5-5 Diameter of Transmission Pipeline for Zone 1 in 2025

(2) Selection of Pipe Material


Steel and DCIP are selected as candidate materials for 1600 mm and 1400 mm transmission pipes.
Comparison of pipe material is shown in the following Table. As a result of the comparison, SP is

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recommended as material for 1600 mm, 1400 and 1000 mm pipeline because construction cost of
SP is reasonable and Japanese manufacturer has a comparative advantage for manufacturing of SPs.
Since the price of iron is always changing, the material will be decided after the studies of cost and
detailed construction method during the design stage.

Table 5-9 Comparison of Pipe Material


Comparative
Item Steel Pipe (SP) Ductile Cast Iron Pipe (DCIP)
Evaluation
High strength of pipe body, sufficient High strength of pipe body, sufficient Equivalent
Strength
in toughness and strong in shock in toughness and strong in shock
Durability Durable Durable Equivalent
Welded joints require expertise. Good workability DCIP is
Workability
preferable
241 thousand JPY/m: 1600 295 thousand JPY/m: 1600 SP is preferable
Unit price
204 thousand JPY/m: 1400 244 thousand JPY/m: 1400
(Direct Cost)
118 thousand JPY/m: 1000 153 thousand JPY/m: 1000
Although pipe joining is more difficult Construction cost and comparative SP is preferable
Recommen- than DCIP, construction cost is advantage are worse than steel.
dation reasonable and having a comparative
advantage.
Source: JICA Study Team

(3) Transmission Pump Facility Plan at Relay Pump Station


a) Separation of Transmission System
In the future, two (2) lines of transmission pipelines from RPS will be installed. One is toward
south-east of RPS, and another is toward north-east of RPS. Furthermore, these two (2) lines will
be connected together. Therefore, there are following 2 plans as Transmission facility structure.
1 transmission system: transmit water from RPS as one system
2 transmission systems: transmit water from RPS using divided 2 systems (south and north
systems)

As shown in the following Table, Two (2) transmission systems have advantage especially in terms
of energy efficiency because pump head can be decided in accordance with elevation difference
between RPS and destination SRs of each system. On the other hand, 1 transmission system has
advantage especially in terms of emergency water supply operation because pump head of both
lines is same.

To emphasize energy efficiency at ordinary times is better than to emphasize emergency water
supply operation which occurs rarely. Therefore, plan of 2 transmission systems is recommended,
and transmission facility of south line is planned for Zone 1 Transmission in this plan.

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North System

South System

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 5-6 Schematic Flow of Transmission in 2035

Table 5-10 Comparison of Transmission Systems


Item 1-System (Integrate North and South) 2-Systems (North and South)
Basic idea Pumps of same head are used Pumps of different heads are used in north
and south system
Destinations of Zone 1: Kokine, Central North: Zone 2 to 4
Transmission SR of Zone 2 to 4 South: Kokine, Central in Zone 1
Ordinary Time Large residual water head is expected to Energy efficiency is better than in case of
occur at University, Airport and 1-system because pump head of north
Thingangyun SR. system is lower than 1-system.
× ○
Emergency Since pump head of all pumps is same, Since pump head of each system is
water supply in emergency between north different, water supply in emergency
and south line is easy when accidents occur between north and south system is
on the pipeline. restricted when accidents occur on the
pipeline
○ ×
Facility Planning In this system, stand-by pump can be Each system requires a stand-by pump.
shared. Therefore, number of pump units Therefore number of pump units becomes
becomes few. large.
○ △
Operation Water operation is conducted in a lump. Water operation is conducted in each
Since number of destinations is larger than system. Since number of destinations of
the 2-system, operation becomes complex each system is few than the 1-system,
and difficult. operation is easier than the 1-system.
△ ○
Source: JICA Study Team

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b) Planned Transmission Flow


RPS is main transmission facility to convey clear water from Kokkowa and newly planned Pan
Hlaing WTP to the center of Yangon city. Destination of Transmission in 2025 is Kokine SR, then,
Central (Zone 1), Inya (Zone 3) and Airport (Zone 4) SR will be added as the destinations in 2030
and 2035, respectively.

The maximum flow is 65 MGD in case of south route from Zone 9 SR in 2035. Therefore, number
of pump units is decided to convey water in 2035. And then, number of pumps meeting the flow in
2025 is considered as the facility that is planned in this Study for installation in 1st stage. Number of
pump units of north route is decided considering the water demand in 2035.

Table 5-11 Transmission Flow from RPS (for Southern Route)


Year Flow Destination
2025 36 MGD to Zone 1 (Kokine SR)
2030 60 MGD to Zone 1 (Kokine and Central SR)
2035 65 MGD to Zone 1 (Kokine and Central SR)
Source: JICA Study Team

Table 5-12 Transmission Flow from RPS (for Northern Route)


Year Flow Destination
2030 22 MGD to Zone 3 (Inya SR)
2035 89 MGD to Zone 3 and 4 (Inya and Airport SR)
Source: JICA Study Team

c) Pump Equipment Plan for Southern Route


(i) Comparison of pump specification and cost
Comparison of transmission pump specific plans has been made as shown in the following Table.
As a result of the comparison, Plan-B is considered as better option in terms of cost.

Table 5-13 Comparison of Transmission Pump Specific Plan (for Southern Route)
Item Plan-A: 3 operational units Plan-B: 4 operational units Plan-C: 5 operational units
Discharge flow 21.6 MGD (68.2 m3/min) 16.3 MGD (51.5 m3/min) 13.0 MGD (41.0 m3/min)
Pump head 87 m 87 m 87 m
Pump type Double suction centrifugal single stage pump
Approx. Motor output 1600 kW 1250 kW 1050 kW
Number of units 4 units (3 duty + 1 5 units (4 duty +1 6 units (5 duty +1
stand-by) stand-by) stand-by)
Rough estimation 1,378 million JPY 1,085 million JPY 1,107 million JPY
(335 million JPY/unit) (217 million JPY/unit) (185 million JPY/unit)
Source: JICA Study Team

(ii) Plan of Transmission pump equipment


As the detail is described in Chapter 7, this planned pump facility is required to have sufficient
capacity to distribute water to Zone 1 directly and temporarily during the period when system is
changed from the existing to Kokkowa. Required pump discharge capacity for temporary
distribution is 1.875 MG/hr (45 MGD, hourly maximum demand). This demand can be
sufficiently covered if three (3) units of pumps are operated. Furthermore, Plan-B pumps

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mentioned above have adaptability to water demand fluctuation. Therefore Plan-B is adopted.

Table 5-14 Proposed Transmission Pump of RPS (for Southern Route)


Item Specification Remarks
Pump 16.3 MGD (51.5 m3/min) × 87 m×1250 kW × 5 units (4 duty +1 4 pumps under ODA
stand-by), Horizontal Double Suction by Variable Speed Control loan
Method
Source: JICA Study Team

d) Pump Equipment Plan for Northern Route


(i) Comparison of pump specification and cost
Comparison of transmission pump specific plan is as shown in the following Table. As a result of
the comparison, Plan-B is better option in terms of cost.

Table 5-15 Comparison of Transmission Pump Specific Plan (for Northern Route)
Item Plan-A: 3 operational units Plan-B: 4 operational units Plan-C: 5 operational units
Discharge flow 29.7 MGD (93.8 m3/min) 22.3 MGD (70.4 m3/min) 17.8 MGD (56.2 m3/min)
Pump head 50 m 50 m 50 m
Pump type Double suction centrifugal single stage pump
Approx. Motor output 1500 kW 1000 kW 820 kW
Number of units 4 units (3 duty +1 5 units (4 duty +1 6 units (5 duty +1
stand-by) stand-by) stand-by)
Rough estimation 1,623 million JPY 1,457 million JPY 1,494 million JPY
(406 million JPY/unit) (291 million JPY/unit) (249 million JPY/unit)
Source: JICA Study Team

(ii) Plan of Transmission Pump Equipment


As a result of the study, Plan-B is adopted. Transmission pumps for Northern route are planned
to transmit water to Zone 3 SR (near Inya lake) in 2030, and to Zone 3 SR and Zone 4 SR (near
Airport) which will be constructed in location with different elevation. Therefore, Transmission
flow and destinations are different by the year. Consequently, variable speed control method is
proposed because the method can transmit water flexibly under the changing Transmission
condition and thereby can reduce electricity consumption.

Table 5-16 Proposed Transmission Pump of RPS (for Northern Route)


Item Specification Remarks
Pump 22.3 MGD (70.2 m3/min) × 58 m×1000 kW×5 units (4 duty + 1 In the future
stand-by), Horizontal Double Suction By Variable Speed Control
Method
Source: JICA Study Team

e) Plan of Relay Tank


(i) Capacity of the Relay Tank
Relay tank of Zone 9 SR/RPS should have the capacity for water distribution to Zone 9 and
Transmission to SRs in Zone 1 and other Zones. Therefore, design capacity of the tank is planned
considering 8 hours of retention time for water distribution and 1 hour retention time for
Transmission.

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There are two (2) options of planned transmission flow in 2040, option 1 and 2, for planning of
the relay tank capacity as shown in Figure 5-3. In this plan, 191 MGD based on the option 1 that
conform to the MP is adopted as the planned Transmission flow to avoid overinvestment.
Required capacity in each year is shown in Table below.

Table 5-17 Required Capacity of Zone 9 SR


Item 2025 2030 2035 2040
Daily Maximum Demand in Zone 9 (MGD) 19 26 35 49
Planned Transmission Flow (MGD) 37 82 154 191
Required Capacity for SR (MG) 6.33 8.67 11.67 16.33
Required Capacity for Transmission (MG) 1.54 3.42 6.42 7.96
Required Capacity of the Tank (MG) 7.87 12.09 18.09 24.29
Source: JICA Study Team

24.3 MG capacity in 2040 and 7.9 MG capacity in 2025 is required. Therefore, following 2 plans
were extracted;
3 Tanks Plan: 8.1 MG×1 tank (3 tanks in the future, 24.3 MG)
2 Tanks Plan: 12.2 MG×1 tank (2 tanks in the future, 24.4 MG)

In the case of 3 tanks plan, capacity of the tank to be constructed in 1st stage is almost same as
the required capacity in 2025. However, it is not rational that continuous construction of tanks be
carried out in the short period in response to the increase in the required capacity. Therefore,
Tanks is proposed and 12.2 MG tank for SR/RPS is planned.

(ii) Capacity verification of the Relay Tank under the Temporary Water Distribution to Zone 1
Temporary water distribution from the Relay Tank to Zone 1 will be implemented at the first step
of the distribution system switching shown in 7.5.3, and planned distribution flow at the time is
30 MGD. At this time, retention time of the Relay Tank is 9.8 hours, and it meets the necessary
capacity.

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(4) Plan of Transmission Pump Facility at Yegu Pump Station


a) Planned Transmission Flow
Planned transmission and distribution flow of planned pipeline from Yegu PS to Central SR is 22.1
MGD including 5.1 MGD of distribution flow for Bahan Township in 2025. Central SR is planned to
receive Kokkowa water from RPS in the future.

Table 5-18 Transmission Flow from Yegu PS to Central SR


Year Flow Remarks
2025 22.1 MGD Including distribution flow
Source: JICA Study Team

b) Pump Equipment Plan


Existing four (4) pumps is planned to be removed, and two (2) new operational pumps and one (1)
stand-by pump are planned to be installed for Transmission to Central SR.

Table 5-19 Proposed Transmission Pump at Yegu PS


Item Specification Remarks
11 MGD (35 m3/min)×53 m×450 kW×3 units (2 Duty + 1
Existing pumps to be removed
Pump stand-by), Horizontal Double Suction by On/off control
by YCDC
method
Source: JICA Study Team

5.3.5 Electrical Facilities for Relay Pump Station

(1) Main Power Supply


Incoming power will be common for both water distribution in Zone 9 and Transmission to Zone 1
and will be supplied by YESC in 3 phase 33 kV 50Hz. The power received at 33 kV will be stepped
down to 6.6 kV by a main transformer to meet the motor voltage requirement of MV motor such as
distribution pump and transmission pump. Type of transformer will be of the outdoor, oil immersed,
and natural cooling type, similar to the case of WTP. Required capacity of transformer in 2025 is
estimated as 9 MVA. Negotiations with YESC to obtain main power supply for Zone 9 SR/RPS will
be under the scope of YCDC. Main power supply will be included under the scope of Japanese ODA
loan. Power Supply Diagram is shown below.

For transmission pumps of Northern line, additional incoming power and transformer will be
necessary in future (2035).

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 5-7 Main Power Supply Diagram

(2) Emergency Power Supply


As mentioned in the plan of WTP, stand-by power generator will be required for stable water supply.
Especially, planned water supply system will use pumps for Transmission and distribution and the
interruption of main power supply will cause total interruption of water supply immediately.
Therefore, stand-by generator is planned in this Study.

Type of generator will be diesel engine generator, built-in radiator that is required for easy operation
and maintenance and also being used in Yangon in many cases. The capacity of generator will cover
the total power requirement of the PS and it is estimated as 9.0 MVA (3.0 MVA x 3 sets) considering
the planned facilities in 2025. Fuel tank capacity of generator needs to be sufficient for 72 hours
operation in order to cope with 24 hours outage by supplying additional fuel the next day.

Stand-by generators will be included in the scope of Japanese loan because the manufacturer of all
generators should be unified and be synchronized together as single power source.

5.3.6 SCADA
Description on SCADA is made in 4.4.11 in Chapter 4.

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5.4 Laying Position of Transmission Pipe

For the 60 MGD of Kokkowa WTP development by 2025, following large diameter pipelines shall be
laid along the route 5;
Transmission pipeline from the WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS ( 1600: 60 MGD capacity constructed
under ODA loan)
Transmission pipeline from the Zone 9 SR/RPS to Zone 1 SR ( 1600: 65 MGD capacity
constructed under ODA loan)
Distribution main from Zone 9 SR to Zone 9 area (constructed by YCDC)

For the future expansion plans of Kokkowa WTP, the following large diameter pipelines are planned.
Transmission pipeline from the WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS ( 1800: 80 MGD capacity future plan)

Since Route No. 5 is the only road connecting between the WTP and Zone 9 SR, pipelines mentioned
above are planned to be laid along the Route No. 5.

5.4.1 Route of Transmission Pipeline from Kokkowa WTP to Hlaing River


(1) Pipeline Development Plan and Outline of the Route 5
As shown in the following Table, proposed transmission pipelines of 1600 mm will be laid in
section-1, and 1800 mm of transmission pipeline will be additionally laid when the Kokkowa WTP
is expanded. Therefore, pipeline laying position is decided considering the availability of space for the
additional pipelines which shall be laid by 2035.

Table 5-20 Proposed Pipeline and Jurisdiction Area of The Route 5


Section Jurisdiction Area Pipeline Planned to be Laid
Yangon Region 1600 mm new transmission
Section-1: From the WTP
(Htantabin TS) 1800 mm new transmission (future plans)
to Zone 9 SR
1600 mm new transmission
(Pipeline length: approx. YCDC
1800 mm new transmission (future plans)
21 km) (Hlaing Tharyar TS)
1000 mm - 1600 mm new distribution main
Section-2: From Zone 9
SR to Hlaing River YCDC 1600 mm new transmission
(Pipeline length: (Hlaing Tharyar TS) 1000 mm - 800 mm new distribution main
approx.10 km)
Source: JICA Study Team

As shown in the following Figure, section-1 is divided into YCDC jurisdiction area (Hlaing Tharyar
TS) and Regional Government jurisdiction area (Htantabin Township TS). Entire stretch of section-2
is located in the YCDC jurisdiction area.

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Administrated
by Htantabin
Township
Administrated
by YCDC

Route 5

Source: JICA Study Team using background map of Google Earth


Figure 5-8 Transmission Pipeline Route to Zone 9 SR

Basically, width of ROW of the route 5 is approximately 150 feet (45 m) as shown in Figure 5-10.
Route 5 is a combination of a 9.1 km paved 4-lane road and a 17.6 km paved 2-lane road running
from Hlaing River. As a general rule, the 75 feet area of the both sides of ROW is public land as
described below.
Htantabin TS: Both north and south sides belong to regional government
Hlaing Tharyar TS: North side – YCDC, south side - MoC

The land on both sides of ROW in Htantabin TS is used as an irrigation canal (Figure 5-9). In Hlaing
Tharyar, the sides are formed as diches but not used for irrigation.

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Irrigation Canal

Kokkowa WTP

Zone9 SR
Relay Pump Station

Route 5

Source: MoAI
Figure 5-9 Irrigation Canals along with Route 5

(2) Basic Policy of Pipe Laying Position


As indicated in Table 5-20 above, two or three large diameter pipelines will be laid along the Route 5.
Therefore, decision on pipe laying locations is made ensuring space for future pipes. Following basic
policies are proposed in terms of pipeline laying position.

(a) Common for All Areas


Route 5 is a major main road with industrial areas and long-distance bus terminals along the route,
hence the traffic is heavy with large vehicles. For this reason, laying pipelines under the road will
have a large influence on the traffic. The possibility of pipeline damage for the pipes after
construction beneath the road is higher than the pipes laid outside the roads because of the weight of
the vehicles, and works for repair/maintenance of the pipes will be difficult and may have negative
effects on the traffic.

The main policy is to not lay pipes under Route 5. And since there are future plans to expand the road
width (although it is not currently concrete), said policy shall be adopted in the areas which are
expected to be included in the future expansion plan.

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(b) Within Yangon Region Area (Htantabin TS)


As mentioned before, one transmission pipe of 1600 is planned for this area by 2025, and in the
future a plan for another 1800 pipeline shall also be carried out following the Kokkowa WTP
expansion. The details are mentioned in the following item (c), but it is better if the Htantabin TS
pipeline is laid in the north side of the road, since the pipeline for Hlaing Tharyar TS is also planned
on the north side and it will not be necessary to cross Route 5. However, according to the field survey,
there are many obstructions in pipe laying on the northern side of the road through entire length of
this stretch, such as trees, electric poles, communication cable, irrigation channels and so on.

On the other hand, obstruction (gas pipe only) on the southern side of the road is less than the
northern side. For these reasons, the transmission pipe of 1600 constructed by the loan project and of
1800 constructed by future plans are planned to be laid on the relatively spacious southern side of
Route 5.

(North Side)

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 5-10 Cross-section Drawing of Limited Laying Area, North Side

Southern Side of Route 5 Northern Side of Route 5


Photo 5-1 Yangon Region Jurisdiction Area (Htantabin TS)

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Steel Tower and Blue Boundary Wall Existing 600 Dia. Pipe Next to the Steel Tower
Photo 5-2 Obstruction in Pipeline Installation in Htantabin TS

(c) Within YCDC Jurisdiction Area (Hlaing Tharyar TS: Zone 9)


The land south of route 5 is a jurisdiction area of MoC, and the north belongs to YCDC. For the upper
stream area of Zone 9 SR, the south side of the street does not belong to YCDC and in addition, it is
heavily populated by illegal squatters.

For the lower stream area of Zone 9 SR, the south side of the route 5 is the industrial area where many
factories are located and new factories are expected to be established in future. The north side of the
road is residential area. Pipe laying on the southern side of the road is not preferable because the area
does not belong to YCDC, and in addition, many heavy vehicles is expected to cross over the pipeline
to enter the construction site, and high voltage power transmission line and steel towers are also
located on southern side of road in this stretch. Furthermore, number of illegal squatters on the
southern side of route 5 in MOC’s property is much larger than the northern side. Therefore, in this
stretch, the northern side of the road is proposed as the pipeline laying position.

Northern Side of Route 5 Southern Side of Route 5


Photo 5-3 YCDC Jurisdiction Area (Hlaing Tharyar TS: Zone 9)

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(3) On-Site Confirmation of Number of Illegal Houses


Illegal houses are occupying on the proposed pipeline from Htantabin TS to Hlaing Tharyar TS along
Route 5. This survey detailed is later described in 11.8.2.

(4) Conclusion
From the result of comparative evaluation and further study (see the Appendix-7), pipe laying location
for Htantabin TS shall be inside the road land south of Route 5, since it will not have an impact on
irrigation canals.

For Hlaing Tharyar TS, in areas which have side roads, the transmission pipes are to be laid under the
side roads to avoid relocation of residents and removal of bridges crossing the canals along Route 5.
In areas which do not have side roads but have crossing bridges, the pipe position shall be shifted
toward Route 5 by crossing the canals to avoid the removal of the bridge superstructures of the
bridges.

YCDC informed the result of the study and had discussions about this matter with institutions
concerned, such as MoC, MoAI, MoEE, and land administration. As a result of the discussion, the
laying plans mentioned above have been agreed.

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Source: JICA Study Team

Figure 5-11 Schematic Diagram of Transmission Pipeline Route

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B Section

ROW

Htantabin TS

A
South side of route 5, within ROW
North side of route 5, within jurisdiction area of YCDC
5-28

North side of route 5, under a side road


North side of route 5, within jurisdiction area of YCDC (Gutter)

A
Hlaing Tharya TS

B
A Section

FINAL REPORT
ROW

Figure 5-12 Plan of Transmission Pipeline Position and Sections


Preparatory Survey for Greater Yangon Water Supply
Improvement Project (Phase II) FINAL REPORT

5.4.2 Route of Transmission Pipeline from Hlaing River to Zone 1


Route Plan of transmission pipeline is shown in the following Figure 5-13. Yellow line shows routes
proposed in the MP. As shown in red line in Figure 5-13, some parts of the route are modified based
on route confirmation through field visit conducted by EDWS and the Team in this Study. The reasons
of route modification are described below.

a) Reviewed Route-1
This portion is near the Hlaing river crossing, and pipeline route is restricted by the location of the
river crossing. As mentioned in 5.4.3, shield tunnel method is selected as the method of the crossing,
and this method requires space for departure and arrival shafts. As a result of the field confirmation,
planned route is selected to ensure availability of necessary space for shield tunnel construction.

b) Reviewed Route-2
In the master plan, transmission pipeline route is planned along Bayint Naung road. Although traffic
volume on this road is heavy, pipeline has to be laid under the roadway because there is no space for
laying a pipeline beside the roadway. Especially, traffic jam occurs every day at the intersection of
Bayint Naung road and University Avenue road. To alleviate the occurrence of traffic jam around this
intersection even to some extent, an alternative route is selected.

c) Reviewed Route-3
MP’s route includes two crossing places of railway as shown in Photos 5-6 to 5-8. As a result of site
reconnaissance, especially crossing of railway at site-1, it is expected to have difficulties in
installation work due to lack of enough space for the work.

On the other hand, the alternative route plan shown as red line in the Figure 5-13 includes railway
crossing at only one location (Railway crossing-3; as shown in Photo 5-9). Excavation work at this
location is possible because railway is crossing over the road. Furthermore, in this case it is
economical and has lower friction head loss due to shorter total length of transmission pipeline.

Considering the above and based on the discussion with EDWS, alternative route plan is selected.

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Reviewed

Railway Crossing-1

Reviewed Route -2

Railway Crossing-3

Proposed Route in the MP Reviewed Route -3


Proposed Route in this Plan

Railway Crossing-2

Source: JICA Study Team using background map of Google Earth


Figure 5-13 Proposed Transmission Pipeline Route

Photo 5-6 Railway Crossing-1 (North side) Photo 5-7 Railway Crossing-1 (South side)

Photo 5-8 Railway Crossing-2 Photo 5-9 Railway Crossing-3

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5.4.3 Hlaing River Crossing


(1) Applicable Methods
Installation of the transmission pipeline from Zone 9 SR to Zone 1 area requires crossing of Hlaing
River. Pipe-bridge method and tunnel method are conceivable as the possible options for the river
crossing.

(2) Outline Plan of Pipe-Bridge and Tunnel Method


(a) Pipe-Bridge Method
(i) Type of pipe-bridge
Since the pipe diameter is large and pipe weight filled fully with water is heavy, bridge-attached type
cannot be adopted. Therefore, independent pipe-bridge type is selected. There are many types of
independent pipe-bridge such as pipe-beam bridge, stiffened pipe bridge and dedicated bridge for
water pipe. Dedicated bridge for water pipe is selected among these types referring to the condition of
existing road bridge crossing Hlaing River.

Type of bridge: Dedicated bridge for water pipe


Diameter of water pipe: 1600 mm
Number of span: 3 spans
Length of span: 160 meters

(ii) Structure of the bridge


The dedicated bridge is required to be reinforced due to the length of span of the bridge. Stiffening
underside of the bridge is not preferable because it might obstruct traffic of ships. Considering the
above explanation, Lohse bridge is selected.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 5-14 Plan of Pipe Bridge

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(b) Tunnel Method


(i) Type of tunnel method
Tunnel is used for casing of the transmission pipe as premise. In general, shield method and
pipe-jacking method are conceivable as tunnel methods. Shield method is selected of these two
methods considering the site conditions (see the following Table).

Tunnel method: Shield method


Diameter of water pipe: 1600 mm
Length of tunnel: 550 meters
Water pipe laying method: Pipe laying inside casing tunnel

Table 5-21 Comparison of Pipe-jacking and Shield Method


Pipe-jacking Method Crossing of Hlaing River Shield Method
Diameter of pipe (mm) Inner Diameter 1,600 (lies in range of Inner Diameter
3,000 or less 1350~3000 so both method 1,350 or more
applicable)
7
General Length (m) 20∼400 550 (Only Shield method can be For any Length
adopted as length exceeds upper
limit of Pipe-jacking method)
Source: Construction Prices Research Institute in Japan, Actual Sewer Construction Integration,

(ii) Planning of shield method


Type of shield method
High ground water pressure is expected because tunnel passes under the river. Therefore, reverse
circulation type shield method is selected.
Diameter of the casing tunnel
Standard shield tunnel and reduction diameter shield tunnel are conceivable if the tunnel is used
as a casing tunnel of the transmission pipe. Since the alignment of the tunnel is almost straight,
reduction diameter shield tunnel is to be adopted. Outer and internal diameter of the reduction
tunnel is 2350 mm and 2200 mm respectively.
Cover of tunnel from the river bed
Cover of tunnel shall be decided by 2.0 m of scour margin of river bed plus 1.5 times of O.D. of
tunnel or 5.0 m, whichever is larger. Since O.D. of the tunnel is 2.35 m, minimum tunnel depth
becomes 5.525 m. Planned cover of tunnel is set as 6.0 m leaving some leeway.
Cover of Tunnel = 2.0 m + 2.35 m x 1.5 = 5.525 m ≒6.0 m > 5.0 m

7
Pipe-jacking method also has particular methods of 400 m over, however these methods have limitation of soil condition,
and it needs verification to adopt.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 5-15 Plan of Shield Tunnel

(3) Comparison of Each Method


In this Study, shield method, which has competitiveness in terms of technology of Japan, is
recommended as a result of the comparison of each method as shown in the following Table.

The site for arrival shaft on the right bank of the river is administrated by YCDC, and the site for
departure shaft on the left bank of the river is administrated by MoAI. Accordingly, land acquisition is
not necessary. YCDC already obtained the verbal permission for land use and occupying pipeline in
the land from MoAI.

Table 5-22 Comparison of River Crossing Method


Item Pipe-Bridge Method Shield Tunnel Method
・It is possible to appeal to people about ・No effect on landscape
Japanese assistance because the ・No effect on traffic of ships during the
Advantage
pipe-bridge is exposed. construction
・Basically, maintenance-free
・Since repainting of pipe and bridges is ・It is difficult to appeal to people about
necessary, maintenance cost will be Japanese assistance because the tunnel is
required. underground and invisible.
・Since construction of temporary bridge
Disadvantage
and coffering need to consider the traffic
of ships, construction workability is poor.
・Consideration of effect on landscape is
necessary.
・Superstructure: 997 ・Vertical Shaft: 50
Approximate
・Substructure: 205 ・Shield Tunnel: 950
construction cost
・Temporary work: 309 ・Pipe laying: 495
(Direct cost base)
(unit: Mil. JPY) ・Piping work: 240
Total 1,751 Total 1,495
Comparing to the shield tunnel method, Comparing to the pipe-bridge method,
construction cost is more expensive, the construction cost is cheaper and there are
Comprehensive construction work is more difficult and some advantages on workability of
evaluation maintenance is laborious. construction and maintenance.
× ○
Source: JICA Study Team

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Source: JICA Study Team using background map of Google Earth


Figure 5-16 Location of The River Crossing Site

Photo 5-10 Site for Departure Shaft Photo 5-11 Site for Arrival Shaft

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CHAPTER 6 DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES OF ZONE 9

6.1 Outline of Planning

Zone 9 consists of township of Hlaing Tharyar. This township is mainly comprised of residential areas
and industrial Zones. Currently water is supplied to this area through 600 mm pipe from Thephyu
Station (small WTP) located in another township (in the north-west of Hlaing Tharyar TS) and through
300 mm pipe receiving water from Hlawga PS. Existing water distribution pipelines are shown in the
following Figure.

The water is mainly distributed to Industrial Zones 1 to 4 and ward number 10, and Dagon Ayeyar
Highway station area. Existing distribution networks is located mainly in areas south of Route No. 5
and in ward 10 north of this route only. In wards 15 and 19, water is distributed from the local tube
wells of YCDC. The existing network is not old and most of them are installed in 2009 or later. Total
length of existing distribution mains is about 17 km (diameter 300-600 mm) and distribution pipes are
126 km in length (diameter 50-150 mm). The total length of existing pipes is about 143 km only.

The area lies in suburbs of Yangon with many industries located in this Zone and the industries and
residential areas are expected to extend widely in this area. Therefore, this Zone is expected to have
high population growth in future also. Most of the inhabitants are still relying on water from local
tube-wells due to lack of distribution networks of YCDC pipes water supply.

6.1.1 Concept of Distribution System


In Zone 9, the existing distribution network does not include any SR. The water is directly supplied
through pipe from Thephyu Station and Hlawga PS. Some of the areas have low water pressure
specially the areas in ward number 10 (north of Route No. 5) due to insufficient capacity of
distribution networks.

In this plan, a new SR is proposed in Zone 9 which will receive water from Kokkowa WTP. Water of
this SR will be distributed through distribution pumps to Zone 9. The existing pipes are not very old so
will continue to be used. However, a large part of the area does not have any distribution network yet.
New distribution pipes are planned in all the areas that do not have any distribution network in the
existing situation.

6.1.2 Planning Parameters


Planning parameters for Zone 9 are given below in the following Table. Existing coverage ratio of
supplied water of 3 % is expected to increase to 45 % by year 2025 and to 75 % by year 2040.
Consequently, the daily maximum demand of 1 MGD will increase to 19 MGD by 2025 and to 49

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MGD by 2040 considering the increasing population and industrial units in this Zone.

Table 6-1 Main Features in 2014, 2025 and 2040


Served Daily Max. Daily Max.
Population Coverage rate
Year Population demand demand
1,000 % 1,000 mld MGD
2014 688 3 21 5 1
2025 769 45 346 85 19
2040 962 75 722 221 49
Source: JICA Study Team

6.1.3 Water Amount for Distribution


In 2025 and 2040, water will be conveyed to the planned SR in this Zone from Kokkowa river system.
Pumps at planned WTP in Kokkowa will be used to convey entire 20 MGD of water to Zone 9 SR
through planned transmission pipelines.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6-1 Existing Water Supply Pipes in Hlaing Tharyar (Zone 9)

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6.2 Service Reservoir

6.2.1 Zone 9 SR and Distribution Pump


A SR is planned in Zone 9 to receive water conveyed from Kokkowa WTP. The required volume
depends on diurnal demand pattern; however, due to lack of accurate demand pattern data, 8 hours
demand volume is recommended. It is planned to be constructed at the location of existing Park which
is owned by the YCDC. SR is planned as underground structure based on request of YCDC and the top
of SR will be used as park and landscape.

[Facilities Specifications]
Park in the area
Structure: Underground RC made with flow guiding walls
Distribution Pump Room: RC made
Inlet Valve: Motor operated valve, controlled by SCADA
Outlet Valve: Motor operated valve, Amount of outflows is controlled by SCADA
[Volume or Capacity]
For Zone Demand: Daily Maximum Demand x (8 hours/ 24 hours)
For Transmission Demand: 1 hour retention capacity
Volume is set as 12.2 MG including Relay pump tank (Two cases have been considered from
following the Table).

Table 6-2 Considered Capacity of Zone 9 SR


Item 2025 2030 2035 2040 Remark
Zone 9 Water Distribution Amount (MGD) 19 26 35 49 *
Zone 1 Water Transmission Amount
37 60 65 26 **
(MGD)
Other Zones Water Transmission Amount
22 89 165 **
(MGD)
Necessary Distribution Reservoir Capacity
(MG)
7.8 12.1 18.1 24.3
(8 hrs* capacity of Zone 9 and 1 hr**
capacity of Zone 1 and Other Zones)
1 Tank in 2025,
In case of Total 2 Tanks (MG) 12.2 12.2 24.4 24.4
1 Tank in 2035
2 Tanks in 2025,
In case of Total 3 Tanks (MG) 8.1x2=16.2 16.2 24.3 24.4
1 Tank in 2035
Source: JICA Study Team

6.2.2 Distribution Pump


Distribution facilities consist of distribution pumps (see the following Table). The distribution pumps,
horizontal double suction volute pump with VFD, are planned for controlling the pressure to set value.

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Table 6-3 Outline of Distribution Facilities at Hlaing Tharyar SR


Quantity
No. Facility Specification
Duty Standby
1 Inflow control valve Motorized Flow Control Valve 1 unit -
Outflow control
2 Motorized Flow Control Valve 1 unit -
valve
Distribution Pump 76 m3/ min x 40 m x 720 kw, Horizontal Double
3 1 unit 1 unit
(large) Suction Volute Pump with VFD
Distribution Pump 32 m3/ min x 40 m x 375 kw, Horizontal Double
4 1 unit 1 unit
(small) Suction Volute Pump with VFD
Source: JICA Study Team

6.3 Distribution Main Pipes

For equitable distribution of water, the entire area of Zone 9 is divided into 27 DMAs (excluding the
area of Golf course located in the south eastern corner of this Zone). Also, one demand point is
considered for Kyimyindine TS assuming that water to the part of this township lying in west of
Hlaing River will be supplied water from Zone 9 SR till 2025. The DMAs have been delineated
considering the topography, roads, number of customers, and administrative boundaries. For easy
operation of distribution, the size of DMAs has been kept large initially.

The water demand has been allocated to each DMA of Zone 9, for both 2025 and 2040 considering the
total demand as 19 MGD and 49 MGD in these years, respectively. It is reported in the MP that about
17 % of water is consumed by the industrial sector, the remaining 83 % of water is consumed by
domestic, department and expatriates. It is expected that in 2025, all the wards in the central part will
accommodate increasing population till it is saturated (to about 80 households/ha) and in 2040, the
wards located in the peri-urban areas will accommodate increased population. Industrial demand is
allocated considering existing level of average industrial demand. Considering the above key points,
demand has been allocated to each DMA.

Network hydraulic analysis has been carried out using EPANET2 to decide the suitable diameter of
distribution main pipes that will enable water supply at appropriate pressures to DMA inlet. The
minimum water pressure at the DMA inlet is considered as 18 m. The results of network analysis for
year 2025 and 2040 are shown in Figures 6-2 and 6-3, respectively.

As a result of the hydraulic analysis, distribution main pipe network for the demands of 2025 and 2040
have been decided. The length and diameter of proposed pipes in this plan is given in the following
Table and the alignment of proposed pipes is shown in Figures 6-4 and 6-5, respectively. Subsequently,
the following table shows the pipes length of distribution main in 2025 and in 2040.

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Existing distribution pipes are not suitable in terms of capacity for required demand in 2025 and 2040
and therefore are not used among the planned distribution pipes and hence new pipes are planned. The
diameter of planned distribution main pipes considering demand of 2025 is 800 mm where currently
300 mm pipe exists and diameter of planned pipe is 1000 mm where 400 mm pipe exists. Existing 400
mm and 600 mm pipes are concrete pipe and will be abandoned. Existing 300 mm pipe is PVC pipe
installed in 2002 and is planned to be used as distribution pipes.

Table 6-4 Length of Distribution Main Pipe for Zone 9 in 2025 and in 2040
Additional New
Pipe Total Length of Length of Existing New Pipe Length
Pipe for 2040
Diameter Existing Pipe to be Pipe to be Used in 2025 Notes
Demand
(mm) Abandoned (m) (m) (m)
(m)
Existing 300 mm pipe is
PVC pipe installed in 2002
which is not sufficient to be
300 13,691 921
used as distribution mains
and will be used as
distribution pipe.
Existing pipe is concrete
400 1,095 0 4,164 2,278
pipe and will be abandoned.
This pipe is only for 2025
as Kyimyindine is assumed
450 6,743 1,519
to receive water from other
side after 2025.
500 7,894 1,735
Existing pipe is concrete
600 6,086 0 1,376 3,329
pipe and will be abandoned.
700 399 2,894
800 4,545 5,897
900
1000 4,180 1,849
1200
1400 883
2000 198
Total 7,181 0 43,190 21,305
Source: JICA Study Team

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6-2 Simulated Network Analysis Result for Demand of 2025 in Zone 9

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Pressure
0.00
18.00 22.01
35.00 25.72
40.00 22.47
26.89 19.11
m
19.04
29.06
20.84
18.13 28.29
28.55
19.22 22.95 21.46
20.78 20.91

24.04
28.96
29.59 21.90
26.55
29.36 27.13 23.46
20.82
29.10
28.82 20.75 28.22
27.45 18.81
24.43
31.27
30.42 21.12 23.39 23.86
29.30 31.08 31.14
31.23 18.16
22.17 37.86
37.94
-2.06
0.00
26.13
35.42
34.49 24.57
32.28 21.84
26.34
26.12
28.17
21.96
21.34 19.51
21.75
22.29

23.05
20.44

0.73
1.43
0.61
1.31

1.09
1.321.12
0.53
Velocity 0.90
0.95 1.98
0.01 1.51
0.50 0.72
1.50
2.00 0.97
m/s 1.54 0.84 1.60
0.90
1.57 0.84 2.02 0.72
0.99 1.81
1.00
1.54
0.94 1.70
1.14 2.11
1.33 1.11 1.64 1.62
1.63 0.58
1.02 1.42 2.08 1.18
0.69
1.67 1.18
0.98
1.22 1.14
1.22
1.23
0.00
1.02 1.47
2.18 1.36
1.53
0.81 0.98 0.61
1.80
0.43
1.78
0.81

1.19

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6-3 Simulated Network Analysis Result for Demand of 2040 in Zone 9

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6-4 Distribution Main Pipe for Zone 9 in 2025

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6-5 Distribution Main Pipe for Zone 9 in 2040

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6.4 Distribution Pipes

6.4.1 DMA and Distribution Pipe


(1) DMA Plan
DMA is planned within Zone 9 for equitable water distribution by monitoring and controlling inflow
to each DMA. The planned DMA can also be utilized to monitor NRW for each DMA by comparing
inflow amount with total consumed amount. The smaller the DMA size, the more equal is water
distribution to each DMA. However, to start with an attempt towards efficient distribution, considering
ease of distribution operation, larger DMA size has been considered at initial stage.

Boundaries of DMA are planned considering the ground elevation, natural drains, roads, number of
customers and administrative boundaries for ease in operation and to have equitable distribution.
Initially, DMA is planned to have on average about 3,435 connections for Zone 9 as shown in the
following Table.

Table 6-5 DMA Planning in Zone 9 by 2025


Demand in 2025 Service population in Estimated No. of Service
No. of Connection/DMA
(m3/d) and (MGD) 2025 (1000 person) connection *
86,374 m3/d, (19 MGD) 346 79,000 3,435
Number of Bulk Meter with Chamber Household survey & Installation of Service Connection
DMA Data Handling with Customer Meter
Qty. (Nos.) Qty. (Nos.) Qty. (Nos.)
23 23 79,000 79,000
Note: * 4.38 person/connection
Source: JICA Study Team

(2) Distribution Pipe within DMAs for Zone 9


Length of distribution pipe is planned as shown below based on the network analysis. Distribution
pipe layout is shown below together with DMA. Use of existing pipes that are new is considered along
with new pipes planned in this Study as indicated in the following Table and shown as green lines in
the Figure below.
Table 6-6 Length of Distribution Pipe for Zone 9
Total Length of
Total Length of
Length of Existing New Pipe Length Proposed
Pipe Diameter Existing Pipe to be
Pipe to be Used (m) (m) Distribution Pipe
(mm) Abandoned (m)
(m)
(1) (2) (3) (2+3)
50 27,179
75 0 31,395 31,395
100 0 35,327 577,513 612,840
150 0 32,540 33,834 66,374
200 17,821 17,821
250 6,482 6,482
300 9,570 1,256 10,826
Total 27,179 108,832 636,906 745,738
Source: JICA Study Team

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 6-6 DMA and Distribution Pipe for Zone 9

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6.4.2 SCADA
Refer to 4.4.11 in Chapter 4.
The flow and operation status to be monitored by SCADA at different locations are listed in the
following Table.

Table 6-7 Monitoring Items by SCADA for Zone 9


Item Contents Quantity
Central monitoring
RPS in Zone 9 SR 1 unit
system
Water level meter 1 unit
Inlet flow meter from Kokkowa WTP 1 unit
Outlet flow meter of Transmission 1 unit
Outlet flow meter of Distribution 1 unit
Open rate of inlet valve from Kokkowa WTP 1 unit
Zone 9 SR/RPS
Open rate of outlet valve of Transmission 1 unit
Open rate of outlet valve of Distribution 1 unit
Pump Status 1 set
Water pressure of Transmission 1 unit
Water pressure of Distribution 1 unit
Inlet pipe of DMA Flow meter and Water pressure 23 DMA
Source: JICA Study Team

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CHAPTER 7 DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES OF ZONE 1

7.1 Outline of Planning

The water supply area of Zone 1 consists of CBD and IUR (see the Figure 3-8). These areas were
initially developed by the British rulers along with the existing water supply systems in this zone. This
water supply system has been used for long and is most likely in deteriorated condition with high
leakage rate. Therefore, rehabilitation/renewal of the water supply system is required and study has
been conducted keeping this in mind.

7.1.1 Review of Master Plan and Existing Condition


In the MP, construction of Kokkowa WTP, and related transmission facilities are proposed considering
the increasing water demand and use of river water as alternative water source. Also, reconstruction of
Central SR along with new pumping station is proposed for High subzone. For Low subzone, use of
existing Kokine SR is suggested. Distribution pipes are also proposed to be constructed both in High
as well as Low subzones.

Existing distribution system including SRs is illustrated in the following Figure. Presently, water
distributed to Zone 1 is coming from Hlawga, Gyobyu and Ngamoeyeik reservoirs through the Yegu
booster PS. According to the MP, in 2025 also, a part of this water (reduced amount) will be used for
distribution to Kokine sub-Zone along with water from Kokkowa water supply system to be developed.
The Yegu PS will be demolished when the Kokkowa water is available for Zones 1 and 3 by 2030.

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Source: METI Study


Figure 7-1 Existing SRs of Zone 1

7.1.2 Existing Condition of Yegu PS


Yegu PS receives raw water from Gyobyu and Hlawga (gravity) reservoirs and Nyaughnapin WTP and
water from all these sources are mixed at Yegu PS before sending it to Kokine SR. Yegu PS consists of
2 systems: old and new systems/

There are 4 new pumps (installed in 2007) in the new system and all of them are in working condition.
Of these, 2 pumps are duty and the other 2 are stand by), sending 20 MGD of water to existing Kokine
SR through 1400 mm pipe. Water from Kokine SR is distributed via Shwedagon SR to entire southern
and western areas of zone 1 excluding some eastern areas to which water goes directly from Yegu PS.

There are 7 old pumps (initially installed in 1964 and changed in 1990) in the old system, of which
only 4 pumps are in good condition. The old pumps are used to pump small amount of water to
downtown area through 1050 mm pipe.

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Source: JICA study team


Figure 7-2 Schematic Diagram Showing Water Distribution from Yegu PS

Data on water quality in 2015 at Yegu PS is given in Table below. Water quality data indicates that
despite mixing of water from three water sources, the maximum turbidity is 5.80 NTU and average
turbidity is 2.71 NTU. In general, the water supplied is within the water quality standard.

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Table 7-1 Water Quality Data at Yegu PS in 2015

Source: YCDC

7.1.3 Existing Condition of Kokine SR


(1) Outline
The Kokine SR was constructed in 1926 for supplying water to high area at that time. The condition of
structure itself is not known; however, based on discussion with YCDC no leakage is reported.
Concrete test of the structure was carried out in May 2016 and it is observed that compressive strength
of existing concrete is about 36 MPa, which indicates that concrete structure is strong enough.

On the other hand, in 2007 about 1.5 m (5 feet) high deposition of silt was reported, resulting in
decrease of its effective storage volume. It was once desilted in 2007; however, the silt could be again
accumulated and therefore, periodical cleaning of this SR is required. More fundamentally, turbidity
needs to be removed from the raw water in the WTPs.

Table 7-2 Existing Characteristics of Kokine SR


Item Specification
Construction Year 1925 to 1926
Site Size 559 feet x 286 feet
Structure Underground RC

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Item Specification
Volume 90,920 m3 (20MG)
Water Level HWL +42.7 m (140 feet), LWL +36.6 m (120 feet)
Water Depth 6.1 m
Inlet Pipe 1400 mm Steel Pipe from Yegu PS
Existing Outlet Pipe 1050 mm Iron Pipe for Shwedagon SR
1050 mm Iron Pipe for north townships
1050 mm Iron Pipe for southwest townships
Source: JICA Study Team

(2) Retention Time


Retention time of the Kokine SR (excluding small 1 MG capacity Shwedagon Pagoda SR, constructed
in 1894) to the total demand of Zone 1 is given in the following Table. Retention time is more than 8
hours up to 2025, which is the minimum retention time for diurnal demand fluctuation. However, after
2025, additional SR capacities are required to maintain the retention time of 8 hours.

Table 7-3 Forecast of Retention Time of The Kokine SR


Item 2014 2025 2030 2035 2040
Daily Maximum Demand of
44 MGD 54 MGD 60 MGD 65 MGD 71 MGD
total Zone 1
Retention Time* 11.0 hr 8.9 hr 8.0 hr 7.4 hr 6.8 hr
*Retention time is calculated as 20 MG divided by daily maximum demand.
Source: JICA Study Team

(3) Leakage from the Reservoir


In this Study, a survey was conducted to understand the situation of leakage in Kokine reservoir. At
Kokine SR, the water level in reservoir was measured in order to check if there is reduction in water
level even after stopping all the inflow to and outflow from this SR. For this purpose, the operation of
Yegu PS was stopped and two inlet valves to Kokine SR were closed completely. Also, three outlet
valves were closed completely.

After closing all valves, the water level in Kokine SR was measured every 15 minutes. Two
measurements were recorded, one of the water level gauge installed at reservoir and another measured
manually. The change in water in Kokine SR for two cases is shown in Figure below. The brown line
represents water level measured by gauge installed at SR, and blue line indicates the water level
measured manually. It is observed that in both measurements, water level in SR reduces by about 8
cm/hr. Thus, the total drop in water level of Kokine SR at this rate would be about 192 cm/day which
will result into loss of a large amount of water.

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-3 Reduction in Water Level of Kokine SR

Upon discussion with EDWS it was learnt that the bottom level of pipe connecting to check valve is at
about 10 feet and if there is less than 4 feet of head over the check valve on SR side, the check valve
does not close properly and may result into leakage through check valve.

Considering the above explanation, the water level in SR was lowered (through supplying water)
below the level of pipe connecting to check valve. Subsequently, after closing the outlet valves again,
the reduction in water level was recorded to understand the situation of leakage in the SR without the
influence of check valve leakage. The water level of Kokine SR thus recorded is shown in Figure
below. In this case, the drop in water level of SR is observed as 6 cm/hr.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-4 Reduction in Water Level of Kokine SR without Influence of Check Valve

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(4) Reason of Leakage and Necessity of Reservoir Rehabilitation


From above Figures, it is clear that the reduction in water level of SR is caused by leakage. However,
it is not clear whether the leakage is through the valves or through the reservoir walls itself. It is
possible that leakage occurs through inlet valves, check valve or outlet valves, as all of these structures
are very old and may not be closing appropriately. It is also possible that there is leakage through the
walls in reservoir itself. To confirm this, all the inlet and outlet valves will require to be changed first.

Hence, it is proposed that during construction works, all the valves be changed first with new ones.
Upon installation of new valves, the water level in SR needs to be monitored after closing all inlet and
outlet valves. If the monitored data indicates reduction in water level of SR, then there is certainly
leakage through the SR structure itself. In that case, the SR should be emptied, cleaned and checked
for leakage areas. Locations of leakage need to be repaired necessarily to enable the use of this SR
safely again. Depending on the leakage locations, repair methods shall be selected and repair be
carried out. Available space is limited at Kokine SR, therefore attention need to be paid during
construction works and required space need to be made available.

Considering that concrete structure of Kokine SR is still strong enough, EDWS prefers to continue
using this reservoir upon confirmation of leakage and rehabilitation (if required).

7.1.4 Existing Condition of Central SR and Shwedagon Pagoda SR


It is located at the top of hill near the Shwedagon Pagoda. The site belongs to the Army Department
and is surrounded by pagoda and housing in the north and west sides. The existing RC flat slab
structure is covered with earth on top and bottom-half is underground. It has no partition wall and total
capacity is 10 MG (=45,460 m3).

Structure has been left un-used for almost half a century. Rehabilitation efforts were made in the past;
in 2009 by SIKA, Switzerland recently by SEGA, Thailand. However, it cannot be used anymore;
Cracks are observed and reinforced bars are seen without concrete as shown in photos below.
Therefore, reconstruction is planned in this Study.

The small-sized (1 MG) Shwedagon Pagoda SR exists near the Central SR. After the Central SR is put
into operation, it will be demolished due to small-size and weak structure of its roof.

Table 7-4 Existing Characteristics of Central SR


Item Specification
Construction Year 1965
Site Size W 347 feet X L 220 feet
Structure Underground RC
Volume 45,460 m3 (10 MG)
Water Level HWL +38.1 m (125 feet), LWL +32.0 m (105 feet)

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Item Specification
Water Depth 6.1 m
Outlet/Inlet Pipe Existing inlet pipe is used both as inlet and outlet, and type is 1200 mm cast iron pipe.
Connection Pipe 1050 mm Iron Pipe branched off from “Kokine – Shwedagon” transmission Pipe
Source: JICA Study Team

Photo 7-1 External Top View (Roof) of the SR Photo 7-2 Internal View of the SR

Photo 7-3 Deteriorated Column Photo 7-4 Rehabilitated Trace by SIKA


Source: METI Study

7.1.5 Planning Parameters


(1) Concept of Distribution System
Zone 1 will be divided into 2 sub-zones; high subzone including areas with relatively high ground
elevation to be supplied water by pump distribution system and low subzone including areas with
lower elevation to be supplied by gravitational distribution system (see the following Figure).

a) Existing reservoirs and their capacities


The existing two working SRs and abandoned one SR are located on the hills. The Kokine SR (20
MG) which is operational is located in the north of the Zone 1 while the operational Shwedagon SR (1
MG), and the abandoned Central SR (10 MG) are located in the south. Total capacity of existing SR is
31 MG.

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b) Two sub-zones
Hill stretches along north-south direction will be included in the high subzone and low areas along the
rivers located in west, south and east of Zone 1 will be in the low subzone.

Water supply is not continuous and duration is less than 24 hours in townships of Dagon, Bahan,
Sangyoung, etc., because they are located in the hilly areas with elevation ranging more than 10 to 20
m. Therefore, supply system in these areas is planned to be converted from the currently used
gravitational system to pumping system. Although pump can be used at any SR, pumps are planned in
the Central SR after its reconstruction. Kokine SR with elevation slightly higher than the Central SR
will be used for gravitational flow system.

c) Water resource
From Kokkowa system, 40 MGD of water is planned to be delivered to Kokine reservoir to be
distributed in Low subzone through gravity. On the other hand, water from Yegu system is planned to
be conveyed to Central reservoir to be distributed in High subzone.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-5 Existing Pipe Network of Zone 1 with Proposed High and Low Sub-Zones

(2) Planning Parameters


Planning parameters for Zone 1 are shown in the Chapter 3 and reproduced here in the following Table.
Daily maximum demand will increase by 1.2 times in 2025 and by 1.6 times in 2040 compared to the

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demand in 2014. Distribution main pipes are planned for the demand in 2040 considering that it is not
easy to lay large diameter pipelines in densely populated city area with heavy traffic on roads. Zone 1
is divided into 37 DMAs as shown in the following Figure including proposed distribution main pipes
also.

Table 7-5 Main Features by Distribution Zone in 2014, 2025, and 2040
Population Coverage Served Daily Max. Daily Max.
Year rate Population demand demand
1,000 % 1,000 mld MGD
Low Subzone
2014 506 70 354 144 32
2025 557 81 452 166 37
2040 577 89 516 210 46
High Subzone
2014 288 47 134 55 12
2025 309 70 215 79 17
2040 318 87 277 113 25
Zone 1
2014 794 62 488 199 44
2025 866 77 667 245 54
2040 896 89 793 323 71
Source: JICA Study Team

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-6 DMAs and Distribution Main Pipes for Zone 1 in 2025 (same as 2040)

(3) Water Amount for Distribution


Allocation of water sources to 10 Zones in Yangon is planned in the previous Chapter and
corresponding allocation of water sources to Zone 1 is reproduced in the following Table. In 2014, the

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demand of Zone 1 is supplied entirely from existing SR system using Kokine SR. In 2025, water will
be conveyed to Zone 1, both from existing SR system as well as Kokkowa river system to be
developed. In 2040, water to Zone 1 will be conveyed from Kokkowa or Toe river system.

Table 7-6 Water Supply from Source to Zone 1


(Unit: MGD)
Existing River System
Sub-Zone or SR Year Total
Reservoir System including Kokkowa
2014 44 44 N/A
Low subzone
(from Kokine SR) 2025 37 0 37
2040 46 0 46
2014 N/A N/A N/A
High subzone
2025 17 17 0
(from Central SR)
2040 25 25 0
2014 44 44 N/A
Total 2025 54 17 37
2040 71 25 46
Source: JICA study team

7.1.6 Comparison of Distribution Plan Options


Initial plan was prepared considering the distribution of mixed water from Kokkowa system and Yegu
system as presented in the MP (both mixed at Kokine SR). In consideration of the effectiveness of
project through supply of safe water, JICA upon discussion with YCDC decided to distribute 40 MGD
of Kokkowa water without mixing with Yegu water. This can be achieved through construction of
WTP, transmission pumps, transmission pipelines and installation of distribution networks up to house
connection to distribute 40 MGD of Kokkowa water separately in areas that has demand equivalent to
40 MGD. Considering these points, it is decided to distribute Kokkowa water in Low subzone of Zone
1.

Taking the above discussion into account, water distribution options are considered and comparison is
made in terms of water quality and required water supply facilities in case of each plan as presented in
Table below.

In Plan 0 (Original), Kokine SR supplies mixed water received from Kokkowa and Reservoir systems
to Low Zone and Central SR supplies Kokkowa water to High Zone. This plan is considered not safe
in terms of water quality because treated water from Kokkowa system is mixed with untreated water
from Reservoir system before distribution and turbidity of supplied water cannot be maintained less
than equal to 1 NTU in this case.

Plan 1 is basically same as Plan 0. However, in this plan, Kokine SR supplies only Kokkowa water to
Low Zone and Central SR supplies only Reservoir water to High Zone, thus water from Kokkowa and
Yegu sources are distributed separately. Also, in this case, replacement of pumps will be required at
Yegu PS to convey the water to Central SR for high zone.

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Table 7-7 Comparison of Water Distribution Plan Options


Item Plan-0 (Original) Plan-1 (JICA-YCDC discussion) Plan-2 Plan-3 Plan-4
Kokine SR supplies mixed water of Kokine SR supplies Kokkowa water to Kokine SR supplies Reservoir water to Kokine SR supplies Reservoir water to Kokine SR supplies Reservoir water to
Kokkowa and Reservoir to Low Zone. Low Zone. High Zone. High Zone and Kokkowa water to Low High Zone and Kokkowa water to western
Outline of Water
Central SR supplies Kokkowa water to Central SR supplies Reservoir water to Central SR supplies Kokkowa water to Zone. and eastern part of Low Zone.
Supply
High Zone. High Zone. Low Zone. Central SR supplies Kokkowa water to
southern part of Low Zone.

Schematic Diagram

Required Capacity Kokine: 20 MG (Existing/Repair) Kokine: 20 MG (Existing/Repair) Kokine: 8.3 MG (Replace) Kokine: 23.6 MG (Replace) > 20 MG Kokine: 16 MG (Replace)
of SR Central: 8.3 MG Central: 8.3 MG Central: 15.3 MG > 10 MG Central: 0 MG Central: 7.7 MG
WTP WTP WTP WTP WTP
Kokkowa WTP (40 MGD) Kokkowa WTP (40 MGD) Kokkowa WTP (40 MGD) Kokkowa WTP (40 MGD) Kokkowa WTP (40 MGD)
Transmission Transmission Transmission Transmission Transmission
Pump Station at WTP (40 MGD) Pump Station at WTP (40 MGD) Pump Station at WTP (40 MGD) Pump Station at WTP (40 MGD) Pump Station at WTP (40 MGD)
Transmission Pipe Transmission Pipe Transmission Pipe Transmission Pipe Transmission Pipe
WTP – Relay PS ( 1600) WTP – Relay PS ( 1600) WTP – Relay P.S ( 1600) WTP – Relay PS ( 1600) WTP – Relay PS ( 1600)
Relay PS (40 MGD) Relay PS (40 MGD) Relay PS (40 MGD) Relay PS (40 MGD) Relay PS (40 MGD)
Transmission Pipe Transmission Pipe Transmission Pipe Transmission Pipe Transmission Pipe
Relay PS - Junction ( 1600) Relay PS - Junction ( 1600) Relay PS - Junction ( 1600) Relay PS - Junction ( 1600) Relay PS - Junction ( 1600)
Required Facilities
Junction - Kokine SR ( 1400) Junction - Kokine SR ( 1400) Junction – Kokine SR ( 1600) Junction - Kokine SR ( 1400)
in 2025
Junction - Central SR ( 1000) Junction - Central SR ( 1600) Junction - Central SR ( 1000)
Pump Replacement at Yegu PS
Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution Distribution
Central SR/PS (17 MGD) Central SR/PS (17 MGD) Central SR/PS (17MGD) Central SR/PS (17MGD)
Kokine SR Replacement Kokine SR/PS Replacement Kokine SR Replacement
Distribution Main (Low Zone) Distribution Main (Low Zone) Distribution Main (Low Zone) Distribution Main (Low Zone) Distribution Main (Low Zone)
Distribution Network (Low Zone) Distribution Network (Low Zone) Distribution Network (Low Zone) Distribution Network (Low Zone) Distribution Network (Low Zone)
Distribution Main (High Zone) Distribution Main (High Zone) Distribution Main (High Zone) Distribution Main (High Zone) Distribution Main (High Zone)
Distribution Network (High Zone) Distribution Network (High Zone) Distribution Network (High Zone) Distribution Network (High Zone) Distribution Network (High Zone)
In this plan, Kokkowa water and Reservoir At Yegu PS, replacement of pumps is Capacity of Central SR becomes larger. Kokine SR replacement is necessary. Kokine SR replacement is necessary.
water are mixed at Kokine SR. ⇒ necessary. Kokine SR replacement is necessary. Capacity of Kokine SR becomes larger. Water to Low Zone is distributed from 2
Salient Features
Rejected. Construction of Central SR is not required SRs.
in this case.
51.016 52.932 59.001 56.528 51.693
(Pipe: 44.779, (Pipe: 44.779, (Pipe: 48.374, (Pipe: 45.900, (Pipe: 41.020,
Construction Cost
Cen SR: 3.737, Cen SR: 3.737, Cen SR: 6.890, Cen SR: 3.468,
(Mil. USD)
Ko SR: 2.500) Ko SR: 2.500, Ko SR: 3.737) Ko SR: 10.628) Ko SR: 7.205)
E&M: 1.916)
Result ◎
Source: JICA Study Team, details as Appendix 8

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In Plan 2, Kokine SR supplies Reservoir water to High Zone and Central SR supplies Kokkowa water
to Low Zone. In this case, to distribute 37 MGD of Kokkowa water from Central to low zone, the
capacity of this SR will require to be increased to 15.3 MG and hence the height of Central reservoir
will be more compared to other plans, which is not acceptable to YCDC in consideration of the
location being near to Shwedagon Pagoda and relevant social issues. This plan will also require
reconstruction of Kokine SR for PS.

In Plan 3, Kokine SR supplies Reservoir water to High Zone and Kokkowa water to Low Zone. For
this purpose, Kokine SR will require to be reconstructed with higher capacity of 23.6 MG with 2
chambers, one for water from Reservoir system and another for Kokkowa system. Also, PS will be
required at Kokine SR. On the other hand, central reservoir would not be required. Considering the
reconstruction of larger Kokine SR and no possibility of use of Central SR, this option is excluded by
EDWS due to risk management of water supply during the construction period of Kokine SR.

In Plan 4, Kokine SR supplies Reservoir water to High Zone and Kokkowa water to the western and
eastern part of Low Zone. Central SR supplies Kokkowa water to southern part of Low Zone. This
case will also require reconstruction of Kokine SR of 16 MG capacity with 2 chambers, one for
Kokkowa water and another for Reservoir water.

In the opinion of Study Team, Plan 4 is the most suitable option considering cost and reliability.
However, EDWS prefers to use the existing Kokine SR without reconstruction (refer to Section
7.1.3(4)) and therefore Plan 1 is selected. In consideration of the above discussed factors and based on
discussion with EDWS on these plans, Plan 1 is considered as the most suitable option under this
Study.

Source: JICA study team


Figure 7-7 Schematic Diagram showing Water Distribution in Case of Plan 1

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7.2 Planned Service Reservoir and Distribution Pump

Two SRs are planned in Zone 1; existing Kokine SR for gravity sub-Zone and reconstructed Central
SR for pump sub-Zone. The capacity of these SRs is given in the following Table.

Table 7-8 Rehabilitation of Kokine SR and Reconstruction of Central SR


Item Kokine SR Central SR
Name of Sub-zone Low High
Distribution Method by Gravity by Pumping
Capacity 20 MGD x 4,546 = 90,920 m3 (Existing) 8.3 MGD x 4,546 = 37,882 m3
Rehabilitation or Rehabilitation depending on Leakage
Reconstruction Required
Reconstruction Test
Source: JICA Study Team

7.2.1 Kokine SR
Structural soundness of the Kokine SR needs to be analyzed after cleaning the internal surfaces of SR.
During the time of cleaning, operation of this SR will require to be stopped. Leakage check and repair
is planned in this Study considering that structure is very old and may require repair or reconstruction.

The distribution facilities consist of Kokine SR, inflow control valve and outflow control valve (see
the following Table). The inflow control valve is capable of controlling the inflow to set value. The
outflow control valve is capable of controlling the pressure to set value. SCADA system will be
introduced for these flow controls.

Table 7-9 Outline of Distribution Facilities at Kokine SR


Quantity
No. Facility Specification
Duty Standby
1 Kokine SR Reinforced Concrete Structure of 20 MG 1 unit -
2 Inflow control valve Motorized Flow Control Valve 2 units -
3 Outflow control valve Motorized Pressure Control Valve 3 units -
Source: JICA Study Team

In this plan it is considered that Kokine SR will be used for distribution of water to relatively low
areas in Zone 1 through gravity in future. Retention time of Kokine SR considering the demand of
Low subzone only is given below. The result indicates that retention time is more than normal required
8 hours.

Table 7-10 Retention Time of Kokine SR (considering Demand of Low Subzone of Zone 1)
Item 2025 2040
Daily Maximum Demand of Low Subzone of Zone 1 37 MGD 46 MGD
Retention Time* 13.0 hrs 10.4 hrs
*Retention time is calculated as 20 MG divided by daily maximum demand. In 2014, Kokine SR serves the high areas
also which is proposed later to be served through pumped system.
Source: JICA Study Team

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7.2.2 Central SR with Distribution Pump


(1) Reconstruction of Central SR
The central SR should be reconstructed because of the unreliability of the existing structure. The
reconstruction of this SR will have the following advantages:
Increase retention time in the Zone 1 to the required 8 hours (Refer Table 7-3; if only Kokine SR
is used, the minimum retention time of 8 hours cannot be maintained for demand of Zone 1 after
2030).
It will serve water to pumped sub-Zone.
Operation of Kokine SR can be interrupted, if required, for maintenance works such as cleaning,
inspection and repair.

(2) Reconstruction Plan


Constraints and basic policy for the reconstruction is explained below.
【Constraints】
・ High water level should be the same as that of the Kokine SR.
・ Increase in the volume is rather difficult considering limitation in terms of structures surrounding
the site.
・ Therefore, new SR with storage capacity of 8.3 MG will be reconstructed.

【Basic Policy】
・ Water to Central SR will be supplied from Yegu PS and pumps at Old Yegu PS will require
replacement to supply water to Central SR.
・ To be made of RC structure half-underground.
・ Guiding walls will be provided to prevent short-circuit flow.
・ Excavation area will be minimized because of the surrounding structures like a Pagoda.
・ Demolishing works and construction works will be planned considering mitigation of noise and
vibration.
・ The existing wall will be utilized as a temporary retaining walls during construction.

(3) Facility Planning


Retention time of the Central SR for pumped High subzone is shown in the following Table.

Table 7-11 Retention Time of Central SR (for High Subzone)


Item 2025 2040
Daily Maximum Demand (MGD) 17 25
Retention Time* 11.7 hrs 8.0 hrs
Note: *Retention time is calculated as 8.3 MG divided by daily maximum demand.
Demands are for pumped High subzone only.
Source: JICA Study Team

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The distribution facilities consist of Central SR, inflow control valve and distribution pump (see the
following Table). The inflow control valve is capable of controlling the inflow to set value. The
distribution pump, horizontal double suction volute pump with VFD, is planned which is capable of
controlling the pressure to set value. SCADA system will be introduced for these flow controls.

Table 7-12 Outline of Distribution Facilities at Central SR


Quantity
No. Facility Specification
Duty Standby
1 Central SR Reinforced Concrete Structure of 8.3MG 1 unit -
2 Inflow control valve Motorized Flow Control Valve 2 units -
3 Outflow control valve Motorized Flow Control Valve 2 units -
Distribution Pump 67 m3/ min x 42 m x 660 kw, Horizontal
3 1 unit 1 unit
(large) Double Suction Volute Pump with VFD
Distribution Pump 32 m3/ min x 42 m x 375 kw, Horizontal
4 1 unit 1 unit
(small) Double Suction Volute Pump with VFD
Source: JICA Study Team

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7.2.3 Electrical Facilities for Central SR with Pump


(1) General
Design parameters of the electrical facilities are shown below. Electricity supply situation is explained
in 4.4.10 in Chapter 4.

Table 7-13 Design Parameters of Electrical Facilities for Zone 1


Design Parameters
1) Receiving Voltage 33kV, 50Hz, 1 circuit
2) Receiving Transformer 3,000 kVA
3) Installed Capacity 2,400 kW
4) Operating Capacity 1,800 kW
Source: Phase 1 FS

(2) Power Receiving Circuit


The receiving capacity of pump station is 3 MVA, and the receiving voltage is 33 kV. A 33 kV cable
shall be installed underground from the nearest YESC substation. The estimated length of the cable is
less than 1 km.

Source: Phase 1 FS (YESB is now called as YESC)


Figure 7-8 Zone 1 PS and Expected 33 kV Cable Route

(3) Receiving Transformer and Distribution Equipment


Negotiations with YESC to obtain main power supply for Central SR will be under the scope of
YCDC. Main power supply will be included under the scope of Japanese loan. Receiving transformer
is not planned. Alternatively electricity is to be directly connected to the indoor closed-switchboard in
the Central SR with PS.

7.2.4 SCADA
Refer to 4.4.11 in Chapter 4.

The flow and operation status to be monitored by SCADA at different locations are listed in the

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following Table.

Table 7-14 Monitoring Items by SCADA for Zone 1


Item Contents Quantity
Central monitoring
PS in Central SR 1 unit
system
Water level meter 1 unit
Inlet flow meter 1 unit
Outlet flow meter 1 unit
Kokine SR
Open rate of inlet valve 1 unit
Open rate of outlet valve 1 unit
Water pressure 1 unit
Water level meter 1 unit
Inlet flow meter 1 unit
Outlet flow meter 1 unit
Central SR Open rate of inlet valve 1 unit
Open rate of outlet valve 1 unit
Pump Status 1 set
Water pressure 1 unit
Inlet pipe of DMA Flow meter, Water pressure 37 DMA
Source: JICA Study Team

7.3 Distribution Main Pipe

Zone 1 has been divided into 37 DMAs (See Figure 7-6). Distribution main routes are selected
considering short route between SR to DMAs inlet and roads with less traffic intensity.

The distribution pipes will be aligned along the edges of the road within city. Most of the wide roads
are 6 lane roads and of these the outermost lane on each side is often used for parking. These lanes will
be used for distribution pipe installation to avoid traffic jam during construction. In the 2014 JICA
Sewerage MP, sewers are planned to be installed in the middle of road at a depth of 3 m or below.
Therefore, water supply distribution pipelines will be installed at 2-3 m depth.

Pipe sizes are determined through hydraulic analysis using EPANET2 which uses Hazen-Williams
formula. Minimum water pressure at inlets of DMA is considered as 18 m. Ground elevation data is
obtained from the available YCDC contour data in GIS and topographic survey data. Nodal demand is
calculated as the demand of area served by a particular node.

Network analysis has been carried out separately for Gravity system and Pump system of Zone 1.
Results of network analysis for gravity system are shown in Figure 7-9 and results for pump system
are shown in Figure 7-10.

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The distribution main pipes (lengths, sizes and locations) proposed in this plan are as shown in the
following Table and Figure 7-11. Very few sections of existing large size pipelines are new and have
been considered to be used along with proposed distribution main pipelines.

Table 7-15 Length of Planned Distribution Main Pipe of Zone 1


Total
Length of New Pipe New Pipe Total Length of
Length of
Existing Length Length Proposed
Pipe Diameter Existing Pipe
Pipe to be Gravity (Low) Pump (High) Distribution Main
(mm) to be Used (m)
Abandoned Zone (m) Zone (m) (m)
(m)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (2+3+4)
200 1,181 1,181
300 50,898 1,647 5,836 7,483
375 1,750
2,368
400 1,439 (823 for Low + 7,663 4,446 14,477
1545 for High)
425 1,371
450 3,357 252 252
500 546 893 (for High) 7,126 4,588 12,607
600 2,458 3,863 1,603 5,466
675 13,014
750 5,154
800 4,938 2,252 7,190
900 1,313 1,369 1,369
1,000 1,862 826 2,688
1,050 11,189
1,200 10,738 377 11,115
1,400 1,408 455 455
1,800 156 156
2,000 223 223
Grand Total 93,897 3,261 38,468 22,933 64,662
Note: Most of the existing distribution pipelines are very old and is planned to be abandoned.
Source: JICA Study Team

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-9 Simulated Network Analysis Result for Gravity System (Kokine SR) of Zone 1

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-10 Simulated Network Analysis Result for Pump System (Central SR with PS) of
Zone 1

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-11 Distribution Main Pipes for Zone 1 of Gravity System from Kokine SR (upper
figure) and Pump System from Central SR (lower figure)

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For laying of distribution main pipes, trenchless method of pipe laying will be required at 2 locations
where large diameter pipes are required to cross the existing railway lines (Figure below). Along the
Sule Pagoda road, the pipe diameter is 1200 mm and for installation of shafts for pipe jacking,
permission will be required from Railway authority. For pipe crossing of railway along Majid road
also permission will be required from Railway authority. Space for shafts is available at both of these
locations.

Location of pipe crossing railway along Sule Location of pipe crossing railway along Masjid
Pagoda Road near Yangon central railway station Road in Pazuntaung
(φ1200 mm, L=200m) (φ600 mm, L=200m)
Source: JICA Study Team using background map of Google Earth
Figure 7-12 Distribution Main Crossing Railway

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7.4 Distribution Pipes and DMA


7.4.1 Distribution Facilities
Currently, water is being distributed from groundwater wells also located in different spots in Zone 1
in addition to water from Yegu system. Eventually, it is considered that water distribution from wells
will not be used when water supply starts from Kokkowa system. When Kokkowa system starts
operation, it is considered that zones (Zone 1, 2 and 3) will be appropriately isolated using valves at
the boundary.

7.4.2 DMA and Distribution Pipe


(1) DMA Plan
DMA is planned within Zone 1 for equitable water distribution by monitoring and controlling inflow
to each DMA. The planned DMA can also be utilized to monitor NRW for each DMA by comparing
inflow amount with total consumed amount. The smaller the DMA size, the more equal it water
distribution to each DMA. However, for practical and ease of distribution operation, DMA size is
enlarged. IWA recommends DMA size in the range of 500 to 3000 connections.

Boundaries of DMA are planned along backyards of the high-rise buildings, resulting in short lengths
of distribution pipes for gravity flow area where high-rise buildings exist with high population density.
On the contrary, areas with pump system distribution have mostly large sized bungalow-type housing.
So roads constitute DMA boundaries. As a result, DMA is planned to have about 5,400 connections in
Low subzone and about 2,700 connections in High subzone of Zone 1 which are shown in the
following Table.

Table 7-16 DMA Planning for Low subzone of Zone 1


Demand in 2025 Service population in Estimated No. of Service
No. of Connection/DMA
(m3/d) and (MGD) 2025 (1000 persons) connection *
168,202 m3/d (37 MGD) 452 103,200 5,432
Number of Bulk Meter(BM) with Household survey & Replacement/Installation of Service
DMA Chamber Data Handling Connection with Customer Meters
Qty. (Nos.) Qty. (Nos.) Qty. (Nos.)
19 39 103,200 103,200
Note: * 4.38 person/connection
Source: JICA Study Team

Table 7-17 DMA Planning for High subzone of Zone 1


Demand in 2025 Service population in Estimated No. of Service
No. of Connection/DMA
(m3/d) and (MGD) 2025 (1000 persons) connection *
77,282 m3/d (17 MGD) 215 49,100 2,728
Number of Bulk Meter(BM) Chamber Household survey & Replacement/Installation of
DMA Data Handling Service Connection with
Customer Meter
Qty. (Nos.) Qty. (Nos.) Qty. (Nos.)
18 20 49,100 49,100
Note: * 4.38 person/connection
Source: JICA Study Team

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(2) Distribution Pipe within DMAs


Length of distribution pipe is planned as shown below based on the network analysis. Distribution
pipe layout is shown below together with DMA. Use of existing pipes that are new is considered along
with new pipes planned in this Study as indicated in the following Table and shown as green lines in
the Figure below. Many existing distribution pipes are not suitable for required water pressure,
because, re-use of overage pipe will trigger a huge number of water leakage by water pressure rising,
and therefore are not used among the planned distribution pipes and hence new pipes are planned.

Table 7-18 Length of Planned Distribution Pipe for Zone 1


Total Length
Pipe Length Gravity from Kokine Pipe Length Pump from Central of Proposed
Total SR/Low Zone (m) SR/High Zone (m) Distribution
Pipe Length of Pipe (m)
Diameter Existing Existing
Existing Sub-Total
(mm) Pipe (m) New Pipe to New Pipe Sub-Total
Pipe to be Gravity
Pipe (m) be Used (m) Pump (m) (4+7)
Used (m) (m)
(m)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
40 2,284
50 6,609
75 13,675 2,123 2,123 151 151 2,274
100 71,146 7,127 153,278 160,405 3,734 123,986 127,720 288,125
110 1,435
125 1,516
150 220,792 14,838 42,968 57,806 2,632 67,754 70,386 128,193
160 3,672
200 4,726 12,932 12,932 17,094 17094 30,026
225 19,181
250 3,714 9,185 9,185 3,122 3,122 12,307
275 2,609
300 473 473 473
Total 351,359 24,561 218,363 242,924 6,517 211,956 218,473 461,397
Source: JICA Study Team

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Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-13 DMA and Distribution Pipe for Zone 1

(3) House Connection


In the existing condition, many households are using water from private wells and from piped supply
after being mixed in their private reservoir or storage tank. In this Study, it is considered that the house
connections will be directly connected to distribution pipes after achievement of 24 hrs supply.

In the existing condition, in the downtown area along the main roads, the customers are connected to
the distribution pipes as shown in Figure below. On both sides of roads, drains are located which
collects both rainwater and wastewater from neighboring houses. To connect the houses to the water
supply distribution pipes, the house connections have to cross across the drains which can be a point of
supplied water getting contaminated in case of leakage before reaching the user. To avoid this situation,
the connection shall be through the backyard of the houses as shown in Figure below.

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Figure 7-14 Existing House Connections

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-15 Candidate of House Connection through Backyard

(4) Water Meters


Water meter is planned to be installed for 152,300 customers. The meters should be pressure tight and
strong enough not to be tampered illegally. The meters should also be resistant to corrosion or elusion
to have a high longevity. The material of meter should not be lead in any case. An example of water
meter is given in Figure below.

Figure 7-16 Example of Flow Meter

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7.5 Water Operation Plan during Construction Implementation

7.5.1 Change from The Existing Distribution System to New System (Additional Water from
Kokkowa WTP)
In the existing distribution system (Figure 7-17), water comes to the new Zone 1 from the followings;
directly from Yegu PS.
from Kokine SR receiving water from Yegu PS.
from Shwedagon SR receiving water from Kokine SR.

The zone 1 will be sub-divided into high and low. Change to the 2 sub-zones cannot be implemented
instantly but should be implemented step-wise. The following key points need to be analyzed and
confirmed before start of the implementation works:
1. Demands of the DMAs, and of high subzone and low subzone are almost matching as
presented in this Study.
2. WTP and transmission pipe installation works to be implemented are already completed.
3. Yegu PS operates properly in order to convey sufficient amount of water to Central SR.
4. Kokine SR shall not be reconstructed, only cleaning shall be carried out and repair of SR, if
needed, shall be implemented.

7.5.2 Step 1: Commencement of Water Supply from Kokkowa WTP


The salient features and necessary conditions of this step (Figure 7-18) are listed below:
The construction of 40 MGD Kokkowa WTP will be implemented along with installation of
transmission pumps, relay pumps in Zone 9, and transmission pipes from WTP to Zone 9 and
from Zone 9 to Kokine SR in Zone 1.
The transmission pipe from Zone 9 to Kokine SR will be connected to existing 56” (1400 mm)
pipe at the inlet to Kokine SR.
Kokine SR’s valves from Yegu will be closed to change water supply from Kokkowa.
Using water from Kokine SR to Shwedagon SR, most of the areas in low subzone will be
supplied Kokkowa water.
Some parts of Pazuntaung, Botahtaung, Mingala Taungnyunt, Bahan and entire Tamway will
be supplied Reservoir water from Hlawga PS using existing 42” (1050 mm) pipe.

【Required Pipe Laying Works】


Laying of transmission pipe from WTP to Relay PS in Zone 9 and from Relay PS in Zone 9 to
Kokine SR

7.5.3 Step 2: DMA Development in Low Subzone (1)


The salient features and necessary conditions of this step (Figure 7-19) are listed below:

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The distribution main pipes from Kokine SR to DMAs of Low subzone will be installed.
Transmission from Zone 9 will be connected to newly constructed distribution mains at the
outlet from Kokine reservoir along with installation of new valves.
Transmission from Zone 9 will also be connected to existing pipe in the western part of Low
subzone
Subsequently, the distribution pipes will be installed and DMAs will be established in the
western and southern townships of Low subzone of Zone 1.
Yegu PS will convey Reservoir water to Shwedagon SR to supply water to Bahan and Dagon
townships.
Major areas of eastern part of Low subzone will still be supplied water directly from Hlawga
PS.
A new distribution main pipe from Kokine will be connected to existing main pipe of diameter
750 mm (30”) on Bargayar Rd through tapping method without water supply suspension
through existing pipe (Under pressure tapping method, Non-stoppable tapping method).
Consequently, Kokkowa water will be continuously supplied through the existing main to high
subzone in Zone 1 till the new distribution system is installed and becomes operational in this
area.
At this stage, leakage of Kokine SR can be tested upon confirmation that all the inlet and
outlet valves are new and can be closed properly. If required, repair works of Kokine should
also be undertaken.

【Required Pipe Laying Works】


Laying of distribution main pipes in Low subzone (west and central)
Laying of bypass pipe of dia.1000 mm at Kokine SR
Non-stoppable tapping of dia.1400 mm x dia.1000 mm (Figure 7-22)
Non-stoppable tapping of dia.1050 mm x dia.1000 mm (Figure 7-22)
Connection work of new distribution main pipe from Kokine SR and existing main on
Bargayar Rd. by non-stoppable tapping of dia. 750 mm (30”) x dia. 700 mm (Figure 7-22)
Installation of non-stoppable insert valve of dia. 750 mm (Figure 7-22) and Removal of
existing main pipe from Kokine SR to Bargayar Rd
Improvement of DMAs and pipe network in Low subzone (11 DMAs)

7.5.4 Step 3: DMA Development in Low Subzone (2)


The salient features and necessary conditions of this step (Figure 7-20) are listed below:
Distribution pipes will be installed and DMAs will be established in the eastern townships of
Low subzone of Zone 1. DMA establishment in Low subzone of Zone 1 will be completed.
Yegu PS will continue conveying water to Shwedagon SR to supply water to Bahan and
Dagon townships.

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Eastern townships of Tamway and some part of Mingala Taungnyunt of High subzone of Zone
1 will still be supplied water directly from Hlawga PS.

【Required Pipe Laying Works】


Laying of distribution main pipes for Low subzone (east)
Improvement of DMAs and pipe network in remaining part of Low subzone (8 DMAs)

7.5.5 Step 4: DMA Development in High Subzone


The salient features and necessary conditions of this step (Figure 7-21) are listed below:
Central SR will be reconstructed.
Water from Yegu PS will be conveyed to Central SR using 56” and 42” pipes.
Distribution pipes will be installed and DMAs will be established in the townships of High
subzone of Zone 1.
Shwedagon SR and 27” pipes from Shwedagon SR will be abandoned.

【Required Pipe Laying Works】


Laying of distribution main pipes for High subzone (All DMAs)
Replacement of pumps in Yegu PS
Improvement of DMAs and pipe network in High subzone (all 18 DMAs)

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Over View of Zone 1 Supply Area

Source: JICA Study Team Figure 7-17 Schematic Diagram of Current Water Supply

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Over View of Zone 1 Supply Area

Source: JICA Study Team

Figure 7-18 Water Supply Changing Procedure [Step -1: Commencement of Water Supply from Kokkowa WTP]

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Over View of Zone 1 Supply Area

Source: JICA Study Team

Figure 7-19 Water Supply Changing Procedure [Step -2: DMA Development in Low Subzone (1)]

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Over View of Zone 1 Supply Area

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-20 Water Supply Changing Procedure [Step -3: DMA Development in Low Subzone (2)]

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Over View of Zone 1 Supply Area

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 7-21 Water Supply Changing Procedure [Step -4: DMA Development in High Subzone]

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Location of connections to existing distribution


Location of connections to existing distribution pipe of φ750
pipes of φ1400 mm andφ1050 mm along
mm along Bargayar Road
Kabar Aye Pagoda Road
Source: JICA Study Team using background map of Google Earth
Figure 7-22 Locations of Non-stoppable Tapping Connections

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CHAPTER 8 OPERATION, MANAGEMENT AND CAPACITY

Issues to be considered for the proposed facilities are summarized considering the review of the
current situation of management, system and capacity in the existing facilities as described in detail in
Appendix-9.

8.1 Summary of Issues

8.1.1 Water Treatment Plant


(1) Maintenance
・ Daily inspection and repair should be implemented and water quality and flow rate should be
managed in order to purify water to the desired level.
・ Washing process and quality management of filter media should be reconsidered in order to
optimize washing cycle in case of filtration basin.
・ Daily inspection and consumption of chemicals and electricity should be recorded in order to
improve management of WTP.
・ Documents of specifications and drawings of facilities and equipment should be managed in
order to maintain them properly.
・ Initial and operation cost including cost of spare parts should be considered and technical
capacities of electrical and mechanical engineers should be developed in order to continue using
the facilities properly for a long time.
・ Equipment ledgers including data on installation year, manufacturer, item number and history of
breakdown and repair/replacement should be prepared and updated in order to plan replacement
effectively in the future.

(2) Equipment
・ Intake flow meters should be installed in order to decide appropriate injection rate of coagulant.
・ Coagulant injection point should be changed, coagulant should be added at required rates, inflow
rate of water to each flocculation basin should be controlled by valves and outlets of flocculation
basin should be renovated in order to improve coagulation and sedimentation.
・ Chlorine injection equipment should be installed in order to remove algae of sedimentation and
filtration basin and to disinfect treated water.
・ Water quality monitoring equipment should be installed at the locations to monitor quality of raw
water, water after sedimentation and treated water in order to optimize coagulant injection rate.
・ Daily water quality test should be done by specific equipment for each indicator not by simple
measurements, and reliability of the test should be improved by clarifying calibration process and
frequency.

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(3) Quality control


・ Delivered products should be checked using the composition table provided by the suppliers to
confirm if the products are meeting the ordered specifications.

(4) Structure
・ Some portions in Nyaunghnapin WTP; including aged concrete structures, damaged and leaking
gates, broken surface washing pipes, etc. should be renovated.

(5) Others
・ Measures against inundation should be implemented in rooms of electrical equipment.

8.1.2 Transmission Pipe


(1) Equipment
・ Flow meters should be installed on transmission pipes.

(2) Maintenance
・ Transmission pipelines should be patrolled regularly in order to find leakages and unregistered
connections.
・ Leakages above ground should be repaired immediately and countermeasures should be
implemented against unregistered connections.

8.1.3 Distribution Pipe


(1) Standardization of specification, regulation and procedure
・ Specifications of materials and regulations of quality control and construction management
should be standardized.
・ Procedure of designing distribution pipe network should be established.

(2) Systematic facilities


・ Distribution facilities such as service reservoirs and pipe network should be designed and
constructed systematically.

(3) Maintenance
・ Leak detection should be implemented after preparing leakage repair equipment.
・ Old distribution pipes should be replaced effectively by using distribution pipeline maps, reports
on repairing leakages and leakage history maps.

8.1.4 Water Supply Equipment


(1) Standardization of specifications, regulations and procedure
・ Specifications of water meters and service equipment and regulations on service pipe connection
with distribution pipe, quality control and construction management should be standardized.

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・ Plumbing models from distribution pipe to water meter should be defined.


・ Procedure of defining meter size by calculating water head should be established.

(2) Meter owner


・ Meter owner should be changed to YCDC from customers in order to facilitate easy maintenance.

8.1.5 Customer Management


(1) New customer registration
・ New customers should be registered not at the township offices but at the head office in order to
manage them uniformly.

(2) Water charge collection


・ Individual water consumption should be compared with average consumption in case of each
customer on the new system every month in order to find leakage and illegal connections
effectively.

8.1.6 Measures
(1) Water treatment plant
・ As for the issues of maintenance, equipment, quality management, structure and others related to
existing water treatment facilities, it is expected that the activities of the JICA technical
cooperation project, the JICA long term expert and the JICA training program in Japan will solve
these issues. In addition, technical cooperation project should be continued to deal with the O&M
issues related to the Kokkowa WTP that will treat river water, the first time experience for
YCDC.

(2) Transmission and distribution pipe


・ As for the issues of standardization of specifications, guidelines and procedures, systematic
development and maintenance, it is expected that the activities of the JICA technical cooperation
project, the JICA long term expert and the JICA training program in Japan will help solving these
issues. Also, it is necessary to continue using the procedures and utilizing experiences that YCDC
acquires from these activities to operate and manage the facilities constructed in this project.

(3) Water supply equipment


・ As for the issues of standardization of specifications, guidelines and procedures related to water
meters and meter owners, it is expected that the activities of the JICA technical cooperation
project, the JICA long term expert and the JICA training program in Japan will help solving these
issues. It is necessary to continue using the procedures and utilizing experiences that YCDC
acquires from these activities to operate and manage the facilities constructed in this project.

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(4) Customer management


・ As for the issues of new customer registration and of water charge collection, it is expected that
the activities of the JICA technical cooperation project, the JICA long term expert and the JICA
training program in Japan will help solving these issues. It is necessary to continue using the
procedures and utilizing experiences that YCDC acquires from these activities to operate and
manage the facilities constructed in this project.

8.2 Required Organization Structure for Kokkowa Project


8.2.1 O&M Plan of The Kokkowa WTP
Considering that SCADA system will be installed at Kokkowa WTP, the operation and maintenance
of Kokkowa WTP will be managed like WTPs in Japan and not like Nyaunghnapin WTP. Therefore,
some information such as organization structure in case of WTP in Japan, proper maintenance of
installed equipment in Myanmar and some manuals which are used in Fukuoka City Waterworks
Bureau are described as reference. (Fukuoka City and Yangon City are friendship towns).

(1) Organization Structure in WTP


Organization chart of Kokkowa WTP is planned to be established under Reservoir division of EDWS.
Since EDWS has a large number of civil engineers, including engineers/experts of 3 fields (such as
civil, M&E and water quality) would be simple to begin operation of WTP. Mechanical and Electrical
engineers should be placed at the WTP and their capacities should be developed in order to carry out
operation and maintenance of facilities properly. This structure of WTP will be changed gradually in
steps according to the capacity development of EDWS engineers. Therefore, a basic organization
chart, duties of various staff-members, the number of staffs and their specialized field for the
Kokkowa WTP is introduced and corresponding example data for WTPs in Japan is also included for
future reference.

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 8-1 Proposed Organization Chart of Kokkowa WTP

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Table 8-1 Proposed Duties of Each Unit of Kokkowa WTP


Unit Duties
Plant Manager To manage WTP
Civil Engineer To operate and maintain WTP facilities including reservoir, intake,
transmission
Mechanical and Electrical To operate and maintain mechanical and electrical components of WTP
engineer
Laboratory To implement water quality test
Source: JICA Study Team

Table 8-2 Proposed Number of Staff in Various Technical Fields for Kokkowa WTP
Kokkowa WTP Capacity
Capacity (m3/day) 273,000
Number of staff 25
Plant Manager 1 Civil, Mechanical and/or Electrical
Civil Engineer 3 Civil
(Shift operations) 10 Any Field
3 Mechanical and/or Electrical
Mechanical and Electrical engineer
5 Mechanical and/or Electrical
Laboratory 3 Chemist
Source: JICA Study Team

Plant manager
(Director)

O&M of facilities O&M of facilities Renovation of


outside WTP Laboratory
inside WTP WTP, etc.
(Chief)
(Chief) (Chief) (Chief)

Water quality
Engineers Engineers Engineers
specialist

Source: Fukuoka City


Figure 8-2 Reference of Basic Organization Chart of WTPs in Fukuoka

Table 8-3 Reference of Duties of Each Unit at WTPs in Fukuoka


Unit Duties
Plant manager To manage WTP
O&M of facilities inside WTP To operate and maintain purification facilities inside WTP
O&M of facilities outside WTP To operate and maintain facilities including reservoir, intake, and
conveyance outside WTP
Laboratory To implement water quality test
Renovation of WTP, etc. To supervise construction works in WTP
Source: Fukuoka City

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Table 8-4 Reference of Number of staffs at WTPs in Fukuoka


WTP A B C D E
Nominal capacity (m3/day) 110,500 199,000 122,000 174,000 15,000
Total number of staffs 22 27 24 24 19
Plant manager 1 M 1 E 1 M 1 M 1 E
O&M inside WTP 6 E 7 E 6 E 8 E 7 E
7 M 8 M 8 M 7 M 5 M
O&M outside WTP 2 E 3 E 2 E 3 E 2 E
2 M 3 M 2 M 1 M 1 M
Laboratory 3 Q 3 Q 4 Q 3 Q 3 Q
Renovation of WTP, etc. 1 3 2 M 1 E 1 E - -
* E: Electrical Engineer, M: Mechanical engineer, H: Water Quality Specialist
Source: Fukuoka City

(2) Efficient Operation and Maintenance


1) Efficient operation
・ Operation of WTP can be made more efficient by reduction in electricity cost through use of
following measures.
・ Gravity system of facilities planning
・ Installation of rotation speed controlled pumps
・ Optimization of operation time of washing pumps by checking head loss in filtration basin and
by carrying out washing at proper intervals
・ Automation of filtration basin washing
・ Optimization of pump operation by monitoring flow rate at intake and transmission pumps
・ Installation of high-efficiency motor and transformer installation of solar panels is also effective
in future

2) The cost on chemicals can be reduced by use of following measures.


・ Chemical injection at proper rate by implementing water quality test and jar test and deciding
chemical injection rate based on the result of water quality test for samples of each purification
stage
・ Optimization of chemical injection rate by managing flow rate through each purification stage
・ Reduction in unit cost of chemical by executing long-term contract with suppliers

(3) More efficient maintenance for future


1) Inspection
・ Facilities and equipment are to be inspected using portable device and the record of the
inspection should be managed on a master computer.
・ Efficient daily inspection route is defined considering the locations of facilities and equipment.
2) Facility and equipment
・ Sample water from location of each purification processes are pumped up to the water quality
laboratory with pumps.
・ Conditions of flocculation and filtration basins are monitored by surveillance camera in order to

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purify efficiently.
・ Equipment ledgers are prepared in order to consider replacement cycle and repair plan of
equipment.

(4) Manual of Operation Management of Facilities


1) General
The main purpose of operation management is to achieve the function of the facility sufficiently. It is
made possible through efficient operation and control of facilities including associated equipment.
Operation and management of water treatment plant includes a wide range of facilities (e.g. Intake
facilities, water treatment facilities, distribution facilities, chemical injection facilities, waste water
treatment facilities, other treatment facilities, etc.). It is important to operate all these facilities
satisfactorily to achieve the purpose of WTP.

In addition, it is most important to operate the entire plant as a water treatment system effectively and
with integrity. Even if the water treatment conditions changes to some extent (e.g. raw water quality is
worsened, emergency occurs, etc.), operation management must be performed considering buffer for
such conditions. For this purpose, the collection of sufficient data is required (e.g. the situation of
water sources, intake points, water distribution) for the operation and management of each facilities.

2) Intake facilities
It is important that intake facilities are operating in desired condition and is able to draw continuously
high-quality raw water from the water source to cater to the demand. To intake raw water in better
condition, it is important to carry out basic inspection and maintenance of facilities. If the gates,
screen, water intake pump, etc., are not maintained adequately, it may have negative impact on water
intake which subsequently will affect the treated water amount as a whole. By performing the daily
inspection of water source, it is possible to find the abnormality in the water source quality at an early
stage.

a) Water intake gate, solid waste removal machine


Water intake gate and solid waste removal machines are sometimes clogged due to deposition of
floating objects and mud of the river, resulting into malfunctioning of intake facilities and poor
raw water quality. The monitoring of these structures by daily visual inspection and performing
regular cleaning is important to maintain the equipment in good condition.
b) Sand basin
Sand basin is a facility to remove pebbles and heavy sand that is present in the raw water by
sedimentation. When there is excess deposition of the pebbles and sand in the sand basin, water
intake function is reduced due to the following reasons.
- Insufficient sedimentation due to reduced residence time in the sand basin
- Clogging of the screen, etc.
It is important to keep the equipment in good condition by regular monitoring of sediment

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deposition and removing sediments and cleaning screen whenever required.


c) Intake pump
Intake pump is a facility for feeding the raw water in stable amounts to water treatment facilities.
Raw water contains sediments and suspended solids and in case of pumping surface water,
reduction in amount of water is likely to occur due to suction of foreign matter and wearing of
impeller resulting into low performance of pumps. Thus, during pumping operation in order to
grasp the state of the pump, it is desirable to do the following.
- Regularly checking and recording pump electric current value
- Periodically performing the confirmation of the pumping amount
d) In addition to the inspection described above, to perform daily visual inspection and periodic
inspections, and to carry out maintenance and upgrading based on analysis of inspection data, in
order to maintain satisfactory level of pump operation.

3) Water treatment facility


a) Receiving well
Receiving well is used to stabilize the raw water and a facility for adjusting the raw water
quantity. Also, receiving well can be used as an injection point for chemicals such as acid or
alkaline agent used in the water purification process. Receiving well is initial location of WTP,
and in order to perform the water purification process properly, the condition of raw water
quality shall be understood accurately. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the inspection of
sampling pump and also visual inspections of the raw water quality.

b) Coagulation basin
i) Mixing basin
Mixing basin is a facility for uniformly diffusing the coagulant into the raw water after injecting
through quick rapid agitation. In a typical flash mixer, mixing is achieved by rotating at a
peripheral speed of more than 1.5m/s. It is also possible to adjust the injection intensity by
monitoring and controlling water and injection volume.
ii) Flocculation basin
Flocculation basin is a facility for making agglomerates of small flocs and finally to large flocs
by appropriate stirring to enable easy sedimentation. When the growth of the flocs is not
sufficient, the outflow from sedimentation basin has higher turbidity, or due to reduction in the
filtration duration, suspended matter flows out to the filtered water.

c) Coagulation sedimentation basin


Coagulation sedimentation basin is a facility to separate and remove majority of the flocs formed
in flocculation basin by sedimentation through gravity. In managing the coagulation
sedimentation basin, it is necessary to pay special attention to water quality of outflow from the
sedimentation tank, and therefore it is important that a target turbidity level is set for outflow
from sedimentation tank and water quality be monitored. When any abnormality is detected in

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the outflow from sedimentation basin, the jar test should be carried out and appropriate chemical
injection and equipment operation should be made based on result of the jar test. When excess
amount of sludge is deposited in the sedimentation basin, the residence time is reduced and flocs
do not settle sufficiently. To avoid this, sludge deposition in sedimentation basin should be
monitored periodically and sludge should be removed whenever required. In addition, algae
growth may occur in the sedimentation basin. If any adverse effect is expected on the treatment
process, algae needs to be removed using chemicals (such as chlorine agent) or by cleaning the
sedimentation basin after emptying. Also, once a year, it is desirable to perform cleaning of the
inner surface of sedimentation basin, and inspect and carry out maintenance of the accessory
equipment, after emptying it.

d) Filtration basin
Filtration basin is a facility to remove the contaminants from outflow of sedimentation basin by
sieving action in the filter layer and through attachment to the filter media.
i) Washing of the filtration basin
Washing of the filtration basin is carried out when it reaches one of the following states.
- When turbidity of outflow from filtration basin exceeds the target value
- When the head loss reaches a set value
The head loss is water head difference before and after filtration. Head loss is larger in case
of clogging filter layer. When the head loss becomes excessive, it causes formation of air
bubbles by the negative pressure in the filter layer, the filter layer surface contraction and
cracking. In such case, filtered water quality is likely to be worsened.
- When the filtration duration reaches a set value
A constant filtration duration is set such that the target value of the filtered water quality is
maintained (approximately 24 hours to one week in normal condition), and when the
filtration duration reaches to set value, washing will be required. It is effective for demand
management contract.
After stopping the operation of filtration basin for long-time, when the operation is planned
to restart
- When a filtration basin is not operated for long time, it is possible that filtration may not be
achieved due to growth of algae or microorganisms. Therefore, it is necessary to clean the
filtration basin before restarting the operation.
ii) Washing method
Washing is performed by a combination of backwashing and surface washing or air washing.
Washing through only backwashing is not appropriate as formation of mud ball is likely to occur.
It is important to set the amount of washing water, washing pressure and time so that sufficient
cleaning effect can be achieved. The washing duration of filter is decided based on the quality of
washed water and considering economical washing method. The final washing effect is judged
good or bad by comparing the degree of contamination of the filter media taken from the filter
layer before and after washing. Since the washing effect will vary with the water temperature,

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and the particle size and thickness of filter layer, the drainage after washing is required to be
examined regularly and the washing time adjusted accordingly. When the washing method is not
appropriate, in the long term the following disorders may occur, leading to deterioration in
quality of filtered water, and increase in head loss.
- Mud ball formation
- Crack initiation on filter layer surface
- Generation of gap between the filtration basin side wall and filter layer
- Coarsening of the effective diameter of the filter medium
- Reduction in filter layer thickness
- The unevenness on the boundary surface of the gravel layer and the filter layer, filter bed

e) Clear water reservoir


Clear water reservoir is used to store treated water to take care of imbalance between the filtered
water volume and water supply volume. Regular inspection of clear water reservoir is essentially
required in terms of quality and hygiene. In particular, the residual chlorine level should be
maintained in the range of target value. Moreover, water level in the clear water reservoir should
be maintained in defined range in order to avoid cavitation in pumps. The entrance to water
treatment plant should be locked appropriately. In addition, inspection and maintenance of the
insect screen, ventilation facilities and rattle should be carried out periodically to prevent entry of
rainwater, dust, insects and small animals from outside and to avoid water pollution.

4) Water transmission and distribution facilities


a) Transmission and Distribution pump
Water distribution amount varies with time and to carry out stable water distribution, it is
important to control the pump operation appropriately. In case of change in distribution water
amount, if the pipe flow rate increases rapidly, it may result in the generation of red water and
also it is necessary to pay attention to occurrence of water hammer due to sudden stopping of the
pump. In addition, as mentioned in the previous section (related to clear water tank), there is
possibility of occurrence of cavitation in pump due to high drop in water level in clear water
reservoir. Therefore, water level in the clear water reservoir should be monitored and maintained
within defined range. Monitoring of pump operation should include continuous or scheduled
measuring and record of data on suction and discharge pressure, water flow, voltage, electric
current, and power. The pumps should include standby units and also spare parts such that each
pump can be given rest at regular intervals and in case of breakdown without affecting the water
supply services.

5) Chemical injection facility


- Chemical injection equipment for coagulation
Flocculants is used in treatment process to facilitate formation of flocs and easy sedimentation of
colloidal particles present in raw water. It is important to ensure optimum injection rate and

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injection volume considering the quality and quantity of the raw water. Therefore these
parameters should be accurately measured, and maintenance of the chemical injection equipment
is important. Also, inspection and cleaning of the injection pipe should be carried out regularly to
avoid clogging of injection pipe due to coagulant. In order to achieve the optimum effect of the
flocculants, it is important to carry out adjustment of the injection amount and agitation
conditions. The processes are described below.

i) Injection rate
Factors affecting injection rate of flocculants are stirring, pH value, alkalinity, water temperature,
etc. In order to determine the injection rate of the coagulant, basically the jar tests should be
carried out regularly for raw water. The injection rate should be decided considering the result of
jar test, based on the variation trend of raw water quality and actual mixing tank conditions.
When the raw water quality changes suddenly (at the time of change of river water quality due to
rainfall, etc.), the jar test should be carried out immediately. Also, it is important to monitor the
situation of floc formation and sedimentation whether it is at desired level.
ii) pH value
pH value is an important factor for coagulation of colloids. The flocculants functions well in
defined range of pH values, and if the pH level is outside this range, agglomeration effect is
drastically deteriorated. Therefore, if the pH value of the raw water is too high or too low, it is
necessary to adjust the pH value by addition of appropriate amount of acidic or alkaline agent.
Incidentally, PAC is acidic, and when the injection rate is increased, the pH value is lowered.
Therefore, it is necessary to add alkali in such case.
iii) Alkalinity
Alkalinity is an important factor affecting the flocculation process. To form good flocs, it is
desirable that alkalinity after injecting the flocculant is at least about 20mg/L. If the alkalinity is
low, there is need for addition of alkali in order to maintain the alkalinity within appropriate
range.
iv) Water temperature
The water temperature is an important factor that affects the sedimentation, coagulating reaction
and formation of floc. If the water temperature is higher, the growth of the floc is accelerated. If
the water temperature is lower, the growth of the floc is slow. For poly aluminum chloride, the
coagulating effect can be expected even at low water temperature. ()
v) Automatic injection of flocculant
Automatic injection rate of chemical can be executed by two ways. One is determining the
injection rate by jar test. The other method uses an injection rate equation that has been
determined based on the historical data of water quality or jar test. However, even in the case of
using this method, it is required to confirm the injection rate using the data of regular jar test.

b) Disinfection equipment
Disinfection of tap water prevents contamination of water due to pathogenic organisms, and it is

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carried out for the purpose of keeping the distributed water safe. Using chlorine as disinfectant, a
large amount of water can be easily disinfected and there is an advantage that the effect remains.
On the other hand, use of chlorine as disinfectant can result into generation of by-products such as
trihalomethanes, strong odor by reacting with a specific substance and weakening the disinfecting
effect by reacting with ammonia nitrogen. At high level of turbidity, the effect of chlorination is
reduced. Injection rate of chlorine should be set considering the residence time and water quality
such that the residual chlorine concentration of the faucet water is maintained at the specified level
all times. Attention is needed toward level of residual chlorine which should not be excessively
high.

i) Sodium hypochlorite
Sodium hypochlorite is a pale yellow liquid, and is characterized by strong alkalinity, and
corrosiveness. It is rapidly decomposed by an acid, and releases chlorine gas. It is dangerous.
Thus, care should be taken not to mix sodium hypochlorite with the acid solution. In addition, it
is strongly alkaline, and care should be taken while handling it not to adhere to the skin and
mucous membranes. In addition, sodium hypochlorite is unstable, and easily decomposes
releasing oxygen during storage at room temperature, which is accelerated due to increasing
temperature, sunlight, or ultraviolet radiation. For this reason, it is stored in a cool, dark place.
Furthermore, since its effective chlorine content is reduced during storage, it is desirable to store
it for only short period. Furthermore, when the sodium hypochlorite is exposed to water with
high level of hardness, the scale may occur due to precipitation of calcium carbonate. Therefore,
it is important to implement the inspection and cleaning near the injection point.
ii) Pre-chlorination
Pre-chlorination is carried out through injection of chlorine agent in the receiving well or mixing
basin before sedimentation basin to ensure sufficient reaction time for the chlorine. .
Pre-chlorination results into the biological killing and prevents algae breeding in the mixing
basin and coagulation sedimentation basin. Moreover, it is also effective in case of raw water
containing ammonia nitrogen. When pre-chlorination is used as countermeasure against
ammonia nitrogen, the injection amount should be about 10 times the amount of ammonia
nitrogen. However, if raw water contains trihalomethane precursor and musty odor producing
blue-green algae, etc., there is a high possibility of formation of trihalomethane and generation of
musty odor. So, care is required in this respect.
iii) Intermediate chlorination
Intermediate chlorination is carried out at a location between the sedimentation basin and
filtration basin. In this method, chlorine is added after possible removal of the trihalomethane
precursors or musty odor-producing cyanobacteria from raw water by coagulation and
sedimentation, and therefore, it is effective countermeasure against trihalomethanes and musty
odor producing materials.
iv) Post-chlorination
Post-chlorination is carried out in case when it is necessary to supplement the residual chlorine

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consumed by filtration basin to bring it to desired level. Chlorine is added at a location between
the filtration basin and clean water reservoir.

6) Wastewater treatment facility


Wastewater treatment facility is required to treat the sludge collected from sedimentation tank. The
collected sludge is processed to separate liquid and solids. Separated liquid is either reused by
returning to the raw water, or it is discharged into public water body. Separated solid can be used at
landfill site after drying. In general, wastewater treatment includes processes of stabilization,
thickening, dewatering, drying and disposal. The amount of generated sludge can be analyzed and
estimated for the amount of treated water considering raw water condition for entire year and the data
can be used for preparation of treatment plan for each season and each month. In addition, it is
required to be careful because the sludge quality deteriorates due to long-term deposits in
sedimentation tank and dewatering tank.

7) Power distribution equipment


In the operation management of the power distribution equipment, it is important to keep track of the
normal operating condition of each device, and it is necessary to act quickly in case of any
abnormality. In addition, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and operation interlock
condition of the device. For early detection of abnormalities, it is necessary to carry out regular
inspection of devices to measure and record values of current and voltage. If performance of the
power distribution equipment is deteriorated, it will not only cause the failure or further reduction of
efficiency of its own parts, but it may also cause disaster through other equipment failure, water
supply interruption, electric shock and fire.

(5) Manual of maintenance inspection and repair


The purpose of maintenance inspection and repair is to supplement the deterioration of the function of
the facility and to retain the original function. Main contents are described below.

1) Daily inspection
Daily inspection is based on the daily or weekly inspection of the equipment and includes activities of
investigation, confirmation and recording of operating conditions of the equipment. At the time of
inspection, it should be clearly recorded whether there is no change in data compared to the previous
inspection and whether the value matches with the standard value using the check sheet. During the
inspection the facilities are checked, data is measured and recorded and remarks are made in the
check sheet. An example checklist is shown below for inspection of every facility.
・ Main inspection contents: abnormal visual appearance, abnormal noise or offensive smell,
reading of each instrument, etc.

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Table 8-5 Daily Inspection Checklist (Example)


Inspection Frequency
Inspection contents
Location (time/day)
Water intake gate The deposition of solid wastes and contaminants, etc. near intake
1∼3
gate
Abnormality in the raw water quality of the river and in the gate
Intake facilities

Abnormal turbidity and chromaticity, oil contents, 1∼3


dead fishes
Settling basin Abnormality in the raw water quality
pump well Abnormal turbidity and chromaticity, oil content, 1∼3
dead fishes
Intake pump Record of water flow rate, suction and discharge pressure, electric
1∼3
current value
Abnormality in terms of noise, smell, vibration and temperature 1∼3
Receiving well Abnormality in the raw water quality
Abnormality in turbidity and chromaticity or presence of oil 1∼3
surface or carcasses of fish
Mixing basin Uniform spread of injected chemicals 1∼3
Abnormal sound, nasty smell, vibration, etc., in case of flashing
1
mixer
Flocculation Floc formation 1∼3
Suspended solids and scum 1∼3
Purification facilities

Sedimentation Floc settling 1∼3


Basin Suspended solids and scum 1∼3
Filtration Basin Suspended solids 1∼3
Condition of filter bed surface 1
Abnormality in terms of turbidity and smell 1∼3
Clear water Abnormality in terms of turbidity and smell 1
reservoir Record of water level meter reading 1
Presence of Insect 1
Pump facility Record of the current, suction and discharge pressure 1
Abnormal sound, smell, extreme vibration 1
Electrical facility Record of the indicated value of each instrumentation indicator 1
Abnormality in appearance 1
Water quality Dirt of degassing vessel and measuring tank 1
Instrument Record of each measurement value 1
Distribution Record of the current, suction and discharge pressure and
1
Pump facility pumping flow
Abnormal sound, smell, extreme vibration 1
PAC injection Abnormal sound, nasty smell, leakage 1
facility Record of injection flow rate and other data (opening and rotation
1
speed, etc.)
Record of storage amount 1
Others

Leakage from reservoir and piping, etc. 1


Hypochlorous Abnormal sound, nasty smell, leakage 1
Acid injection Record of injection flow rate and other (opening and rotation
1
facility speed, etc.)
Record of storage amount 1
Leakage from reservoir and piping, etc. 1
Substation Record of each measurement value 1
Equipment Abnormality in appearance 1
Others, abnormality or alarm 1
Source: Fukuoka City

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2) Regular inspection
In general, regular inspection is carried out visually and focusses on the identification of any
accidental damage and checking of maintenance status of the facilities. Main contents of this type of
inspection are: refueling and cleaning of lubricant, damage in case of packing, checking operation and
damage of the switch, adjustment of zero point and range, adjustment of input and output values,
checking stock of consumables and spares, etc.
・ Main Contents
a) Machines: Refueling and cleaning of lubricant, adjustment of ground section, etc.
b) Measuring equipment, etc.: Adjustment of input and output value by actual measurement,
adjustment of span and zero, etc.

Table 8-6 Regular Inspection Checklist (Example)


Inspection Frequency
Inspection contents
Location (time/Mon)
Water intake gate Check and clean situation of deposition 1
Intake facilities

Opening and closing operation check 1


Pre-Settling pond Record of the deposit amount 1
Check clogging of the screen 1
Intake pump Check if adjustment of ground portion packing normal or not 1
Inspection and refilling of lubricating oil 1
Mixing basin Inspection and refilling of lubricating oil 1
Flocculation Inflow into each floc formation tank or equivalent 1
Removal of scum and other substance 1
Check if deposited sediment amount normal or not 1
Sedimentation Check clogging in sedimentation facilities 1
Purification facilities

Basin Check for algae growth 1


Record amount of deposition of sediment 1
Filtration Abnormality such as formation of mud ball after washing 1
Basin Appropriate amount of wash water 1
Confirmation of drainage water quality after washing 1
Pump facility Adjustment such as ground portion packing 1
Inspection and refilling of lubricating oil, condition of the V-belt,
1
etc.
Electrical facility Checking dust on the panel 1
Water quality Cleaning such as degassing vessel and measuring tank 1
Instrument Implementation of the span adjustment by actual measurement 1
Pump facility Adjustment such as ground portion packing 1
Inspection and refilling of lubricating oil 1
PAC injection Formation of scale in the injection pipe and location 1
Facility Abnormality in the injection volume and the adjustment width 1
Others

Hypochlorous Formation of scale in the injection pipe and location 1


Acid injection
Abnormality in the injection volume and the adjustment width 1
facility
Substation Check of dust on the panel 1
equipment Others, abnormal or alarm 1
Source: Fukuoka City

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3) Consignment inspection
Normally, for the measuring equipment, the inspection is carried out through analysis and operation
test. In case if any special equipment indicates error in its original function during ordinary and
periodic inspection, precise inspection and maintenance should be carried out by skilled person with
required expertise and knowledge. In particular, for large pumps and special equipment, the inspection
should be carried out by the manufacturer or its agents because it requires specific expertise and
knowledge to inspect.

Table 8-7 Consignment Inspection Item Description Example (Pump Facility)


Inspection Frequency
Inspection contents
Location (time / year)
Check of the ground portion packing 1
Ground portion
Other necessary inspection, test and record 1
Condition of the lubricating oil 1
Lubricant
Other necessary inspection 1
Condition of the shaft coupling 1
Coupling Confirmation of centering 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Tightening 1
Bolts, nuts
Other necessary inspection 1
Condition of the pressure gauge 1
Meters and gauges Condition of the pressure switch 1
Ground pump

Other necessary inspection 1


Bearing Check of temperature 1
temperature Other necessary inspection 1
Abnormality in terms of vibration, abnormal noise at the time of
1
Operation start and stop
condition Normality of pressure for fully closed discharge valve 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Insulation resistance measurement 1
Electric motor
Other necessary inspection 1
Dirt in the inner surface 1
Overall Checking damage of board wiring and lose terminal 1
Pump control panel

Other necessary inspection 1


Confirmation of the indicated value 1
Meters and gauges
Other necessary inspection 1
Electromagnetic Damage of electrical contact 1
conductor
Other necessary inspection 1
Auxiliary relays
Movement examination 1
Protective relay
Confirmation of setting value 1
timer
Other necessary inspection 1
Primary power supply voltage measurement 1
Voltage measurement of control circuit 1
Insulation resistance measurement 1
Measurement
Voltage and current measurement during pump operation 1
Ground resistance measurement 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Linked Operation in case of various type of control mode 1
examination Other necessary inspection 1
Abnormality in vibration, abnormal noise, nasty smell and
devic

Surface 1
er

abnormal vibration

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Inspection Frequency
Inspection contents
Location (time / year)
Operating condition of cooling fan 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Main circuit voltage measurement 1
Measurement Insulation resistance measurement 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Source: Fukuoka City

Table 8-8 Consignment Inspection Item Description Example (Chlorine Injection Facility)
Frequency
Inspection points Inspection contents
(time / year)
Normally operating float switch and output signals from the
1
devices
Linked
examination Verification and adjustment of the operation range by proportional
Control panel

1
setter
Other necessary inspection, examination, record 1
Damage and cracks in each part 1
Control panel Damage of panel and wiring 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Normal operation of float switch and output signal from chlorine
1
injection control panel

Control unit Normal operation for various control mode in case of both manual
1
or automatic
Injection facility

Damage of panel and wiring 1


Other necessary inspection 1
Damage, cracking and deformation in each part 1
Leakage liquid 1
Dirt in strainer and clogging 1
Pump body
Insulation resistance, current and voltage 1
Discharge rate and discharge pressure 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Leakage in siphon valve, damage, etc. 1
Others
Inspection of pipeline 1
Source: Fukuoka City

Table 8-9 Consignment Inspection Item Description Example (Electrical Instrumentation


Facility)
Frequency
Inspection points Inspection contents
(time / year)
Inspection before Input and output Examination 1
maintenance, testing
Record of setting Value 1
and data collection
Visual inspection and cleaning 1
Common facility

Appearance Inspection of installation condition 1


inspection Inspection of connecting parts 1
Damage and corrosion 1
Visual inspection and cleaning 1
Lubrication 1
Internal inspection Inspection of mechanical parts (sliding part, link, rotation
1
unit, etc.)
Inspection of electrical parts (cable, connector, board, etc.) 1

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Frequency
Inspection points Inspection contents
(time / year)
Insulation resistance measurement 1
Damage and corrosion 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Preventive Check and maintenance of deterioration, wear parts,
1
maintenance consumable parts, etc.
Input and output Examination 1
Inspection of transmission and reception 1
Ultrasonic flowmeter Inspection of power parts 1
Insulation resistance measurement of coaxial cable 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Transmitter

Input and output Examination 1


Float-type water Inspection and cleaning of wire float part 1
gauge Lubrication and cleaning of bearing and gear 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Input and output Examination 1
Immersion-type level
Transmitter input and output test 1
gauge
Other necessary inspection 1
Input and output Examination 1
Other transmitter
Other necessary inspection 1
Computi

Input and output Examination 1


ng unit

Acceleration
Calculation function inspection 1
calculator
Power supply unit inspection 1
Input and output Examination 1
Setter

Alarm unit Setting function inspection 1


Inspection of power parts 1
Input and output Examination 1
Alarm function inspection 1
Recorder

Automatic Motor part inspection 1


equilibrium shape Link and slide part inspection 1
Inspection of power parts 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Input and output Examination 1
instrument
quality
Water

Residual chlorine Cleaning of electrode 1


analyzer Performance test and calibration 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Confirmation of power and voltage 1
Controller

Confirmation of memory backup battery 1


Sequencer Cooling fan cleaning 1
Confirmation of operation indicator 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Confirmation of operating condition 1
Insulation resistance measurement 1
Calibration of indicating instrument 1
Uninterruptible power system

Inverter Output voltage waveform measurement 1


Alarm operation test 1
Switching test 1
Other necessary inspection 1
Confirmation of operating condition 1
Insulation resistance measurement 1
Calibration of indicating instrument 1
Rectifier
Output voltage waveform measurement 1
Operation test 1
Other necessary inspection 1

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Frequency
Inspection points Inspection contents
(time / year)
Storage battery cleaning 1
Inspection of catalyst stopper and liquid amount 1
Storage battery Battery voltage and electrolyte specific gravity
1
measurement
Other necessary inspection 1
Source: Fukuoka City

4) Routine repair
Routine maintenance should be carried out to prevent aging of the equipment and continue normal
functioning even after passage of time. Once a few years (which should be about half of the service
life), overhaul of the equipment should be carried out.
In order to take the expertise for the relevant equipment, it is appropriate to procure special part also
from the manufacturer.

8.2.2 Priority Parameter of EDWS Laboratory for Water Quality Management


In Yangon, surface water has high turbidity and ground water has problem due to presence of Fe and
salinity. To check the quality of distributed water, YCDC usually refers to the Myanmar National
Drinking Water Quality (MNDWQ) Standard and WHO drinking water quality guidelines (4th).
Priority parameters of present EDWS laboratory are given in Table below. Residual chlorine and
alkalinity which are not included in the parameters currently should also be tested and monitored in
order to check the operation conditions of WTP.

Table 8-10 Priority Parameters of EDWS Laboratory


Standard Value for
Priority parameters Current Standard value
Additional Parameters
pH 6.5 – 8.5
Taste Acceptable
Odor Acceptable
Color < 15 TCU
Turbidity < 5 NTU
Total coliform 0 CFU/100ml
Fecal coliform 0 CFU/100ml
Residual chlorine N/A > 0.1 mg/l
Salinity 0 - 0.5 ppt
Alkalinity N/A > 20 mg/l
Total Hardness < 500 mg/l as CaCO3
TDS < 1,000 mg/l
Arsenic < 0.001 mg/l
Chloride < 250 mg/l
Iron < 0.3 mg/l
Lead < 0.01 mg/l
Nitrate < 50 mg/l
Manganese < 0.4 mg/l
Sulphate < 250 mg/l
Source: EDWS Laboratory and Additional parameters are added by JICA Study Team

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8.2.3 Operation and Maintenance Plan for Pipelines


(1) Organization structure
Transmission pipeline will be maintained by existing transmission pipeline maintenance section,
distribution pipeline by NRW control section which is to be established in cooperation with JICA
technical assistance program and water supply equipment by township offices (see the Figure 8-3).

(2) Transmission pipeline


・ Route Map of transmission pipeline should be prepared and updated.
・ Transmission pipeline should be patrolled regularly in order to find any abnormality.

(3) Distribution pipeline


・ To control leakage, it is important to control water pressure in distribution networks and to
replace distribution pipes wherever required.
・ Distribution pipeline maps should be updated regularly.
・ Data on leakage repair and leakage history maps should be collected and managed properly for
taking decision on effective pipe replacement in future.
・ Water pressure and flow rate within DMA should be monitored by SCADA system.
・ Leak detection should be implemented effectively by using information on water pressure and
flow rate by SCADA system and data on water consumption from e-governance system.
・ Valves should be inspected and maintained regularly in order to implement leak detection
systematically.

(4) Water supply equipment


・ Water supply equipment is installed based on the plumbing models in order to identify leakages
easily in future.
・ Meter readers should also collect information on meter condition, leakage and illegal connections
at the time of meter reading.
・ Leak detection should be implemented effectively by using leakage record maps and so on.

8.2.4 Improvement in Meter Reading, Billing and Collecting Water Charges


・ New customers should be registered not in the township offices but in the head office in order to
manage the database uniformly.
・ Individual water consumption should be compared with usual one (of previous month) in case of
each customer every month at the time of meter reading in order to find leakage and illegal
connection effectively.
・ Meter reading terminals should be utilized and direct debit from bank account should be
introduced for payment of bills in order to reduce human errors in future.
・ The e-governance system should be utilized for improving procedure of application for new
connection, water charge collection and making decision on water suspension due to
nonpayment.

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8.2.5 Proper Maintenance Measures of Installed Equipment in Myanmar


(1) Asset management
・ It is necessary to develop and replace facilities systematically and to secure funding to realize
sustainable water utility management by drawing up the middle-long term facility development
and replacement plans and to secure fiscal balance.
・ It is necessary to consider equalizing annual budget with prolonging the lives of equipment and
facilities by proper maintenance in the case of drawing up these plans.
・ The asset management method is very useful for YCDC. The asset management on water supply
management is a method for managing facilities effectively in terms of the life-cycle-cost on the
middle-long term vision to realize projects developed in the Master Plan.
・ As for the implementation of the asset management method, it is necessary to inspect and
evaluate conditions and soundness of existing assets based on the technical knowledge, to
estimate the middle-long term replacement quantity, and to consider securing the fund for
replacement based on the fiscal balance, and to guarantee the feasibility of projects.

(2) Maintenance
・ O&M manuals are provided and demonstrated by suppliers based on the provided manual at the
time of delivery.
・ It is difficult to inspect equipment that requires supplier’s own techniques such as monitoring
system and measurement equipment by third party, so contracts for maintenance should be made
with suppliers in order to use such equipment properly for a long time.
・ Existing facilities and equipment should also be maintained properly in order to prolong their
life.

(3) Cost reduction


・ Delivery countries of equipment should be selected such that that the transportation cost of repair
parts is minimized.
・ Spare, repair and accessory parts of equipment should be procured at the time of installation.

(4) Life of facility and equipment


・ The life of all facilities and equipment should be prolonged through proper maintenance. For
reference, the statutory durable years and target life duration of mechanical and electrical
equipment in water utility in case of Japan is given below.

Table 8-11 Statutory Durable Years and Target Life for Mechanical Equipment
Name Statutory durable years Target life
Pump 15 30
Submersible pump 15 25
Automatic dust collector 17 25
Rapid mixing pump 15 30
Flocculator 17 30
Sludge scraper 17 30
Activated carbon injection equipment 15 20-25

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Name Statutory durable years Target life


Coagulant injection equipment 15 20
Caustic soda injection 15 20-25
Sulfuric acid injection equipment 15 25
Sodium hypochlorite injection equipment 10 20
Desludging equipment 17 25
Source: Fukuoka City

Table 8-12 Statutory Durable Years and Target Life for Electrical Equipment
Name Statutory durable years Target life
Power receiving and transforming facility 20 23
DC power supply device 20 23
Power generation 15 25-27
Building and electrical equipment 20 23
Closed circuit television equipment 9 23
Central monitoring control facility 10 23
Multiplex radio equipment 9 20
Remote monitoring 9 15
Water quality measuring instrument 10 15
Source: Fukuoka City

8.2.6 Public Relations and Awareness


It is important to have a good relationship with customers, so activities related to enhancing public
relations and awareness should be implemented. For reference, some of such activities are introduced
below.

Visiting lecture in schools

Lecture for students during WTP


Homepage Public relations paper
visit
Source: Fukuoka City

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8.3 Staffing and Capacity Development Plan

8.3.1 Organization Structure


(1) Kokkowa WTP
Refer to Section 8.2.1.(1)

(2) Pipelines
Refer to Section 8.2.3.(1)

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NRW Management Sec.

Kokkowa River
Figure 8-3 New Organization Chart of EDWS (Tentative)
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8.3.2 Operation and Maintenance Cost


Refer to Section 9.5.

8.3.3 Capacity Development Plan


(1) Kokkowa WTP
For reference, the capacity development program in case of a WTP in Fukuoka in Japan is introduced
below.

Table 8-13 Capacity Development Program in WTPs


Type Contents
Lecture General
・ Organization and duties of each section
・ Water purification and desludging processes
・ Facilities and equipment
・ Repair and construction plan for facilities and equipment in the fiscal year
・ Outsourcing contents
Emergency response
・ Electricity suspension
・ Chemical leakage
・ Oils, ammonium and others
Practical training General
of O&M ・ Daily report
・ Daily inspection report
Central monitoring system
・ Monitoring
・ Operation
・ Security system
Sedimentation basin
・ Desludging
・ Cleaning of walls and plate settler in sedimentation basin
・ Measurement of sediment sludge
Filtration basin
・ Surface and back washing
Daily inspection
・ Electrical room
・ Water quality instrument room
・ Inspection gallery of sedimentation and filtration basin
Chemical injection
・ Coagulant, sodium hypochlorite and caustic soda
・ Receipt/Stock of chemicals
Water quality management
・ Outline of water quality test in the WTP
・ Water sampling
・ Daily water quality test
・ Jar test
Site visit Facilities outside of the WTP
・ Reservoir, gaging basin and air pumping cylinder
・ Routes of conveyance and transmission
・ Distribution reservoir
・ Sludge disposal site
Source: Fukuoka City

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(2) Pipelines
The capacity development program related to distribution management in Fukuoka in Japan is
introduced below for reference.

Table 8-14 Capacity Development Program on Distribution Management


Type Contents
Lecture & General
Practical training ・ Guidelines related to design of distribution pipe network
・ Guidelines on construction supervision
Distribution pipes
・ Connection types
・ Flange types
・ Practical training on connection and disconnection
Valves and fittings
・ Valves; line valves, air valves, stop valves, air valve and fire hydrants
・ Fittings types
Water supply equipment
・ Plumbing; polyethylene, PVC and galvanized iron pipes
・ Ferrule with saddle
Leakage
・ Method of leak detection
・ Leak detection equipment; acoustic bar, leak detector, leak sound correlator, and
correlation method with multiple loggers
・ Methods of repairing leakages; wooden plug, stoppage service saddle and three
pieces repair clamp
・ Examples of leakage accidents
・ Emergency response; water truck, emergency water taps and plastic water bags
Water distribution control
・ Planning of water supply suspension
Source: Fukuoka City

8.4 Key Technical Fields of Capacity Development


Technical fields that are required to be focused during capacity development programs are as follows.
For capacity strengthening of YCDC, the JICA technical assistance projects for other facilities
(excluding operation of WTP) are being carried out in parallel from 2015.

(1) Water treatment plant


・ Inspection and repair skills
・ Management of water quality and flow rate
・ Operation record, document management and equipment ledger
・ Quality control of delivered products during procurement (equipment, materials, etc.)

(2) Distribution management


・ Standardization of specification, regulation and working procedures
・ Design of distribution pipeline network
・ Construction supervision

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・ Leak detection and repair


・ Old and damaged pipes replacement
・ Patrol of main pipelines

(3) Water supply equipment


・ Standardization of specifications, regulations and working procedures
・ Calculation of proper meter size
・ Construction supervision

(4) Customer management


・ New customer registration
・ Water charge collection

8.5 Technical Assistance Fields by JICA Technical Assistance Project and by


This Project

8.5.1 JICA Technical Assistance Project


JICA technical assistance project is on-going since 2015, and the activities are mainly undertaken in
the following fields.
・ Improvement of water utility management: Establishment and reorganization of the Planning
Division for strengthening of water supply management is planned.
・ NRW reduction: Establishment of water leakage Control Division and implementation of pilot
projects for the reduction of unaccounted water is to be carried out.
・ Water quality management: Human resource development and capacity building related to water
quality management in Yangon is to be carried out.

8.5.2 Proposal of New Technical Assistance Program for This Project and Cooperation with
Japanese Local Governments
(1) Capacity development related to design and construction supervision of water distribution
network of Zone 9
The design and construction of water distribution mains, distribution pipes and establishment of
DMAs of Zone 9 are planned to be carried out by YCDC on its own. EDWS has no experience in
design and construction of water distribution system applying establishment of DMA and SCADA,
although it has experience of design and construction of distribution network. In order to carry out the
works smoothly and to ensure the quality of works to the same level as in case of Zone 1, supporting
activities will be provided through capacity development on design and construction supervision of
distribution facilities of Zone 9.

For this purpose the following activities are expected to be carried out. Duration of activities will be

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27 months, and will require about 30 MM of International experts input, 30 MM of local experts input.
The components will include capacity development support in:
・ Survey of water pipe routes and creation of GIS data of Zone 9,
・ Basic planning and assistance of detailed design of distribution network and SCADA of
Zone 9,
・ Preparation of specification of SCADA equipment, and assistance in evaluation and
procurement of Contractor,
・ Assistance in construction supervision of distribution network and SCADA of Zone 9
(during 1 year).

(2) Capacity development related to operation and maintenance of 60 MGD facilities


A technical assistance program is proposed for 60 MGD facilities in which information on operation
and maintenance will be shared by a local government or a maintenance company in Japan online and
the organization will transfer skills of O&M to YCDC by analyzing the information and by preparing
manuals of O&M for achieving proper O&M of new facilities by YCDC.

By using an on-line remote monitoring system, operation data on monitor screen and the situation of
the central supervision room of WTP and/or PS can be obtained simultaneously, and the actual
situation of operation can be understood by experts in Japan. Moreover, through use of such real time
communication system, experts in Japan can discuss with relevant staff-members of YCDC in case of
occurrence of specific problem in operation and management of WTP and technical assistance of
Japan shall be provided effectively.

In addition, the organization should make a relationship of trust with YCDC because the information;
status of purification process, water amount, water quality and daily inspection records, etc., have to
be managed strictly. Security measures shall be implemented by installing authentication ID and
access limits. The contents and schedule of technical assistance program are planned as follows.

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Table 8-15 Proposal of New Technical Assistance Program

Program title Capacity development program on O&M of new facilities constructed under ODA
loan
Goal YCDC can properly operate and maintain new facilities by itself.
Overview Sharing information with an organization in Japan and transferring skills of O&M to
YCDC
Shared information Status of purification process, water amount, water quality and daily inspection
records in the new facilities constructed under ODA loan
Shared organization A Japanese local government and/or maintenance company which has a relationship
of trust
Language Burmese, Japanese and English
Schedule
(First year) Dispatching engineers to YCDC
・ To review O&M manuals prepared by loan consultant
・ To install data communication devices in the organization in Japan to receive
information from YCDC’s equipment
(Next 2 years) Providing technical advices and Monitoring remotely from Japan
・ To transfer skills of O&M to YCDC regularly a few times a year
・ To revise the manuals of O&M
Remarks Implementing security measures by installing authentication ID and access limits
Source: JICA Study Tem

YANGON

Source: JICA Study Tem


Figure 8-4 Schematic Illustration of Support System by Remote Surveillance System

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CHAPTER 9 COST ESTIMATION AND IMPLEMENTATION


SCHEME OF THE PROJECT

Execution Scheme, Overall Project Cost, Preparation of Implementation Schedule, Financing Plan,
Estimated Operation and Maintenance Cost, and Organizational Structure for Implementing the
Project are described in this chapter.

9.1 Execution Scheme

Execution scheme of project is formulated considering the situation of the present construction
practices, market, and based on interviews of local constructors/ Japanese company undertaking
business in Myanmar.

9.1.1 Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project

(1) Outline of the Scope of Project


The outline of the scope of works of Phase 2project is summarized as below.

: Scope of YCDC
: Scope of ODA Loan Zone 9
: Phase1 Project Area DMP L=43.2 km
DP L=636.9 km
Land Fill for WTP DMA=23 Nos.
Kokkowa WTP 60 MG

P
P
P

TP Φ1600, L=21.4 km
Zone 9 SR/RPS V=12.2 MG P
P

TP Φ1600, L=16.4 km
TP Φ1400, L=2.9 km
Hlaing River Crossing L=0.6 km 1 P Pump Replacement
Abbreviations at Yegu PS
WTP: Water Treatment Plant Zone 1 High sub-zone
SR: Service Reservoir Zone 1 Low sub-zone
PS: Pumping Station Repair of Kokine SR V=20 MG Central SR V=8.3 MG
RPS: Relay Pumping Station DMP L=38.5 km DMP L=22.9 km
TP: Transmission pipe DP L=218.3 km DP L=212.0 km
DMP: Distribution Main Pipe DMA=19 Nos. DMA=18 Nos.
DP: Distribution Pipe
DMA: District Metered Area
Source: JICA Study Team
Figure 9-1 The Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project

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(2) Allocation of The Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project


Distribution
Kokkowa Intake Kokkowa Transmission Facility in Zone 9 Transmission Distribution
River Facility WTP Facility to Zone 9 Facility to Zone 1 Facility in Zone 1 Yegu PS
Zone 9
Lift Pump Dist. Main P
Pump Station Dist. with DMA Existing
P P Main Pipe
Intake Pre- Transmission
WTP Pipeline Kokine Central
Gate sedimentation P P Zone 9 P
60MGD SR SR
140 MGD 60 MGD Transmission SR
P P Pipeline P P
Earth Fill
Pump Station
Zone 1 Low Zone 1 High
: Scope of YCDC Dist. Main Dist. Main
: Scope of ODA Loan Dist. wi th DMA Dist. with DMA

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 9-2 Schematic Diagram of The Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project

Table 9-1 Allocation of The Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project


ODA loan’s Component YCDC’s Component
・Leading canal and Intake gate (140 MGD) ・Earth fill for WTP site (60 MGD)
・Pre-sedimentation Pond (60 MGD)
・Kokkowa WTP (60 MGD)
・Transmission Pipe (41.3 km including 0.6 km river
crossing
・Zone 9 SR (12.2 MG)
・Relay Pump Station (Transmission pump for Zone 1
and Distribution pump for Zone 9)
・Pump replacement at Yegu PS
For Low subzone in Zone 1 For Zone 9
・Reservoir: Repair of existing Kokine SR (20 MG) ・Distribution Main Pipe (43.2 km)
・Distribution Main Pipe (38.5 km) ・Distribution Pipe (636.9 km) with DMA (23 Nos.)
・Distribution Pipe (218.3 km) with DMA (19 Nos.)
For High subzone in Zone 1
・Re-construction of Central SR (8.3 MG) with Pumps
・Distribution Main Pipe (22.9 km)
・Distribution Pipe (212.0 km) with DMA (18 Nos.)
Vehicle procurement (8 single four-wheel drive
vehicles)
Source: JICA Study Team

(3) Detailed Project Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project


The detailed project scope of works to be considered under Phase 2 project is given in the Table below.

Table 9-2 Detailed Project Scope of Works of Phase 2 Project


Facility Name Quantity Capacity Type Remarks
Eligible
Scope1: Construction of Kokkowa WTP
Leading Canal with River W 1500 mm x H 1500 mm of
Bank Protection, 1 Unit 140 MGD Square Gate with screen x 6 nos.
1 Intake Facilities
A
Surface Area: 100,000 m2
Pre-Sedimentation pond 1 Unit 60 MGD
Storage volume =812,000 m3
2a Lift Pump House (Civil 1 Unit 60 MGD Auto Screen x 2 nos.

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Facility Name Quantity Capacity Type Remarks


work)
Lift Pump House Pump Unit: 5 nos. 20 MGD x H
Double suction volute pump by
2b (Mechanical and (3 operation + 2 18m x Approx.
VFD control
Electrical) stand-by) 300 kW
3 Receiving Well 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD
Rapid Mixing Basin 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD Flash mixer, Overflow weir
Horizontal and vertical zigzag
Flocculation Basin 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD
4 flow
Upflow type with tube settler
Sedimentation Basin 1 Unit (6 Basins) 60 MGD
and Mechanical sludge collector
5 Rapid Sand Filter 1 Unit (24 Filters) 60 MGD Self-backwashing type
V=4125 m3 x3
6 Clear Water Tank 1 Unit (3 Lots)
Lots
Chemical Dosing Liquid ACH, Liquid
7 1 Unit (3 Lots) 60 MGD
Facilities Hypochlorite
Transmission Pump
8a 1 Unit 60 MGD
Station (Civil work)
Transmission Pump Pump Unit: 4 nos. 20 MGD x H Double suction volute pump
8b (Mechanical and (3 operation + 1 38m x Approx. with Flywheel by ON-OFF
Electrical) stand-by) 720kW control
Wash Water Drainage
9 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD Discharge Pump x 9 nos.
Basin
Sludge Withdrawal Pump x 6
10 Sludge Basin 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD
nos.
11 Thickener 1 Unit (3 Basins) 60 MGD
12 Drying Bed 1 Unit (9 Basins) 60 MGD
Central Administration
Administration Facility,
Building, Laboratory, SCADA
Laboratory,
13 1 Unit 60 MGD Room, Warehouse, Road,
Accomodation Building
Lighting, Drainage, Fence,
for WTP staff, etc
Landscaping etc.
Sub Power Station
Diesel engine generator 6MVA,
14 Facilities, 1 Unit 60 MGD
built-in radiator
Generator System
15 SCADA System of WTP 1 Unit 60 MGD
Scope 2: Construction of Transmission Facilities from Kokkowa WTP to Zone 9 SR/RPS
Diameter: 1600
B 1a Transmission Pipe Length: 21.4 km Pipe Material: DCIP and/or MS
mm
Zone9 SR including
Relay Tank (Civil work)
a 1 Unit 12.2 MGD
including Administration
Facility (Civil work)
Relay Pumps Station at
Pump Unit: 4 nos. 16.3 MGD x H
Zone9 SR/RPS Double suction volute pump
(3 operation + 1 87 m x Approx.
C (Mechanical and with Flywheel by VFD control
stand-by) 1250 kW
Electrical) for Zone1
b Sub Power Station
Diesel engine generator 9 MVA,
Facilities, 1 Unit
built-in radiator
Generator System
SCADA System of
1 Unit
Transmission Flow
Distribution Pumps Pump Unit: 2 nos. Capacity: 76 m3/
Double suction volute pump
Station for Zone 9 (1 operation + 1 min x H 40 m x
Z 1 with Flywheel by VFD control
(Mechanical and stand-by) Approx. 720 kW
Electrical) Pump Unit: 2 nos. Capacity: 32 m3/ Double suction volute pump

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Facility Name Quantity Capacity Type Remarks


(1 operation + 1 min x H 40 m x with Flywheel by VFD control
stand-by) Approx. 375 kW
Scope 3: Construction of Transmission Facilities from Zone 9 SR/RPS to Zone 1
Length: 16.4 km Dia. 1600 mm Pipe Material : DCIP and/or MS
1b Transmission Pipe
Length: 2.9 km Dia. 1400 mm Pipe Material : DCIP and/or MS
Shield Dia. 2400
Transmission Pipe Under
mm
2 Crossing Hlaing River by Length: 0.6 km Pipe Material : DCIP and/or MS
Pipe Dia. 1600
shield method
mm
Dia. 1400 mm x
B 1000mm,
Dia. 1050 mm x
Tentative Connection
1000mm,
pipe to Existing pipe by
3 4 locations Dia. 750 mm x
Non-stoppable Tapping
700mm,
method
and Dia. 700
mm Valve
Insertion
Scope 4: Modernization and Restructuring of Distribution Facilities of Zone 1 (Low subzone)
Repair of Kokine SR
including Installation
1 1 Unit 20 MGD
Infrow and Outflow
Valves
Pipe Material: DCIP and/or MS
Distribution Main Pipe
Dia. 300 ~2000 Pipe jacking method (Railway
2 (including Pipe Jacking Length: 38.5 km
mm crossing): 2 nos. ; Dia. 600 mm
method)
and Dia. 1200 mm
D
Distribution Pipe with Dia. 100 ~250 Pipe Material : HDPE and/or
Length: 218.3 km
DMA mm DCIP
Service Connection
103,200 nos.
3 Replacement
Customer Meter
Replacement & 103,200 nos.
Installation
4 SCADA System of DMA 19 nos.
Scope 5: Modernization and Restructuring of Distribution Facilities of Zone 1 (High subzone)
Reconstruction of Central
5a 1 Unit 8.3 MGD
SR (Civil work)
Pump Unit: 2 nos. Capacity: 67 m3/ Type: Double suction volute
Distribution Pumps for (1 operation + 1 min x H 42 m x pump with Flywheel by VFD
Zone 1 (High) stand-by) Approx. 660 kW control
5b
(Mechanical and Pump Unit: 2 nos. Capacity: 32 m3/ Type: Double suction volute
Electrical) (1 operation + 1 min x H 42 m x pump with Flywheel by VFD
stand-by) Approx. 375 kW control
D Power Line and Sub
Diesel engine generator 4MVA,
6 Power Station Facilities, 1 Unit
built-in radiator
Generator
Dia. 200 ~1400
7 Distribution Main Pipe Length: 22.9 km Pipe Material : DCIP and/or MS
mm
Distribution Pipe with Dia. 100 ~250 Pipe Material : HDPE and/or
Length: 212.0 km
DMA mm DCIP
8 Service Connection
49,100 nos.
Replacement
Customer Meter 49,100 nos.

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Facility Name Quantity Capacity Type Remarks


Replacement &
Installation
9 SCADA System of DMA 18 nos.
Replacement of Pump Capacity: 11
Pump Unit: 3 nos.
Equipment and Related MGD x H 53 m Type: Double suction volute
10 (2 operation + 1
Electrical Facilities at x Approx. 450 pump by ON-OFF control
stand-by)
Yegu Pump Station kW
Scope 6: Procurement of vehicles
Purchasing 4WD Used
Car for Consulting
Service
Non Eligible
Scope 7: Landfill for WTP
Amount of earth
Landfill (Civil work) for
Y 1 fill soil: about
WTP
210,000 m3
Scope 8: Distribution Facilities of Zone 9
Dia. 300 ~2000 Pipe Material : HDPE, DCIP
2 Distribution Main Pipe Length: 43.2 km
mm and/or MS
Z Distribution Pipe with Dia. 100 ~300
3 Length: 636.9 km Pipe Material : HDPE
DMA mm
4 SCADA System of DMA 23 nos.
Source: JICA Study Team

(4) Applications of Japanese Technology in Case of the WTP


Following facilities and equipment are considered for application of Japanese technology and for
providing training during the technical trip to Japan in case of WTP.

Table 9-3 Applications of Japanese Technology to The WTP


Facility/ Equipment Specifications
Mixing tank Flush mixer
Sedimentation basin Tube settler
Desludging equipment Mechanical Sludge Collector
Back washing filtration basin Self-washing type
Measure against water hammer Pumps with flywheel
Monitoring and control system for WTP SCADA system
Source: JICA Study Team

(5) Application of Japanese Technology to The Transmission and Distribution Facilities


Following materials and method are considered for application of Japanese technology and for
providing training during the technical trip to Japan in case of transmission and distribution facilities.

Table 9-4 Applications of Japanese Technology to The Transmission and Distribution Facilities
Item/ Location Specifications
Pumps with system for controlling flow Rotation speed controlled pumps
Measure against water hammer Pumps with flywheel
Monitoring and control facility in SR Flow control valve
Monitoring and control system for PS SCADA system
Transmission pipe Steel Pipe/ Ductile Iron pipe

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Item/ Location Specifications


Connection to existing pipe Non-stoppable tapping and/or insert valve
(under pressure tapping method)
River crossing section Trenchless construction; Shield Method
Railway crossing Trenchless construction; Pipe Jacking
Monitoring and control system for DMAs SCADA system
Source: JICA Study Team

9.1.2 Natural Conditions


Natural conditions have significant impact on construction period and cost. Therefore, understanding
of natural conditions is important for planning of the execution scheme, and calculation of appropriate
cost of construction. The natural conditions which should be taken into consideration are described
below.

(1) Rainfall
Yangon belongs to Tropical monsoon climate, and is roughly divided into Summer season during
March to mid-May, Rainy season during mid-May to October, and Dry season during October to
February as described in “2.1.3 Meteorology”.

Air temperature in summer season exceeds 35 degrees Celsius. However, particular measures against
high air temperature may be unnecessary since construction works in the city are ordinary.

On the other hand, rainfall increases rapidly during rainy season (especially during July to August).
Heavy rain occurs for long part of the day. During period of heavy rains, construction work needs
attention, and working efficiency usually drops.

According to actual experiences during Japanese grant aid project (2014 - 2016), working days ratio is
60% (18 days/month) of annual average and on days of heavy rainfall during July – August working
days ratio drops to 20% (6 days/month). Many excavation works will be carried out in this project. In
consideration of safety measures, in conditions such as rising of groundwater level and collapsing of
trench sides by heavy rainfall, large-scale works shall be avoided during rainy season.

(2) Geological Condition and Groundwater Level


Geological survey results of this study are shown in the Appendix-4.

a) Kokkowa WTP
At the site of Kokkowa WTP, geological formation includes weak silt/clay layers from ground
surface to a depth of about GL-30-50m, and below that sand layer exists, which is the load-bearing
layer. The average groundwater level is about GL-1 m and it is observed as stable in bore hole
during surveyed period.

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b) Zone 9 SR/Relay PS
Planned construction site of Zone 9 SR/RPS is located in the premises of YCDC garden. The
present geological formation at this location comprises weak silt layer from surface to 4 m, and then
sand layer continues to a depth of GL-20 m, which is the load-bearing layer. The average
groundwater level is about GL-5 m and it is observed to rise in bore hole during surveyed period.

c) Zone 1 SRs
Planned construction sites of two SRs in Zone 1 are located in the YCDC’s property. The present
ground has sand layer from surface and it continues, the load-bearing layer starts at about GL-8 m
as bearing layer. The average groundwater level is about GL-8 m.

d) Hlaing River Crossing


Planned construction sites of river crossing section are public road and MoAI’s property along the
riverside, respectively. The present geological formation consists of weak silt/clay layers from
surface to about GL-25m, and then sand layer continues which is the load-bearing layer. The
average groundwater level is about GL-3m and it is observed to rise in bore hole during surveyed
period. Soil boring survey must be carried out on the river bed during detailed design stage.

e) Transmission and Distribution Pipe


Laying locations of transmission pipe from WTP is along drainage channel beside Route No. 5
towards the center of Yangon city. Moreover, most of the transmission and distribution pipes are
proposed to be installed along city roads. The geological formation of these sites consists of clay
layers.

(3) River Water Level


a) Kokkowa River for Intake and WTP construction
In order to install intake gates in the river, water level in river is expected to influence the
construction work. Excavation works should be avoided during rainy season to avoid any negative
impact of high water level on construction works.

b) Hlaing River Crossing


Departure/ Arrival shafts are to be installed near Hlaing River. Construction work should be avoided
during rainy season to avoid any negative impact due to high water level.

9.1.3 Procurement of Construction Materials and Related Machines/Equipment


Materials required for construction that are procured in Yangon is basically conveyed to a temporary
site by land transportation. Proposed locations of WTP/SRs in this project exist along main roads, and
the access to these locations is good.

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On the other hand, imported materials transported through ocean are unloaded at Yangon port, and
conveyed from Yangon port to construction sites through land transportation. Heavy vehicles are
restricted to pass through the city during daytime. To take care of this, heavy vehicles will require to
be operated during nighttime.

(1) Construction Material


Main construction material is concrete, reinforcing bar, temporary material, etc. According to the
interview of local contractors, most of the construction materials can be supplied without delay.
Concrete: cement and aggregate can be readily procured in Yangon city. A ready-mixed concrete
manufacturer which carries out adequate quality control exists in Yangon. The mentioned
manufacturer has a supply capacity of 1,500 m3/day.
Reinforcing bar: BS standards made in China are available in the market.
Temporary material: earth retaining material (such as steel sheet pile or bracing, etc.), shuttering
material, scaffolding/ supporting material, heavy temporary material can be also procured in
Yangon city.

(2) Pipe Material


Decision on using a steel pipe, a ductile iron pipe or a HDPE pipe is taken appropriately after taking
into consideration pipe size, intended purpose and cost.
Steel pipe and ductile iron pipe are not manufactured in Myanmar. Currently, most of steel and
ductile iron pipes are imported from China. On the other hand, Japanese company has a steel
fabrication factory in Yangon and has the possibility of steel pipe procurement in the future.
The HDPE pipe is manufactured at the Yangon factory of Myanmar private companies, and its use
is already being practiced in several projects of YCDC. Its quality is based on the ISO standard.
In case of construction of pipeline crossing Hlaing River, the material should be water proof and
leakage proof. Therefore, shield machine, segment of outer shell, materials and equipment, etc.
should be imported from Japan.
Jacking method is proposed to be applied for pipeline crossing railway and main road intersections
in Yangon City. Based on the actual experiences of Japanese grant aid project, clay layer having
sufficient cohesion exists predominantly on the surface in the city. Therefore, high strength shell is
required for jacking method. All material should be imported from Japan.
In addition, based on the experiences of Japanese grant aid project, material related to connection of
new pipes with existing pipe through method of tapping pipe without suspension of water supply
(Non-stoppable Tapping) should be also imported from Japan.

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Table 9-5 Procurement of Pipe Material


Material Suppliers Notes
HDPE pipe Yangon - 150 mm
Ductile iron pipe Japan or neighboring countries 200 – 1,600 mm
Steel pipe Yangon, Japan or neighboring countries 1650 mm -
Shield tunneling method Japan River Crossing
Pipe jacking method Japan Railway crossing
Perforator Japan Non-stoppable Tapping
Source: JICA Study Team

(3) Mechanical and Electrical Equipment


Mechanical and electrical equipment is imported because of absence of related factory in Myanmar.
These equipment are to be procured from Japan or neighboring countries. Reliable products are
desirable in order to use equipment for a long duration. For this purpose, technical requirements for
equipment are specified, and then, these equipment should be procured from reliable manufacturers
who have experience of delivering good quality products for a long term.

Table 9-6 Procurement of Mechanical and Electrical Equipment


Equipment Suppliers
Large size pump Japan or neighboring countries
Chemical feed pump ditto
Auto screen ditto
Tube settler ditto
Sludge collector ditto
Perforated block type underdrain ditto
Motor operated valve ditto
Power receiving and transforming Equipment ditto
Electrical distribution panel ditto
VFD panel ditto
Diesel power generation equipment ditto
Instrumentation equipment (Flow meter, Water quality meter) ditto
Monitor and control equipment (SCADA) ditto
Source: JICA Study Team

(4) Construction Machine


WTP and SRs can be built by general machines that are used for construction of infrastructures.
Presently, construction machines are widely used in construction works, such as hotel and housing
complex in the Yangon city or in neighboring areas. Key machines and equipment used in construction
works are listed below.
Excavation and site preparation
Backhoe, Shovel loader, Clamshell, Bulldozer,
Dump truck, Vibration roller, Road roller, Grader
Framework construction
Crawler crane, Tower crane, Concrete pumping truck
Piling work

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Pile driver
Earth retaining work
Rough terrain crane, Truck with crane, Vibratory hammer
Other construction machine
Generator, Welding machine, Compressor, Submersible pump

(5) Local Workers and Constructors


In recent years, the construction market is very active in Myanmar. Movement and headhunt of
capable workers and skillful technicians is on rise, and therefore rates are varying frequently.

Construction works of WTPs and SRs are not new to YCDC as they have experience of such works.
However, since high water tightness is required in case of proposed facilities, experienced constructor
should be selected.

EDWS has experience of only pipe installation works in Yangon City. However, in this project,
sections of pipelines are also proposed to be installed through shield tunneling method and pipe
jacking method. EDWS does not have any experience of these works, and there is also very few
examples of similar work in Myanmar. Therefore, experienced constructor should be selected.

9.1.4 Outline of Execution Scheme

(1) WTP
The geological conditions mentioned above should be taken into consideration, and studies of
construction method of landfill, land subsidence measures, foundation pile, the measures against
groundwater level, etc., are required during the detailed design. Outline of execution scheme of this
project is described below.

a) Access
The planned WTP site is near the Route No. 5, about 300 m north side of this road, which runs
east-west in Zone 9, and access from Yangon city is also good. The access road from Route No. 5 to
WTP has already been filled up by EDWS to level of +3.5 m as measures against inundation.

b) Earthwork
Backhoe, bulldozer and dump truck, etc., are used for excavation and backfilling.

c) Temporary works
Steel sheet pile method is adopted for stopping entry of water and earth-retaining when construction
works is carried out near the river. On the other hand, main buildings will be built on the levelled

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ground after landfill, and particular temporary works is unnecessary.

d) Earthwork and Landfill


The surroundings of planned WTP site are paddy field and damp area. The existing ground level of
WTP was filled up to +3.5 m to avoid inundation by EDWS. YCDC will raise WTP site to +7.1 m
level same as the existing embankment level as countermeasure against flood. The HHWL of
Kokkowa River is about +6 m against planned ground level of WTP as +7.1 m.

Construction of landfill for WTP site is under YCDC’s scope. The soil generated from excavation of
pre-sedimentation pond can be used as landfill material for proposed WTP site. A large amount of
unused soil should be used either for landfilling or should be disposed.
Amount of excavated soil of Pre-Sedimentation Pond: about 750,000 m3
> Amount of earth fill soil: about 210,000 m3

e) Settlement Level of Landfill


Settlement will start immediately after the landfill, because excavated soil is mainly clay. The
settlement level is calculated using data of No. 7 bore hole, one of the worst conditions within the
surveyed boring data. The comparison of land filling method is shown in the following Table. The
consolidation settlement amounts are calculated by the following formula.

where,
S: the consolidation settlement amount (m)
Cc: the compression index; 0.23 from data of No. 7 bore hole
e0: the initial void ratio; 0.85 from data of No. 7 bore hole
H: the height of the compressible soil (m); 53.5 m from data of No. 7 bore hole
pc: the initial vertical stress in the underground calculating point (kN/m2); 454.8 kN/m2 =53.5 x 8.5 (soil
constant)
σv: the vertical stress before a landfill (kN/m2); pc+Δσv
Δσv: the increased vertical stress by landfill (kN/m2); calculated by the Boussinesq approximation

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Table 9-7 Comparison of Land Filling Method


Slow Banking 6 Height of Filling
Method Final consolidation settlement (m)
Assumed consolidation settlement (m)
5 Slow Banking Building
G.L. +7.1 m
4

Height of Filling (m)


3

1
settlement (m)
Consolidation

-0.010 -0.018 -0.032 -0.048 -0.058 -0.066 -0.073


0 G.L. +2.7 m

-0.167
-1
0 1 2 Year3 4 5 6
Finished by YCDC Earth Fill by YCDC Building

The height of landfill rises year by year.


Surcharge Height of Filling
6
Final consolidation settlement (m)
Method Assumed consolidation settlement (m)
5
Surcharge Building
G.L. +7.1 m
4
Consolidation Height of Filling (m)

1
settlement (m)

-0.010 -0.018 -0.101 -0.143 -0.151 -0.158


G.L. +2.7 m
0
-0.169
-1
0 1 2 Year 3 4 5
Finished by YCDC Earth Fill under Loan Building

In order to accelerate settlement, the height of initial landfill exceeds the planned ground
level. Finally, the top soil is removed such that the level reduces to planned ground level.
Items 【Slow Banking】 【Surcharge】
Construction Total: 6 years Total: 5 years
Period Landfill: 3 years + WTP: 3 years Landfill: 2 years + WTP: 3 years
Direct Cost 1.9 Mil. USD 2.5 Mil. USD
Source: JICA Study Team

However, fortunately a time gap is available up to the start of ODA loan project work. For that
reason, Slow Banking Method is applicable.
Precondition: Structures shall be supported by foundation piles and shall not sink.
Slow Banking Method: Estimated settlement amount is 16 cm as max.

f) Against settlement
Measures against settlement are:
1) Employment of Foundation pile for Structures,

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2) Employment of flexible joint to pipelines,


3) Construction of roads is postponed to after 140 MGD completion (2040 year).

Especially the joints of structure and pipeline are weak point that may have negative impact due to
settlement. Impact of settlement on structure can be prevented by foundation pile. However,
pipeline sinks with settlement of the neighborhood ground, and a large difference occurs at the
joints. Therefore, installation of flexible joint is recommended for pipe joints.

The overall development plan of Kokkowa WTP is to the capacity of 140 MGD, of which under this
project only 60 MGD WTP is to be constructed as the first step. It is not necessary to hurry
completion of landscaping work. Moreover, it requires a long period for settlement and stabilization
of filled land. Therefore, it is better to postpone completion of landscaping work until after
completion of 140 MGD facilities.

g) Piling Work
Foundation pile is needed in order to support a heavy mass, since planned construction site and
surface layer are weak. In Yangon, cast-in-place concrete pile is commonly used as foundation pile.
Following applicable scopes (length and diameter of pile) of foundation pile are taken into
consideration, and cast-in-place concrete pile is adopted.
Cast-in-place concrete pile (Dia.3,000 mm or less): applicable length≧60 m
Pre-stressed concrete pile (Dia.400-600 mm): applicable length≦40 m
Steel pile (Dia.400-600 mm): applicable length≦60 m

Long foundation pile is required for thick weak layers of the planned ground. And negative
frictional force by clay layer is produced by the pile surface. The study result is shown in the
following Table as compared with the actual result of WTP till now. A bottom widening
construction method is adopted for foundation pile.

Table 9-8 Comparison of Foundation Pile


Item Nyaughnapin WTP Lagunbyin WTP Kokkowa WTP
Structure Type Imported steel pile Cast-in-place concrete pile Cast-in-place concrete pile
Length 12 – 18 m 30 – 35 m About 60 m
Model of Bore hall ---- ---- No. 7
1200 mm or
Diameter
400 mm 800 mm 800 mm with bottom
(reference only)
widening to 900 mm
Negative frictional force * Low Low 1290 kN/m x circumference
Notes: Negative friction causes on the circumferential surface of foundation pile by settlement.
* Negative frictional force is for reference only.
Source: JICA Study Team

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h) Framework Construction
Although the amount of required concrete is huge, many ready-mixed concrete plants exist in
Yangon, and required concrete will be supplied from a nearby plant.

i) Equipment installation
Mechanical/electrical equipment is to be installed after civil work, to avoid securing storage place
for equipment, and prevention from degradation. However, if required, storage place should be
arranged for such equipment.

j) Exterior Work
Completion of exterior work is postponed considering description of the measures against
settlement in item f) above. However, fence should be installed on the site boundary in
consideration of security. This work is included in the scope of YCDC.

k) Construction Schedule
The construction period is expected to be about 41 months from mobilization to completion of
commissioning.

(2) Zone 9 SR/RPS


The geological conditions described above should be taken into consideration, and studies of
construction method with respect to land subsidence measures, foundation pile, the measures against
groundwater level, etc. are required during the detailed design. Outline of execution scheme of this
project is described below.

a) Access
The planned site of Zone 9 SR/RPS, exist along Route No. 5, and access from Yangon city is good.

b) Earthwork
Backhoe, clamshell and dump truck, etc., are to be used for excavation and backfilling.

c) Temporary works
A Soil Mixing Wall method is adopted for stopping entry of water and earth-retaining of sand layers,
because SR is underground type, and excavation is deep. The advantage of this construction method
is that bracing and waling material is not needed and widely used for construction works in Yangon
city.

d) Against Settlement
Measures against settlement are;

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1) Use of Foundation pile for Structures,


2) Use of flexible joint in case of pipelines.

e) Foundation Pile
Foundation pile is needed in order to support a heavy mass, since planned construction site and
surface layer are weak. In Yangon, cast-in-place concrete pile is commonly used as foundation pile.
Length of foundation piles are about 20 m based on the existing soil condition.

f) Framework Construction
Although the amount of required concrete is huge, many ready-mixed concrete plants exist in
Yangon, and required concrete will be supplied from a nearby plant.

g) Equipment Installation
Mechanical/electrical equipment is to be installed after civil work, to avoid securing storage place
for equipment, and prevention from degradation. However, if needed, storage place should be
arranged for such equipment.

h) Construction Schedule
The construction period is expected to be 24 months from mobilization to completion of
commissioning.

(3) Kokine SR
Repair of existing Kokine SR based on the study result is planned as proposed in Chapter 7.

a) Access
Kokine SR is the existing distribution facility for downtown area. The aged SR is located beside
Kaba Aye Pagoda Road which runs through north and south in city center, and access is good.

b) Working space
Some buildings are located in the surroundings of SR and working space has limitations.

c) Repair Procedure (Refer to Chapter 7)


The inside of Kokine SR shall be cleaned and inspected after new transmission pipe from Kokkowa
and existing pipes are connected, and Kokkowa water is directly supplied by Relay PS using
existing pipes.

d) Construction Schedule
For inspection of the Kokine SR, reduction of water level in the tank shall be monitored after

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closing all newly installed inlet and outlet valves, and leakage points must be determined. Then,
repair methods shall be studied and measures shall be implemented. 22 months are taken into
consideration as construction period for inspection, study and repair.

(4) Central SR
Existing SR is to be demolished and SR be rebuilt.

a) Access
Central SR is abandoned currently. The aged SR is located beside Shwedagon Pagoda Road in city
center, and access is good.

b) Working Space
Working permission must be obtained through YCDC, because SR is located in military area.
Working space is limited and is surrounded by Pagodas and related structures on northern and
western sides.

c) Removal Work
Effect on surrounding Pagodas may not be avoided with the removal work of entire existing SR.
Therefore, lower part of the wall of the existing SR is to be left untouched, and these will be utilized
as earth retaining walls. Demolishing work of the structures other than some parts of walls should
be carried out with low-noise and low-vibration methods not to affect the adjacent pagodas and
houses. The wall-sewing method using hydraulic breaker can meet this requirement as shown in
following Figure. If relevant machines are not available in Yangon, these will be imported from
Japan or neighboring countries.

PLAN
SECTION

Soundproof wall Hydraulic breaker

backhoe
Backhoe

Wall sewing method


ウォールソー切断

Hydraulic breaker

Passageway

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 9-3 Outline of Removal Method of Existing Structure

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d) Temporary Works
Bracing and waling material is applied for retaining wall and is widely used for construction work
in Yangon city.

e) Foundation Type
The new foundation is to be constructed upon the existing floor. Spread foundation type will be
adopted.

f) Framework Construction
Although the amount of required concrete is huge, many ready-mixed concrete plants exist in
Yangon, and required concrete will be supplied from a nearby plant.

g) Equipment Installation
Mechanical/electrical equipment is to be installed after civil work, to avoid securing storage place
for equipment, and prevention from degradation. However, if required, storage place should be
arranged for such equipment.

h) Construction Schedule
The construction period is expected to be 24 months from mobilization to completion of
commissioning.

(5) Transmission Pipeline along Route No. 5

a) Planning of Construction Season


This construction should be carried out during dry season to have low water level in ditch along
which construction is to be carried out.

b) Buried Location of Pipe


Steel pipe or ductile iron pipe is to be laid underground of ditch along Route No. 5. Earth covering
on pipe should be more than 1.5 m based on request of MoAI. An open space shall be set in a ditch,
because some sections are used for irrigation canal.

c) Earthwork
Backhoe and dump truck, etc. are used for excavation and backfilling.

d) Temporary Works
In dry season, when water level in the ditch drops, partitions will be set in the ditch using earth wall
to get rid of remaining water, and open cut method will be used. The same construction method is

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adopted basically for pipe laying.

e) Pipe Laying
A crane will be employed for hanging, lowering in ditch, and installing pipe.

f) Construction Procedure
① Sandbags are placed along the ROW boundary to avoid water influx into excavated trench
for pipe installation from the irrigation canal.
② Trench is excavated for pipe installation. Since depth of trench is around 3 meters, open-cut
method is adopted. During the excavation, dewatering is conducted by drainage pump, and
water is returned to irrigation canal.
③ Hanging and placing of pipes and welding joint (in case of steel pipe) are conducted.
④ After the completion of joint connection, back fill is conducted.
⑤ Sandbags are relocated to move pipe installation site ahead.
⑥ After this, procedure ② to ⑤ is repeated.

In the place where is difficult to excavate by open-cut method due to the obstructions, earth
retaining by sheet piles is used.

Sandbags Piling

Source: JICA Study Team


Figure 9-4 Cross Section of Pipe Installation along Route 5

g) Construction Schedule
The construction is divided into 2 scopes, and the construction periods for these scopes are expected
to be respectively 41 months and 42 months as 9 m length pipe is installed per day including
procurement.

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(6) Hlaing River Crossing


The geological conditions mentioned above should be taken into consideration, and studies of
construction method with respect to the measures against groundwater level, etc. are required during
the detailed design. Outline of execution scheme of this component is described below.

a) Planning of Construction Season


This construction should be carried out during dry season to have as low water level of river as
possible.

b) River Crossing Method


Shield driving method is applicable to the section (Casing of Outside Dia. 2,350 mm, Dia. 1600 mm,
L = 550 m) of Hlaing River crossing as described in Chapter 5. The constructors in neighboring
countries have little working experience of the shield driving method of river crossing. Therefore,
construction work material (tunnel machine/ mine mouth/ muddy water treatment equipment, etc.)
is to be imported from Japan.

c) Buried Location of Pipe


The width of Hlaing River is about 400 m and the maximum depth of water is about -22.0 m. The
top of casing pipe should be at least 6.0 m below the present river bed (see Chapter 5).

d) Temporary Works for Shafts


Depth of shaft bottom is around 30 m, and wall depth considering depth of embedment against
boiling becomes about 43 m. From the views of water-stopping performance and stability against
forces such as earth pressure, methods mentioned below are considerable. However, underground
cast-in-site wall method and soil-cement-mixing wall method are applicable by the depth limitation
of each method.
Underground cast-in-site Wall Method (RC underground wall): applicable depth ≦ 150 m
Soil-cement-mixing Wall Method (SMW Method): applicable depth ≦ 45 m
Sheet Pile Method (Vibro-hammer Press Jack Method): applicable depth ≦ 25 m

SMW Method is cheaper and commonly used in local. Thus, SMW Method is planned for shaft
construction. In addition, dewatering will be carried out by pump during construction period to
avoid accumulation of water.

e) Construction Schedule
The construction period is expected to be 24 months from mobilization to completion works.

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(7) Transmission and Distribution Pipeline under City Road

a) Planning of Construction Season


In rainy season, the average rainfall in July - August is 500 mm/month. In order to avoid occurrence
of any accident, excavation work shall be reduced during this season. Instead, operations during
night time are planned during dry season.

b) Buried Location of Pipe


Steel pipe or ductile iron pipe is to be laid underground of Yangon roads. Although it depends on
situations of other underground utilities, pipe depth should be 2 -3 m for big diameter pipe and
about 1 - 1.5 m for small diameter pipes.

c) Earthwork
Backhoe and dump truck, etc., are used for excavation and backfilling.

d) Temporary Works
Trench and retaining wall is required for sections having deep excavation. The disadvantage of
pitching type trench sheet plate and Liner plate used by Japanese grant aid project is that they
require unnecessarily large machines and cause reduction of available road for traffic. In addition,
dewatering should be carried out by pump during construction period.

e) Pipe Laying
A crane is to be employed for hanging and installing pipe.

f) Underground Utility of Other Organizations


Although buried cable certainly exists in the city area, there is little information on these utilities.
When a buried cable would be found in a trench, solutions shall be discussed on-site upon
discussion with representatives of power supply and telecommunication companies.

g) Railway Crossing
Railway crossing is planned at two locations in this project. Ductile pipe is adopted from the
viewpoint of microcell/ macrocell corrosion. Subsidence limits and countermeasures in case of a
railway shall be decided by discussion with the railway company during the detailed design. The
level of railway profile should be measured during construction works.

h) Reduction in Traffic Congestion


Most of the pipe laying works is along roads with heavy traffic, therefore, the outline of construction
work should be discussed with YCDC and traffic police in advance. The construction period and

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location of affected road should be clarified. In order to alleviate the impact of traffic congestion,
work outline including diversion if any should be informed to citizens in advance before pipe laying.

i) Safety Measures
Continuous barricade shall be set up on construction sites so that walker may not come into working
space and construction equipment is not operated out of the working space. Moreover, exclusive
flagman should be arranged for working time.

j) Reduction of the Effect of Suspension of Water Supply


In this project, large-scale suspension of water supply will not occur, because connection of the
large pipe is planned by tapping pipe method without water supply suspension. However, short-time
suspension of water supply is expected to occur, when connection of small size pipe changes.
Therefore, connection works shall be carried out at night as much as possible and arrangement of
water truck shall be made suitably as alternative water source.

k) Construction Schedule
The length of pipe of dia.1000 mm that can be installed in a day is 6 m/day during day and night
work based on the actual result of grant aid project. In addition, the corresponding length of pipe in
case of small pipe is 25m/day in daytime work. The construction period is expected to be 63 months
for Low subzone and 62 months for High subzone including procurement.

(8) Study of Supplementary Facilities


Supplementary works to be carried out in this project include ① Exterior work in WTP, ②
Gardening in relay pump station, ③ Exterior work in Zone 1 SRs, and ④Power supply.

① Exterior work in WTP: Completion of exterior is to be postponed until settlement of the


landfill stabilizes as mentioned above. However, fence is to be set on the site boundary from
the viewpoint of security. This work is included in the scope of YCDC.
② Gardening in Zone 9 SR: Gardening work in park is not included in this project for jurisdiction
of park department of YCDC.
③ Exterior work in Zone 1 SRs: Some expenses are added.
④ Power supply: Installation of power line to WTP was completed by YCDC, and provision of
Sub-station of WTP is included in this project. Power supply to Zone 9 SR and Central SR
with sub-station are also included in this project.

9.1.5 Safety Control


The Study Team organized a seminar related to the safety control for YCDC in December, 2015. The
contents are shown in the Appendix-10.

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9.1.6 Risk Management


During implementation of this Project, the steps to mitigate or avoid risk shall be undertaken.
Reference shall be made to the framework given in Appendix-14.

9.2 Overall Project Cost


9.2.1 Conditions of Cost Estimate

9.2.2 Proposed Package


Table 9-9 Candidate Packages of Eligible Portion for JICA ODA Loan Project

Non-disclosure

Table 9-10 Non-eligible portion for JICA ODA Loan (YCDC own budget)

Non-disclosure

9.2.3 Conditions of Construction Cost Estimate

Table 9-11 Breakdown of Construction cost

Non-disclosure

9.2.4 Estimated Overall Project Cost


Table 9-12 Estimated Overall Project Cost

Non-disclosure

9.3 Preparation of Implementation Schedule

9.3.1 Implementation Schedule


Table 9-13 Implementation Schedule for Each Package

Non-disclosure

Table 9-14 Detailed Implementation Schedule of Selection of Consultant

Non-disclosure

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