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The Motion Picture CAMERA Magazine

Publishedin Hollywood,
June, 1937 American Society
of Cinematographers
DuPont Film Manufacturing Corporation

35 WEST 45th ST., NEW YORK CITY smith & ALLER, ltd.


June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 225

are rising before the motion picture industry.

Motion Picture Corporati on
226 American Cinematographeji • June, 1937

ev£MO keeps up
wIth the cmi wow-u

the owner, and one motor can be used with several

cameras interchangeably. Both regular and synchron-
The Bell & Howell Eyemo 35 mm. Camera has ous motors are available.
always been equal to its intended job of doing 3. S. M. P. E. standard sound aperture plates and
everything outside of the studio — and being a matching drum type variable viewfinders now on all
good pinch-hitter even in the studio. As re- Eyemos except the lowest priced model. Sound can
therefore be added to films made with the Eyemo,
quirements for such a camera-of-all-work have
using standard recording and printing equipment.
changed, Eyemo has been changed to fit them.
4. Vibrationless high speed type governor inside the
Again this has happened, and now Eyemo offers:
mechanism compartment. This insures great accuracy
1 . Hand crank on every model in addition to rugged of speed, faster pickup, and extreme ruggedness.

spring motor permits exposing as much as a com-
With these new features, Eyemo Cameras are
plete loading of film without interruption. Especially
valuable when electric power is not available for capable of going anywhere you may need them
optional motor drive. and doing anything you might expect.
2. Such accurate machining of motor mounting that Write today for literature describing all the
motors may be purchased at any time and installed by advantages of the Eyemo line.

MU 4 HOWEJ.l_CUi'’A''»
new YORK: 11
^4 Oreat Cosrte
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 227

A Technical and Educational publication
on motion picture photogrraphy.

Published monthly by the r -"1

1782 N. Orange Drive
Hollyvi'ood, California

Telephone GRanlte 2135

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C.

FRED W. JACKMAN, Treasurer. A.S.C.

Vol. 18 June, 1937 No. 6


A Great Convention 228

By George Blaisdell

Television, Lighting, Sound, Color Stand

Out at Engineers’ Conventon 229

The' Staff
Advanced Technique of Lighting on George Blaisdell
Technicolor 230
By C. W. Handley Emery Huse, A. S. C.

Engineers See Pictures Made at ADVISORY

Universal 231
Victor Milner, A. S. C.
James Van Trees, A. S. C.
Process Engineering 232 Fred W. Jackman, A. S. C.
F'arciot Edouart, A. S. C.
By Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C.
Fred Gage, A. S. C.
Dr. J. S. Watson, A. S. C.
Technicolor Bringing New Charm to Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C.
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C.
Screen 231 Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C.
By William Stull, A.S.C. Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C.
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C.

Erickson Describes Triple 5 Spot 238

By Carl R. Erickson
L. Graham

A.S.C. Members on Parade 240

S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York
t;ity. Phone Plaza 3-0483.

Georges Benoit, 100 Allee Franklin,
Pavillions-sous-Bois, Seine, France. Tele-
phone LeRaincy 13-19.

McGill’s 179 Elizabeth Street. Melbourne
Australian and New Zealand agents.

Neither the American Cinematographer nor

ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on applica-
the American Society of Cinematographers
tion. Subscription U.S. $2.50 a year Canada, $3.50
: ;

a year Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies, 25c

is responsible for statements made by au-
back numbers, 30c. Foreign single copies, 35c back :
thors. This magazine will not be respon-
numbers, 40c. COPYRIGHT 1937 by American Soci- sible for unsolicited manuscripts.
ety of Cinematographers, Inc.

228 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

By George Blaisdell

T WAS A great convention, that He was one of the many who believed
I gathering of the Engineers. Old- then even though he may not now
timers there are who are prepared to that an actor as a business man not
assert that of the forty conventions only was not so hot but actually was
that have been held this one topped something exceedingly cold.
the lot. And while not inclined to And so this former songslide mer-

blow any horn for any town not even —
chant and in other days that re-
for New York, and we lived there a mark belittled nobody —later exchange
lot of years —
if the convention proved man, distributor and now producer
to be a success it was not in spite of was moved to remark when speaking
it being held in Hollywood. The ones of the organizers:
in the know will tell you it was be- “The inmates have taken over the
cause of it. asylum.”
T The line for those who wish to en-
ter some similar asylum, draw down
ROSTRUM PRESENCE fat dividends across a couple of dec-
or unusually effective ades and then sell out for better than
F livery of a technical paper the or-
two million apiece, forms on the right.
And don’t crowd.
chids are undoubtedly due John For-
est of the home office of Agfa, who on T
Tuesday morning enlightened the del-
egates to the Engineers’ convention
on “The New Agfacolor Process.” To
be sure, this writer was present at
comparativ’ely few of the sessions, but
A t the may meeting of the Los
Angeles 8mm Club Member C. G.
Cornell in the course of a routine re-
he has been in attendance at quite a port praised Bill Stull’s interview in
number of others since the organiza- the April and May issues of this
tion of the society, and it is his con- magazine with Sergeant Robert Teo-
viction this young man has something rey. He declared the Sergeant’s
out of the ordinary in the way of cleverness in devising expedients for
rostrum presence. accomplishing most useful ends in
Poise would seem to be Forest’s the way of making home movies was
outstanding characteristic, and this is worthy of careful study. President
fortified by the earnestness, the mod- F. R. Loscher at the end of the com-
esty without a trace of shjmess, the teeman’s report agreed with the pre-
clarity of expression, and the uncon- vious speaker, saying he hoped every
scious authority of the scholar who S. K. WOLF member would be able to read the
knows his subject. President, Society Motion Picture Engineers articles.
With fifty years of usefulness easily
ahead of him it is pleasant to con- T
template what this one man will bring
figure in the industry —
going back
as far as the song slides, and who to-
to a great industry in the course of a
— OU ARE WARNED in advance so
lifetime. And it must not be forgot-
ten that all over the world working
day is an associate producer was
moved to make a remark that was Y you may discount any seeming
enthusiasm that this reporter ever
with him are thousands of others.
widely quoted at the time. He was
famous for that sort of wisecracks, since the days of Kinemacolor has been
T and not always were they susceptible a nut on color. But what he has on his
mind is how Technicolor came into its
FILE YOUR APPLICATION NOW of reprinting in a family newspaper.
own on the first evening of the En-

A REPORT not at this writing of-

ficially confirmed says that
Goldwyn and Alexander Korda have
gineers’ Convention. For three hours
in the Blossom Room of the Holly-
wood Roosevelt an audience composed
purchased from IMary Pickford, If I should die before again we meet of motion picture experts, the men be-
Charles and Douglas Fair-
Chaplin Hail and Farewell I send. —
hind the screen, sat well, yes, you
banks control of United Artists. The If pain I’ve caused by thoughtless may be permitted to say when but a
trio namedconstitute three-fourths of words unsweet quarter of an hour away from under
the original organization. The sum Contrite my head I bend. it—enthralled at a program of riches.
reported to be paid the three is in If vagrant flash of me shall cross your Probably never in the comparatively
excess of two million apiece. mind brief history of the motion picture in-
At the time of the forming of the I crave your charity: dustry had there been such a program

company something like a score of See me in hours when joy was uncon- offered to a motion picture audience

years ago a well-known distributor fined . . . meaning to a body that is hard-boiled
who from the beginning had been a Not in asperity! Continued on Papre 264
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 229

Officers of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers. Standing, left to right. Sylvan Harris, editor journal of the society; Gordon A. Cham-
bers, secretary-treasurer Pacific Coast section; John A. Aalberg, manager P. C. S. ; Gerald F. Rackett, executive vice president; Hollis W.
Moyse, P. C. S. manager; Kenneth F. Morgan, chairman P. C. S. ; Glenn E. Matthews, chairman papers committee. Seated, H. G. Tasker,
past president; J. Frank Jr., secretary; H. Griffin, governor; S. K. W olf, president; W. C. Kunzmann, convention vice president; M. C. Bastel,


elevision, lighting, and stan- for the Radio Corporation of America. attend the session and describe the
T dardization of the industry’s
“push-pull” sound systems high-
Beal described RCA’s present experi-
mental television installation in Radio
lighting technique which won him
the Academy award.
lighted the 1937 Spring Convention City, from the “Iconscope” cameras in O. O. Ceccarini pi’esented an ex-
of the Society of Motion Picture En- the studio to the “Kinescope” receiv- haustive paper discussing the various
gineers held in Hollywood, May 24 to ers in the home. He stated that at color-print processes, accompanied by
28. Directors of production and present television broadcasts are an exhibit of color prints by the
special effects photography outlined faced with the difficulty that the nation’s leading color specialists. The
their achievements and problems, and ultra-short waves used have a range new Agfacolor process was dis-
the research experts visiting from of approximately 35 miles. cussed by John Forrest, and experts
Eastern laboratories were treated to Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C., reviewed from Dufaycolor, Inc., discussed prob-
remarkable demonstrations of the special effects photography from its lems of lighting color, illustrating
actual technical workings of produc- inception, culminating with a discus- with motion pictui’e origpnals and
tion in the most successful gathering sion of problems of present-day pro- prints filmed by the Dufay process.
in the society’s history. jection background process cinema- Technicolor lighting was discussed by
Perhaps the first genuinely authori- tography. C. W. Handley of the National Car-
tative discussion of television ever Gaetano Gaudio, A.S.C., left the set bon Company.
presented in this country was given where he was directing the photog- Outstanding advances in photo-
by Ralph R. Beal, research supervisor raphy of an important production to graphic materials were shown in the
230 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

Eastman Kodak Company’s two new

emulsions for duplicating work, dis-
cussed by Emery Huse, A.S.C., and
in Agfa’s new Type B Infra-red nega-
tive, discussed by Wilson Leahy,
A.S.C., and Grant Hough.
These papers were Illustrated by
scenes contributed by several major
studios, in several cases eliciting
spontaneous applause for their pho-
tographic beauty. Leahy is especially
to be commended for announcing the
name of the A.S.C. member who pho-
tographed each infra-red scene shown.
Whole-hearted cooperation from
studio executives and personnel was
more evident than at any previous
S.M.P.E. conclave. Monday evening’s
treat in Technicolor is referred to edi-
torially. The Tuesday evening session
at the Universal studio was outstand-
ing in its cooperation, while the
Thursday evening session, hosted
jointly by the Academy and Metro-
Goldwyn-Mayer, presented interest-
ing demonstrations of modern sound

Shapiro Talks of 16mm Sound

The educational, semi-professional arriving in Hollywood
Raloh R Beal, research supervisor of Radio Corporation of America,
and substandard fields were well rep- over American Airlines, being greeted by M. C. Batsel, manager of
Photophone engineering for
resented. An
outstanding paper on the RCA Mr. Beal addressed the S,M,P.E, Friday evening. May 28. on “RCA Developments in
Television,” winding up the five-day convention.
making of “soft X-ray” motion pic-
tures of small biological specimens
was an early feature, while educa- new sound Kodascope later described cording, film editing, developing, pro-
tional film progress and problems by Dr. O. Sandvik of the Kodak Lab- jection, and sensitometric and densi-
were reviewed by S. K. Wolf. oratories. The American Cinema- tometric methods also were discussed
The present aspects of 16mm tographer’s special effects prize-win- and demonstrated by various manu-
sound were discussed by A. Shapiro ning amateur film, “Nite Life,” was facturers. Included among these con-
of the Ampro Corporation, and the screened at this session. tributors may be mentioned several
new S.M.P.E., test-film for testing A remarkable array of newly de- from studios and equipment firms in
16mm sound systems was presented veloped equipment and methods for London, Berlin and other foreign
by M. C. Batsel of RCA, using the sound recording and analysis rere- centers.

in the Technicolor photographic tech-
ADVANCED TECHNIQUE OF nique and advances in laboratory proc-


New Arc Lamps
the first Technicolor three-
Abridged from a Paper Presented at the Spring color picture was made the MR
Convention of the Society of Motion Picture 39 twin-arc broadside and the MR
Engineers, Held in Hollywood, May 27, 1937 Type 27 scoop were the only modem
arc lamps available. These were
By C. W. HANDLEY placed around and above the set to
establish an even overall illumination
Western Representative National Carbon Company tion.
The spotlamps and sun arcs used
PREVIOUS paper described the ing committee (presented at the Fall, for creating areas of higher intensity

studio illuminating equipment
used for Technicolor productions
1935.Since then developments in
1936, convention of the society) gives
the average light intensity used on
black and white sets as 250 to 400
were lamps which had been used for
many years on black and white. They
did not give an even field, nor were
arc lamps and changes in the Techni- foot-candles, and on Technicolor sets they satisfactorily quiet or suitable
color process have occurred which as 800 to 1,000 foot-candles. as to color (|uality. Therefore the
make possible a considerable advance During the past year Technicolor broadside and scoop were used where-
in Technicolor lighting, which have has been able to reduce its illumina- ever possible. As a result, many more
not only resulted in much better tion to approximately the same levels lamps were used on a set than would
lighting, but in the accomplishment of as now used for a great deal of black have been necessary if modern high
this result with a considerably small- and white work. These changes have intensity equipment had been avail-
er number of lamps. been made possible by the use of more able.
The last report of the studio light- efficient lighting equipment, changes The MR Type 90 “H.I. Arc” is now
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 231

for a given effect and the limitations

of the equipment and process it is
difficult to attempt to state the num-
ber of lamps required for any given
area. The table shows an estimate
given by Ray Rennahan, chief cine-
matographer, of the number and types
of units he used to photograph the
huge ballroom set of “Becky Sharp,”
the first three-color Technicolor fea-
In comparison is Rennahan’s esti-
mate of the lamp equipment which
would be required for the same set
under present conditions of lighting.
The reduction from the original re-
quirements is apparent.


^ o
CC a;
« X

c E 9 g
O 0
6 £
Type Qty. Qty.
1935 1937
36" Sun Arcs 19 4
*24" Sun Arcs 47 none
Completing arrangements for annual spring convention of Society of Motion Picture Engineers tlOO Amp. Rotaries 4 none
are William C. Kunzman, National Carbon sales manager, convention vice president, and |80 Amp. Rotaries 87 none
Glenn E. Matthews, Eastman Kodak, technical editor and chairman papers committee.
35 Amp. Spots 1 1

used in place of the older 80 ampere at a beam spread of 16 degrees twelve

Broadsides MR
Type 29 71 35

rotary spot, the MR Type 150 “Ul- times.

Scoops MR
Type 27 78 40
tra H,I. Arc” in place of the 24" sun Improvements in the laboratory
MR Junior Solarspots 12 12
36" Sun Spots 9 5
spot, and a new 65 ampere spotlight processing of the film, details of which
24" Sun Spots 5 none
(MR Type 65) developed. The 36- are outside the scope of this paper,
18" Sun Spots 5 none
inch sun arc is still used where a have made it possible to reduce the
Rifles 5 none
deep penetration of light is desired light intensity on sets by as much
on particularly long throws or where as 40 per cent and to change the il-
Domes 1 none
Strips 40 none
a particularly sharp shadow is neces- luminating technique from that of a
sary. more or less flat lighting with a uni- TOTAL LAMPS 384 167
The MR Type 90 and the older 80 form overall light intensity to an ad- Amps. Amps.
ampere rotary are of approximately vanced color technique with widely Generator Load
the same size and weight, but the varying levels. at 115 Volts 20,000 12,895
Type 90 at a beam spread of 40 de- Because the lighting of a motion Quantity new Type.
grees delivers over three times the picture set is often a compromise "=30 MR Tvpe 159S

light of the 80 ampere rotary, and between the cinematographer’s desire t40 MR Type 90S

sequences are made by recording first
Engineers See Picture Made the accompaniment, then the voice
while the singer listens to the re-
corded accompaniment through an
Under Hand of Emcee Tasker ear-phone, and finally photographing
the picture to a synchronized play-
NE back of the music. To illustrate this
O of the highlights of the Con-
vention of the Society of Motion
Picture Engineers was the Tuesday
note of legitimacy characterized the
entire session.
Following Studio Manager Val
Deanna Durbin actually recorded a
song from “100 Men and a Girl,” sing-
evening session held at the Universal Paul’s official welcome. Associate Pro- ing to an accompaniment she alone
Studio for which Past President Ho- ducer Robert Presnell outlined the heard.
mer Tasker had enlisted the aid of vir- problems of translating a story into Following this, members of the
tually every studio department in an celluloid entertainment. He empha- studio’s art department gave a dem-
unusually complete demonstration of sized the difficulties of adapting onstration of the making of set
“How Motion Pictures Are Made.” stories to fit a program production sketches and plans.
The four hundred members and budget, choosing writers, director, di- Adjourning to a production stage,
guests of the Convention assembled rector of photography and a cast, and Joseph Pasternak, associate producer
on the studio’s scoring stage which yet remaining within the allotted ex- of “100 Men and a Girl,” substitut-
was actually in use at the time record- penditure. ing for Director Henry Koster, dis-
ing a pre-scored sound track for use Next Bernard Brown, chief music cussed the director’s duties, after
on the morrow’s production. This and dubbing mixer, described how song Continued on Pape 2-39

232 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

registration throughout. But each


printer, projector, etc.
with two interchangeable
— is

movements, one for use with back-

ground plates photographed with a
Special Effects Cinematography Bell and Howell camera, the other for
use with Mitchell-photographed back-
From an Engineering Viewpoint grounds. Each has its registering pins
working through the same pair of per-
forations in printing and projecting
Abridged from a Paper Presented at the Spring that were used in photographing the
original background negative.
Convention of the Society of Motion Picture
Processing Important
Engineers, in Hollywood, May 24th, 1937
Equally important is the laboratory
processing of both the original back-
By FRED W. JACKMAN, A.S.C. ground neg’ative and the projection
prints made from it. Any pronounced
stretching or shrinkage of the film
A registration is the heart of mod-
ern projection process back-
ground cinematography, in which a
other type we cannot have microscopi-
cally perfect registration in our pro-
jected picture. The error, viewed from
a production photographic viewpoint,

negative or print will play havoc
with register. Absolute control of
gamma is necessary. Fineness of
grain is most desirable. And for the
print of any desired background is might be negligible, but it is ample best results it is desirable that there
projected on a large translucent screen to spoil the process shot. be no directional markings on the
behind the foreground set and action, For much the same reason certain film.
and rephotographed by a foreground designers of theatrical projectors who I have had excellent results in my
camera electrically interlocked with have offered projectors for process own plant from the Roto tank develop-
the projector. service equipped with a side tension ing system engineered for me by Roy
It is obvious that any trace of an register only have gravely underesti-
Davidge. This places the film “on a
unsteady picture at any point in this mated the problem. Such a projector large metal reel, sandwiched between
process will destroy the usefulness of will undoubtedly be abnormally steady
spirals of a celluloid apron similar
the composite scene. If the background for theatrical use, but it is worthless to those used in developing miniature
plate is photographed in a camera for process purposes.
camera film. The reel is laid horizon-
which is not microscopically steady I have found the commercial an- tallyin the tank and oscillated be-
the background of the composite scene swer to this registration problem in tween 75 and 85 times per minute.
will not be steady with relation to the the ecjuipment designed and built for This gives a non-directional turbu-
foreground. If the background is me by William Matz of Hollywood. It lence which produces no measurable
printed in a printer which does not uses Bell and Howell type pilot pin
directional markings and gives a
register perfectly the same will
cleaner cut negative with great-
result. If the projector does not
ly improved shadow detail.
maintain the same mathemati-
Incidentally, this method re-
cally exact register again there
duces the developing time about
will be unsteadiness.
45 per cent and enables us to
The equally obvious solution is dilute the developer consider-
to use pilot pin registration
throughout —
from background
ably. There is no strain on the
film, so expansion and shrinkage
camera through printer, project- are minimized.
or and composite taking camera.
The secret of success in mod-
This is indeed the answer, but
ern special effects engineering is
only part of it. Modern projected a combination of knowledge and
background work demands such
organization. A properly con-
tremendously accurate registra-
ducted special effects unit,
tion that the pilot pins must
whether a department in a ma-
register throug’h the same pair
jor studio or an independent
of perforations throughout every
special effects contractor, must
inevitably be an organization of
Dual Arrangement many specialists.

Our industry is based on the Specialists Necessary

use of two types of camera the —
Bell and Howell and
the These men must be specialists
Mitchell. Both are equipped in much more than photography
with excellent pilot pin regis- alone. Practically every phase
tration systems. But one reg- of studio activity must be repre-
isters through two perforations sented. In addition to the stage
above the frame, while the other crew of thoroughly competent
registers two perforations be- operative and assistant camera-
low the frame. men, electricians, carpenters and
Clearly if we photograph our —
grips all experienced not only
background with a camera em- in production but in special ef-
ploying one type of registration fects technique —
presided over
and nrint or project it using the Fred W. Jackman, A.S.C. Continued on Pasre 244

EASTMAN’S cooperation with the in-

dustry has helped to solve many a prob-

lem of motion picture technique. Now it

supplies a complete answer to the im-

portant duplicating problem. Eastman

Fine-Grain Duplicating Positive and Neg-

ative Films are capable of producing du-

plicates actually indistinguishable from

originals. Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester,

N. Y. (J. E. Bruiatour, Inc., Distributors,

Fort Lee, Chicago, Hollywood.)

EASTMAN Fine-Grain
234 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

What Company Has Achieved Through Capacity
for Taking Infinite Pains in Details Minor as
Well as Major Demonstrated in Preliminary
Showing of '"Walter Wanger's Vogues of 1938'"
T WAS RECENTLY the writer’s It is. delivered almost as quickly as though
to view the first cut of Eleven reels of outstandingly fine
I privilege
uhe Technicolor production, “Wal- color proved it. Viewed either from
they had been black-and-white rather
than color. During the past year I
ter Wanger’s Vogues of 1938.” In- the technical or the artistic viewpoint, have seen preview prints and release
tel studio gossip had more than in- they were eleven reels of the finest prints (both black-and-white and col-
tin>ated that this picture would es- color I have ever seen produced by or) of poorer quality and consistency
tablish a new high for the perfection any subtractive process. The flesh than these “rushes.”
of color. But since few if any of the tones were, for almost the first time,
gossipers were cinematographers I natural. The reproduction of the What Process Involves
had taken these advance praises with tones and textures of fabrics, cos- My natural inquiry as to what pro-
the proverbial grain of salt. tumes, walls, and the like virtually portion of the footage I saw repre-
Too frequently in the past have non- were perfect. Definition and color sented reprints was answered by the
technical persons gushed about color balance were not only excellent but statement that, out of more than
“achievements,” which when viewed remarkably consistent. And the pic- 70,000 feet of color rushes delivered
with the scientific detachment of the ture passed with flying colors the ul- to the producer, less than 709 feet of
cinematographer turned out to be no timate technical test of any color reprint had been required. My in-
achievement at all. Despite active process: the whites were genuinely formant added that the relatively few
niembership in Hollywood’s clan of clean white and the blacks honest scenes I had commented on as seem-
color enthusiasts I had to be shown blacks. ing slightly below the standard set
conclusively that this latest Techni- The most outstanding surprise, by the body of the picture could be
color production was the achievement however, was the fact that what I and inevitably would be corrected in
claimed. saw was eleven reels of daily prints, the more careful balancing of release
print making.
To anyone w'ho has made even a
slight study of the technicalities of
motion picture color this achievement
seems wellnigh incredible, for Tech-
nicolor’s three-color process is inher-
ently a highly complicated aifair. At
the risk of boring those already fa-
miliar with the process, it may be well
to outline briefly what is involved.
Three-color Technicolor is photo-
graphed w’ith a special camera which
exposes three negatives simultaneous-
ly, through a single lens. Immediate-
ly behind this lens is a beam splitter
made by joining two prisms of opti-
cal glass, the joined faces being sil-
ver-sputtered to produce a partially
reflecting mirror. This beam splitter
reflects part of the light to an aper-
ture at the left of the lens, and al-
lows the remainder to pass through
to a normally located aperture.
Three specially hypersensitized
films pass through these two aper-
tures. In the rear aperture, a single
Suoer-X Panchromatic film is exposed
behind a green filter. In the left
anerture a standard bipack is exposed
behind a magenta filter. This filter

June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 235

transmits both red and blue light, but red will be represented by very light lem. It has also been a big problem

excludes green; the front film of the images. to keep the transferred dyes in their
bipack, being an orthochromatic emul- In our prints, the red object, print- proper places.
sion, records only the blue compon- ed from the red filter negative, will
Modern Speed and Quality
ents. It carries a red-orange dye be virtually a clear white; in the
which absorbs the blue rays, leaving prints from the other two negatives, By any reckoning, the problem is
only the red to affect the rear film of it will be an extremely dark gray, al- not inherently simple. It is hardly
the pair, which is of course panchro- most black. If we transferred from to be wondered that Technicolor
matic. such matrices with dyes of the same prints were traditionally expensive,
colors as the taking filters, our red ob- slow in delivery, and sometimes badly
Processing Problems ject would receive no red dye, since wanting in definition and consistency.
that area of its matrix would be a The wonder is that they were not
After the three negatives have been
developed, each to its appropriate

hollow but it would receive deposits more so.
of blue and green. Today, as judged by the evidence
gamma, each must be printed in its presented in Wanger’s projection
appropriate color, and the three col- Physical Problems room, these difficulties have been al-
or images must be assembled on a most completely overcome. The qual-
Therefore to get our color-print as
single strip of film, superimposed one ity and consistency of modern Tech-
it should be we print the red filter
over the other and in microscopically nicolor prints would be enviable even
matrix with a dye that is “minus-
exact register. for black-and-white. They are de-
red,” or blue-green; the blue filter
Technicolor’s method of printing is livered on a schedule scarcely behind
matrix with a “minus-blue” dye, or
known as “imbibition printing.” that of any black-and-white labora-
yellow; and the green filter matrix
Fundamentally it works like a rub- tory. And finally. Technicolor release
with a “minus-green” dye, or magen-
ber-stamp a relief image is moistened
prints show a uniformly high quality
with a colored dye and then brought
ta. We get no blue-green impression
of our red object in the first case, that should give pause to the techni-
into contact with the film which is to cians turning out the average black-
while the combination of the yellow
carry the final print, on to which the and-white release print.
and magenta dyes results in red, for
dye is transferred.
the yellow filters out the blue-light Many Factors Contribute
Precisely as in using a rubber stamp
component of magenta, and leaves
the ink is not transferred to the paper
only red light. Searching for the reasons for this
by the low portions of the rubber,
The result is the red image of the amazing improvement, I first ques-
but only by the raised parts, so in this
red object which we wanted. The tioned J. A. Ball, Technicolor’s tech-
case the dye is transferred only by
other colors are produced in the same nical director.“The improvements we
the raised parts of the relief image.
way, while white is an absence of any have made recently cannot be credited
These “matrices,” as they are called,
dye-image and black is an equal com- solely to any one department or to
are made by printing from the three
bination of all three. any one phase of the process,” he re-
negatives upon a special film coated

The physical problems of printing plied. “It has been more a matter of
with a special emulsion instead of the
these three dye-images in exact regis- cumulative, relatively small improve-
conventional emulsion.
ter with each other and with the ments all along the line, each adding
When this is “developed” in warm compound
black-and-white key image can be to the other like interest
water, the picture is reproduced in
imagined, especially when the inevi- until the sum total is large.
varying thicknesses the gelatin.
table shrinkage and expansion of the “Right at the start of the chain the
The portions affected by the printing
lighting equipment we have had on
light —
in other words, the shadows
several films are added to the prob-

remain unchanged; the parts only

partially affected that is, the half-

tones are partly removed, and the

unaffected parts the highlights are —
completely washed away.

Three-color Printing

Once the matrices are made the first

step making a Technicolor print
is toprepare a black-and-white blank
on normal positive film. The sound
track isprinted in the usual way at
this time This is developed, washed
and fixed in the usual manner.
The three matrices are then dyed,
each receiving a dye of a color com-
plementary to that of its taking fil-
ter. The red filter negative’s matrix
is dyed cyanin blue-green; the green
filter negative’s matrix, magenta; and
the blue filter negative’s matrix, yel-
low. This seems illogical at first, but
it is actually necessary, for we are
making the print from the thinner
portions of negatives.
Suppose we photograph a red ob-
ject. In the red filter negative the
image of this red object will be very
dense; in the other two negatives the Testing laboratory where results of dyeing operations are checked.

236 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

our recent productions, specially en- visits a modern Technicolor set re- the best results With lightings slight-
gineered for the purpose by Mole- marks is that the large numbers of ly more brilliant than 1 would use in
Richardson, is unquestionably more Side Arcs and overhead ‘Scoops’ that black-and-white. With a faster and
modem than that generally available used to be so noticeable have almost more responsive process I now light
for black-and-white. The negative vanished. With more efficient spot- almost exactly as I would for mono-
films we use have been improved in lighting units and a process that is chrome. The highlights do not have
detail. Our cinematographers, always ‘faster’ overall, we don’t need them so to be watched as closely as they did
capable artists and technicians, not much. a little while back, and shadow^ detail
only have gained more experience is also more easily preserved.
with the process but have been able Lighting Near Usual “As to the speed with which a color
to work more freely both because of “We use the side arcs just about —
troupe can work that depends on the
these factors and because of a similar as extensively as a good black-and- troupe, not on the color. On the
chgtin of detail improvements made in white cinematographer uses incandes- Wanger picture we averaged seven-
the laboratory under the management —
cent broads for an occasional fill-in teen set-ups a day over the whole
of Gerald Rackett. light or for flat frontlight in close schedule. One day we did as many
“We have learned how to develop shots. We use the scoops about the as forty-two!” I

our negatives to what a black-and- way the same monochrome cinematog- Rackett Praises Staff
white technician would call more nor- rapher would use overhead inkie In the laboratory. Plant Manager
mal standards. This is due principal- strips —
to help out on extremely large Rackett paid tribute to his staff.
ly to the fact that improvements in sets where we are filming dance “They’re the ones who actually do
printing methods and printing control numbers and the like. it,” he said, “my task is simply to see
have made it possible to use a thin- “The actual lighting level now used that they do it as efficiently as pos-
ner, more normal negative and to in Technicolor is extremely close to sible. I came into the organization
get better prints thereby. average black-and-white standards. seven years ago with a background of
“Because of all these improvements Unit for unit our arcs probably give practical engineering, but no precon-
such related external factors as make- more light, but it is easier on the ceived notions of how colored pictures
up and art direction we have been eyes and cooler to work under, so it should be made.
enabled to improve. With all these is not nearly so noticeable. For ef- “I have simply tried to organize
factors improved we in turn get bet- fect lightings we are probably right things so that we could do the best
ter pictures.” down to black-and-white standards. possible work on a commercial sched-
“I have never subscribed to the ule, at a commercial price. As I see
Technicolor Camerawork it, that matter of doing the job com-
common belief that color demanded
Ray Rennahan, director of photog- flatter lighting than black-and-white. mercially is the difference between re-
raphy on “Wanger’s Vogues,” in his Even when the three-color process search and engineering. I’ve simply
turn gave the lion’s share of the credit was new I held that color did not lend tried to engineer our laboratory pro-
to the behind-the-scenes staff in lab- itself well to flat lightings, but gave cedure.
oratory and research work. “If we don’t turn out
“Technicolor camerawork,” prints that reflect the capa-
he said, “is still fundamen- bilitiesof our cameramen
tally the same. The differ- and their tools, it’s bad en-
ence is that thanks to the gineering on our part. If
improvements made in the we turn out unsatisfactory
film and its processing the daily or release prints
cinematographer has a which have to be replaced,
more free hand with which again it’s bad engineering.
to work. We can do things If we find ourselves wasting
today which we could not time through poor routining
have done a relatively few of operations, or effort
months ago. through overlapping duties
“To start in the be-
at or responsibilities, it is bad
ginning, between the im- plant engineering.
provements in film and proc- “The problem may, as in
essing the process is consid- this case, be inherently
erably ‘faster’ than it used complicated. But if we
to be. That means that we apply the correct engineer-
can use a great deal less ing methods to its solution
light thanwas formerly nec- we must sooner or later
essary. Moreover, we now come to a solution that eli-
have better lamps in the minates or at least mini-
H. I. Arcs and Ultra H. I. mizes those difficulties. In
Arcs which give us more this particular case, we
light than the old sun arcs, have an advantage over our
and give it in a more usable colleagues the research
beam. That means that we staff and on the set for we
can use fewer units and are, for the most part,
simpler lightings. working with known facts
“It also means that there rather than variables, and
is less ‘spilled light’ to rely we should be able to reduce
on for general lighting. Our them to a matter of order-
lightine must be done more ly, efficient commercial
accurately. practice. I think we are
“One thing that almost doing —but
it see for your-

every cinematographer who Transfer machines which imbibe dye-image from matrix to blank. self. The best way to de-

June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 237

cide is to go through the plant and tions of temperature and humidity. is projected under standard conditions,
see how it’s done. The transfer is repeated twice more, while the reference print is projected
while the magenta and yellow images directly beside it, in synchronism.
High Scale Efficiency are imbibed. Then the completed The inspector makes a written re-
The Technicolor laboratory is a re- three-color print is delivered to the port of each scene in the release print,
markable example of production ef- far from tender mercies of a relay of stating its condition as to definition,
ficiency. Nothing about it gives the inspectors who report on every pos- uniformity, density, color balance,
impression of haste, yet the opera- sible detail of the print, accurately re- contrast, and a dozen other items.
tions are scheduled from one step to cord their findings, and make sure If the print passes this inspection,
the next as accurately as trains on a the print adheres to the desired high which is the last of a series of four,
busy main line. If, for example, the standards of quality. it is shipped to the designated ex-

final positive or blank of Wanger’s The procedure for release prints is change. If not, that print does not
Scene No. 213 is scheduled to make fundamentally the same. Before re- go out, and immediate inquiry is
connections with the blue printer mat- lease prints are made, of course, the made as to the cause of the imperfec-
rix at 3:20 this afternoon, blank and three negatives have to be cut to tion.
matrix will reach the appropriate ma- match the positive as cut by the pro- It is interesting to note that in
chine at 3:20 without delay or con- ducer’s film editor, and the various making Technicolor release prints the
fusion. scene negatives imprinted with inden- original negatives are handled far less
To guard against any unforeseeable tifying edge marks. than is the case in black-and-white.
mischance at any stage of the process The negative is printed once to make
‘Answer’ Precedes Master Print the daily matrices; again to make the
a tolerance of 15 minutes is allowed
at each control point. This permits As is usual, an answer print is then answer print matrices, and once more
sufficient leeway to care for virtually made from the cut negative. This is to make the master print matrices.
any contingency without risk of de- carefully analyzed by representatives
Matrix Life Prolonged
laying the plant’s schedule for other of Technicolor’s laboratory, camera
film, or of getting that scene into the department, etc., and the producer’s Then a set of matrices is made for
producer’s hands later than the hour staff. When every detail of print release print making and a dupe
promised. quality has been determined the mas- negative of the green filter negative
Negative from Technicolor’s camera ter print is made and filed. made for printing the blanks. There-
department is received in the negative Prints identical with the master after the negative goes to the vaults
developing department and developed print are made for reference purposes. and release printing is done from the
to rigid standards. After substantially These include two-thirds of the foot- matrices and the dupe. The useful
normal negative processing routine age of each release reel. As each life of matrices has been enormously
the three negatives are routed to the release print is completed it is taken —
improved seventy-five or more print-
negative cutting section, where the to one of the laboratory’s four inspec- ings from a single set is now com-
scenes to be planted are segregated. tion rooms. Here the release print mon. But when the first sign of
The negatives are next deterioration is observed, a
submitted to familiar but completely new set of mat-
unusually exacting densi- rices is made, and printing
tometric tests, and the best goes on.
printing times determined. If recently published re-
This is done by accurate ports to the effect that 500
measurement rather than release prints are being
by visual inspection. made of Selznick-Interna-
tional’s “A Star is Born”
Printing Details are true, the original nega-
The three matrices and tives will be printed scarce-
the black-and-white blank ly more than ten times for
are then printed according the entire half million feet
to these specifications. Each plus the inevitable daily an-
print passes through its swer and master printing!
appropriate developing ma- Eight years ago Techni-
chine and emerges on sched- color encountered a sudden
ule, ready for the transfer. boom which severely over-
In this operation, the blank strained the capacity of the
is fed into a remarkable laboratory. Experience was
transfer machine in which a good teacher, it seems,
the matter of registering for all of the firm’s execu-
the dye-carrying matrix tives have resolved never
and the black-and-white to let this hannen again.
blank is taken care of by Currently, the plant is oper-
remarkably exact machin- ating with a volume eoual
ery which brine’s the two to about 55,000,000 feet a
together, in register, under year.
a large roller exerting a Recant raports indicate
known pressure. commitments likely to bring
The and blank
matrix the season’s total up to
are then carried through the more than 60,000,000 feet.
machine and held in regis- But accoi’ding to Rackett,
ter during the transfer of the plant’s maximum capac-
the dye image. This is done ity without increasing
at a predetermined ideal equipment or personnel, is
time and under fixed condi- Continued on Pafte 242
238 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

relative efficiencies. There are two

ERICKSON DESCRIBES fundamental methods of controlling
the luminous flux emitted by a light
source: first, by refractian through a
TRIPLE 5 STUDIO SPOT lens system, and second by reflection
from a mirror.
The first method, refraction, has
By CARL R. ERICKSON been mentioned. This is the ideal
Illuminating Engineer method for small key lights, say, up
to and including those using the 2000-
watt globe, if we focus our attention
he world
of has at science motion picture lighting equipment de- on incandescent units. Exclusively re-
T one time or another in the last
fifty years touched practically
was attempted. The
quite simple, namely,
fracting units present serious diffi-
culties if carried to higher wattage.
every line of human endeavor and in- source the beam of which was con-
terest. It is incredible, however, that trolled by an echelon or Fresnel type High Wattage Problems
when motion pictures, among the lens. The first lamps of this type The first is the problem of globe
world’s latest big brain childs, were were good, but, as is often true of heat. The softening point of glass is
started no basic engineering was done new contained many
developments, near 1050 degrees Fahrenheit. A
to produce adequate lighting equip- defects. 5000-watt globe will approximate this
ment for the cameraman. The indus- Uneven distribution of field, side temperature, and unless the heat is
try copied identically the old army leak light from the lens, and difficul- carried off by adequate cooling the
type searchlight, converting it into its ties with back spherical reflector ad- globe will take on bulges or blisters
combination fiood and spot light. justment are among the problems pre- at the points of most heat concentra-
For refiectors in these units para- sented by these first small spotlights. tion.
bolic mirrors of focal lengths com-
In floor lamps around a camera
mercially available at the time were Two Control Methods
compactness and lightness are essen-
used regardless of their adaptability However, now
possible to pur-
it is Hence the low wattage “Keg-
to the equipment, and are, unfortu- chase studio spots which are light in Lites” are ideal for this use. But for
nately for those who use them, accept- weight, contain a lens giving an even the more powerful lamps which are
ed as standard. With the advent of distribution of light and treated to used high on the sets for back lights
talking pictures the arc lights were kill leak light absolutely and also con- and general lighting the most efficient
replaced by incandescent. However, taining a back spherical mirror rigidly units possible are desired.
the fundamental design of the units adjusted at the factory which cannot This brings us to the second prob-
was in no way improved. get out of focus. Among these are lem of high wattage refracting units,
It was not until about three years lamps known under the trade name of namely, their low lighting efficiency
ago that actual original research in “Keg-Lite.” as compared with reflecting units. The
Let us consider for a moment the transmission of incandescent light
means for controlling light and their through Pyrex glass three-eighths of
an inch thick is 58 per cent of the
light incident upon the glass. The
3Smm to I6mn* great loss is due to reflections at the


two surfaces and to absorption by the
glass itself. This figure applies to the
glass used in making echelon or Fres-
Cable address


San Francisco. California

U. S. A.
nel type lenses contained in studio
If, on the other hand, we turn to
••CAMERAS- reflecting surfaces, we find that chro-
BLIMPS mium reflects 62 per cent and silver
DOLLIES ,e^ on glass, second surface, from 80 to
ACCESSORIES lucv eOwonlujbl anA
85 per cent of light incident upon
MOVIOLAS io DayIim«-Fo^) 5 c«tj»s-
them respectively. Hence the 24-inch
studio lamps using either glass or
and Diffuse^ Fw^us. an A many oHwr «Ff«Is
WilB any Camera " In any Climate metallic mirrors emit a higher per-
centage of the flux incident upon their
Exclusive Eastern light projecting member than do units
Representative for employing a lens only.


Two Systems Combined
the 24-inch sunspot is the
1 1 ^
•HARRISON FILTERS- All Kinds of Cameras
most widely used lamp throughout the
•ARRO LIGHTS- Mitchell, Be!! & Howell, Eyemo,
studios for larger sets requiring a long
DeBrie, Akeley and other makes.
TEAGUE BACKGROUND PROCESS throw, the adaptation known as the
Also all camera accessories, tri-
pods, lenses, motors, laboratory Triple 5, developed by Bardwell and
J.Bungi Centner
and cutting room equipment. McAlister, Inc., and which can be
e Fay Highest adapted to the old type 24s now in
Cash Prices. use, was designed to increase the ef-
CAMERA SUPPLY Get in touch with us at once. ficiency of the 24-inch lamp in the
Inc. Camera Equipment, Inc. center of the field, its weakest area.
723 7tb aVE. 1600 Broadway New York City Extreme care was taken in placing
NEW YORK CITY Cable Address: Cinequip each member of the new optical sys-

BRyANT 9-TT54 • CINECAMERA tem so as to retain the old feature of
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 239

reflecting light directly from globe to Hence T-5 it is possible to ob-

in the as a 5000-watt globe in the old 24 as
mirror to the field characteristic of tain a more uniformly lighted field well as smoothing the field and elim-
the old 24s. By this method the light than is possible with a single move- inating the black spots. Most of
was not merely redistributed, but new ment lamp. This combination of a the studios which now have this type
light was added to supplement that diiferential motion with an open face of equipment are using 2000-watt
already present in the old 24s. lamp employing ‘direct reflectors is globes, thereby cutting their globe
In the T-5 there is a combination of why the T-5 will give three times as cost and current consumption in half.
two optical systems. In any device much even flood light as any other It is our belief that the T-5 is only

employing two independent movements unit of equal wattage. the first step in a complete revolu-
greater flexibility of adjustment can Tests have proven that a 2009-watt tionizing of the fundamentals of studio
be obtained than is the case with only globe used in this new equipment pro- lights in the interest of greater light-
one movement. duces the same light intensity on flood ing efficiency.

picture making was one of the most
How Pictures Are Made complete ever offered to any group
Continued from Page 231 by a Hollywood studio and reflects
which Electrical Supervisor Frank the greatest credit upon the spirit of
Graves told how the electricians rig the New Universal from executives
a set for the cinematographer’s light- down to the unseen electricians, sound
ing. men and others who participated be-
hind the scenes, and upon Past Presi-
Joe Valentine Obliges dent Tasker, who organized and di-
rected this most unusual demonstra-
Joseph Valentine, A.S.C., and his
camera crew illustrated the lighting
and photographing of a longshot and COOKE LENSES
a close-up. For these Deanna Durbin BACH ATTENDS CONVENTION Anticipating constant im-
and Mischa Auer went through a W. A. Bach, managing director of provement in the resolving
scene to a playback of the song pre- Western Electric Company, Ltd., Lon- power of films fully cor-
. . .

viously recorded. Director of Pho- rected for extended spectrum

don, was in Hollywood attending the
tography Valentine gave an excellent color processes . . Cooke .

convention. Lenses are truly long-term

demonstration of his lighting tech-
J. P. Maxfield of the New York of- investments. Focal lengths
fice also was in Hollywood attending for every need. Descriptive
When a member of the audience the convention. literature on request.
asked how it was that Valentine was
able to light his set so quickly, Super- BELL & HOWELL
visor Pasternack replied for him that FEARLESS CAMERA CO. COMPANY
he was repeating a shot already made Velocilator Camera Dollies, Camera Exclusive World Distributors
for the production —and that on a Blimps, Camera Motors, arrd com-
plete camera accessories and equip- 1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago
fresh set-up Valentine would require ment. New York: 11 West 42nd Street
8572 Santa Monica, Hollywood, Cal. Hollywood: 716 N. LaBrea Ave.
almost five minutes longer! Eastern Representative, Motion Picture London: 13-14 Great Castle Street
Returning to the scoring stage the Camera Supply Co., 723 7th Ave. N.Y.C.

group viewed the projection of

“rushes” of the sequence demonstrat-
ed, after which Supervising Film Ed-
itor Maurice Pivar told how films are
Fully Guaranteed Used 35mm Equipment
edited. Mitchell, Bell & Howell, Akeley, Holmes Projectors, Sound and Si-
DeBrie, Universal, Pathe Cameras. lent.
Where Noise Comes From Portable Sound Recording Outfits. DeVry Suit Case Model Projectors.
Eymo and De Vry Spring Driven We buy, sell and rent
Musical Director Charles Previn Cameras. anything Photographic.
apologized for having to speak extem-
poraneously, and proceeded to give a Camera Supply Co.
most amusing and highly informa- 1515 No. Cahuenga Blvd. Hollywood, Calif.
tive discussion of how music is tail- Cable Address: CAMERAS
ored to fit a picture, illustrating by
showing a sequence from “Wings
Over Honolulu” with two different ac-
companiments which altered the dra-
matic meaning of the action com-
Where The Promise Is Performed!
The leading, largest and best equipped Motion Picture Mechanical
In conclusion Edwin Wetzel, dub- Laboratories in the East.
bing mixer, demonstrated how music,
Designers ond Manufacturers of Motion Picture Equipment.
sound effects such as crowd noise, in-
cidental singing, thunder, rain and air- ALL STANDARD MAKES OF CAMERAS
plane motor roars are “dubbed” into
the sound track recorded on the set. SERVICED • SOLD # REISTED
In his demonstration eight different
sound tracks were combined to give
meaning to another sequence from NATIONAL CINE LABORATORIES
“Wings Over Honolulu.” 20-22 West 22nd Street New York, N. Y.
This demonstration of the details of
240 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

Virgil Miller, A.S.C., for the first
• J. Dev. Jennings, A.S.C., took the player to hit from right to left across
time in eight years is shooting on honors at Paramount’s golf tourney, the line of play causes the ball to
straight production. He is at Twen- winning over 246 competitors. He slice. In other words, by hitting to
tieth Century-Fox photographing turned in a par score of 71. the left you go to the right. From

“Danger Love at Work,” featuring left to right across the line of play
Simone Simon. For many years he • Oliver Marsh, A.S.C., and Jack causes a hook or pull. That is, by
was at the head of the Paramount Smith, A.S.C., left Hollywood May 20 hitting to the right you go to the left.
camera department. Recently he has for Lone Pine to photograph back- To hit down on your ball makes it
photographed special effects on “The grounds for M. G. M.’s “The Firefly.” go up. To hit up on your ball makes
Garden of Allah” and “Little Lord it go down or fly low.”
Fauntleroy.” • John Mescall, A.SX., has been

• Karl Freund,

seized with a golf thought in fact, • Ted Sparkuhl, A.S.C., and a Para-
A.S.C., while photo- two of them. And when John has mount technical crew slipped across
graphing Greta Garbo in “Madame anything like that percolating his sys- country to New York during May to
Walewska,” took advantage of a pro- tem the golfing multitude which never film scenes with Kirsten Flagstad,
duction lull to slip downtown and take has been able to approach the heights opera singer, for “The Big Broadcast
out his final citizenship papers. On which he takes so easily sits up in of 1938.” The scenes were shot at
his return to the set he found the the hope of getting a straight and the Astoria plant in Long Island City.
leading woman had arranged for the useful tip.
decoration of his camera with an “Driving is a science,” suggests • Ernest Haller, A.S.C., starts June
American flag and for an orchestra to John, “irons are an art, and putting
14 on “The Great Garrick” at War-
greet him with “The Stars and Stripes is an inspiration.
ners. James Whale directs.
Forever.” The player herself remains “Golf seems to be a game of oppo- • Elmer Dyer, A.S.C., had a busy
a Swedish subject. sites,” he goes on. “For a right hand month in May. On the 3rd he left
for Louisville to join an M.G.M. out-
fit shooting backgrounds in the Blue-

grass country for “One Came Home,”

regular production on which was due
Feel Home’’ to start early in June.
When that job was finished he was
Use onr complete facilities ordered home by plane. Then he was
when working in the East. notified he was to leave in four days,
on the 22nd, for New York and thence
• Mitchell Cameras and Recorders
to London. There he was scheduled
• Beil & H owell Cameras
to do air work for the company mak-
# Panoram Dollies ing M.G.M’s first British subject and
# Special Effect Cameras also incidentally by an English troupe.
% Moviolas 9 Tripods Mrs. Dyer accompanied.
# Blimps # Lights
# Lenses # Motors
New and Used Equipment Always Available

A true, high fidelity,
ultra violet, modulating
light source.

• High Intensity Expos-

Mitchell and Bell & Howell camera servicing
is a specialty of our experienced technicians. • Long Life.
• Uniform Quality.

l60 0 Broadtuay
new York Ci +
me Lj
9-^146-7 ADDRESS: CINEQUIP Incorporated
723 Seventh Ave.
New York, N. Y.
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 241

• Joe Dubray, A.S.C., sailed for his organization, writes from Cairo, REFLEX FOCUSER FOR C-K
Europe May 24. He had been await- Egypt, that he will be in that city un- SPECIAL
ing’ sailing orders for quite some til the middle of June. He was called
time. The veteran cameraman and there by the Egyptian Abdel Wahab A focusing attachment for

technician will represent the Bell and for a picture. The studio is well the Cine-kodak Special is announced
Howell factory in England, France equipped. While the weather is warm by Hugo Mayer. The device is intended
and Europe generally. No definite Georges states work starts at 4 P.M. especially for use when 200-foot mag-
time has been set for his return. and stops at 1 A.M. And he sends azines are used, when the Special’s
his regards to all.
regular reflex focuser cannot easily
• Joe Valentine, A.S.C., shooting “A be viewed.
Hundred Men and a Girl,” found him- • Willard Vander Veer, A.S.C., win- The new attachment consists of a
self just one of a host of Joes. For ner of an Academy award for pho- double reflecting element which re-
instance, there was Joe Lappis, the tographic achievement in 1930, win- flects the image seen in the reflex fo-
sound man; Joe Pasternak, the as- ner of a Congressional Medal, both cuser upward, to the right and then
sociate producer, and even the gaffer on account of his work with Byrd in through a mag’nifying telescope to a
responded to no name but Joe. the Antarctic, has received word he convenient position at the rear of the
• Harry Perry, A.S.C., whose talk has been chosen a Fellow in the Roy- camera. It may be used also with
al Photographic Society. standard 100-foot magazines.
to the Associated Motion Picture
Pilots was printed in the May issue
of thismagazine, left Los Angeles
May on assignment from Para-
mount. His first stop will be London,
where he will prepare to photograph Everything Photographic
background shots at the Ascot races for Professional and Amateur
for Pai'amount’s “Angel.” New and Used, bought, sold, rented and
Following completion of this as- repaired. Designers and manufac-
signment he will visit Paris, Vienna, turers of H. C. E. Combination
Nice and Prague to photograph back- lens shade and filter-holder
grounds for Ernst Lubitsch’s “Blue- for any size lens.

•leard’s Eighth Wife,” for Paramount, Hollywood Camera Exchange

.)f course. If Harry wearies of his 1600 Cahuenga Blvd.,
assignment and wants to come home Tel. HO 3651
there is a chance, remote possibly but Cable Address: HOcamex
nevertheless a chance, some reluctant Send for Bargain Catalog
brother-member might be cajoled into
helping him out by finishing the job.

• Harry C. Neuman, A.S.C., has been

assigned to photograph Sol Lesser’s
“The Californian.”

• Victor Milner,
A.S.C., took a crew
Orleans for preliminary work
Precision in Lighting
on DeMille’s “The Buccaneer” for
• Charles Marshall, A.S.C., and Clyde
De Vinna, A.S.C., have returned from

Louisville, where they were working
on backgrounds for M.G.M.’s “One
Came Home.”
• Charles Clark. A.S assigned to I
M.G.M.’s “General Hospital.”

• A1 A.S.C., had a chance to

get look-see at “Thunder in the
City,” it was shown during the
month at the Paramount Theater.
The subject was one he photographed
for Atlantic Films at the Alexander
Korda studio in Denham, England.
• Charles W. Herbert, A.S.C., who
has been on a long assignment in the
Orient for March of Time, arrived in
Hollywood by way of Honolulu and
interrupted his vacation to remain for
the Engineers’ convention. On its .MOLE-BICHAUDSON, Inc.
conclusion Charlie, accompanied by
Mrs. Herbert, slid away for a couple 041 Xo. Sycaoiore Avenue
of months in his Montana mountain
home. Hollywood, Calif.

• Georges Benoit, A.S.C., public re-

lations committeeman in Paris for
242 American Cinematographer June, 1937

New Leica Projector made by the makers of the Leica cam- Technicolor Brings New
era, was designed with these consider-
With simple“one shot” methods ations in mind, and while it gives a Charm to Screen
of color photography coming more brilliant image for use with moderate- Continued from Page 2o7
and more into prominence for amateur ly large gatherings it is also adapt-
use greater emphasis has lately been able for home use. It employs a 250- in excess of 75,000,000 feet of first-
placed on projection, for that is one watt bulb. class color per year.
of the best manners in which color
The recently openedTechnicolor
transparencies such as Kodachrome
Laboratory in London will add a
can be enjoyed. In addition, the pro- Agfa Ansco Now Building further 25,000,00!) feet a year to this
jection of black and white studies re-
veals details and depths of tones un-
Hollywood Office Plant capacity, bringing the present maxi-
mum of good Technicolor to more
suspected in a paper print. Agfa Ansco Corporation has com- than 100,000,000 feet a year. Dr.
For the proper projection of color pleted plans for construction of its Herbert Kalmus, Technicolor presi-
transparencies a projector must meet own building to provide greater serv- dent, is now in England inspecting
certain requirements both in connec- ice to producing companies and cus- this plant which, in addition to serv-
tion with its optical system and ven- tomers in Hollywood. Rapid expan- ing European producers, will print
tilation. The screen image must be sion of Agfa business during the foreign releases of American-made
brilliant and sharp, and the ventila- past two years necessitated that Technicolor productions at a consider-
tion such that in normal use the del- larger quarters be obtained, and a able saving in shipping cost and
icate colors of the transparency are two story structure is now going up duties.
not destroyed by the heat. Projec- at the corner of Cole avenue and
tors meeting these requirements are Santa Monica boulevard. Hundred .Million Feet Capacity
usually designed for use by lecturers Plans provide for large research
and in large halls and consequently laboratories and spacious warehouse
The factorof safety is paramount
not very adaptable for home use. throughout. All of the machinery is
in the rear of the first floor, with
The new Leitz \TI1-S Projector. loading platform at the entrance on disassembled, inspected and over-
hauled every w'eek. E.xhaustive tests
Cole avenue.
are made daily to ensure consistency
Coast headquarters of Agfa Ansco
of the chemical operations. The tech-
Corporation will be housed in spa-
COMPLETE STUDIO cious offices on the gi'ound floor, nicians are thoroughly trained in the
EQUIPMENT while the entire second floor will be
routine and methods of the plant,
and W’ork under regulations which,
KRUSE CAMERA RENTALS used for offices of C. King Charney,
while perfectly logical, are aimed to
1033 N. Cahuenga Nite MO. 13470 Inc., exclusive distributors of Agfa
4464 eliminate duplication of effort and
HI. motion picture film in the United
snap judgments.
There is no restriction against mak-
ing constructive criticisms of any
phase of operation. The cardinal sin
is saying “I think,” but if you can

BARDWELL & bring concrete facts that change the

“I think” to “I know^” those facts wall
be listened to.
McAlister, inc. For this reason the man who makes
a mistake in his work is invariably
the first to report it, for a normal
mistake will not be held against him.
ansiounces ^he Instead, it will perhaps lead to an im-
provement in methods, etjuipment or
routine which will make its repeti-

TUIPLE-5 tion impossible.

And there, underlying the array of
amazing precision machinery and the
timetable scheduling of operations,
lies the final — and by no means least
— factor in the steady improvement
Declared by Studio in Technicolor technique!

Technicians the most

outstanding develop- Fearless Fox
ment in studio lighting \m.O€U.ATOnS
For Sale
Two velocilators. both slightly used,

Bardwell McAlister. Inc. but in such perfect condition that they

cannot be distinguished from new, are
available at reasonable prices.
Phone, write or wire
Motion Picture Electrical Products for quotations.

GLadstone 4101 1120 North La Brea Camera Equipment, Inc.

1600 Broadway New York, N. Y.
HOLLYWOOD Telephone: BRyant 9-4146
Cable Address: Cinequip

June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 243

A Great Convention It is one of the largest contracts of

Continued from Page 228 its kind signed in the industry this

when it comes to screen entertain- year and is expected to increase by ---CINEX---

approximately $400,090 the gross in-
come to the company’s revenues for
• Light Testers — Polishers used by all
The setting was not in one of the major studios. We are the Sole Mfrs.
1937. And it is good news to the and Distributors.
present day palaces designed for the
superb reproduction of the results of many who admire and respect these • Mfr. of 16mm and 35mm Recording
the highest studio skill. It was pro- men we have named. Heads, Amplifiers, Developing Machines,
Printers, Etc.
jected by necessarily hastily planted V CINEMA ARTS— CRAFTS
apparatus and reproduced on a screen PRATTS SAIL FOR ENGLAND 914 N. Fairfax HE-1984 Hollywood,
that was temporary. In other words Calif.
Mr. and Mrs. G. C. Pratt sailed on
the every-day duty of the improvised I

the Berengaria for England May 20.

theatre was that of a high-class dining
They will be absent from Hollywood
for approximately two months. Mr.
Just listen to a recital of the pro- • Experienced staff
Pratt is vice president of Electrical
gram: The curtain raiser was Fitz-
Research Products, Inc.
patrick’s “Rocky Mountain Grandeur,” • Newest equipment
with vocal and instrumental sound ac-
companiment. Then there were a half • Cinematographers are invited
dozen other shorts, one after another to use the services of our tech-
five Walt Disney’s Academy Award nical personnel and up-to-date
winners, beginning with the 1932 de-
cision. There were “Flowers and
facilities — under the operative
direction of Jack Guerin
Trees,” “Three Little Pigs,” “The
Tortoise and the Hare,” “Three Kit-
tens,” and “Country Cousin.” Intern a tioiial
Bruce Knows Outdoors Cinenia. liie.
And then came Robert Bruce’s
“Trees,” bearing the Paramount brand.
There was a musical background, and
of course it could have been nothing
other than the accompaniment vocal 6823 Santa Monica Boulevard
and instrumental that so splendidly Hollywood. California
fits Joyce Kilmer’s deathless words. —
Telephone Hollywood 3961
Cable Address: Incinema
Bruce has never been topped in his

short scenics he never was in the
black and whites, when his troupe was
composed not infrequently of one

other man and a dog one man to pho-
tograph the other man and a dog.
To the lovers of nature and dogs — Film Tested Laboratory
those pictures may have been seen
twenty years ago, but the memory
lingers on. In this recent picture his
selections of outstanding trees and bits and
of scenery behind and around them,
every shot a lesson in composition, are
memories. Recording Equipment
The conclusion of the program was
Selznick-International’s “A Star Is
Born.” It was a fitting and a grip-
ping, a thrilling and a moving, finish
Ask any of those who crossed the
country and were fortunate enough to
that Monday evening’s
among their list of
scheduled and otherwise, and if they
Art Reeves
don’t say the night was pretty near MOTIOIV PICTt RE EQI IPME.VT
worth the trip then you may say we
have been fooling you.
645 North Martel Avenue
T he Cinema,
al Hollywood
of Internation-
laboratory —
company among the bet-
ter known of them being the veteran
H. T. James, Jack Snyder and Jack

Guerin are receiving congratulations
on the completion of a contract to
handle all film work for Grand Na-
tional Pictures.
244 American Cinematographer June, 1987

Process Engineering
Continued from PaKe 232

by a director of special effects pho-

tography, there must be specialists
ury-Fox Studios, has started a sur-
vey to determine the amount of radio
transmitting and receiving equipment
owned by the major studios and the
extent to which radio is now used for
r Used in
Every Major Studio.

Illustrated Literature on request.
in the design, building and painting of communication between the studio
miniatures and full scale sets and
and location units. 1451 Cordon St. Hollywoo’d, Calif.
props; molders, riggers, art directors, After completing this survey, dur-
draftsmen and the like. ing which information also will be
There must be laboratory techni- assembled on the number of location
cians skilled in the most exacting trips to which companies have been
types of negative and positive film de- sent by each of the studios during
for determining proper printing
velopment, printing, multiple printing, the past year, the committee will
light intensity
optical printing, dye toning, dupemak- formulate plans for obtaining maxi-
ing and sensitometry. mum benefit from the use of radio OPTICAL PRINTERS
communication between the studios and special machinery
There must be cutters, projection-
istsand clerical workers, all of whom and units working on locations where
6154 Santa Monica Blvd.
there are no other means of commu-
know not only studo rou-
ordinary Hollywood, Calif.

work. Over nication available.

tines but special effects
all must be a thoroughly experienced
chief who is at once a highly trained
technician, a salesman, a director and
an executive.
At his disposal must be not only
the services of this varied and highly
skilled personnel, but also a plant
ample to take care of the physical re-
((uirements of the work and access to
an ample library of specially photo-
graphed background scenes from all
over the world.
This matter of organization is what
marks the final difference between the
“black magic” pioneering days of spe-
cial effects cinematography and to-
day’s commercial special effects en-
gineering. The early “trick camera-
man” did much of his work almost
single handed.
Today’s special effects specialist
could probably do so as well but he —
doesn’t, because it is more efficient
to utilize the advantages of organiza-
Without this organization special
effectscinematography would still be
it could not be the com-
possible, but
mercial asset it is today.

The Academy Research Council
committee on short wave radio com-
munication, under the chairmanship
of E. H. Hansen of Twentieth Cent-
To all cameramen

Personal Service
Co-operative Service

Constructive Service

Careful Service



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250 American Cinematographeir • June, 1937


Columbia University Sponsoring Littles’
International Salon 251

Build Fastest Sky Camera to shoot

Eclipse 252

Camera Toting Medico Brings Film a

Plenty 254

For Best Results Plan Vacations on

SOCIETY Budget Basis 256

OF AMATEUR News of the Movie Clubs 258


A.S.C., Talks to Philadel-

Demonstrate New Eastman Projector ..261.

BOARD OF RP:V1EW Leavitt Represents Uni vex in West 263

John Arnold, President, A.S.C., Executive

16mm Sound Displacing 35mm in Busi-
Director of Photog’raphy, M.G.M. Studios.
ness Way 262
By A. Shapiro
Karl Struss, A.S.C., Director of Photog-
raphy, Paramount Studios, Academy Award Composition Not So Tough as Is Often
Winner, 1928 Claimed 264

Fred W. Jackman, Treasurer, American So- Advanced Cineamateurs Hail Dupont’s

ciety of Cinematographers New 16mm 265

Photog- Oswald, Ten Years Old, Going Big in 8

Dan Clark, A.S.C., Director of
and 16 mm 266
raphy, 29th Century-Fox

Here’s the Answei- 267

David Abel, A.S.C., Director of Photog-
raphy of Fred Astaire Productions, R.K.O. Clifford Nelson Shows Films at
Studios Rochester 268
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 251

he international cinema salon for 1938, or the First In a long wire from Mr. Little un-

T International Amateur Movie Show, as it may be called, is al-

ready an established fact. The prog-ram will be under the per-
der date of May 12 the question was
asked: “Privilege requested now best
film your contest for inclusion Inter-
sonal supervision of Duncan MacD. Little.
national Exhibit stop Trust can be
But behind this enterprise will be all the prestige and enormous first screening in East.”
influence of Columbia University, the Extension Service of which The Cinematographer made prompt
will take under its wing and its aus- organizations to select each country’s response. “By all means. Yes,” was
pices not only the international proj- best. The
United States, Great the word. “A request in return: May
ect but Duncan Little’s Ninth Annual Britain, France, Canada and Japan we state in advertising our contest
Movie Party as well. definitely will be among those show- that best American entrant in The
Film Study, new division of Colum- ing; so much has already been ar- Cinematographer’s contest will by
bia University Extension, will devote ranged. There are plenty of other that publication, in behalf of and in
two of the twenty weekly cinema ses- nations with central organizations of the entire interest of that contestant,
sions to amateur motion pictures. sufficient standing to select a repre- be entered in the International Salon
These will be conducted in the Mc- sentative film, and any difficulty will as a contender for All American hon-
Millin Academic Theater. Both will probably be in keeping the program ors and if successful be a competitor
be held some time during April of down to a proper length. in the grand final?”
next year. “The plans were discussed at a No denial to this response has as
The first will be what heretofore gathering night before last in Mr. yet been received from the East, and
has been known as the annual movie Little’s home, those present including it is fair to assume it has been not
party of Mr. and Mrs. Little and the Dr. James C. Egbert, Director of unfavorably considered. Probably
second the International. Columbia Extension, and Dr. Russell readers of The Cinematographer will
“The Littles’ party got completely Potter, associate director, under be advised of the situation in the July
out of hand this year,” writes Dan whose immediate supervision Film issue.
Anderson in the Sun of New York Study comes. The new division has Film Study has issued two an-
May 22. “Its fame had spread until other aspects not so directly affecting nouncements in folder form, with the
so many amateur cinema enthusiasts amateurs, but which will be of interest particular days in April yet to be set,
wished to attend that Mr. Little knew to them and to all persons who are copies of which are as follows:
that it would no longer fit into his cinema-minded.”
home and hired a hall. Even at that,
an expected attendance of 250 turned Show for Holidays Dl NCAN LITTLE’S NINTH
into 335, to see a selection of repre- In a the editor of this
sentative amateur films. magazine Doctor Potter inquires as Wednesday, April 1938 ,

to the view here of the possibility of As a part of its series, "Motion

Selection Plan to Remain Picture Parade,” Film Study will
there being general interest in a show-
“He’d be needing Madison Square ing of amateur films some time before sponsor next year Duncan Little’s
Garden in 1938, and it will relieve him Chi'istmas, to be in the same series Ninth Annual Movie Party. Screen-
of a burden and at the same time and the program to be arranged by ing will take place in McMillin Aca-
give the showing a fine sponsorship The Cinematographer. demic Theater on Wednesday evening,
to have Columbia
present it. The “The two showings that are already April .

films be selected by the same

will planned will consist exclusively of The first Annual Movie Party was
process that they have been lately, 1937 films,” suggests Doctor Potter. given by Mr. and Mrs. Duncan MacD.
under Mr. Little’s general supervision “The one which I am proposing to Little in the spring of 1929; there
by a committee of qualified judges, you would include films of slightly were twelve guests. At the last party,
probably again including Eileen Creel- earlier vintage, prints of most of held in April of this year, there were
man, motion picture critic of The Sun. which I suspect are in your files.” —
335 all of whom, it should be related,
“Mr. Little had expressed a hope To this magazine the suggestion remained to the enthusiastic close of
that, perhaps by 1939, the party “sounds good.” Whatever may be the evening-.
would take on the aspect of an inter- done by this publication to further the “In the early days,” writes Mr.
national salon, but now Columbia project being conducted by Mr. and Little, “few of the films were really
will bring that into being a year Mrs. Little and Columbia University good, but in 1937 only one was not
earlier, and make it an event separate we shall consider it an honor to do. excellent, at least in some respect;
from the mainly American program. It istrue that in the not-quite archives most were excellent in many re-
“Probably ten nations will be rep- of The Cinematographer are some spects.”
resented by films chosen in competi- excellent examples of eai’lier amateur Following the Eighth Annual Movie
tions sponsored by amateur cinema films. Continued on Page 261
252 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

Tests were made of the completely

polished surface, using a wave length
of light for detecting possible flaws.



Ladd Observatory
at Brown

university’s plans to
B observe the solar eclipse of June
8, 1937, were started in 1932, immedi-
ately after the total eclipse of August
31 of that year. Clouds had prevented

SHOOT ECLIPSE the observation of that eclipse by the

Brown astronomers at Sweden, Me.
When and where would be the next
total solar eclipse which they might
hope to observe ?
Professor Smiley of Brown University The eminent American astronomer
Simon Newcomb had suggested back
in Peru with F-1 Schmidt Lens-Mirror in 1879 that the total solar eclipses
of 1937, 1955 and 1973 would be un-
Camera Seeking Record Coronal Result usually fine ones. Professor Charles
H. Smiley and Paul Eberhart set
GOAL about computing the path of totality

H IS a Peru mountain top,

Prof. Charles H. Smiley, directoi-
of the Ladd Observatory at
Brown University, has sailed for
make it
fast camera, however, will
possible for Prof. Smiley to
use color filters and eliminate all but
the more direct red rays of the sun.
for this eclipse of June 8, 1937.
The computations indicated a dura-
tion of totality of slightly more than
South America to photograph a total He expects to get a comparatively seven minutes, but Sarah Anne Is-
land, the only island shown on maps
eclipse of the sun June 8, using what small photograph of the actual ecLpse,
in the region most favorable for ob-
is believed to be the fastest astro- with most of the negative exposed to
nomical camera ever built. He expects catch the image of the long tongues servation, proved not to exist. The
to record more of the sun’s outer of gaseous fire in the corona as they only land from which the eclipse can
corona than has been possible before. shoot out for millions of miles into be observed as total proves to be a
The camera has a lens speed of f:l space. few small islands in the South Seas
and a Schmidt lens-mirror system Unusual Factors and the coastal region of northern
which had to be ground and polished Prof. Smiley’s assistants, Harry A.
to within one-millionth of an inch of
Of the islands in the South Seas,
MacKnight, Donald S. Reed and
there were Mary, Christmas and En-
perfection. Prof. Smiley and his as- Frederick W. Hoffman, completed the
sistants have taken more than a year
derbury. Mary Island is sometimes
camera at Brown’s Ladd Observatory.
to build the camera, after optical
called Canton Island. At Christmas
They then shipped it to Prof. Smiley’s
Island, the sun will be higher in the
companies refused to undertake such head(|uarters in Pasadena. Mr. Mac-
sky at the time of the eclipse than
a delicate problem. Knight designed and built two
at the other islands, which is a de-
machines to do the major part of the cided advantage, but the island is so
To Peru with Camera
tooling; Mr. Reed was in charge of
near the southern edge of the path
The eclipse,which will last longer most of the fine optical work, and
of totality that it will not be con-
than any other in more than 100 Mr. Hoffman has contributed mathe-
sidered by observers. Totality will
years, will begin its totality at sun- matical calculations.
last a few seconds at the northern tip;
rise north of the Fiji Islands and The Schmidt camera will record a
the eclipse will not be seen as total
swing northward in an 8000-mile arc, field of20 astronomi'’al degrees, as
on the southern part of the island.
150 miles wide, across the equator to compared with less than the one de-
the tenth parallel. gree maximum scope of the reflector Peru Best Spot
Here the period of totality will be or ordinary type camera. Light rays
seven minutes and seven seconds. The are drawn through the four-inch lens Best located for observation of the
path of darkness will then turn to a spherical mirror, six inches in eclipse will be Enderbury Island,
southward, crossing the equator west diameter, at the back of the camera. where the eclipse will be seen as total
of the Galapagos Islands, ending in From the mirror the rays are record- an hour and a half after sunrise.
Peru at sunset. ed on one-inch film. The camera is Totality will last about four minutes
With no convenient islands in the to have a four-inch aperture and a there, but the island is hardly more
path of the eclipse. Prof. Smiley will four-inch focal length, with a focal than a sand bar standing only a few
select a vantage point on some coastal ratio, or lens speed, of f:l. feet above high tide. It will be dif-
mountain in Peru. Accompanied by ficult if not impossible to land the
an Indian guide, he expects to explore One-Millionth Inch necessary scientific equipment on this
the coastal range north of Chimbote The most delicate part of construct- island.
to find a location above the coastal ing the camera has been the grinding Mary (or Canton, if you
fog. This means that he will work and polishing of the lens and mirror. choose) only slightly better
from an altitude of at least 3,009 feet. Mr. MacKnight constructed special facilities for landing equipment. There
Conditions will not be ideal for abrasive machinery to grind and the sun will be about as high as at
photographing the eclipse, according polish the pyrex glass miri’or and lens Enderbury Island, but duration will
to Prof. Smiley. The sun will be low to within one one-thousandth of an be onlv about three minutes and a
on the horizon and light rays will be inch of perfection. The final touches half.
distorted by the atmosphere, although — polishing the lens with a fine From a point in the coast range of
the period of totality will last about —
powder brought the lens to within Peru, between Chimbote and Huaraz.
three and one-half minutes. one-millionth of an inch of perfection. the total phase of the eclipse will
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 253

last about three minutes and a half, Schmidt camera. These film discs, to the red end of the spectrum. This
but totality occurs only about half an one and one-half inches in diameter, film will use both the light emitted
hour before sunset and the sun will will be used to photograph the outer and that reflected by the corona in an
be only about eight degrees above atmosphere of the sun using only effort to record the outer corona.
the horizon. light emitted by the corona itself, Back in 1878 S. P. Langley observed
most of which is in the green. (Wave- a total solar eclipse and reported he
Charles (Cine) Coles Present length about 5303 Angstroms, if one was able to see coronal streamers of
chooses to be technical.) These green- a length twelve times the diameter
The plans of the group of American sensitive films arrived and one of the of the sun. No photograph has ever
astronomers which will go under the two dozen discs was used in a sensito- shoxvm as much of the corona as man
leadership of Dr. S. A. Mitchell of the metric test to determine their speed. has seen, partly because of the short-
University of Virginia to observe the
It was very pleasing to find that the ness of the duration of totality and
eclipse from Mary Island or Ender-
films not only are of very high speed partly because of the slowness of the
bux'y Island are already well known
but also possess a wide latitude, that cameras used. We hope we may be
through the newspapers and will be are not so likely to be overex-
is, able to record with our f:l Schmidt
presented again by numerous broad-
posed or underexposed. A number of camera, the fastest astronomical cam-
casts over nation-wide networks.
these green-sensitive films are to be era ever to go on an eclipse expedi-
To Peru will be going another group used in photographing the southern tion, more of the corona than man
of American astronomers under the
night skies. will see.
leadership of Dr. Clyde Fisher of the
To take at most four photographs
American Museum of Natural History. 8000 Miles for Four Shots
of the eclipse, I shall travel eight
This party will occupy two observing
The other photographs will be taken thousand miles and be away from the
sites in the Andes in northern Peru.
on an extremely fast supersensitive United States seven weeks. Fortu-
Dr. Clyde Fisher, Miss Dorothy A.
panchromatic film, probably a hyper- nately the prospects of clear skies are
Bennett and Charles Coles of the
sensitized to increase its sensitivity very good.
American Museum of Natural History
and Dana K. Bailey of the University
of Arizona will observe the eclipse
with photographic and photometric
equipment from a point near Cerro
de Pasca.
To a point between Chimbote and
Huaraz will go Dr. J. A. Miller of
Swarthmore College, Dr. S. A. Korff of
Carnegie Institution and this writer.
Dr. Miller and Dr. Korff will photo-
graph the solar corona with long-
focus cameras; the writer will use the
short-focus f:l Schmidt camera, the
fastest camera ever to be used on an
eclipse expedition, in an attmpt to
photograph the outer parts of the
solar corona.
Three weeks were spent in the
study of photographic materials. The
type of film, the color of the filter and
the sort of developer to be used were
important considerations. Besides re-
reading the standard authoritative
books, I consulted experts on each of
these subjects. There is probably no
place in the world with a greater con-
centration of professional photogra-
phers than Southern California.

Host of Photographers

At Mt. Wilson Observatory are

many of the world’s leading astro-
nomical photographers; eight of them
are members of the National Academy
of Science. And only a few miles
away in Hollywood are many tech-
nical experts responsible for the splen-
did photographic quality of American
motion pictures. In an industry using —
Assembling the ivorld’s fastest astronomical camera Dr. Paul Eberhart
thousands of miles of film each year and Frederick C. Hoffman installing the central unit of the Schmidt
all kinds of photographic problems
camera which Prof. Charles H. Smiley of Brown University took with
are met and solved.
him when he sailed for Peru to photograph the total eclipse of the sun
on June 8. The top ring of the central unit will contain the caynera's
Two kinds of photographs will be mirror; the middle rmg, a special supersensitive fibn; and the lower
taken, one on green-sensitive film and
dark ring, the camera’s complicated lens, which is convex in the middle,
the other on red-sensitive. The green- coyicave around the edges, and polished to unthin one ynillionth of an
sensitive film was especially prepared inch of perfection. Machinery at the base of the camera will turyi it in
by the Eastman Kodak Company’s time with the sun. The lower end of the caynera as shown here will be
research department for use in our pohited toward the sini wheyi Prof. Syniley takes his eclipse pictures.
254 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

Dr.Roy E. Gerstenkorn Home
from Ten Months' World Tour
Packing 10,000 Feet of 16mm
ROY GERSTENKORN, thing very much worth while not in hungry men and women and children.

D r. E.
Los Angeles physician, member
of the Los Angeles Cinema Club,
is home from a ten months’ tour of
spite of but because of the rain.
The doctor sailed west from the
Pacific Coast, touching Japan, China,
The doctor told of a vessel that was
wrecked, with its back breaking as
a consequence. Hungry peasants
the world. With him and most care- Ceylon, Equatorial and South Africa saved the lives of passengers and
fully guarded were more than ten and South America. In China he crew. They took the rescued ashore
thousand feet of exposed 16mm film. traveled 1600 miles up the Yang-tse, and robbed them. Then they returned
Recreation had been his primary mo- through the land of floods and drouth, to the craft and stripped it of every-
tive. Making a photographic record of devastation and starvation ascend-
thing of any conceivable value. The
of his trip had been secondary in im- ed the stream where great junks ac- British, French and American navies

portance by that meaning that re- tually are towed against the current maintain patrol boats, but it is a
gardless of the weather he continued by man power, by swimming men en- long river.
on his duly appointed way. If it tirely naked tugging at ropes that
Japanese Sequence Strong
rained he photographed what he saw serve as sole means of motivation.
Dr. Gerstenkorn up to the middle of
that seemed to be of interest. He It was through a country known
would not wait for the clouds to to the outside world as that of ban-
May had cut but 1600 feet of the
dits. Actually it was a country of
10,000 he had exposed. These were
break. And sometimes he got some-
800 feet of Japanese and an equal
amount of African equatorial country.
There had not been time to satisfy
his not unnatural curiosity to dis-
cover what the fates held for him in
what so far is a sealed book.
The Japanese section is of high
rank as an educational and a travelog.
It is a study of the Japanese as a
people, as a cross section of the life
of a nation by one who seems to be
an admirer of the race as he found
it on its native heath —
in the home
and at work, as a tiller of the soil
and as a craftsman and an artist.
The people plainly have welcomed
the photographer, have gone out of
their way to put themselves and their
work and occasionally their play on
the record. Not only do we see those
who live in the crowded cities. We
along with the doctor out into the
highways away from the crowd, to a
Japan that is new to many Ameri-

cans a Japan where the women seem
to feel entirely clothed when what-
ever garb adox’ns them is suspended
entirely from the waist, and with
naught above. Certainly it is a pa-
tient, an industrious and a cordial
Lioness leaves kill and strolls right up to car as it slowed to a stop. Lady one of the first race.
of her breed Dr. Gerstenkorn encountered on trip. She was not exactly cordial. Photo en-
larged from 16mm. Camera turned within less than ten feet of object. Added to the Japanese chapter are
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 255

several sequences of life on the Chi- terror. Its upon the feelings
effect to medicinal use the venom of the bad
nese river boats. These are of unusual even mitigated the contempt which boys.
intimacy. The photographer has gone humans with all other animals unani- These were at Port Elizabeth,
into the thick of the uncounted fleet, mously share against the hyena. And Africa, and Sao Paulo, Brazil. At the
touched elbows with men and women incidentally the wild dog rates a close former a demonstration was given
who rarely or even may never have second to the hyena in the contempt by a native protected by gloves and
set foot on solid ground. world championship. puttees. At the other institution a
We see a native dip a big tin into There was another shot the doctor white man is shown without gloves
the Yang-tse, polluted beyond the muffed while in the Dark Continent. handling these naturally somewhat
conception of a Westerner, and pi*o- That was when a rhino charged a nervous children and demonstrating
ceed to brew a pot of tea. It is the railroad train —
and derailed the train the method of extracting the virus. A
boiling, explains the physician, that and incidentally also rather marred hooded cobra will be rested on the
makes life possible among the tens of the contour of his own somewhat un- broad brim of the operator’s hat. The
thousands who live on these craft. cordial physiognomy. reptile will strike repeatedly at his
In Africa the doctor entered at The doctor recalled an experience fellows tangled in the hands of the
Mombasa and traveled to Nairobi, to he encountered in an unforgotten demonstrator, but is unable to direct
Tanganyika and Lorenzo Marques, river in Uganda. The white hunter a blow at the face that is under the
south to Cape Town and back to Vic- and the crew knew there were rhinos —
hat which of course in a way
toria Falls. While he had been in under the surface, but yelling and helps to explain his presence on his
Northern Africa previously it was shouting failed to bring a single head particular perch.
his introduction to Equatorial and above water. The institutions are large and con-
South Africa. duct an extensive business.
The season was well ad-
rainy Come L^p ’n’ See Me Doctor
Gerstenkorn cai’ried with
vanced, and the country correspond- The boat was slid near the shore him on his tour Eastman super and
ingly was in excellent condition. So, and a native jumped to the bank. panchromatic film and Agfa and
too, were the lions physically, as the There in the moist soil he gently pat- some Plenachrome. He tropically
photographer learned when he reached ted a bare foot. As if in response to packed his own stock, medically tap-
their country. There was a ready ad- a straight telegram the heads of a ing each box in 100-foot packages.
mission on his part that although he dozen rhinos came inquiringly to the After taping he dipped each box in
photographed at least thirty of the so- surface. There they remained for melted paraffine. He encountered no
called king of beasts he experienced several moments and then submerged. film trouble. At no time following ex-
a continuing thrill when laying a That is, all did with one exception. posure w*as it necessary to delay de-
camera on them. One old bull remained slyly on watch. velopment more than six weeks.
One of the thrills the doctor One of the chief difficulties the doc-
Shooting in the Rain brought home with him was the film tor encountei*ed in a photographic
record he made at two snake farms, way was in the equatorial sector.
In some instances the creatures one in Africa and the other in South There his light meter refused to func-
were so near their bodies* were close America, institutions where poisonous tion as it did in all the other many
to the fenders or headlights in one— snakes are bred and raised for the thousands of miles he traveled in the
the great “dead pan” being ranged purpose of extracting and converting ten months.
alongside the machine’s headlight, as
he was “shot” through an open wind-
One of the more striking sequences
was that of a group of giraffes photo-
graphed in a driving rainstorm dur-
ing the equatorial afterglow that fol-
lows the setting of the sun. Behind
the lighter colored grassy plain across
which the animals were strolling was
a heavy and strikingly dark, massive
grove of trees. Behind that stretched
a gi’eat plain lighter in color direct
to the horizon. The sky carried a
weirdly yellowish or near amber as-
pect for a black and white film. But
it was a shot any photographer
secretly or othex'wise would experi-
ence a thrill in bringing home. And
the rain was falling and the sun was
down under.
It was on one of these early eve-
nings when Dr. Gerstenkorn wit-
nessed and also heard a fight be-
tween wild dogs and hyenas. The
glow had faded too far to make pos-
sible a picture, even with the fastest
film. But very vivid in the doctor’s
memory was the scream, terrified and
pitifully appealing, that marked the
fall of one hyena. In vocal quality it
had a creeping resemblance to the cry Three grown-up and two baby hippos clamber up the bank of a stream a couple of hundred
feet wide and emerge from genuine African jungle. The photographic light had so failed it
of the human feminine in deathly was a question whether any discoverable result would be obtained. Taken from 16mm film.

256 American Cinematographer • June, 1937


HERE’S NOTHING particularly First Set Sum You Can Spend
T new about putting vacation movie-
making on a dollars-and-cents and Then if Possible Outline

budget. Lots of us do that some be-
Kind of Pictures You'd Keep
cause we have to, others simply be-
cause we want to.
But did you ever think of putting
what your vacation camerawork ought of a vacation yours is going to be
vacation moviemaking on an idea
to concentrate upon. whether it is a “Where” vacation, a
budget? It pays!
You have de-
will in all probability “What,” “Who” or “How.” This
What’s the trouble with most va-
termined already how much film you isn’t nearly as difficult as it seems,
cation movies?
wish to shoot and whether you will however, if you take the time to an-
Nine times out of ten it is that
use black-and-white or color. From alyze your plans.
the result on the screen fails to repro-
what the vacationer really past experience you will have a pretty
fair idea of the allowances to be
wanted to capture in celluloid. In- Just Plan Your Trip
stead of showing the things he wanted
made for your own shortcomings for —
to remember —the things that made NG’d scenes and the like.
So by now you know what should
Suppose you’re one of those pros-
the particular place he visited, or the perous people who plan to vacation in
particular thing he did, different from be the main interest of your vacation Hawaii. Generally speaking, a trip

anything else his camera all too filming and how much film you can
allow yourself to shoot. Since few
like this is definitely a “Where” story.
often catches only ordinary things, Outside of perhaps half-a-dozen shots
pictures can confine themselves ex- made on the boat and (if possible)
people and events that might just as
well have been filmed anywhere if — clusively to answering one question,
allow some footage for these supple-
one or two of it, your real story
they should, indeed, have been filmed needn’t concern itself with any part
mentary answers. Then, if you force
of the boat trip beyond simply es-
at all. In effect, he has set up a
yourself to say no to every sugges- fact that you sailed
budget of film-footage for himself, tablishing the
tion of filming anything that doesn’t from such-and-such a port on such a
and then squandered it recklessly on
non-essentials. have its definite part in this scheme, boat and got to Honolulu. Unless
The budget idea is fundamentally your film must inevitably tell the luck should bring you some unusual-
story you want it to tell. interesting shipmate like Mrs.
good, but if it is to work satisfactorily ly
it should be extended to cover not The biggest problem, of course, is Roosevelt or Greta Garbo, you needn’t
alone the film used but the subjects in recognizing beforehand what kind expend film on your fellow-travelers;
upon which that film is exposed. they’llbe forgotten as soon as you’ve
Every motion picture has, or should crossed the gang-plank.
have, a story to tell; not necessarily The same is true also of chance-
a dramatic plot with heroes, villains Pass the Word Along met travelers in Hawaii. You’ll prob-
and clinches, but something that can ably never see them again; you pi’ob-
answer one or more of these simple
ometimes when you are out ably won’t remember them; they cer-
questions; “Where?” “What?” S on a hunt for worthwhile tainly won’t be greatly different from
“Who?” “How?” Every picture that shots and things happen that in the folks you’d meet at home or any-
is worth looking at must answer your experience are quite out of
the ordinary, things that have

where else so why waste film on
at least one of them. them ?
interest for you and which you
Fortunately, too, every imaginable Once in Hawaii your real story be-
type of vacation can in itself be classi-
have no reason to believe would gins, and it is very definitely a
fied under one of those four head-
not interest others: “Where” story. You’ve used un per-
At your first opportunity
ings. haps twenty-five feet (16mm.) of your
write us about it.
film supply establishing the fact that
Get Bearings First you have bumped into a
you traveled to the Islands. The re-
snag which we may help to clear mainder of your shooting should con-
The way, then, to start off on this
up we’ll try to do just that. And cern itself with the really character-
business of budgeting your vacation- if you unaided have surmounted
istic things you see there.
film ideas is to sit down and decide
something new to you in the Allow a minimum of footage for
whether your vacation memories will way of difficulties so much the
be most concerned with the “Where?” scenes that show Honolulu to be, in
better for reader interest. spite of its location, a thoroughly
of the vacation, the “What?”, the
But pass the word along. modern American city. Because it is
“Who?” or the “How?” Once you
such a city, it is in itself no more
know that you can immediately tell
— —

June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 257

interesting your purpose than

for is much where you went or
not so as a personal record of the trip for
Keokuk or Des Moines. how you went there, but what you yourself and those who fished with
What you will really want to show did when you got there, your picture you. Here, again, though in a differ-
the folks back home is the scenic ought to confine itself largely to tell- ent way, your camera should keep
beauty of Hawaii; the pineapple and ing “What.” Let’s say you trek to itself largely to saying “Who” rather
sugar fields; Kilauea and the firepits; the Rogue River country of Oregon than “Where,” “What” or “How.”
Waikiki and Diamond Head, and the to go fishing, or to the Rockies or
really characteristic phases of Hawai- Switzerland to climb mountains.
Don’t Bore Visitors
ian native life. The Hula dancers and The important thing here is what
surfboard riders are just as much a you are doing rather than where you
part of the “Where” of your story do it or who you are. So makei your Make just enough non-personal

as is Diamond Head and where else picture show visually the things and scenes to show that you fished in the
Rogue River rather than in Hudson
in the territorial United States could actions you would describe someone if
you duplicate the shots of the fellow asked you what you did. Your main Bay, and that you caught steelhead
who so unctuously munches a wrig- suppTementary phase would concern rather than catfish; but concentrate
gling, very animatedly uncooked fish? itself mainly with adding details on the really characteristic actions of
showing how you caught salmon or the members of your party. Finally
Get the Novel how you climbed the Matterhorn. keep a film like this definitely for
showings to the folks sure to be in-
Keep your camera trained on these Plant Identity of Locale —
terested in it your immediate circle
of fellow-fishermen, their families and
things, insofar as possible, avoiding
showing modernities in the back- And when does the “Who” take the friends. For no matter how good you
ground or tourists in the foreground spotlight as the main interest of your make such a personal record film it
of your shots, and you will bring back vacation epic ? Only when, in describ- is not suitable as general entertain-

the kind of a picture you want, wfithin ing your vacation, you would natu- ment.
the footage you planned. rally stress with whom you vacationed Finally, if circumstancs (including
On the other hand, suppose you rather than where or how you did it. fate and the wife) force you to lens
make the same trip by air, on the If, for instance, you had the good “Who” shots during a “Where,”
China Clipper. In this case your pic- fortune to hobnob with the players in “What” or “How” vacation, try to
ture should have much more to say Hollywood, everyone would be inter- have the courage to cut them out of
about the “How” of your trip. Fully ested in those you were with. They your final picture before they have a
half of the footage can well be de- would be more interesting than any chance to bore outsiders who want to
voted to telling how you made the possible shots of Hollywood’s scenery see Hawaii rather than Aunt Lizzie or
trip. Go into detail about it. or your trip out on the latest stream- the shipboard cut-up. This hard-boiled
If you can, arrange to be at the liner. cutting may require diplomatic ex-
Alameda airport well ahead of time To touch a more familiar picture plaining, but it makes a better if
if possible, spend a day or so there possibility, suppose you take your shorter picture. Best of all, budget
before you start. Get a shot of the camera on a fishing trip and plan to your ideas as you would your film, and
inbound Clipper landing. Get shots make your films not to entertain your you’ll have nothing to explain or ex-
of the field organization the me- — friends and club members but simply cuse!
chanics tuning up the motors the —
radio operators at the station at their

work the pilots checking weather-

maps the baggage, the mail and ex-
press cargoes being weighed in and

Plan for Inter-Cut

Then show the passengers coming

aboard, the hatches being closed, and
the plane taking off. If you can
manage to film another take-off, it
will help, for you can inter-cut this
scene with shots you make from your
own ship on its take-off. Show San
Francisco falling below and behind

you aside from its story value, it is
one of the most beautiful cities in
the world from the air.
Then get any shots en route that
may seem interesting: passing over
an ocean liner —
interesting cloud
formations —
and shots inside the
plane showing how your fellow pas-
sengers enjoyed the flight. Finally
show the landing and, if you can, a
long-shot of another Clipper landing,
to be inter-cut as you did the take-
off shots. From there on your story
of Hawaii will be the same as though
you had reached the Islands by boat.
If, on the other hand, the really
Close-up of i>eon woman acting as human bellows for the fire under her tortillas is much more
important thing about your vacation important to a vacation film of a trip to Mexico than shots of your fellow travelers.
258 American Cinematographer • June, 1937


DR. SEASE OF DUPONT TALKS only the regulation lighting that is
employed in an operating room.
The various films shown were well
TO PHILADELPHIA CINE CLUB received by the members, the meeting
breaking up at about 11:30 P.M.
PHILADELPHIA, May 14.— The the Eastman Special, and exhibited to
Chairman of Publications Committee.
May meeting of the Philadelphia Cin- a great extent the versatility of that
ema Club was held in the Crystal machine. CHICAGO CINEMA CLUB
Room of the Hotel Adelphia. Over One of our new members, H. Nelson The Chicago Cinema Club is the
forty members were present, and we Lewis, exhibited his film entitled “The oldest incorporated amateur movie
had the pleasure of voting on two S. S. Wood Minsti’el Show.” This was club in the United States. May 21 was
additional members, both of the an 8mm film in black and white, taken the tenth anniversary of its first
female sex. indoors, and was Mr. Lewis’s first meeting, which was held in the
The principal speaker of the eve- effort. He used to a great extent an Charles Harrison Early American
ning was the very well-known Dr. V. ordinary wall-clock to note the pas- Room.
B. Sease, ASC, who director of the
is sage of time in the film. May the club held its business
Red Path Laboratory of the DuPont Arthur J. Hurth, one of our char- meeting and a film analysis, the latter
Company, of Parian, N. J. While Dr. ter members, exhibited an 8mm
film conducted by Charlie Wyman. It was
Sease’s subject was listed as “Cine in color, taken during the past year, announced the next analysis would be
Emulsions,” his field of covei’age was and showed what good results can be June 3 and that to insure a subject’s
quite broad. secured by a proper understanding of screening on that date it would be
Among the highlights from his the machine and the subject. necessary to register it before.
speech was the fact that color photog- J. C. Stuessi of 2107 Irving Park- May 13 was Victor Animatograph
raphy had its inception back in 1861, way, Chicago, 111., had requested night. Don Oliver was in charge of
when Clark Maxwell discovered that members of the Philadelphia Cinema the program. The feature was the
by using three filters of the primary Club to take pictures for him of vari- screening of Dr. Albrecht’s “Wild
red, green, and blue he could repro- ous scenes in and around Philadel- Life of the West and Northwest.” The
duce any color desired, using at that phia of historical importance, sending doctor is chief taxidermist of Field
time what was known as the addi- the Club several hundred feet of film, Museum.
tive process. He called attention fur- in order that the pictures could be May 20 the club conducted one of
ther to the fact that the faster the
developer the more graininess, and
taken. These films have been com-
pleted, and were run off at the meet-
its —
popular features an auction of
“cinematic articles,” etc. The auc-
that change from carbonate devel- ing, before being sent to Chicago. tioneer handles two kinds of “ar-
opers to borax developers slows up The Cinema Club of the Oranges ticles,” these being such as may be
the action, but to a great extent of Orange, N. J., issued an invitation given to the club and those which are
makes a better film emulsion. to the Philadelphia Cinema Club to to be sold for the individual, the club
The speaker showed by lantern attend their Ladies Night in Mont- retaining 10 percent of the returns.
slides the action that takes place clair,N. J. Usually there is entertainment as well
with the different types of silver bro- The invitation came by way of Dr. as profit in the proceedings.
mide crystals, and that the modern Bowersox, one of our members. Dr. The feature of the evening, how-
formula has sulphate included in it Bowersox also exhibited a film taken ever, was the illustrated lecture by
to hold down the lumps of silver, and at the Underwood Hospital, indicat- H. K. Shigeta on “Composition in
thus makes a better emulsion. ing medical operations performed be- Cinematography.” The lecturer is one
He also brought out that when fore the camera, and with the use of of the country’s successful photog-
using a slower developer it is well to raphers and is connected with the
open your lens one stop. Among the Shigeta-Wright studio.
specialties mentioned were the use of At the last business meeting of the
an infra-red film to cut down the club,James P. Fitzwater was elected
blue and take night scenes in broad president to succeed Mr. Shelter re-
daylight; the only objection being signed. Sherman Arpp was chosen
that it turns foliage white. He also vice president. Peter S. Bezek contin-
pointed out that the modern techni- ues as secretary. The editor of News
color process is practically similar to Flashes, the club’s newspaper, is S.
a lithographic action, in the fact that F. Warner.
the colors are applied to the film in
practically the same manner. METROPOLITAN, NEW YORK
A rising vote of thanks was ex- The May bulletin of the Metropoli-
tended to Dr. Sease for his very fine tan Motion Picture Club of New York
lecture and answering of questions at is one of the more interesting examples
the open meeting. of these publications of the amateur
Eugene Lutz of the Philadelphia cinematographers. Most of these
Cinema Club exhibited his color film —
journals in fact, it may be said all
entitled,“Dora Lutz and Her Easter Dr. Gerstenkorn of L. A. Cinema Club leans that so far have come to the editor’s
Flowers.” This had been taken with over African gunboy as latter removes horns
from animal killed for the Commissary —
desk are woi’ks of love, a manifes-
With the Lens Extension Tube
Outfit lens fields may be narrowed
to .047 ol an inch in width.

The Electric Motor Drives permit

automatic or remote control for the
making of many advanced effecte.

The Electric Release Control Out-

fit permits intermittent exposures
by electrical or remote control.

Eastman's Finest 16 mm, Movie Camera

CINE-KODAK SPECIAL The Reflex Finder Image Magni-
fier reproduces an enlarged Reficx
Finder image.

rom the standpoints

F of ability and performance, the Special is unquestionably
the most remarkable 1() mm. camera ever produced.
The basic model of Cine-Kodak Special offers unique and exclusive refinements such
as adjustable opening shutter, camera speeds from 8 to 64 frames per second, a reflex
finder permitting ground glass focusing, interchangeable 100- and '200-foot film cham-
bers, one- and eight-frame hand cranks for forward or reverse film winding, single frame
release, individual foot meter, single frame counter, double lens turret, mask slot be-
tween lens and film. Fades, dissolves, double and multiple exposures, mask shots, slow

motion analysis, animation all these advanced effects are with this basic model.
Wide though its range, even greater versatility is made possible by eight interchange-
able, ranging from wide angle to 6-inch telephoto, and accessories such as
shown at the right. A free booklet tells the complete storv.
Eastman Kodak Companv, ‘
The Optical Finder corrects paral-
lax,shows the field, at all distances,
Rochester, N. Y. of all focal length lenses.
! —
260 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

tation of the enthusiasm that seems We wei'e fortunate in having

to be a part of the make-up of the a unique demonstration of making
amateur cine follower.
Famous Last Words our own sound records by M. S. Sel-
Robert M. Coles is the secretary of
the Metropolitan and Edith J. Schroe-
der is the editor. The bulletin is of one
O VERHEARD at a home show-
ing of amateur films:
“Annie, don’t be a simp
vage of the Radiotone Equipment
Company. The microphone was passed
around to several members and ex-
8 }^ by 11 inch sheet printed on both Don’t let Frank buy that cam- pressions on how they enjoyed the
sides. The title “Close-Up” is printed era he’s talking about. If you club were recorded. The reproduction
at the top of a reverse plate 1% do there’ll be no more new was perfect. Next a film by one of
by 2 inches. Across the center is sil- dresses, no more —
And when the club members and secretary was
houtted in white the skyline of Little it comes to a fur coat mmm,— projected and remarks made. The
Old N. Y. In prolongation on each well, you take it from me. film then was reprojected and the
side is a roll of film. Across the bot- Don’t!” recording played back.
tom are the initials M. P. P. C. M. R. ARMSTRONG, Secretary.
The first department is under the T
caption of “Hear Ye! Hear Ye!” At
the left of the caption is a cut of a held in the Auditorium of Eastman How the Teoreys Shot
bell in hand. (Just on the quiet, it Kodak Company, May 11. ‘The Golf Widow’ Cast
looks suspiciously like a picture of Five new members were announced
he four-page May bulletin of the
the ancient bronze symbol that in
other years anyway rested over the
by Vice President John E. Walter.
Robert W. Teorey, William K. Rand,
T Los Angeles 8mm Club, which is
door of the Bell in Hand Tavern in edited by the club’s secretary, M. R.
Jack Scull, Victor I. Becker, and Dr.
Pie Alley, just at the foot of the stairs Ai'mstrong, assisted by E. J. Brouil-
Marshall A. Carter were the new
that mounted to the composing room lette, Jr., contains a few lines from
members listed.
of the Boston Herald. The ac- Bessie May Teorey descriptive of the
No. 2 of the official publication of
companying memory execution of the scrapbook idea for
inscription, if the Club, Thru the Filter, was passed
was “1797.” But surely that is introducing a cast. The writer is the
serve, among the members.
not a part of this story.) wife of Sergt. Teorey, whose talent
President Loscher asked for an ex-
The introductory paragraph re- for inventing gadgets for use by
pression of the showing of “The
ferred to the growing attendance, fol- Covered Wagon” at our next regular
amateurs was uncovered at length in
lowed by the program of screenings the two pi’eceding issues of this mag-
meeting, and the members were in
for May 13. The contributors were azine.
favor of having this popular pi’oduc-
John J. Klaber, Miss Alice Wright, tion shown. We were reminded that
The Teoreys recently produced
James H. Anderson, Dr. Nelson W. an admission charge of 10 cents would
“The Golf Widow,” which was shown
Lockwood and Edwin T. Schwai’z. at a recent meeting of the club. Mrs.
be made to defray the cost of the
The topic of the Round Table discus- rental of the film.
Teorey is as enthusiastic and as tal-
sion, under the leadership of Mr. was given ented an amateur as is her husband,
The technical committee
Carbonaro, was “How and When to more time to devote to its usual who in his capacity as sergeant of
Use Filtei’s.” Under this is a run- period and the members came well marines now is somewhere in the
Pacific near Honolulu. But let Mrs.
around cut of a chef. To his right is prepared to ask many interesting
the word “Announcing” in script fol- questions.
Teorey tell her own story:
lowed in the text typewriter by the R. E. Merville, who is an occasional The Low Down
address of the dinner meeting. visitor to our club and who always
In fact, I’un-around cuts are a fea- conies prepared to show us something “For sometime I had wanted to in-

ture of the make-up of Close-Up. They “new” in the line of 8mm equipment, troduce a film story with a scrapbook
are planted with that regard for com- demonstrated a new Siemens 8mm idea, the pages turning to introduce
position which should guide the editor Camera he had just purchased. His the cast, so when we were ready to
as well as the photographer. And demonstration proved to be very in- shoot our quickie, ‘The Golf Widow,’
there are eleven of these. teresting as well as educational. I bought an ordinary scrapbook that

The M. M. P. C. has its 16mm We were most happy to welcome had a dark green burlap cover, hav-
group and its 8mm group. Among the former President Dr. Henry Linek ing in mind using white letters on it
subjects shown were those by Miss back to the club. He has been ill for for a contrast and black lettering on
Burt and Mr. Maitland, in both of several months. the white filler pages.
which titles and films have been de- C. G. Cornell was called upon to “Mr. Teorey did all of the necessary
veloped by themselves Of peculiar in- give us a report on “News Items” and hand printing in two days. The re-
terest perhaps to many who may be reminded us of a very interesting ar- sults he obtained were far beyond
unacquainted with members of the ticle in the American Cinematogra- my expectations, so of course I was
club is the announcement that Mr. pher Magazine on “Titles and how more enthusiastic than ever. He
Hollywood showed the club’s first they are made,” by Robert W. Teorey, fastened fine black threads to the up-
slow-motion 8mm picture. one of our club members. per corners of the pages, tying a
The second page was devoted to A1 Leitch of the social committee white button on the end of the
“Discussions and Screenings at April conducted a short discussion on the threads and laying them out in oi’der
Meeting.” We regret lack of space possibilities of the club having a pic- beyond camera range. We had ob-
forbids our going into these in detail, nic on a Sunday in the near future. tained a remnant of drape damask
for in the text there is much that It was suggested July would be ap- which I crushed around the book.
will attract the amateur solely for its propriate and it was decided to have “This gave the picture depth and
general interest. an open discussion regarding such a made for excellent highlighting. As I

picnic at the next meeting. turned the pages slowly, he read the
T Mr. Cadarette, chairman of the by- titles through one and a half times.
laws committee, reported progress of “Many things were learned during
LOS ANGELES 8MM CLUB the filming of this story; one is
the committee in the drawing of by-
The regular meeting of the Los laws, and we were promised by next keep the action of players smooth and
Angeles Eight Millimeter Club was meeting they would be ready. unhurried in all scenes!”

June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 261

New Eastman Sound Projector
Merit to each film selected for screen-
ing and a leader to read “Selected for
Exhibition at the First International
Amateur Movie Show, Columbia Uni-
Demonstrated at Convention versity, April 1938.”

There are no fees or dues for entry.

Amateurs the world around are
submit films
O NE OF THE surprises of the Spring-
convention of the Society of
Motion Picture Engineers was the
is curved to minimize buck-
and the f:1.6 lens compensates
for the necessarily curved field. The
cordially invited to
through their local or national groups.
Further details may be had by writ-
demonstration of the new 16mm ing to Duncan MacD. Little, 33 West
entire film-moving mechanism works
Sound Kodascope Special by E. C. inan oil bath to minimize wear and Sixty-Seventh Street, New York,
Fi’itts and O. Sandvik of the Kodak
U.S.A., or to Film Study, University
to assure silence. The sound-repro-
Extension, Columbia University, New
Research Laboratories. Designed ap- ducing drum is damped by a suitable
parently as a companion to the Cine York.
flywheel, and is elastically connected
Kodak Special, the new projector is o
to the film movement through a fluid
a de luxe silent or sound projector of drive. EMBASSY IN 16MM SOUND
marked simplicity of operation. The movement is non-reversible, Embassy Talking Picture Produc-
The machine is housed in a silver- and provides two speeds: 16 frames tions, with offices in the Basso Build-
finished case of modernistic design. per second, for silent projection, and ing, Detroit, recently has equipped a
For operation, the forward section of 24 frames for sound. The driving studio for the reproduction of direct
this opens and the feed and take-up motor and the projecting lamp are on 16mm sound pictures. The com-
spindles unfold into place; the former controlled through the same switch so pany is prepared to shoot sound and
directly above the mechanism, the that the lamp cannot endanger the pictures in its studio or on location.
latter below and at right angles to It also is equipped to record sound
film when not running. A 750 watt
the aperture. The sound amplifier and either single or double system and for
lamp was used in the demonstration,
loudspeakers form a separate unit, the dubbing of sound, voice and ef-
drawing power fi-om a separate plug. but it was stated that other sizes
would be available. fects to silent 16mm film.
The latter also powers the sound pre- Industrial, advertising, promotion
amplifier in the projector unit. To rewind film, the upper reel
and personal sound motion pictures
In use, the film is threaded roughly spindle is turned parallel to the lower
will be made to conform to client’s
through the mechanism, and a small one, and the rewinding effected by order.
lever is depressed which automati- a separate motor. Either 400-foot or
cally forms the correct loops. The 1600-foot reels are accommodated.
Eastman Kodak Company an-
nounces a reduction in the price of
Kodachrome film for miniature cam-
COLUMBIA SPONSORS THE LITTLES' PLANS eras. Kodachrome No. K135 and No.
Continued from Page 251 K135A, for photoflood lighting, both
Party, George Blaisdell, editor of the Amateur Movie show, to be given at eighteen exposures, for Kodak Retina
American Cinematographer, wrote the University Wednesday evening,
and similar 35mm. miniature cameras,
is reduced from S3. 50 to S2.50, in-
Mr. Little: “I assure you of my be- April 1938, in McMillin Aca-

that in your work you are doing cluding processing.

lief demic Theater.
something really worthwhile in a The program will be under the per- Kodachrome Film No. K828 and
large way.” sonal supei’vision of Mr. Duncan
K828A for photoflood lighting, both
eight exposures, for Kodak Bantam
Selection of films for exhibition at MacD. Little, member of the Amateur
Special, is reduced from $1*75 to Si. 35,
the Ninth Party will be left to a Cinematographers, of England, the
including processing.
responsible jury, as in the past. All Society of Amateur Cinematogra-
program announcements will be under phers of Hollywood, and the Metro-
the personal direction of Mr. Little. politan Motion Picture Club, of New CASTLE FILMS GROWS
There will be no prizes and no awards York. To meet the demand of expanding
of any kind. Film Study will furnish Mr. Little is himself an amateur business, Castle Films, Inc., is mov-
a leader for each film selected for motion picture photographer of dis- ing to new offices in the R. C. A.
showing, to read “Selected for Exhi- tinction. His film, “The Making of Building, Rockefeller Center, which
bition at Duncan Little’s Ninth An- Canadian Homespun,” has won honor- has been its New York address for
nual Movie Party, under the auspices able mention in England, in Canada, the past four years. Its new projec-
of Film Study of Columbia Univer- and in the United States. Two other tion room, one of the largest in the
sity, April 1928.”
films by Mr. Little were cited for hon- business film field, will be at the dis-
All amateurs are cordially invited orable mention by the American So- posal of organizations which lack
to submit films. There are no fees or ciety Cinematographers “The
of — such facilities.
dues. Further details may be had by Circus Town” and “The St.
Is In
writing Mr. Duncan Little, 33 West Maurice River Canoe Race.” CHILEAN EXHIBITION NOTES
Sixty-Seventh street. New York, or At this first International Amateur According to figures just obtained
to Film Study, Columbia University Movie Show films of outstanding from the Censorship Board, and sub-
Extension, New York. merit and unusual interest will be mitted to the bureau by Assistant
T screened. They will be selected from Trade Commissioner Minedee Mc-
INTERNATIONAL AMATEUR the prize winners in England, Scot- Lean, at Santiago, during the thirteen
MOVIE SHOW land, Czechoslovakia, Austria, Aus- months from January, 1936, to Febru-
Wednesday, April 1938 ,
tralia, Holland, France, and the ary, 1937, that board reviewed a total
Film Study, a division of Columbia United States and Canada. of 533 features, 77.3 percent of which
University Extension, announces with No prizes will be given, but Film were imported from the United States,
great pleasure its first International Study will award a Certificate of and a total of 703 shorts, etc.
262 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

16mm SOUND DISPLACING ardized and the income from 16mm.

sound film is finding increasing use

35mm IN BUSINESS WAY as a medium of propaganda. In the

political campaigns of 1936 in Sweden
both of the two foremost parties made
Abridged from a Paper Presented at the Spring extensive use of 16mm. sound film
Convention of the Society of Motion Picture propaganda. Both expressed them-
Engineers, Held In Hollywood, May 2U, 1937 selves as highly satisfied with the
interest aroused by 16mm. sound-film
By A. SHAPIRO presentation, though only one was sat-
Ampro Corporation isfied with the results of the election.
With regard to the home field it
he 16MM. SOUND picture is to- principle of the educational picture appears that the home 16mm. owner
T day definitely recognized as an
important factor in industrial
publicity and advertising. The schools
must be to educate, and past educa-
tional films have had much more en-
is not ready to purchase 16mm. sound
equipment in any quantities. One
tertainment than educational value. reason for this is probably that so
have accepted it as a valuable con- The necessary art of the film producer far there is no 16mm. sound camera
tribution for aiding in educational must be secondary to the primary available which can give adequate re-
processes. There is a growing use of educational intent. sults and yet be simple enough for
16mm. sound as an entertainment In the entertainment field, though amateur use.
medium. 16mm. sound is of adequate quality The amateur cinematographer would
Present-day l6mm. sound is marked- for the smaller theatres, there has very much like to make his own sound
ly better than what was available not been as much achieved in this pictures, but there is no practical
two years ago. The prints have a direction as might be expected. In means of his doing so, while libraries
wider range of frequency response. England and many other European of 16mm. entertainment, films are, as
Equipment will reproduce this wider countries there are a number of small has been said, very limited. The pos-
range with negligible distortion, and theatres which operate regularly with sibilities of this field are definitely
with volume ample for even large 16mm. equipment. development of a suitable
tied to the
auditoriums. The screen illumination Gaumont-British ^urnish its current amateur camera and more extensive
has been advanced proportionately. productions on both 35mm. and 16mm. libraries of entertainment film.
For commercial and industrial pur- film, and the small theatre using
poses 16mm. sound has almost entire- 16mm. equipment can show the same T
ly displaced 35mm. The pictures and pictures as the larger theatre using UNIVERSAL CA.MERA IN
sound are recorded in the usual man- 35mm., but with a saving in costs. WESTERN OFFICE
ner on 35mm. film and then optically In some cases this saving has a direct
reduced to 16mm. film, making it pos-
sible to show the picture easily, at
any time or place. One large auto-
bearing as to whether or not the
theatre can operate at a profit.
H arry C. LEAVITT, formerly
head of the Leavitt Picture Com-
pany with its place of business in
The principal reason for the non-
mobile manufacturer is said to have use of 16mm. equipment in theatres Wilshire Boulevard, has been appoint-
over 500 16mm. sound projectors in this country is the fact that Amer- ed western representative of the Uni-
constantly in the field, w'hile a single ican producers as a whole are op- versal Camei’a Corporation, with of-
operator, showing a 16mm. sound fices at 6058 Sunset Boulevard. The
posed to issuing their pictures on
film for the Chicago Surface Lines, 16mm. The entertainment 16mm. li- Universal manufactures and distrib-
showed it to nearly 100,000 persons brary here is restricted largely to utes the Univex 8mm camera and
during 1936. independent pictures and those made projector.
It is in the educational field that by a few major producers as long as Service Station No. 1 was opened
the most interesting developments in five or six years ago.
in May 17. The sales of-
the 16mm. sound field have taken Since the latter were produced by fice number indicated will be
at the
place. The 16mm. silent film had al- what is now inferior recording equip- wholesale only. The western allot-
ready gained an important place in ment the reduction prints often show ment of equipment was in March set
this field, and there were large li- very poor sound quality. for the year 1937, but in two months
braries of educational 16mm. silent it was exhausted. That particular
pictures, covering almost every subject Government Using 16mm incident was chiefly responsible for
taught in our schools and high schools. the sudden visit to Los Angeles on
In addition, courses for teachers are There however, a number of
are, the part of Vice President J. J.
being given in visual education, in- operators, usually road men, using Shapiro and Sales Manager Frank G.
cluding both the operation of the pro- 16mm. sound for paid entertainment. Klock. The two executives were in-
jector and the methods of correlat- Adding to their demand for more and terested in learning just what had
ing the picture with other instruc- better films is the increasing use of happened to precipitate the outgo.
tion. 16mm. equipment by departments of They learned and a new allotment war
tlieUnited States Government, includ- provided.
Education First ing CCC camps, the Army, Navy, etc. The home offices of the Universal
Only a small fraction of the sub- Here it appears that Hollywood pro- Camera Corporation are in Manhat-
jects taught in our schools have been ducers have an opportunity to find tan, where at 32 West Twenty-third
reinforced with the talking picture. additional outlets for their produc- street they were established late in
Here seems a field where the peda- tions. To meet the objection that 1933. During the company’s operation
gogue and the film producer can unite such programs would interfere with millions of still cameras have been
very effectively. Subject presentation revenue, it is suggested that these sold at prices of 39 cents to $1, $1.50
is definitely a pedagogical problem, 16mm. prints be released perhaps and $2.59.
while direction and production tech- ninety days after their initial 35mm. A company executive is quoted as
nique can best be handled by the pres- release, so that their regular 35mm. remarking Universal plans to market
ent staffs of the producers. theatrical income would not be jeop- a quarter million of the $9.95 movie
In the past it has not been under- ardized by and the income from 16mm. cameras and $14.95 projectors during
stood sufficiently that the primary use would be added revenue. 1937.
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 263

signals be too evident, either

in size or contrast, and it will stop
the eye just as effectively.
One often hears the term “balance”

SO TOUGH AS IS in discussions of composition. Don’t,

for heaven’s sake, make the mistake
of thinking it means that both sides

OFTEN CLAIMED of the picture should be symmetrical.

That is, of course, possible, but the
result is stiff and formal, like a for-
mal oration. And in most home movie
filming we want to maintain an air
Comprehension of Underlying Principles of informality.
Is Not Restricted to Those Miraculously Maintain Balance
Endowed— Fundamentals Are Quite Simple, Balance simply means that if you
have some strongly noticeable feature
'Just Making Pictures Easy to Look At' on one side of your picture, there
should be something on the other side
OMPOSITION, happen to use a finer still camera or to counterbalance it. If, for instance,

C as it concerns
amateur filming, is beyond doubt
the most maligned aspect of
moviemaking. Not that even a major-
a movie camera. I’m still making com-
position every time I expose a frame
of film.
you have some large object on the
left of your picture, you ought to
have something fairly noticeable on
ity of the really serious cinefilmers the other side to keep the picture
Composition Inevitable
make bad compositions, but all of from being lopsided. It may be some-
them save those few who have Since composition is such an inevi- thing large, or it may be merely a
learned better from past experience in table part of photogi-aphy, we might conti’ast of light and shade. It may
still photography, painting or sketch- just as well make our compositions be a large mass on one side, offset by
ing seem consciously or sub-conscious- good. Fortunately it’s no hai’der to form or line on the other.
ly afraid of the term. do so; in fact, often it is easier. The same applies to the relation of
The blame for this rightfully I like to think of composition as a the upper and lower parts of the pic-
should be laid at the door of those matter of leading the eye to what- ture as well. That is one reason why,
overearnest artists, photographic ever I want it to see and then holding in filming landscapes, it is so much
and otherwise, who in their zeal to it there. Every scene has some point more effective if you can have some
analyze and tabulate the how, why of principal interest: that should be sort of a “frame” across the top in-
and wherefore of achieving good the most important part of the com- stead of plain blank sky. This “frame”
composition have managed to screen position. Everything else in the scene can be almost anything a sprig of—
the essential simplicity of the mat- should serve either to lead the view- branches, a tree limb, an arch, or
ter with a maze of words and mathe- er’s eye to that point or, once it is whatever is convenient. Several pro-
matics that would bewilder an Ein- there, to keep it from straying. fessional cinematographers of my
stein. A series of tests made several acquaintance always carry a short
years ago by Daniel B. Clark, A.S.C., tree branch with them whenever they
Just Pleases the Eye
proved that in the maiority of cases

go on location simply for framing
Composition is fundamentally the eye of a person looking at a mov-
simple. Webster defines it as “The ing picture screen bee’ins to see the For this same reason, when you
practice of so combining the parts of picture at the lower left-hand corner
are making scenic longshots you will
a work of art as to produce a har- find it every bit as important to
of the screen, and travels diagonally
monious whole.” Personally, I think upward toward the upper right-hand “frame” your longshot with an ef-
that Edward Steichen’s definition is fective for^i'ound as to choose an
coi’ner. unless something in the pic-
even better for the camera-minded ture diyerts that trayel. interesting background. A well
artist. Said Steichen: chosen foreground frames your real
“Composition issimply making Guideposts in the Picture view and concentrates attention on
pictures that are easy to look at.” it, rather than letting the eye wander
It is not always practical, of
Really, that’s all there is to it. If course, to arrange things so your aimlessly off the edges of the screen
your pictures aren’t easy to look at, most important object is in such a or hunt for something definite to
all the attention in the world paid to look at.
position. But you can yery easily
high-sounding phrases and intricate place guideposts along the way that This Matter of Tone
geometry can’t make them good com- will direct the audience’s eyes to
positions. If they are easy to look at whatever other point you desire. In an extreme longshot like this
you can evolve all the fine theories None of these little guides was you will encounter a definite expo-
you like about the geometry of the either large or obvious. Looking at sure problem. If you expose correctly

composition but the composition will the picture, one was not conscious of for the foreground, the distance the—
still be good primarily because it is them, or of how they led the eye; but part of the scene you’re really inter-
pleasing to the eye. they did the work. Only a small —
ested in getting is likely to be over-
The surprising thing about compo- branch here, a splotch of sunlight exposed. If you expose correctly for
sition is that we simply can’t help thei'e, and a spot of shadow some- the distance your framing foreground
making compositions, good or bad. If
I take a blank sheet of paper and

where else far too small to be no- is likely to be a little underexposed or
even semi-silhouetted. This will give
ticed consciously, nevertheless they
make the tiniest dot on it with pen, carried your attention all around the you some idea of the importance of
pencil or anything else, the result picture in a fraction of a moment, the tone of an object or area in com-
will be composition. If I take a box and brought it to what the photog- position. In the first case, attention
brownie and snap it through the win- rapher wanted you to see. is almost invariably concentrated on
dow I’m making a composition. If I On the other hand, let any of these the foreground due to its light tone

264 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

and to the fact that the overexposed inated from your picture. If thei'e is,

distance is vague and meaningless. do it. If there isn’t, you’ve probably

In the latter instance, the darker got a good, pleasing composition.
tone of the foreground frame serves Finally, don’t forget that moving
to keep the eye from wandering, the camera a few feet to one side or
while the contrasted, relatively lighter the other, or a bit up or down, will
tone of the distance rivets the atten- give you an entirely new viewpoint
tion where it should be. and make a new composition for
your picture. Often such a move will
Horizons and Such make a pleasing picture out of an
indifferent view.
Whether you are looking at a land- W. S.
scape scene before you photograph it F:1.5 50 MM Lens

or on the screen, you will notice that

the horizon line divides the picture IT WAS LABOR OF LOVE
into two parts. According to the way SPEED SHOTS Cinema Club Member and School
you set your camera in relation to Principal Doing Worthy Work
the scene you can place this dividing —AS FAST AS YOU CAN
t the home of Dr. Freebairn
line anywhere you wish. The safest
rule to follow is never to place this
PULL THE TRIGGER A of the Los Angeles Cinema Club
during the past month this reporter
division right at the middle of the The Leica Rapid Winder makes
was shown a series of 16mm subjects
picture. Placed centrally it too ob- possible pictures beyond the scope
that had been photographed in the
viously cuts the picture in halves and of ordinary photographic equip-
The doctor
Canfield Avenue School.
gives a stiff, monotonous effect. Gen- ment. For the Rapid Winder en-
was assisted by Mrs. Freebairn and
erally speaking, the most pleasing ables you to make shots without Miss G. Elizabeth Johnston, principal
composition in landscapes is had if fumbling between exposures. Your of the school.
the horizon is about two thirds of the by the three
finger is always on the trigger; With film purchased
way up from the bottom; at any wound, the next named, with scant equipment and
the shutter is
rate, well up into the top half of the
frame set in a froction of o sec- without lights, pictures were taken in
all of the fifteen rooms recording the
Another very similar and very ond. This attachment added to
high speed lens,
more notable of the school’s recrea-
large “Don’t” is, never let any object the Leica with its
tional-educational acthities. Particu-
in your picture cut the picture into shutter speeds from 1 second to
lar attention was paid to those phases
two exact halves vertically. A tree 1 1000th second, built in range
of school work in which the children
which, placed a bit to one side or the finder, the famous Leica compact- think they are playing a game but in
other of the up-and-down central ness and lightness, gives you an which the teachers only too well know
division may be very effective, posi-
unequalled combination for rapid they are being taught fundamental
tively will kill your composition if
action shots. This Is but another things in an educational way.
you let it appear in the exact center. As an example, in one room the
example of the versatility af the
The eye simply can’t get past that pupils were experimenting with mag-
tree Leico.
nets of various sizes. In another, with
Write for full information and dra-
crayons and large sheets of paper and
Alphabetical Composition matic examples of Leica photography
— FREE. Dept. 53.
clay the children were creating in pan-
If you read what the photographic tomime and background “The Story of
and experts write so pro-
artistic the Nile.” In clay a pyramid had been
fusely about composition you will built. Near it was a representation
undoubtedly have been dazed by argu- of the Sphinx.
ments over “S-curves,” diagonal, tri- In another room the children, with
angular, and other alphabetical and home-made costumes, were staging a
geometrical complications. For prac- theatre project. It is all very inter-
tical purposes, there is no need to esting, to the adult as well as to the
worry about them; they are simply THE ORIGINAL MINIATURE CANDID CAMERA children. For in each instance the chil-
terms that try to analyze arrange- E. LEITZ. Inc., 730 Fifth Ave., New York dren who were photographed after-
ments of lines that lead the eye, or ward were given opportunity to see
placements of principal objects, in themselves on the screen.
ways that make a pleasing picture. “The plan of showing the children
And if you forget all these complex- in the midst of their school activities
ities and remember only to make pic- has resulted in a very definite suc-
tures that are pleasing because of cess,” said the doctor. “The social
light and shade, line and form, rather MICKEY MOUSE stimulus value is incalculable. There
than for color contrasts you can’t
reproduce in black-and-white, your
OSWALD RABBIT is nothing new in the principle that
play properly gnided has the greatest
compositions will be good and easily— DONALD DUCK possible educational force.
attained. AND OTHER LIBRARY SUBJECTS “It gets the children away from any
Whatever you do, don’t try to in- handicapping inferiority complex when
clude too much in your picture. All 8mm 1 6mm they see themselves in the pictures
too frequently the unwary will try to and have an opportunity to observe
combine two or even three inherently what is accomplished by others more
good compositions in a single shot, Hollywood Film Enterprises, Inc fortunately endowed. It inspires
with the result he gets only one Department M them to match their fellows. It gives
badly mixed composition. Befoi’e you 6060 Sunset Boulevard the children a chance and, what is of
expose any scene, try asking yourself Hollywood, Calif.
large importance, it raises the teach-
if there is anything that can be elim- er’s standard of teaching.
June, 1937 • American Cinematographer 265

he announcement by the modeling or excessive lightening of (b) Greater exposure latitude. The
T New
DuPont Film Manufacturing Cor-
poration that its sales plan for
Type 300 DuPont Superior
In the matter of latitude the con-
trast of the new film is set at a level
negative-positive system will handle
a much greater departure from cor-
rect exposure than the reversal sys-
16mm Panchromatic would provide which gives the greatest range. Sub- tem. With the latter, gross overexpo-
for inclusion of processing charge and ject material with deep shadows and sure leaves insufficient silver halide

positive print cost in the purchase bright highlights will be reproduced to produce a satisfactory positive.
price of the film aroused real inter- without the shadow detail blocked or In the negative and print method the
est among amateur cinematographers. the highlights chalked up through positive has its full quota of emul-
Especially concerned were the more loss of detail. sion, and all that is necessary is to
i advanced of the clan, who for them- The quality and cleanliness of the provide sufficient printing light to
selves count completely lost that day prints will reflect the high operating
get through the negative.
in which is registered no progression standards which are so vital in the
The negative serves as a permanent
toward the status of the qualified manufacturing of motion picture
record and is not subjected to the
V cameraman. products.
hazards of projection.
i :

Among these more advanced fol-

lowers of the camera are many men What New Film Brings As many copies can be made as
of means and some leisure. These As to the advantage of negative desired, all of which will be of finest
who within reason reckon not the and print method over the reversal quality.
cost openly welcome the innovation. process the following are cited: Filter factors for the more com-
Behind them come the legion of ex- (a) Provides opportunity in print- monly used Wratten filters are as
perienced amateurs of moderate ing to correct for minor errors in follows: Aero 1, 1.7; Aero 2, 2.7; 21,
means who foresee occasions when original exposui’e of negative. 3.5; 23 A, 5.0; 25 A, 6.5; 29F, 14.0.
they will be glad to have more than
one print and to preserve the
The company announces that for
the present film will be returned to
DuPont for processing in special fine
Pfeview YOUR
grain developers which keep the
graininess down to a satisfactory
I level. on a
Among the qualities enumerated
for the Type 300 Panchromatic it is
stated that in speed, latitude, grain
and color balance it is identical with “How did they turn
the 35mm Superior Panchromatic in For answer—
a quick, honest
each new see
use in Hollywood. on
finished reel of film a Da-Lite Screen
There is a style exactly suited to your need.
Advantages of Speed —
The Da-Lite Challenger the world’s most

popular portable screen can be set up in-
The new stock differs from ordi-
stantly anywhere. It has a tripod pivotally
nary 16mm has a pro-
film in that it
attached to the case. Simply open the legs,
tective layer between the active emul- swing the case to horizontal and lift the
sion and the celluloid which prevents screen fabric, hooking it over the goose-
halation and, more important, insu- neck on the rear supporting rod. As this
lates the active layer from any harm- rod telescopes, the fully opened screen can
ful action from the celluloid solvents be adjusted in height to your projection re-
which can cause loss of sensitivity quirements. The slotted square center rod
of the tripod and a non-sag slat at the top
or degradation of the latent image.
of the screen hold the entire surface in per- THE DA-LITE STANDARD CHALLENGER
Citing the advantages flowing from
fect focus. No other screen combines these This quickly erected, light weight unit
the extreme speed of the new film it advantages. Ask about the Challenger and folds compactly for easy carrying.
is pointed out it is possible to work other glass-beaded Da-Lite screens at your 30" X 40" New Reduced Price . . . $15.00
under adverse lighting conditions, dealer’s and write today for literature and 36" X 48" New Reduced Price . . . $20.00
both interior and exterior; it facili- neic reduced prices! Da-Lite Screen Co., 39” X 52" New Reduced Price . . . $25.00
tates slow motion photography, and Inc., 2721 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago, 111. 52" X 52" (New Size) $30.00
allows fully timed negatives to be
obtained behind the dark red filters if

DA'ILIT E Screens
extreme corrections are desired.
The color balance is so chosen as
to give optimum results with and
without make-up. Subjects shot under
incandescent light without make-up
will be found to have a pleasing, clear
flesh texture without sacrifice in
266 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

the artists who prepare these back-

OSWALD, TEN YEARS OLD, grounds are accomplished painters.
Many of them have won prizes and
GOING BIG IN 8 AND I6mm worldwide recognition for their work
in crayon, water-color, pastel and
other mediums.
these drawings and make the in-be- The transparent celluloid sheets
O SWALD the Rabbit, who
cently reached his tenth birth-
day as a professional screen charac-
tween sketches necessary to complete
the action.
carrying the line drawings are now
laid over the backgrounds, and sent
ter, is now in 8 and 16mm film being Animators and “in-betweeners” to the camera room, where they are
distributed to 2,500 toy dealers and make their drawings in pencil. When photographed in sequence by means
1,000 department stores in the United the series is complete for any one of a stop motion camera. Sixteen sep-
States and to licensees in Canada, scene the drawings are turned over to arate drawings are used to complete
Africa, South America and England, the “inker-inners,” who trace, in ink every foot of 35mm film.
although he made his appearance in and paint, the sketches on trans- When the negative is completed in
the secondary film field only a few parent celluloid. 35mm size it is sent to Hollywood
months ago. Film Entei’prises, where
Real Painters Engaged
Approximately 225 persons have a prints are made, in the 16mm and
hand in making each of these sub- Meanwhile a battery of artists is 8mm sizes. The 16mm carries two and
jects, says T. H. Emmett of Holly- working to pi*epare the backgrounds a half times as many pictures to the
wood Film Enterprises, licensees for —the sets, you might call them foot as does the 35mm, and the 8mm
their distribution. The “Oswald” ani- against which the action is played. takes double the number used in the
mated cartoons are produced by In many of the miniature cartoon 16mm. An average of 100 men and
Walter Lantz, at Universal studios, reels now on the market the old-time girls are employed in the process of
where 225 persons find permanent penline drawings are used in the making the reduction print negative
employment. Lantz is one of the vet- background. Lantz uses full wash and printing, developing, cutting,
erans in this highly specialized field. drawings for his backgrounds, and packing and shipping the finished
“Oswald” is his pet. positives.
On the studio cartoon department The Hollywood Film Enterprises
payroll are story writers, gagmen, laboratory is one of the oldest and
artists, animators, in-betweeners and most up-to-date in Hollywood. It has
A story is written for every “Os-
wald” subject, just as if it were a
production to be made with fiesh-and-
GOERZ been in the business of making re-
duction prints since 1925.
Universal recently has released a
short making clear to the layman
blood characters. Once the plot or
idea is decided upon it is turned over
to a regular staff of scenario writers,
In every step of lens manufacture,
just how Oswald reaches the screen.

who lay it out in continuity form. Coerz evident.
Precision is In the FILMO TOPICS IS OUT
careful of the raw material,
in the meticulous grinding and polish- Bell and Howell’s Filmo Topics,
ing, in the critical supervision of each for 1937, is off the
Artists and Writers Too Spring issue
detail, in the final, rigorous testing

The gagmen are really comedy this precision holds —

and affords to
users of Coerz Lenses an unequivocal
press. It a a highly creditable publi-
cation, to its editor, E. A. Reeve, and

writers with artistic ability or comic and unconditional guarantee of their
quality and performance. his associate, R. H. Unsedl, and its
artists with writing ability, depend-
Kino-Hypar f /2.7 and f /3 publishers as well. There are 16 7%
ing on the way you look at it. Not Focal Lengths 15 to 100mm.
Cinegor High Speed Lenses
by 1014 inch pages. Wide use is made
only must they be able to think up a
Ideal for Color Work. f /2 of photographs, as becomes a camera
funny situation, but also they must and f/2.5; Focal Lengths 40 publication, offset lithography being
be able to draw it in a humorous to 100mm.
manner. The animated cartoon gag- —
Telestar A lens of the tele- employed in reproduction. Succeeding
photo type. f /4.5. Focal will appear in alternate
man hasn’t any counterpart in the Lengths 6 1/4 to 15 1/2
inches. months.
motion picture business. Most of
Catalog B 4 on Filmo Topics will be sent, upon re-
these men come from the newspaper
Request quest to Bell and Howell, 1801 Larch-
comic-strip field.
When the script is finished it is mont avenue, Chicago, without charge
to users of motion picture equipment.
turned over to other artists who pre-
The company asks that such requests
pare the key illustrations, showing
costumes, etc., and the key situations
C.|>OOEkZ be accompanied by a statement of
the kind of camera and projector
of every scene. These drawings then .\M.ER!C4N OPTI owned, and if it be of Bell and Howell
go to the animators, who make what
might be called the pivotal drawings
make serial numbers be stated.
for the pictui’e. T
That may need more explanation. ENGLER TO ENGLAND
In the modern motion picture, pre- CINEQUE 16mm FILM
Robert J. Engler, ERPI recording
pared in 35mm size, there are six- ideal for outdoors
teen drawings to the foot of film.
100 ft. rolls $2.45 engineer, was tendered a farewell
2 rolls for 4.75
luncheon by his associates at the
Suppose the scene is Oswald walking (price includes processing)

across a room, taking two steps to the

Eveready Argus Case Hollywood Athletic Club prior to
with shoulder straps $2.85
leaving for New York, where he will
foot of film. The animators draw the Deluxe Argus Case
genuine cowhide, with shoulder sail for London. Mr. Engler will as-
start, the middle and the finish of $3.50

each step really these are key draw-
Hard Leather Case for Weston Meter
sume the duties of recording engineer
in England, working with William
ings which show the important physi-
Send for Literature Bach, executive of Western Electric
cal aspects of each motion. MOVIE SUPPLY CO.
The “in-betweeners” then take 1209 Broadway New York City Company, Ltd., of England.
June, l‘J37 • American Cinematographer 267

filters you mention factors of 3 and

6, respectively. Using them on plena-

HERE'S THE ANSWER chrome film, I have had excellent re-

sults by simply doubling the filters’
factors for superpan: making their
factors for plenachrome 2%, 3 and 4.
SIMPLIFYING FILTER FACTORS chromatic film, which is sensitive to
not only ultra-violet, violet, blue and T
Is possible to translate filter
green light, but also to yellow. Say
factor numbers directly into terms 4/5 of that film’s sensitivity is in the SPLICES FOR WIPE-OFFS
of increased diaphragm opening? ultra-violet, violet and blue, wdth the
R. J. DAUGHERTY, remaining 1/5 in the green and yel-
Some time ago in an issue of
Hamilton, Ohio. your magazine a diagonal splicer
low. In this case, we would still have
1/5 of the usable light left after
was illustrated. Making a splice
The way the stops on most 16mm. on negative film produced a wipe
passing through the filter that cut out
and 8mm. camera lenses are marked, on the positive. Is this splicer on
the ultra-violet, violet and blue. So
a factor of two or 2x, which means our filter would be a 5x filter, and w'e
the market. And who sells it?
doubling the exposure, recjuires open- would increase our exposure 5 times, H. S. WILSON,
ing up the lens by one marked stop. or two-and-a-half stops. Staten Island, N. Y.
Used on a
For instance, if your normal un- film sensitive to orange, this filter
filtered exposure is f:16, your expos- would have a still smaller factor,
ure with a 2x filter would be f:ll. while on pan or superpan the factor The article you refer to is prob-
With a filter factor of 4, your ex- might decrease till it made only a ably the one in the December, 1934,

posure would be f:8 with a factor of fraction of a stop’s difference in the issue in which Charles G. Clarke,
6, f:6.3, and so on. Factors like IV2 exposure. A.S.C., described how he had made
2 V2 3, 5, and so on would be propor-
, Generally speaking, it is not advis- a splicer of this type, for ^ase on
tionately between stop-markings. able to use any sort of a filter on his own 16mm. films. It was built
positive-type film, though a filter like up from an ordinary small metal print
the Kodachrome haze filter, which trimmer. Near the cutting edge four
ORTHO AND POSITIVE FILTERS cuts out only the ultra-violet, might pilot pins were located to hold the
on rare occasions be used. With film in place while cutting, and a
If I wish to use ortho or posi- average ortho film, Eastman’s book- metal guide bar dropped down over
tive film, what factors should I let “Wratten Light Filters” gives the the film to hold it flat and also to
allow when using the Aero 1 serve as a guide in scraping the film.
filter? The K-1 filter? The K-2 The tw'o films to be joined were both
filter? cut in the same w'ay. The splice itself
R. J. DAUGHERTY, 10Red„«dg was made on a patcher located on the
Hamilton, Ohio. flat surface of the trimming board. It
consisted of a long metal plate with
Geo. W. Colburn Laboratory eight pilot pins to hold the perfora-
You seem to be making the some- Special Motion Picture Printing
what common mistake of supposing tions of the two film-strips in proper
these two films are identical except register. Another bar was hinged to
for speed. They are not, although drop over it to apply pressure after
some of the cheapest types of rever- the cement had been applied.
sal film, actually positive, have been More recently, Joe Meyer of the
misleadingly exploited as “ortho Beverly Hills Home Movies made a
type.” Although the two types are LINES WANTED! splicer of this general type, which he
slightly similar, when viewed in com- A going concern would like to take on planned to market, though I believe
several meritorious lines in 16mm field.
parison with a panchromatic or Send details as well as photographs. as yet the device has not reached the
superpan type, they are actually Territory in N. Y., New England and market commercially.
Eastern Coast.
noticeably different as to color-sensi- According to reports reaching us
tivity. from several who have used splicers
1209 Broadway New York City
Color-sensitivity, as well as overall of this type for making wipes, the
speed, determines the factor of an> idea works quite well for making
filter on any type of film. Suppose we splices on negative film, but does not
have a positive-type film which is always withstand the strains of pro-
sensitive to ultra-violet, blue and, to Super X 35mm Film jection when the splice-wu'pe is used
a limited extent, to green, but blind 2 Vi Cents a foot
on positive or reversal film. After
to light of other colors. Perhaps anywhere the
all, if such a splice is to hold, the two
postage paid in
39/40 of its sensitivity is in the ultra- pieces of film must be aligned very
United States
violet, violet and blue, with 1/40 in accurately, and the splice made ex-
the green. Now suppose we use a 6305 Sunset Blvd. — Hollywood, Calif.
For producing wipes on positive or
strong yellow filter which cuts out all
the ultra-violet, violet and blue light. reversal film, the use of “Fotofade”
This eliminates 39/40 of the light and its special masking cellulose tape
capable of making an exposure on that is probably simpler, though the wipe

film, and leaves only 1/40 of the produced is not exactly the same. In-
usable light to produce our picture. cidentally, when making wipes with
On that film, that filter has a factor of Fotofade, it is essential to use the
40, for w'e must increase the exposure special type of cellulose tape supplied
40 times. for this purpose by the manufacturer;
On the other hand, suppose we use ordinary “scotch tape” is not always
the same yellow filter on a true ortho- satisfactory.

268 American Cinematographer • June, 1937

Clifford Nelson Shows is one of the finest examples to date PATHEGRAMS BUSY
of what can be done in the line of Castle Films, Inc., editors and na-
Color Films to Chiefs reproduction with the Kodachrome tional distributors of the Pathegrams

of Eastman Kodak Co. color process when it is employed copyrighted 16mm and 8mm motion
with a photographic instrument of pictures of the Hindenburg explosion
Within five yeai’s all photography precision and advanced design. and England’s coronation, report sales
Made in South America by Ivan of these films exceeding ten million
may be done in colors, according to
Dmitri, these color photographs have feet.
Clifford A. Nelson, director of the Sound and silent versions of the
an unusual naturalness and a sense
Visual Recreation Commission of of life about them. For the reproduc- coronation pictures were on sale at
San Francisco, who was in Rochester, tion process the necessary color sep- the end of May. Production of profes-
aration plates were produced directly sional pictures of important events
N.Y., recently exhibiting color mov-
from the transparency without inter- of international interest in sub-stand-
ing pictures for Eastman Kodak
mediate photographic steps. ard sizes is a departure.
Vitality and beauty as found in
nature can only be photographed
in natural colors, and therein
the secret of the future success
color photography, according to
Rates Seven cents a word. Minimum charge, ART MOVIES, 16mm .and 8mm. List Free.
Mr. Nelson. :

one dollar per insertion. Box 16, Station W. Brooklyn, N. Y.

The group pictures exhibited were
composed of “Trail Song,” a photo- Studio equipped. Write for description.
graphic history of a boys’ packtrain WALL SINGLE SYSTEM SOUND CAMERA $2750. & $3500.
with direct drive motor, new type move-
trip into the Califoimia High Sierras, ment, variable area high fidelity galvanom- BELL & HOWELL CAMERA, fully equipped,
which was described in the April eter, microphone, amplifier, lenses, triijod original B & H Movement, $1150.
and accessories. Complete, ready for opera-
issue of this magazine; “Aztec Me- tion. Rebuilt silenced and standard Bell & AKELEY CAMERA, 3 Lenses; 2"-3"-12", 4
tropolis,” a photographic story of old How’ell 170 degree Cameras Hi-speed gear — Magazines, Akeley Tripod, Cases, etc. $800.
boxes. Bell & Howell Hi-speed shuttles-
Aztec ruins in Mexico, and “Recrea- Two late model Bell & Howell splicers We buy and sell used equipment of every
tion in San Francisco,” depicting the rebuilt Duplex sound and picture printer :
description. Write us your needs.
pair used Simplex portable sound projec-
various phases of recreational ac- tors with 2000 ft. magazines. Precision,
tivity in a large city. 1515 North Cahuenga Blvd.,
Debrie and Bell & Howell pan and tilt tri-
& ft., 400 ft. maga-
Howell 1000 Hollywood, Calif.
The first text book on natural ix>ds. Bell
zines. sunshades, finders, lenses
color photogi’aphy to be published, and all accessories. Write, wire or cable. NEW FULLY EQUIPPED FEARLESS 65MM
wide film camera. Ideal for color and ex-
“Natural Color Film,” has been MOTION PICTURE CAMERA, INC., 723 perimental work. Extra 35mm high speed
YORK. N. Y. movement. Price complete $2,000.00. Fear-
written by Mr. Nelson, at the re- CINECAMERA. less Camera Co., Hollywood, Calif.
quest of a publishing house, and after
being reviewed by Eastman Kodak Generators, Panel Control Boards, Duplex
with turret,
five speeds, visual focusing, reverse action,
officials in Rochester it was pro- Printers, Sound Moviolas, Developing Ma-
factory guarantee. A $147. 50 value for
chines, Blimps, Dolly, B & H
splicers, Mit-
only $105.00. Bargain list free. Fromader
nounced as being a valuable addition chell and B & H
Silent Cameras, Motors,
Service, Davenport, Iowa.
to the science of color photography. High Speed Gear Boxes, Light Testers,
Projection and Lighting i^uipment. Guar-
While in Rochester, Mr Nelson .
anteed optically and mechanically perfect.
with Fearless Quick Focus Shift and silent
was entertained by Frank W. Love- Send for 1937 Bargain Catalogue. Holly- Fearless high speed movement 4 fast len-
wood Camera Exchange. 1600 Cahuenga :

joy, president of the Eastman Kodak Blvd., Hollywood, California. Cable Ho- ses 4-1000 ft. magazines, matte box, 2

motors, friction head tripod, etc. This

Company; Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A.S.C., camex.
silent camera does not require blimp. Ideal
and by M. Herbert Eisenhart, presi- WE BUY, SELL AND RENT PROFESSION- for color. Price fully equipped $1,500.00
dent of Bausch and Lomb Company. AL AND 16mm EQUIPMENT NEW AND Fearless Camera Co., Hollywood, Calif.
RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 Sev- Electric Drive, A-1 condition, also Univer-
sal Camera, best offers. Want Bell &
enth Ave., New York City. Established :

since 1910. Howell or Akeley. Box 1457, Tampa, Fla.

Leica Reproduces Color BELL AND HOWELL 170° high CAMERAS— WANTED

speed shuttles high speed gear boxes
The May issue of Leica Photog- 400 and 1000 foot Bell & Howell maga- WE WANT TO BUY
zines —
Bell & Howell tripods motors. — All types of Cameras
raphy gala dress, with a brilliant
is in AKELEY and DEBRIE CAMERAS. Akeley We pay the highest cash prices for Mitchell,
four-color front and back cover. This motors. High speed motors. Sunshades, B & H, Akeley, DeBrie, Eymo and other
lenses and finders. makes of cameras and camera accessories.
Write or Wire We also want trijwds, motors, magazines, cut-
CAMERA EQUIPMENT, INC. ting room and laboratory equipment. Tell us
1600 Broadway New York City what you have ! Get our price offer !

Tel.: BRyant 9-4146 Cable: Cinequip CAMERA EQUIPMENT, INC.


ed for color, variable area, single system
sound. Complete outfit, like new, ready
to shoot. §2750.00 Hollywood Camera Ex-
change. 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood,
California. Cable Hocamex.
1600 Broadway


Write, wire or cable
723 Seventh Avenue,
Cable Address ;
New York

New York City


STUDIO RECORDING CAMERA, with vari- WANTED — U.sed Eastman

or Filmo Movie
able area galvanometer —
noise reduction
Outfit. S. Lake Bass, 1961 Government St.,
shutter - noise i-eduction amplifier con- : — Baton Rouge, La.
trol panel spare
; — vibrator complete, ; —
ready for oiieration. $1850.00. SOUND- WANTED: DEBRIE PARVO L. Please state
FILM ENTERPRISES, INC., 723 Seventh condition and lu'ice to ROLAB Photo-Sci-
Ave., New York. N. Y. ence Laboratories, Sandy Hook, Conn.

CRAIG JUNIOR COMBINATION $8.50 DEBRIE CAMERA, Parvo, 8 magazines, tri- WANTED. We pay cash for everything pho-
Junior Splicer with two geared rewinds pod and cases, $1200.00 cost will sell for tographic. Send full information and low-
all mounted on 21" board. $200.00 almost new, bargains in 16-35mm est cash prices. Hollywood Camera Ex-
CRAIG MOVIE SUPPLY CO. cameras. We Buy Anything. Block Cam- change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood,
1053 So. Olive St. Los Angeles. Cal. —
era 154 E. 47th St. New York. Calif.
$1000 IN PRIZES ^
Grand Prize $200
Photography . , oO
Color 50
Scenario 50
Home Movie 50
Educational 50
Scenic 50

Total $500

Details of Equipment to be Announced Later

No Entrance Fee. Original Films Only— No Dupes
No Reduction from 35mm
The contest world wide and open only to j^enuine
is teur movie clubs. Each entrant must have his entry
8mm or Ifimm amateurs or amateur clubs. or entries accompanied by a .sworn statement, the blank
The contest ends at midnight November 30, 1937. for which will be forwarded to him to fill in.
Entries, mailed or expressed, later than that time will Contestants may enter as many subjects as the>
not be eligible. desire. One entry blank will cover all subjects.
The -American Cinematographer reserves the right
Pictures submitted will be judged by photography, en- not to declare a prize for any classification if in the
tertainment and, or story value, direction, acting, cut- opinion of the judges there is not a picture submitted
ting and composition.
sufficiently good to be classed as a prize-winner.
The decision of the judges, among whom there will The -American Cinematographer, subject to the spe-
be prominent cameramen, will be final. Announcement cial notice printed below, also retains the right to make
of the awards will be made as soon after the close of duplicates of such prize-winning pictures as it may in-
the contest as possible and checks and prizes sent to dicate, for free distribution to clubs and amateur or-
the winners. ganizations throughout the world.
Pictures may be submitted either by individual ama- If you intend to enter the contest please ,'^end coupon
teur movie makers or they may be submitted by ama- on this page for official entry blank.

A M ERICAN ( INEM ATOGR APH ER .Special — While there has not been sufficient time
1782 No. Orange Drive in which to work out details it has been agreed
Hollywood, California in principle the winner of the American
Cinematographer contest unless he choose other-
Please send meone of your official entry blanks. wise shall be a contender in the competition lo
1 ( Ifimm
intend to enter a 8mm) picture in your represent the United States in the International
1937 contest. I understand my entry must be in Movie Show supervised by Duncan MacD. Little
and sponsored by Columbia University Extension
your office not later than November 30, 1937. and if successful shall in due course be a contes-
tant for an award in the great final.
Name One fundamental condition would be imposed
upon the winner: That the film be placed in the
custody of the International Committee and not
be screened except by the committee until such
time as the subject is returned to the owner fol-
Address lowing determination of its final status.
Whe never They Say ''Camera”
They Think of

Mitchell Camera Corporation
Cable Address “MITCAMCO” Phone OXford 1051
CLAUD C. CARTER, Sydney, Australia BOMBAY RADIO CO., LTD., Bombay, India
D. NAGASE & CO., LTD., Osaka, Japan H. NASSIBIAN, Cairo, Egypt