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JOMO KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

OF
AGRICULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


P. O. BOX 62000 - 00200  NAIROBI KENYATEL: 07290440800701883903.

NAME: NASHON MUTUNGA MUTUA

REG. NO. : EN292-0608/2012

UNIT: ELECTRICAL MACHINE DRIVES II

UNIT CODE: EMT2435

TITTLE: SALIENT AND NON-SALIENT POLE ROTORS


SALIENT AND NON-SALIENT POLE ROTORS
The rotor is a moving component of an electromagnetic system in the electric motor, electric
generator etc. Its rotation is due to the interaction between the windings and magnetic fields
which produces a torque around the rotor’s axis. In generators and alternators, the rotor designs
are salient pole or non-salient pole.
a) Salient-pole machines
In salient pole type of rotor consist of large number of projected poles (salient poles) mounted on
a magnetic wheel.
Construction of a salient pole rotor
The projected poles are made up from laminations of steel. The rotor winding is provided on
these poles and is supported by pole shoes.

Principle of operation
The rotor is a large magnet with poles constructed of steel lamination projecting out of the
rotor’s core. The poles are supplied by direct current or magnetized by permanent magnets. The
armature with a three phase winding is attached to three slip rings with brushes riding on them
and mounted on the shaft. The field winding is wound on the rotor which produces the magnetic
field and the armature winding is on the stator where voltage is induced. Direct current from an
external exciter produces a magnetic field and energizes the rotating field windings and
alternating current energizes the armature windings simultaneously.

Application: Salient pole synchronous generators are mostly used in hydro power plants.
b) Cylindrical-rotor (non-salient pole) machines
Non-salient rotor are cylindrical in shape having parallel slots on it to place rotor windings.
Construction of a non-salient pole rotor
It is made up of solid steel. Their construction is robust as compared to salient pole rotors.
Sometimes they are also called drum rotors.

Principle of operation
The cylindrical shaped rotor is made of a solid steel shaft with slots running along the outside
length of the cylinder for holding the field windings of the rotor which are laminated copper bars
inserted into the slots and are secured by wedges. The slots are insulated from the windings and
are held at the end of the rotor by slip rings. An external direct current source is connected to the
concentrically mounted slip rings with brushes running along the rings. The brushes make
electrical contact with the rotating slip rings. DC current is also supplied through brushless
excitation from a rectifier mounted on the machine shaft that converts alternating current to
direct current.
Equivalent circuit of Non-salient pole rotors

The rotor circuit can be replaced by and AC current source whose amplitude is If ‘(n If) and
frequency is աԑ

Application: Non-salient pole rotors are used in nuclear, gas and thermal plants.
Differences between Salient-pole machines and Cylindrical-rotor (non-salient pole) machines

Salient-pole machines Cylindrical-rotor (non-salient pole) machines


Poles are projecting out from the surface Unslotted portion of the cylinder acts as poles
hence poles are non-projecting
Have large diameter and shorter axial length They are smaller in diameter but having longer
axial length
Generally used in lower speed electrical Generally used in high speed electrical
machines say 100rpm to 1500 rpm machines say 1500rpm to 3000rpm
As the rotor speed is lower, more number of As the rotor speed is higher, less number of
poles are required to attain the required poles are required to attain the required
frequency (typically no. of salient poles is frequency (no. of poles is usually 2 or 4)
between 4 and 60)
Flux distribution is non uniform Flux distribution is sinusoidal and hence gives
better emf waveform
Salient pole rotors generally need damper Damper windings are not needed in non-salient
windings to prevent rotor oscillations during pole rotors
operation

References
1. D. Zorbas, Electric Machines-Principles, Applications, and Control Schematics. West,
1989.
2. M. G. Say, Alternating Current Machines. Pitman Publishing, 1978.
3. T. Wildi, Electrical Machines, Drives and Power Systems. Prentice Hall.
4. www.electricaleasy.com