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2 High Early Strength Concrete 93

5.1.3 Watertightness 95
5.1.4 Frost and Freeze/Thaw Resistance 98
5.1.5 Concrete Surface 98
5.1.6 Shrinkage 99
5.1.7 Sulphate Resistance 100
5.1.8 Chemical Resistance 101
5.1.9 Abrasion Resistance 101
5.1.10 Flexural Strength 102
5.1.11 Development of Hydration Heat 103
5.1.12 Alkali-Aggregate Reaction 104
5.2 Hardened Concrete Tests 105
5.2.1 Requirements for Specimens and Moulds 105
5.2.2 Making and curing Specimens 106
5.2.3 Compressive Strength of Test Specimens 107
5.2.4 Specifications for Testing Machines 109
5.2.5 Flexural Strength of Test Specimens 109
5.2.6 Tensile Splitting Strength of Test Specimens 111
5.2.7 Density of hardened Concrete 111
5.2.8 Depth of Penetration of Water under Pressure 112
5.2.9 Frost and Freeze/Thaw Resistance 113

6. Sprayed Concrete 114

6.1 Definition 114
6.2 Quality Sprayed Concrete Requirements 115
6.3 Early Strength Development 116
6.4 The Spraying Process 117
6.5 Test Methods/Measurement Methods 123
6.6 The Sika Wet Spray System 125
6.7 Steel Fiber reinforced Sprayed Concrete 126
6.8 Sulphate resistant Sprayed Concrete 127
6.9 Sprayed Concrete with increased Fire Resistance 127

7. Release Agents 128

7.1 Structure of Release Agents 128
7.2 Release Agent Requirements 129
7.3 Selection of suitable Release Agents 129
7.3.1 Release Agents for absorbent Formwork 129
7.3.2 Release Agents for non-absorbent Formwork 130

7.4 Directions for Use 131
7.4.1 Application of Release Agent 131
7.4.2 Waiting Time before Concreting 133
7.4.3 Concreting Operation 133

8. Curing 134
8.1 General 134
8.2 Curing Methods 136
8.3 Curing Measures for Concrete 138
8.4 Curing Period 139

Concrete Admixtures and the Environment 141

EFCA Membership 142

Index 143

1. Concrete Constituents

1.1 Terms
Three main constituents are actually enough to produce concrete:
쐽 Binder (cement)
쐽 Aggregate
쐽 Water
Due to continually increasing demands for the concrete quality (mainly
durability) and huge advances in admixture and concrete technology, it is
now possible to produce many different kinds of concrete.

쐽 Standard Concrete with a maximum particle diameter

concrete > 8 mm
Density (kiln dried) > 2000 kg/m³,
maximum 2600 kg/m³
쐽 Heavyweight Density (kiln dried) > 2600 kg/m³
쐽 Lightweight Density (kiln dried) > 800 kg/m³ and
concrete < 2000 kg/m³
쐽 Fresh concrete Concrete, mixed, while it can still be worked and
쐽 Hardened Concrete when set, with measurable strength
쐽 “Green” Newly placed and compacted, stable, before the
concrete start of detectable setting (green concrete is a pre-
casting industry term)

1. Concrete Constituents 5
Other terms in use are shotcrete, pumped concrete, craned concrete etc.
They define the placement into the formwork, working and/or handling to
the point of installation (see next chapter).

1.2 Binders
Cement is the hydraulic binder (hydraulic = hardening when combined
with water) which is used to produce concrete. Cement paste (cement
mixed with water) sets and hardens by hydration, both in air and under
The main base materials, e.g. for Portland cement, are limestone, marl
and clay, which are mixed in defined proportions. This raw mix is burned
at about 1450 °C to form clinker which is later ground to the well-known
fineness of cement.
Cement to the standard
In Europe, cements are covered by the standard EN 197-1 (composition,
specifications and conformity criteria). The standard divides the common
cements into 5 main types, as follows:

CEM I Portland cement

CEM II Composite cements (mainly consisting of Portland
CEM III Blast furnace cement
CEM IV Pozzolan cement
CEM V Composite cement

Under the above table, the various types of cement may contain other
components as well as Portland cement clinker (K):

Major components

Granulated slag (S)

Silica dust (D)
Natural and industrial pozzolans (P or Q)
High silica and limestone fly ashes (V or W)
Burnt shales (e.g. oil shale) (T)
Limestone (L or LL)

Minor components
These are mainly selected inorganic natural mineral materials originating
from clinker production, or components as described (unless they are al-
ready contained in the cement as a major constituent). See table on
page 7.

6 1. Concrete Constituents