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Analog Manual

Expt. No: FULL WAVE RECTIFIER


Date:
Aim:
To construct a full wave rectifier circuit with and without filter and to perform the
following:
1. Measurement of DC voltage under load and ripple factor
2. Plot the Voltage regulation characteristics (Zener diode).

Equipment / Components required:

S.No Name of the Component Apparatus Quantity


Specification
1 Transformer
2 Resistor , DRB
3 Capacitor
4 Connecting wires
5 CRO, Voltmeter
6 Diode, Zener Diode
7 Breadboard

Procedure:

Without Filter:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.


2. Give AC supply from the board across the secondary of the transformer.
3. Measure the amplitude and time period for the input and output waveforms.
Without Filter:
4. Now connect a capacitor parallel to the resistor and measure the amplitude and time period
of the output waveform.
5. Calculate ripple factor using the formulas.
Voltage Regulator:
6. Connect Zener diode and DRB across the Capacitor filter.
7. Connect Voltmeter at the output to measure the regulated voltage.
8. Keep the input voltage constant, vary the load resistance and measure the corresponding
load voltage.
9. Plot the load regulation characteristics (VL versus RL).

Circuit diagram for Full Wave Rectifier


Analog
An Manual

Without Filter

With Filter

Load Regulation using Zener Di


Diode:
Analog Manual

Model Graph:
Analog Manual

Tabulation:

Input Signal Output Signal


S.No Conditio
Amplitude(vol Amplitude(vol
. n Time (ms) Time (ms)
t) t)
Without
1
Filter
With
2
Filter

Load Regulation:

S.No. RL ( ) VL (Volt)

Calculation:

Ripple Factor: (theoretical)

iii) Without Filter:

01 2

= 0.48 (theoretical)
Analog Manual

iv) With Filter:

Ripple factor

f = 50Hz; C = 1000uF ; RL = 1 K
(theoretical)

Ripple Factor: (practical)


iii) Without Filter:

#$ #$
!" ; %& '
;

= _____ (practical)

iv) With Filter:

Ripple factor
()

*)
#-.. #-..
+, / () /

(practical)

Result:
Analog Manual

Expt.No: Frequency Response of Common Emitter Amplifier


Date:

Aim:
To design, construct and test Common Emitter amplifier and also to plot its frequency
response.

Components/Equipments Required:
S.NO Components/Equipment’s Range/Specifications Quantity

1 Regulated Power Supply 1


2 Function Generator 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor 1
5 Resistor
6 Capacitor
7 Connecting Wires As req.
8 Bread Board 1

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keep the Input Voltage constant, Vary the frequency of input signal from 50Hz to

10 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage.

3. Plot the graph: Gain (dB) Vs Frequency

4. Draw 3dB line in the graph and mark Upper Cut-off (FH) and Lower Cut-off Frequency

(FL) and calculate the bandwidth.

Bandwidth = FH - FL
Analog Manual

Circuit Diagram:

Vcc

1 1

R1 RC
2 2
Co
1 2

Q2
Cin
1 2

BC107

Vin

1 1 1 CRO VO
AFO 1
R2 RE CE
RL
2
2 2
2

0
DESIGN:

Given Data
VCC = ; IC = ;f= ; hfe = ; RL =

To find the values of R1, R2, RC & RE

VCC
For faithful amplification, VCE = =
2 ________

VCC
By one-tenth rule, VE= =
10 ________

Apply KVL to output loop:

VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE

Where VE = IERE; since IB<<IC, Hence IC≅ IE.


Analog Manual

VE
RE = = _________
IE

VCC = ICRC + VCE + VE

RC = ________

For Bias stable circuit

RTH = 0.1*(1+ )*RE

RTH = _________

#67 8#9:
45
;67 < =><?@;:

Hence VTH = _____

We know that

AB
> C
and
D>
D AB
> C
hence
EF
AB
>

R1 = ________

D>
D AB
> C

R2 = ________

To find the value of Input Coupling Capacitor Cin


Analog Manual
? #6
G' =__________
HIJ

D KL > MM MM N G' C = C O@ P @Q

Rin =________

RKL
ST

Cin = _________

To find the value of Output Coupling Capacitor Co

1 R || RL
XCO = = C =
2πfC O 10

1
CO = =
2πfX C O

To find the value of Emitter bypass capacitor CE


1
X CE = =
2πfC E
RE
XCE = = ; CE =
10
Model Graph: (Frequency Response)
Analog Manual

Tabulation to plot frequency response:

Input voltage (Vin) =


Output Voltage
Frequency
Amplitude Vo (in Gain= (Vo / Vin) Gain (in dB)= 20 log (Gain)
(in Hz)
volt)

Result:
Analog Manual

Expt.No: Frequency Response of Common Collector Amplifier


Date:
Aim:

To design, construct and test Common Collector amplifier and also to plot its frequency response.
Components/Equipments Required:
S.NO Components/Equipment’s Range/Specifications Quantity

1 Regulated Power Supply (0-30)V 1


2 Function Generator (1-10)MHz 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor BC107 1
5 Resistor
6 Capacitor
7 Connecting Wires As req.
8 Bread Board 1

Circuit Diagram:
0

Vcc

R1
2

Q2
Cin
1 2

BC107

Co
Vin 1 2

1 1
AFO 1
R2 RE
RL
2 2 CRO VO
2

0
Analog Manual

DESIGN:

Given Data
VCC = ; IC = ;f= ; hfe = ; RL =

To find the values of R1, R2, RC & RE

VCC
For faithful amplification, VCE = =
2 ________

VCC
By one-tenth rule, VE= =
10 ________

Apply KVL to output loop:

VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE

Where VE = IERE; since IB<<IC, Hence IC≅ IE.

VE
RE = = _________
IE

For Bias stable circuit

RTH = 0.1*(1+ )*RE

RTH = _________

#67 8#9:
45
;67 < =><?@;:

Hence VTH = _____

We know that

AB
> C
and
D>
D AB
> C
hence
Analog Manual

EF
AB
>

R1 = ________

D>
D AB
> C

R2 = ________

To find the value of Input Coupling Capacitor Cin

? #6
G' HIJ
=__________

D KL > MM MM N G' C = C O@ P @Q

Rin =________

RKL
ST

Cin = _________

To find the value of Output Coupling Capacitor Co

U &V
W

1
CO = =
2πfX C O

To find the value of Emitter bypass capacitor CE


1
X CE = =
2πfC E
RE
XCE = = ; CE =
10
Analog Manual

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keep the Input Voltage constant, Vary the frequency of input signal from 50Hz to 3MHz

in regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage.

3. Plot the graph: Gain (dB) Vs Frequency

4. Draw 3dB line in the graph and mark Upper Cut-off (FHF) and Lower Cut-off Frequency

(FLF) and calculate the bandwidth.

Bandwidth = FHF - FLF

Model Graph: (Frequency Response)


Analog Manual

Tabulation to plot frequency response:


Input voltage (Vin) =
Output Voltage
Frequency
Amplitude Vo (in Gain= (Vo / Vin) Gain (in dB)= 20 log (Gain)
(in Hz)
volt)

Result
Analog Manual

Expt.No: Frequency Response of Common Source Amplifier


Date:
Aim:

To design, construct and test Common Source amplifier and also to plot its frequency response.
Components/Equipments Required:
S.NO Components/Equipment’s Range/Specifications Quantity

1 Regulated Power Supply (0-30)V 1


2 Function Generator (1-10)MHz 1
3 CRO 1
4 FET BFW10 1
5 Resistor
6 Capacitor
7 Connecting Wires As req.
8 Bread Board 1

Circuit Diagram:
0

VDD
1

RD
2 Co
1 2

Cin
1 2
BFW10 1

RL

Vin
2
1 1
AFO 1
RG RS
CS
2 2 2 CRO VO

0
Analog Manual

Design:
VDD = IDSS = ID = RL =

To find the values of RS, RD and RG


#
VGS =
X
Apply KVL at input loop:
VGS = ID*RS

RS =
YY
VDS =
Apply KVL at input loop:
VDS = VDD – ID(RD+RS)

RD = & Assume RG = 1M

Model Graph:

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.


2. Keep the Input Voltage constant, Vary the frequency of input signal from 50Hz to 3MHz
in regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage.
3. Plot the graph: Gain (dB) Vs Frequency
4. Draw 3dB line in the graph and mark Upper Cut-off (FHF) and Lower Cut-off Frequency
(FLF) and calculate the bandwidth.
Bandwidth = FHF - FLF
Analog Manual

Tabulation to plot frequency response:


Input voltage (Vin) =
Output Voltage
Frequency Gain (in dB)=
Amplitude Vo (in Gain= (Vo / Vin)
(in Hz) 20 log (Gain)
volt)

Result:
Analog Manual

Expt.No: Frequency Response of Cascade Amplifier


Date:

Aim:
To design, construct and test Common Emitter amplifier and also to plot its frequency
response.

Components/Equipments Required:
S.NO Components/Equipment’s Range/Specifications Quantity

1 Regulated Power Supply 1


2 Function Generator 1
3 CRO 1
4 Transistor 1
5 Resistor
6 Capacitor
7 Connecting Wires As req.
8 Bread Board 1

Circuit Diagram:
Analog Manual

DESIGN:

Given Data
VCC = ; IC = ;f= ; hfe = ; RL =

To find the values of R1, R2, RC & RE

VCC
For faithful amplification, VCE = =
2 ________

VCC
By one-tenth rule, VE= =
10 ________

Apply KVL to output loop:

VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE

Where VE = IERE; since IB<<IC, Hence IC≅ IE.

VE
RE = = _________
IE

VCC = ICRC + VCE + VE

RC = ________

For Bias stable circuit

RTH = 0.1*(1+ )*RE

RTH = _________

#67 8#9:
45
;67 < =><?@;:

Hence VTH = _____

We know that

AB
> C
and
Analog Manual
D>
D AB
> C
hence
EF
AB
>

R1 = ________

D>
D AB
> C

R2 = ________

To find the value of Input Coupling Capacitor Cin

? #6
G' HIJ
=__________

D KL > MM MM N G' C = C O@ P @Q

Rin =________

RKL
ST

Cin = _________

To find the value of Output Coupling Capacitor Co

1 R || RL
XCO = = C =
2πfC O 10

1
CO = =
2πfX C O

To find the value of Emitter bypass capacitor CE


1
X CE = =
2πfC E
RE
XCE = = ; CE =
10
Analog Manual

Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keep the Input Voltage constant, Vary the frequency of input signal from 50Hz to

10 MHz in regular steps and note down the corresponding output voltage.

3. Plot the graph: Gain (dB) Vs Frequency

4. Draw 3dB line in the graph and mark Upper Cut-off (FH) and Lower Cut-off Frequency

(FL) and calculate the bandwidth.

Bandwidth = FH - FL

Model Graph: (Frequency Response)


Analog Manual

Tabulation to plot frequency response:

Input voltage (Vin) =


Output Voltage
Frequency
Amplitude Vo (in Gain= (Vo / Vin) Gain (in dB)= 20 log (Gain)
(in Hz)
volt)

Result:
Analog Manual

Frequency response of CASCODE AMPLIFIER


Aim
To construct Cascode amplifier and to plot the frequency response of it.

Apparatus required
S.No Apparatus Range Quantity
1. Resistor
.
2. Capacitor

3. BC107
4. RPS
5. AFO (0-30)v
6. CRO -
7. Bread board -
8. Connecting wires -
-

Circuit Diagram

Vcc = 10 V

RC
R1
Cout

Cb
Ibias
Q2

10u BC107

0 R2

RL CRO

Cin
Q1

BC107

Vin =
1.30 V
R3 RE

0
Analog Manual

Design

Vcc = 10 V , hfe1 = 250, hfe1 =____, hfe2 = ; VRE= 1 V, IC1 = 1mA; IC2 = 1 mA; RL
= 10 K ;

Assume I1 (current through bias resistor) = 0.1 mA;

For faithful amplification,


VCE1 = VCE2 =VCC / 2
VCE1 = VCE2 =

VE= VCC / 10

VE =
Applying KVL to the output loop: VCC

= IC*RC + VCE2 + VCE1 + IERE

where

VE = IE*RE
RE =
Applying KVL at output side

VCC = IC*RC + VCE2 + VCE1 + VE RC

RC =

Let I1 = 0.1 ma
[
4Z \ ]

[
4Z \ ]

I2 = I1 – IB1
I3 = I2 – IB2
VB1 = VBE1 + VCE1 + VE

VB2 = VBE2 + VE

^
D
[
Analog Manual

^ ^
D
[
^
D
[

To find the value of Input Coupling Capacitor Cin

? #6
G' HIJ
=__________

D KL > MM MM N G' C = C O@ P @Q

Rin =________

RKL
ST

Cin = _________

To find the value of Output Coupling Capacitor Co

1 R || RL
XCO = = C =
2πfC O 10

1
CO = =
2πfX C O

Procedure

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.

2. The input signal is given and the output waveform is obtained in the CRO.

3. By varying the input signal frequency, the output voltage is measured .

4. The voltage gain of the amplifier is calculated and the frequency response is plotted

between the frequency and the voltage gain.

5. The bandwidth is calculated. Bandwidth B.W. = fH – fL Hz.


Analog Manual

MODEL GRAPH

Tabulation
Input Vi =

Frequency(Hz) Output VoltageV0( V) Gain AV =V0 –Vi Gain (in db)=


20 log10(V0/ Vi )

Result

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An
nalog Manual

EX NO:
DATE:
Frequency response of DARLINGTON EMITTER FOLLOWER Amplifier A
Aim
To design a BJT Darlingt
gton emitter follower and determine the gain, inpu
put and output
impedance
Apparatus Required
S.No Name of the Componenent Apparatus Qua
uantity
Specification
1 NPN Transistor
2 Resistor
3 Capacitor
4 Signal Generator
5 CRO
6 RPS
7 Breadboard
8 Connecting wires

Circuit Diagram

DESIGN:
Given Data

VCC = ; IC = ; f= ; hfe = ; RL =

To find RL, RC, RE

34
Analog Manual

re =26mV/ IC =

V CC
For faithful amplification, VCE = =
2

V CC
By one-tenth rule, VE = =
10

Apply KVL to output loop:

VCC = ICRC + VCE + IERE

Where VE = IERE; since IB is very small, when compared with IC, IC ≅ IE.

VE
RE = =
IE

VCC = ICRC + VCE + VE

RC =

R B
Stability Factor S = 1 +
R E

Take S value between 3 to 10, Substitute RE in the above expression and find the value of RB

RB =

R1 * R 2
We know that RB =
R1 + R 2

Assume R1 = 80K and find R2 =

R2=

To find Input Coupling Capacitance

1
XCi =
2πfC i

35
Analog Manual

( hie + ( 1 + hfe ) RE ) * RB
XCi = ( hie + ( 1 + hfe ) RE ) + RB ; where hie = hfere =

XCi =
1
Ci =
2πfXC i

To find Output Coupling Capacitance


1 R || RL
XCO = = C =
2πfC O 10

1
CO = =
2πfXC O
To find Emitter bypass capacitor CE
RE
X CE = =
10
1
CE = =
2πfX CE
Procedure:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram
2. Set Vin = 30mV in the signal generator. Keeping input voltage constant, vary the
frequency from 1Hz to 1MHz in random steps.
3. Note down the corresponding output voltage.
4. Calculate the Gain and plot the graph.
5. Calculate Bandwidth from frequency response.

Model Graph

36
Analog Manual

Tabulation
Input Vi =
Frequency(Hz) Output VoltageV0( V) Gain AV =V0 –Vi Gain (in db)=
20 log10(V0/ Vi )

Result

37
Analog Manual

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER USING BJT


Aim
To design and construct a differential amplifier using BJT and to calculate the CMRR
value and draw its transfer characteristic curve.
Apparatus Required
S.No Name of the Component Apparatus Quantity
Specification
1 NPN Transistor
2 Resistor
3 Capacitor
4 Signal Generator
5 CRO
6 RPS
7 Breadboard
8 Connecting wires
Circuit Diagram

Common Mode operation

38
Analog Manual

Differential Mode operation

Design
Given:
Ic = 1mA; Ad= AC=

/
_
Differential voltage gain Ad = Rc /2re
RC =Ad *2re
Common mode voltage gain AC = Rc /2RE
RE = RC /2AC
Here RC1 = RC2= RC

Procedure
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
2. To determine the common mode gain, we set input signal with voltage Vin = 2V and
determine V0 at the collector terminals.
3. Calculate common mode gain Ac = V0/Vin
4. To determine the differential mode gain , we set input signals with voltages V1 and V2.
Compute Vin= V1 – V2 and to find V0 at the collector terminals.Calculate differential
mode gain Ad = V0 / V1
5. Calculate CMRR = Ad / Ac
6. A graph is plotted between frequency and gain

39
Analog Manual

Tabulation:

Input Signal Output Signal


Gain
S.No. Condition
Amplitude Frequency Amplitude Frequency
Differential
1
mode
Common mode
2

Frequency Response: Differential Mode

Frequen Output VoltageV0( V) Gain AV =V0 –Vi Gain (in db)=


cy(Hz) 20 log10(V0/ Vi )

40
Analog Manual

Calculation:

Theoritical:
CMRR = Ad/ Ac

Practical:

Ad=V0 / (V1-V2)
Ac= 2V0 / (V1 +V2)
Common Mode Rejection Ratio,
CMRR = Ad/ Ac

Result
Thus the diffential amplifier is constructed and the CMRR is determined.
CMRR(Theoritical) =
CMRR( Practical) =

41