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Du(Pant Supenlan (Pa nckna matte ^eaatiae

Fine Grain

Color Balance






October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 401


E Y EMO anything because of stopping to wind the motor.
The Eyemo is as light and compact as a super-
latively fine camera can be built ... so small that
a tripod is not essential.
Electric motors can be added at any time, or
one motor used on several Eyemos, because
Bell & Howell precision manufacture makes

T HE Bell & Howell Eyemo Camera has been

engineered to master the unexpected .

whether outside the studio or pinch-hitting on

. .
every camera a duplicate of others in motor
mounting. Universal, 12-volt, or synchronous
motors are available.
an interior set. The adaptability of the Eyemo
Sound can be added to Eyemo films. S.M.P.E.
has made it the "right arm” of field cameramen
standard sound aperture and matched view-
for many years. Now, new features and improve-
finder are available in every model, and the im-
ments make it even more versatile and depend-
proved, vibrationless governor assures abso-
lutely accurate speeds from the first to the
. . .

Lenses are mounted . three together ... on

. .

last foot of film.

a turret for split-second change. The spyglass
viewfinder combines accuracy and quick ad-
Many more Eyemo features are fully described
in literature which will be mailed on request.
justments for six different field areas. Focusing
and diaphragm controls are seen through the
viewfinder, permitting manipulation even while BELL & HOWELL COMPANY
shooting. 1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago
Every model has a handcrank in addition to New York: 11 W. 42d St. • Hollywood: 716 N. La Brea Ave.
London: 13-14 Great Castle St.
a powerful spring motor. You never will miss Established 1 907


402 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

Agfa Ansco Corporation


C. King Charney, Incorporated,






(Corner Cole Avenue)


Telephone HOIlywood 2918


October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 403

A Technical and Educational publication
on motion picture photography.

Published monthly by the

1782 N. Orange Drive
Hollywood, California

Telephone GRanite 2135

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C.

FRED W. JACKMAN, Treasurer, A.S.C.

Vol. 18 September, 1937 No. 9

By the Sounding Sea 405 The Staff
By George Blaisdell EDITOR
George Blaisdell

Milner Elected President of A.S.C 406

Reaction on Making His First Color Reed N. Haythorne, A. S. C.

Picture 408
By James Wong Howe, A.S.C.
Emery Huse, A. S. C.

Council May Change Projector Aper- ADVISORY

Victor Milner, A. S. C.
Linolite Brings Use of Variable Den- James Van Trees, A. S. C.

sity 413 Fred W. Jackman, A. S. C.

Farciot Edouart, A. S. C.
Fred Gage, A. S. C.
Agfa Is Settled in New Building 414 Dr. J. S. Watson, A. S. C.
Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C.
Research Council Compiles Bulletin on Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C.
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C.
Sound Tracks 415
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C.
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C.
A.S.C. Members on Parade 416
Some Comment, Some Fact 417 L. F. Graham

Believe New Camera Makes Eclipse NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE

Find 420 S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York
City. Phone Plaza 3-0483.

Georges Benoit, 100 Allee Franklin,

O Pavillions-sous-Bois,
phone LeRaincy

France. Tele-

McGill’s, 179 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne,

Australian and New Zealand agents.

ESTABLISHED 1920. Advertising Rates on applica- Neither the American Cinematographer nor
tion. Subscription: U. S., $2.50 a year; Canada, $3.50 the American Society of Cinematographers
a year Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies, 25c
is responsible for statements made by au-

back numbers, 30c. Foreign single copies, 35c back


numbers, 40c. COPYRIGHT, 1937, by American thors. This magazine will not be respon-
Society of Cinematographers, Inc. sible for unsolicited manuscripts.
404 American Cinematographer • October, 1937


1 MATOGRAPHERS was founded in 1918
for the purpose of bringing into closer

cooperation all those leaders in cinematog- AMERICAN

raphy who strive for preeminence in artistic

and technical leadership ;

to further the
advancement of the cinema and its allied CINEMATOGRAPHERS
crafts through unceasing research and ex-

perimentation as well as through bringing OFFICERS

the artists and the scientists of cinematog- VICTOR MILNER President
CHARLES LANG. ... Second Vice Pres.
raphy into more intimate fellowship. Its
JAMES VAN TREES. .Third Vice Pres.
membership is composed of the outstanding FRED W. JACKMAN Treasurer
FRANK B. GOOD Secretary
cinematographers of the world, with Associ-
ate and Honorary memberships bestowed
Elmer Dyer Ray June
Arthur Edeson Charles B. Lang, Jr.
upon those who, though not active cinema-
George Folsey Victor Milner
tographers, are engaged none the less in Alfred Gilks Ted Tetzlaff
Bert Glennon James Van Trees
kindred pursuits, and who have by their Frank Good Joseph Walker
Fred W. Jackman Vernon L. Walker
achievements contributed outstandingly to Frederick L. Kley, Executive Business Manager

the progress of cinematography as an art

and as a science. To further these lofty aims Philip E. Rosen Hal Mohr
Gaetano Gaudio Homer Scott
and fittingly to chronicle the progress of James Van Trees John F. Seitz
John W. Boyle Daniel B. Clark
cinematography the society’s publication, Fred W. Jackman John Arnold

The American Cinematographer, is dedi-

cated. Charles Bell, St. Paul, Minn.
Georges Benoit, Paris, France
John W. Boyle, London, England
Ariel Varges, Tokyo, Japan
Charles W. Herbert, New York City
Lloyd Knechtel, London, England
John Dored, Vienna, Austria
Max B. DuPont, Papeete, Tahiti
Philip M. Chancellor
Reed N. Haythorne, Washington, D. C.
Paul Perry, Buenos Aires

George Folsey Ted Tetzlaff
Alfred Gilks

Elmer Dyer Frank B. Good
Charles B. Lang, Jr. Vernon Walker
Arthur Edeson

Ray June James Van Trees
Fred W. Jackman
research committee
Victor Milner, George A. Mitchell, Dr. Herbert GENERAL COUNSEL
Meyer, Farciot Edouart, Emery Huse
Emery Huse Arthur C. Webb
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 405


REAT TOWN be ages before any

G is that San music up in front and sat at the though, it will

Diego. not so large either
It's organ. Then he pulled stops and held human agency can convey the accom-
Seven panying setting of brilliant sun and
in numbers or area. notes.
years ago its population was around If he only would run but just a cloudless sky, of balmy air and wood-
148,000. It has leaped since then to bit some familiar strain. If he
of land atmosphere, of fellow humans
over 165,000. What impresses the failedit was a case of one alternative under a spell.
visitor is that it is up and going. The or another: Walk out on him or go On the Saturday afternoon before
newer business buildings have a met- to sleep. Alibis for the latter action Labor Day there was a run down to
ropolitan look. were multiplying. The balm that Tiajuana, a matter of less than a
As a case in point, intimating to rode on the crest of that breeze from score of miles. It was a first visit.

mine Host Teague of the Churchill the old Pacific was overpowering. Inevitably there would be compari-
what has just been hinted here, it was Like a thunderclap came a couple sons with a visit to Juarez in 1915.
suggested the buildings remind one of of bars from “Faust.” Gone was all The little town on the other side of
New York. “There’s one across the thought of sleep. Alertness succeeded the Rio Grande at that time was in
street,” the reporter went on, “that lethargy. There was a sense of re- the stress of civil strife and in un-
might have been lifted out of the big spect for the municipality that could happy condition generally. The fruit
town,” he said. provide for its citizens and their and vegetables on sale in its stores
“It really should look that way,” guests such a public institution as were not of appetizing appearance.
was the smiling response. “It was the one we were enjoying. They were the reverse. And these
New York capital that built it.” were symptomatic of the town in gen-
Real Thing Unbeatable
The Bank of America has a struc-
The concert by choir and organ in It was different in 1937 in this
ture in Broadway that seems to
the afternoon was one worthy of other Mexican town. Fruit and vege-
match anything in a business building The
travel a distance to sit in on. tables had been touched by water
way that Los Angeles can bring into
sound could have been measurably plenty. There was no particular dif-
comparison. And there are several Seemingly,
transmitted by radio. ference in one respect, how ever.r

hotels that will rate with the largest

There was plenty to drink in Juarez
in towns much heftier than San Diego.
in 1915. There was plenty to drink
Balboa Park is a thing of beauty.
in Tiajuana in 1937. Yet there was
chief charm is the great organ,
the largest of the pipe variety ever
TO OUR ADVERTISERS a difference, too. The only drinking
done by this reporter in 1937 was of
built, housed in a pretentious struc-
ture 45 feet deep by 70 high and 80
wide, according to a rough estimate.
T TOGRAPHER announces
that beginning with its January
reminiscential variety, so to speak.
He was thinking of Bill Winch, El
Paso exhibitor, entertainer public and
Whatever amplification may be needed issue it will be increased in size
private extraordinary, who with his
certainly is provided. from 8 to 11 inches less trim to
friends took this reporter and his
9 by 12 inches less trim.
Rare Setting missus under their protection for a
The type columns will be real party.
The setting
is picturesque in the ex- lengthened to 10 inches. This Hunch Was Wrong
treme. Extending from the left and of course will be exclusive of
the organ house in During the hour or more in Tia-
right sides of the usual 2 picas allotted to the
quarter-circle fashion and serving as juana the reporter was attracted to a
running folio.
the spearhead for the shortened oval
policeman, standing in casual fashion
The columns will be widened
of the great open air auditorium are
on a street corner just watching. The
from 13 picas to 14 picas (2
colonnades sheltering a few settees. man, apparently about thirty years,
Ringing the whole are groves of giant The page width will be in-
was dark and tall and slim. He looked
eucalyptus trees ranging in height up an American, of the typical western
creased from 41 picas to 44
to 150 feet, their tops bending under
breed, a regular second edition of
picas (7 /3 inches).
Wyatt Earp, as the associates of that
a gentle 10 o’clock Sunday morning We are convinced this in-
pioneer law officer had described him;
breeze. crease to a more standard mag-
one who would be a match for his
The sky
is cloudless. The tempera- azine size will give our adver-
weight in wildcats; one able to con-
ture as proved later is 70. The
it is tisers, especially those using
duct a verbal controversy with a par-
humidity seemingly is nil. Here is larger space, better opportunity
ticularly bad boy without batting an
to tell tbeir story and at the
a ready-made answer to the query
that has stumped so many youthful same time in some instances

eyelash or raising his voice.
The reporter wondered. Could it
of all ages: What so rare as a day in will mean definite economy for
be possible here was an American who
June ? them through avoidance of hav-
for good and sufficient reasons was
It could be only a day in September ing made special plates to fit
unable “to go back to Texas”; yet
— in San Diego. our columns.
This is the first time in the
one whose prowess in altercations
Preliminary to the concert of choir with fist and weapon had been recog-
seventeen years of its publica-
and organist in the afternoon a tuner nized by the southern municipality
tion The American Cinematog-
was at work on the organ. Exasper- with appointment to the peace force.
rapher has changed the size of
atingly did he hold notes and run The reporter suddenly discovered
its page.
scales. Then came a man who with the relation had changed. The scruti-
apparent authority threw books of (Continued on Page 440)
406 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

V A.S.C., is the
tenth president of the American
Society of Cinematographers.
First vice president for many years,
he was elected to his new post at a
meeting of the board of governors
held September 17.
John Arnold, A.S.C., the retiring
president, had held the position for
more than seven terms. He lays down
the presidency and membership on
the board because of his belief that
in his position as head of the M-G-M
The young Milner found abundant the negative was returned to the lab-
camera department he should not en- opportunity while projecting his oratory of Eberhard Schneider for
gage in any business regarding labor films largely consisting of scenics and the manufacture of the prints. Here
matters that may affect cinema- comics to examine his prospects for the cameraman was assigned to do
tographers. the future. He decided the better the laboratory work on the film.
The new president is a charter would be in photography.
field Working with him was Miss Marga-
member of the society of which he Eberhard Schneider conducted a ret, daughter of the proprietor of the
has just been elected chief. More manufacturing business at Twelfth plant (please keep that name in
than that he was one of the active street, New York, near Fourth ave- mind). Between the two they tinted
organizers and has been an officer nue. He was one of the leading man- the film complete.
of the body practically since its in- ufacturers of cameras, perforators,
ception in 1917. printers, etc. With Schneider the lad Wanderlust
His early years were spent in New decided he would become connected.
York. He was the son of a physician Of course we know there is a re-
The fact the manufacturer had a full vival of interest in tinting and ton-
whq had formerly practiced in South crew of mechanics, or that being a
Africa, who had lived in the Transvaal ing, just as there had been another
thrifty businessman he naturally prior to the introduction of sound.
during the Boer war, and to which would be disinclined to hire employes
country he afterward returned. Perhaps it now will be recognized
he did not need, these and other fac-
Milner’s first work in the motion that the continual reversion to tint-
tors made no impression on the de-
picture business was as an operator ing and toning is but another mani-
termined lad.
of a projection machine. It was in festation of the human being’s re-
a show in One Hundred
Makes Good volt against the deadly black and
and Tenth
street at Eighth avenue, New York. He haunted the manufacturer and white.
Nickelodeon was the descriptive term recited the tale that he was the only Of course, there will continue to
applied to the store converted to person in New York qualified to be- be those who will decry the alleged
theater purposes. come an Eberhard apprentice. Pos- minimized definition in color, just as
The equipment was of the primi- sibly to be free of the lad’s importuni- there will be those who can see no
tive typeand the machine hand oper- ties the employer finally agreed to let other standardized future until color
ated. Fire restrictions at the time him try it for three months. If in is accepted, but as long as black and

would have prohibited the use of that time he made good there would white is used it is likely tinting and
motors had there been any available. be a job for him. It was done as it toning will ride with them.
Pathe subjects were the leaders in was said. When the laboratory work on “Hia-
screen entertainment. Each thou- In less than three months the new- watha” was completed the broad-
sand-foot reel carried a number of comer was being taught photo-chem- ened Milner was seized with an at-
subjects, ranging from 50 feet in istry, laboratory work and the use tack of wanderlust. Nothing could
The of the motion picture camera. So it be expected to satisfy that longing
length. average was perhaps
four or five subjects. will be understood by the industry quite so effectively as membership in
and those of the amateur division as the corps of Pathe News cameramen,
Daily Changes that the new president of the
well then registering as high as five mem-
It was a daily change. The operator A.S.C. came to his position from the bers. The service was under the
did the selecting and a couple of bottom of the ladder. It was no editorship of E. L. Franconi, assisted
days a week would go to the ex- royal road, but it was a sure one, by Emanuel Cohen, later to become
changes. and it gave the young Milner an in- editor of Pathe News and then a
Among the brands at that time be- sight into the mysteries of his craft Paramount producer and in turn to
sides Pathe were Gaumont and denied to many of his fellows and make his own pictures.
Melies, both French; and there were proved of incalculable benefit to him The years of 1912, ’13 and ’14 were
Italian and other European firms rep- in later years. hectic days, with five men trying to
resented in the open market. As the apprentice merged into cover the more important events in
Vitagraph was one of the manu- master he was sent around the world the United States, a large job, geo-
facturers beginning to get its teeth with a camera. Probably he was the graphically speaking.
into the film world. This was a first to be so designated, certainly as It was during these years the
Brooklyn company, of which William an American cameraman. A.S.C. executive again figured in one
“Pop” Rock was the president and Motion picture history was made of the major developments of the new
Smith and Blackton the other own- fast in those days. On his return industry, that of the creation of
ers. Rock was the business repre- from his world trip Milner was sent what is now the newsreel service.
and the A.S.C. head re-
sentative, to photograph the first feature length On numerous occasions Milner had
members him now as sporting a huge picture, to be made from Longfel- been enabled to slip still pictures to
diamond, such as the showman of low’s “Hiawatha,” by Frank E. William G. Shepard of the United
other years affected. The exchange Moore. It was done in five reels and Press, who on one famous occasion
managers always were very cordial was acted by Seneca Indians around indisputably established his claim as
to operators, as is usually the case Lawton’s, N. Y., near Lake Erie. a regular newspaper guy. That was
with seller and buyer. When the picture was completed when he scooped the world on the in-
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 407

be first in an Iberian village than

second in Rome. Without any hesi-
tation he accepted a chance as sec-
ond with August, knowing that he
would profit by the experience and
the affiliation.
Then came an opportunity to go to
Universal. There he coaxed John E.
Seitz, A.S.C., later to be president of
the society, into permitting him to
help photograph “Scaramouche.” He
had realized this man whom he so
highly admired could give him advice
and training that would be invaluable.
The eventuality justified his convic-

Wins Academy Award

Then after a term with the Norma
Talmadge studio he transferred to
Paramount. That was about thirteen
years ago.
It was at that studio he was given
the Academy award, for his photog-
raphy on “Cleopatra.” He has been
runner-up for others.
Asked as to his own favorite
among the pictures he has photo-
graphed President Milner quickly
named “The General Died at Dawn.”
His regard for Lewis Milestone, di-

rector of that picture, came to the

surface with his decision. He char-
acterized him as always being desir-
ous of getting mood into photog-
raphy, the mood of the story, to the
benefit of the picture and every fac-

tor that surrounded it even to the
not inconsequential one of boxoffice.
The new president of the A.S.C.
never has been in doubt from the
beginning of his motion picture
camera experience that the welfare
of the cinematographer rests in a

united organization in a body that
seeks in every legitimate and honor-
VICTOR MILNER able way to advance him through
the stages of apprenticeship and
tervention by the United States in ization out of which the A.S.C. later craftsmanship to the realm of the
Mexico. was to develop. artist; to a body that loses no op-
The fraternization between Milner Rizard convinced the bridegroom portunity permitted by sound eth-
and Shepard led eventually to the that opportunities in studio work al- ics to make the industry and the
tying up between Pathe and the news ready far outranged those to be world at large conscious of the cine-
services whereby the newsreel organ- found knocking about the world in matographer’s important position
ization was tipped off on the happen- newsreel work. The advice was fol- among the greater of the screen’s
ings it wanted to secure for the lowed by obtaining a situation for contributors.
screen. him at the Balboa studio in Long And so the man who even reads
There Is a Wedding Beach. as he runs may reach the conclusion
Following several years on the Milner had no illusions as to his the new president of the American
Pathe News there was a wedding in deficiencies for screen dramatic pro- Society of Cinematographers is not
the Milner family. The bride was ductions. He made every effort so in his place by any accident of poli-

Miss Margaret Schneider, who on to educate himself that he could get tics; will concede he has earned his

her own account knew more than a out of the rut. Work was possible high honors by long and hard work;
little about the mysteries of pho- because cameramen were scarce, Mil- by seeking the benefit of association
tography. She even knew a lot ner himself having enjoyed far more with those master craftsmen compe-
about tinting and toning. opportunities than the vast majority — —
tent and willing to teach him and
When the destination of the honey- of his fellows. in turn giving him the privilege of

mooners was discussed it was decided Quality was almost unknown, and bestowing that knowledge on those
it would have to be California, al- cameramen were being educated at who are coming and are still to come.
ready going strong as a manufac- the expense of the studios. There His friends predict President Mil-
turing field for motion pictures. In was a chance to join Joe August, ner will make a worthy successor to
California the bridegroom met up A.S.C., as second on Bill Hart pro- a line of men who have brought dis-
with Georges Rizard, a member of ductions. Milner disagreed with the tinction on themselves and their
the Cinema Camera Club, an organ- general who said he would rather society.
408 American Cinematographer • October, 1937


Veteran Cinematographer Discusses
Experiences in Filming Tom Sawyer'


OR more than forty years cine- importance so long as their rendi- color into scenes and places where

F matographers have been seeing

color in terms of black-and-white
rendition. Today, as cinematography
tion in black-and-white was satis-
factory for our composition.
Now that we are dealing with
it should not be, thereby defeating the
effect of naturalness
to build up.
you are striving

in natural colors comes increasingly color on the screen as well as on the Any type of cinematography in-
to the fore, we must teach ourselves set we must learn to see these colors
volves the coordination of two basic
to see color as color. consciously. Flecks of coloring which elements: the players and their back-
This is perhaps my paramount re- in a black-and-white picture would ground. In black-and-white cinema-
action as I find myself engaged in form part of a neutral background tography, the background, while vast-
photographing my first Technicolor can in a color-picture prove enor- ly important, is generally selected
production. Being just at the thresh- mously disturbing to the best com- and lit so that it remains a neutral
old of getting acquainted with color position. background against which the players
cinematography, I hesitate to write is neaily always some means
There can move.
so prematurely of my experiences; of avoiding these disturbing colors,
only the hope that these notes, writ- Highlights and Shadows
by changing the camera-angle, the
ten while the transition from mono- lighting, or by spraying the offend- In other words, we generally try to
chrome to color is still under way, ing area; but to be avoided, the color avoid strong highlights or strong
may be helpful to others making, as must first be seen. shadows in the background, which
increasingly many of us must, the might draw the eyes of the audience
same transition emboldens me to do. Avoid Exaggeration away from the more important
For the last eight or more years, While it is necessary that the players.
cinematographers have considered cinematographer become definitely 'In natural color cinematography
color strictly in terms of its normal color conscious, it is equally vital we must learn to place background
monochromatic rendition by normal that this color consciousness should color in the same category as such
panchromatic materials. In other not be exaggerated. When working highlights. Asplash of red or blue
words, the actual colorings of any with color it is all too easy to be- in the background of a color shot can
two parts of the scene were of little come so color conscious that you force distract audience attention in exactly
the same way as a strong highlight
does in monochrome.
Therefore in my current produc-
tion, “The Adventures of Tom Saw-
yer,” I have tried to subordinate back-
ground color and to keep the major
part of any scene’s coloring confined
to the players. This has in practice
worked out very successfully; and it
is not nearly as difficult to do as
might appear.
Black-and-White Sets
In this respect, we have been for-
tunate in one early accident which
would ordinarily appear to have been
a serious handicap. The production
was designed as a black-and-white
production. It was, in fact, well
under way in monochrome when a
decision was reached to film it in
As a result, we have been working
with normal black-and-white produc-
tion settings and costumes. These
have not been changed in any major
detail; they are precisely what would
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 409

be expected for a monochrome produc- sometimes necessary to use the pro- necessary in color, for we have in-
tion of the same story. Yet we have jected beam of an H. I. Arc for this herent color differences to serve the
been using them for color with excel- purpose, but even so I retain a con- same purpose.
lent results. siderable amount of diffusion, and In one sequence of my present pic-
In many ways, I think we have got wherever possible I use Side Arcs. ture we had a scene showing young
better results this way than we would The present trend in monochrome Tommy Kelly, who plays Tom Saw-
had sets and costumes been planned lighting is toward having most if yer, walking atop a picket fence bal-
for color. not all of the light come from above, ancing a feather on his nose, to im-
As it is, their coloration is approxi- projected by spotlights. However sat- press his sweetheart. The camera
mately what would be natural for that isfactory this may be for black-and- angle was such that Tommy’s head
place and period; had they been de- white, I have not found it gives nat- moved against the open sky. In
liberately designed for color, there ural results in color. monochrome, the boy’s hair and the
must inevitably have been tempta- It is probable that many more ex- sky would be rendered in very sim-
tions to insert color here and there perienced color cinematographers ilar shades of gray.
simply for the sake of color, rather may disagree with me, but person- Instinctively as we prepared to
than because it should naturally be ally I have found that the most nat-
photograph the scene I arranged
there. ural effects come when the majority
back lighting to outline the head and
Coordinating these two elements of the lamps are at approximately
separate it from the sky. After the
with lighting offers new and interest- the level of the camera, with a bare
first take, it suddenly dawned on me
ing possibilities, but it also calls for minimum of fill-in and backlighting that this was a color picture, and on
a new approach to the problem of from units above. the screen the sky would be blue
lighting. The actual increase in illu- Natural Separation while the boy’s hair would be light
mination as compared to black-and-
This questionof backlighting in brown, giving a natural separation.
white is relatively unimportant; I am
color is another thing that demands In the next take I eliminated the rim
at present using about twice as much
modification of usual techniques. In lighting.On the screen this latter
light as I would use for the same
black-and-white we use back light takewas far more pleasing.
scene in monochrome.
and rim light to outline our charac- —
Where backlighting or any strong
This increase is not in the number
of lights, but in the intensity of their
ters so that they will stand out from highlighting —may for any reason be
their backgrounds. This is seldom necessary it is important to remember
beams. If, for a color shot, I use
a Mole-Richardson Side Arc with two
silk diffusers to light a given area, I
would in monochrome use a com-
parable incandescent broad with four
silks for the same purpose.
If for spot-lighting I use a 65-am-
pere H. I. arc I would in black-and-
white use an incandescent Junior
Solarspot for the same purpose, but
with the beam flooded out rather
Soft Lighting for Color
Every cinematographer has his in-
dividual preferences in lighting, and
every cinematographer will, when he
comes to Technicolor lighting; de-
termine for himself the technique he
likes best.
Already, some cinematographers
favor lighting Technicolor very flatly,
while others favor even more brilliant
lighting than they would use for
Personally, I favor a soft lighting
for color, with the modeling done
softly and subtly rather than strongly
and obviously.
Those of us who have studied the
methods of the Old Masters of paint-
ing will recall that they achieved
their modeling in many cases, not
with the direct sunlight that corre-
sponds to our spotlighting, or by
using a featureless flat lighting, but
by using what might be termed a
“directed” north light for the model-
ing light.
I have been striving, with good suc-
cess, for the same results using dif-
fused Side Arcs for my modeling
Modeling rim-lighting is necessary for black-and-white in a scene like this: in Technicolor
light. In larger shots it is of course —
natural color contrasts provide adequate separation. Photo by William Wallace.
410 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

EASTMAN Super X Panchromatic Nega-

tive not only promises superlative photo-

graphic quality, but delivers it with un-

broken regularity. It’s reliable. In no

other way could it possibly maintain its

position as the world’s most widely used

motion picture negative film. Eastman

Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. (J. E.

Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, Fort Lee,

Chicago, Hollywood.)

October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 411

that one of the few remaining limita-

tions of the process is the fact that
strong highlights show a tendency to
become “washed out” in the printing.
Therefore if such highlights must for
any reason be used, they must be
softened until they no longer pro-
duce this color-destroying glare but
remain merely to suggest a highlight.
Simplifying Color
Approaching color from this view-
point, lighting can be tremendously
simplified. Consider, for instance,
one recent shot of Tommy Kelly and
May Robson. In lighting this shot
I used only five lamps. They were a
diffused Side Arc for my key light,
placed at the right of the camera;
another Side Arc, diffused with about
three silks, at the other side of the
camera to complete my primary per-
sonal lighting.
On the wall behind the camera was
one Scoop, slightly diffused to give a
general lighting on the set. Shining
through a window on walls behind the
players was one 65-Ampere H. I. Arc
This scene from “Tom Sawyer” shows that simple, low-key lightings are as practical in
spotlight, which produced decorative —
Technicolor as in black-and-white. Photo by William Wallace.
Finally, on the lamprail behind the
players was one 90-ampere H. I. Arc, color is one that has only begun to filterwhich corrects their beam to

diffused and flooded, to give merely be explored. The possibilities seem the north light standard.
the faintest suggestion of a highlight boundless. In “Tom Sawyer” we have Use Beams with Care
on the players. had reason to portray a wide variety
These colored light beams must be
In this you will notice that I con- of light effects, including normal day-
used with great care, however. I have
centrated most of my lighting on the light, late afternoon, exterior and in-
not as yet found an instance where
players, definitely subordinating the terior moonlit night scenes, and in-
teriors lighted by oil lamps, candles
they can be used indiscriminately
background. This treatment, I have they
and torches. throughout a set. Instead,
found, gives the most natural results.
should be used only here and there,
The same general treatment is The ease with which we can obtain
to give a little glint suggesting the
is equally effective for exteriors. In these effects with existing equipment
and our really limited knowledge of warmer or bluer tone, while the rest
general, I like to keep the direct sun-
color cinematography is amazing.
of set and personal lighting remains
light away from the players, diffus-
ing with overhead scrims. I then
Subtlety in Color
It is significant of the subtlety In some instances, it may be ad-
effect my modeling with either re-
flectors or booster lights —more fre- needed in lighting color that these visable to use these colored lights
for illuminating all of the set, and
quently the latter. Arc booster lights effects are most successfully achieved
by suggesting them rather than by even for illuminating the figures of
have many definite advantages over
painting them with bold strokes. In the players. But as long as one is
general, it seems best to light the striving for an illusion of natural-
Effect Lighting scene in a fundamentally normal ness, it seems to be a fixed rule never
First of all, as my Technicolor as- manner, and then add faint touches to play one of these colored lights
sociate Wilfred Cline pointed out here and there to suggest the desired directly on the face of an actor, for
early in the production, arcs as they effect. that somehow introduces a note of
are now used in Technicolor are far All of these effects other than artificiality.
easier to face than any reflectors, so normal daylight are based on some This rule would probably not apply
that the players have less trouble change from the normal color of in photographing a melodrama like
keeping their eyes open naturally. lighting. Natural light in the late “Frankenstein” or “Dracula,” in
Secondly, in reflecting sunlight, re- afternoon actually takes on a warm which the weird impression could be
flectors also reflect other things, as yellow-orange tinge; lamplight, can- heightened by deliberately playing,
for instance some of the blue of the dlelight and torchlight also partake say, a blue or green light on the un-
sky, the green of large masses of of these warmer tones, while moon- natural character. I would enjoy do-
foliage, or the red-orange light of the light calls for a glint of steely blue. ing such a picture in color.
sun late in the day. The Side Arcs The warmer tones are secured very But for normal effects, low key
and H. I. arcs used in Technicolor simply by using conventional Junior lighting in Technicolor is every bit
are accurately matched to the north and Senior Solarspots with over- —
as possible and as effective — as in
light standard, and their light is volted or photoflood type globes of black-and-white. Here I would like
therefore colorless. Thirdly, of course, the correct power instead of the usual to encroach once again upon the art
either Side Arcs or H. I. Arcs used as incandescent globes. Moonlight effects director’s field. Light sets are defi-
booster lights are far more control- are produced even more simply, by nitely an advantage in color, for they
lable than any reflectors. merely removing from the H. I. arc may be controlled as easily as they
The question of effect lighting in spotlights the light straw-colored are in black-and-white, by regulating
412 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

the intensity of light falling on them. direction of photography on a Tech- equipment on any Technicolor set is
sets for “Tom Sawyer” were
The nicolor film, the average cinematogra- more modern and more efficient than
as have said, designed for black-
I pher would ordinarily enter upon his that used on most black-and-white
and-white photography, and remain initial color production with the ad- sets, and consequently the cinema-
fundamentally unchanged in the color vantage of a period of studying the tographer’s lighting problems are
production. Accordingly, many of process and making color tests be- simplified.
them are in relatively light colors, forehand rather than, as I did, mak- There is no doubt about the fact
while if the production had been de- ing but one brief Technicolor test and that color is coming as a major pro-
signed for color from the beginning then finding myself launched on an duction medium. I have no hesita-
I have a suspicion that many of these important production. tion in predicting that within the next
same sets would have been darker. The cooperation of the capable four or five years at least 50 per cent
Cline on the set and of the many of all major productions will be in
Favors Light Colors
unpublicized individuals in the Tech- color.
Judging by my own experience and nicolor laboratory and offices have Credit to Engineers
from what I have seen of previous been truly invaluable both to the
color productions, I think these lighter production itself and to me as an in- For obvious reasons, the photog-
sets have photographed much more dividual. raphy of these films will be directed
effectively than they would had they A world of credit also is due to by the same men who are directing
been darker; and certainly they another group of experts whose be- the photography of today’s outstand-
helped us to use a more normal vol- hind-the-scenes activities have done ing monochrome productions. There-
ume of light. much to make modern Technicolor fore more and more of us will find
In closing, would like to express
I photography what it is today. ourselves making the transition to
my sincere appreciation for the These are the engineers who de- color.
whole-hearted cooperation afforded signed and built the Mole-Richardson And between the basic simplifica-
me in this, my first Technicolor pro- arc lighting equipment which was de- and the ear-
tion of the process itself
duction, by my associate Technicolor veloped especially to meet the light- nest cooperation afforded by all these
cinematographer, Wilfred Cline, and ing problems of Technicolor. One of experts in and associated with the
by all of the Technicolor personnel. the first things needed to make the Technicolor organization, this transi-
While Technicolor has advanced to new Technicolor practical was mod- tion will be increasingly easy and
the point where an experienced black- ern lighting equipment, and so cap- natural for cinematographers who
and-white cinematographer need have ably have the M-R engineers succeed- prepare themselves beforehand to ac-
no undue fears at undertaking the ed in this that today the lighting cept color with an open mind.

COUNCIL MAY CHANGE tion so that the center lines of both

the camera and the projector aper-
tures will be identical, half of the

PROJECTOR APERTURE 22 mil difference in the widths of the

two apertures being equally divided
on both sides of the center line and

size of the picture on the
screen of practically every mo-
tion theatre in the
world may be changed as a result of
inch increased height and .021-inch
increased width, and is centered over
the camera aperture.
These proposed revisions will be
half of the 16 mil difference in the
heights of the two apertures again
being equally divided on both sides of
the horizontal center line.
action taken by the Research Council advantageous to the studio in that This thus moves the proposed pro-
of the Academy of Motion Picture cameramen will be able to compose a jector aperture 6% mils farther away
Arts and Sciences. scene uniformly so that ordinary pro- from the sound track.
In order more closely to coordinate duction shots will exactly fit in with The four corners of the proposed
studio and theatre practice and to be all types of composite and process sound projector aperture are rounded,
sure that all of the action photo- shots, and because of the identically with the same radius as that of the
graphed in the studios reaches the centered camera and projector aper- camera aperture (31 mils).
theatre screen, and to minimize the ture will facilitate the making of Copies of a memorandum contain-
possibility of cutting off heads and titles and various special effect shots. ing a comparison between the pres-
feet from the picture on the screen, The limited framing tolerance will ent standard Academy projector aper-
the council has taken the first steps be advantageous in the theatre in ture and the proposed new Standard
toward a revision in the dimensions that the possibilities for cutting heads have been sent to all studio and com-
of the Academy standard projector and feet off the screen will be de- mercial laboratories, studio camera
aperture adopted in 1932 and now in creased, inasmuch as more of the department heads, studio process de-
use in the theatres. scene actually photographed will ap- partment heads, sound department
The past several years’ use of the pear on the screen of all theatres. heads, commercial color companies,
standard has indicated that a revi- It is proposed that the dimensions trailer and newsreel producers, and
sion in the aperture dimensions would and position of the camera aperture camera, sound and projector equip-
be advantageous from several view- will remain unchanged, revisions in ment companies asking for comments
points. After an extended series of only the projector aperture standard on the proposed revised standard.
tests in the studios and theatres, the now being under consideration. Comments and suggestions submit-
committee appointed by the council It is proposed that the size of the ted by any members of the above
to consider the matter has prepared Academy standard projector be in- groups will be considered by the
a revised standard projector aperture creased from 0.600 by 0.825 inch to council committee in advance of any
which in the main differs from that in 0.615 by 0.846 inch and that the aper- formal action toward revising the
use at the present time by a .015- ture itself be recentered to a posi- present standard.
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 413


OF VARIABLE DENSITY very well with the sensitivity of the
NE should be equally great for variable

O of the
in the
most critical
tographic chain of sound-on-
film recording is the point at which
density records.

Variable Density Recorders

The newLinolite glow-lamp, how-
latest emulsions for this type of re-
cording the area of highest sensitiv-
ity of which lies between 3600 A. and
4100 A. In practice, while the visual
the record is impressed on the film.
ever, brings the advantages of ultra- radiations of this new tube are com-
The effective frequency range of the
violet recording to variable density parable with those of conventional
finest amplifying system is limited
recorders. This unit includes not glow lamps, the photographic value
by the degree of purely photographic
exposing only the new lamp but also an optical at the same signal input is greater.
definition the system’s
system capable of transmitting these This strong “black light” emission,
mechanism is able to secure on the
short wave rays which are absorbed however, would be of no value if the
sound track.
by ordinary glass, and designed to optical system and the envelope of
If this definition is faulty, the deli-
coordinate as well with the remark- the glowtube itself were of ordinary
cate gradations representing the
able linear light source of the Linolite glass, which transmits virtually none
higher frequencies will be blurred, or
lamp. The unit as a whole replaces of the ultra-violet rays.
even lost, and the resulting record
the conventional glow lamp, record- Art Reeves, its manufacturer, there-
will be little better than could be
ing slit and optical system in any fore uses a special ultra-violet trans-
obtained with a far less responsive
recorder. mitting glass both for the lens which
Noslit is necessary in recording forms the recording image on the
For this reason the introduction
with this new unit. The light source film and for the envelope of the tube.
last year of the technique of record-
in the glow tube is in the form of The inherent frequency response
ing with ultra-violet light was rightly
a line of light between fifteen and characteristic of the Linolite glow
hailed as a signal advance in sound
twenty thousandths of an inch in lamp makes it suitable for use with
photography. Recording with the in-
width. The optical system, which has the most modern amplifying systems.
visible, shorter wave lengths of light
a 30:1 reduction ratio, focuses this Tests have shown the Linolite’s re-
results in a cleaner, more sharply de-
image directly on the film producing sponse to be flat up to a frequency
fined track which permits the record-
a line of intensely actinic light ap- of 14,000 cycles.
ing of a notably higher band of fre-
proximately .0005 of an inch in width.
quency components. Unit’s Purpose
Due to this construction the film
This is due to the fact that where “The purpose of the new unit,” as
is able to travel freely over the re-
a certain proportion of ordinary visi- explained by Reeves, “is to bring to
cording drum, without the potentially
ble rays not only penetrates the emul- the users of glow lamp recording
dangerous proximity of any slit block
sion layer completely but reflects from equipment the proved advantages of
or other type of aperture. The lens
the celluloid support, giving rise to ultra-violet recording.
wdiich forms the recording image is
halation and consequently reducing “The Linolite glow lamp is regularly
approximately one sixteenth of an
the definition of the recorded track, supplied in an adapter which is basic-
inch from the film.
the ultra-violet rays do not penetrate ally interchangeable with the conven-
so deeply, and accordingly make only High “Black Light” Intensity tional glow lamp mounting in exist-
their primary exposure, without hala- The Linolite, while producing suf- ing Reeves recorders and in the ma-
tion. ficient visible light for convenient vis- jority of other types as well.
This “black light” recording, how- ual focusing, gives forth its strong- “The old-style recording slit block
ever, has until now been available est radiation in the longer wave ultra- is removed and the Linolite adapter

only for the variable area type of violet band, with peak radiation at with its lens is inserted. Thereafter
recording, though its advantages 3800 Angstrom units. This coincides all that is necessary is to place the

Art Reeves Linolite Ultra-Violet Glow-Lamp recording unit.

414 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

glow lamp in the adapter just

Linolite panchromatic emulsions likewise gain doors, windows and walls. All the
as any ordinary glow lamp is fitted from black light recording, since lighting globes are inclosed in glass
into the recorder. panchromatization, while extending' vapor-proof containers.
“The new unit was of course de- the color-sensitivity of any emulsion, On the lower floor also are the of-
signed primarily for use in the does not destroy the violet and ultra- fices of Wilson Leahy and Grant
Reeves double-system recorders, but violet sensitivity inherent to any sil- Hough. The ceilings of these rooms,
equally adaptable to other types,
it is ver halide compound. like those of the other rooms, are
including single system units. In “Actual use of the units in several notably high, around 14 feet. In the
this connection it may be pointed out different recorders confirms the re- laboratory and research rooms all the
that while ultra-violet recording nat- sults of our own tests which indicated walls are in aluminum paint, designed
urally gives its greatest benefits when that this new ultra-violet recording to permit reflection right to the safe-
used with double system recorders unit greatly enhances the quality of ty line.
and the new recording emulsions any recording equipment, literally re- Hot and cold water are accessible.
made specifically for this service, vealing quality the older visible light There is a warmolator in every room,
single system recording on regular lamps could not put on the film.” with thermostatic control. The build-
ing is designed to resist excessive
heat, including that radiated by Old
Sol. The heating equipment assures
99.6 percent of combustion, which

AGFA IS SETTLED means the radiator performs the dou-

ble function of warming and ventilat-
ing as well.

IN NEW Fine Structure

Last Word in
On the upper floor are the auditor’s
rooms, the directors’ room and the
offices of Dr. Meyer and King Char-
ney. The rooms are plainly but rich-
ly furnished, with the quality being
sensed rather than obtruded. The di-
rectors’ room is 12 by 30 feet in di-
Modernity and Conveniences mensions, with provision for eight

All Purpose Accessories

A GFA’S new
It is
building is working.
situated at 6424 Santa
Monica Boulevard, at the cor-
ner of Cole avenue, and was occupied
devised to
make these the

Storage Capacity

“In the construction of this build-

Theoffice of Charney is raised a
half dozen steps above the floor level,
in order to account for the higher
by both Agfa Ansco Corporation and ceiling of the entrance room below.
C. King Charney, Inc., just after the ing there has been no compromise,”
It is novel in design and in its prece-
middle of September. It was construct- declared Dr. Herbert Meyer, A.S.C., dent smashing conveniences for the
ed by the first named company and who showed the Cinematographer’s comfort of clients and visitors.
cost §85,000. It represents the last reporter over the premises. “We have
It is doubtful even if Dublin, famed
word in modern construction. That sought to secure the best in every for its attention to the needs of film
statement goes two ways: in conven- detail, and in so far as we can learn
business men at all hours of the day,
iences for the conduct of a distributing we have got it.” can even attempt to match it. But
plant and for the operation on a lesser Fire-proofing has been especially what Irishman in his right mind ever
scale of a technical laboratory de- studied, as is understandable in a
would attempt to take issue with
signed to handle routine problems of structure containing a warehouse King Charney in a matter of enter-
customers and also for research. with a capacity for storage of 40,- tainment ?
The building rests on the southeast 000,000 feet of film. The stock room
Dr. Meyer’s office fronts on the
corner of the highways named. All of is of exceedingly high ceiling and
boulevard and faces the Hollywood
the Santa Monica frontage is in two about 45 by 60 feet in dimensions. hills. The doctor some months since
stories as well as half of that facing While this room represents the one- relinquished his long association with
on Cole avenue. The footage is prac- story part of the building, the fire- Agfa Ansco and is now affiliated in
tically 100 on each street. On the proof cut-off wall extends to the top a major capacity with C. King Char-
corner is a circular decorative tower, of the building.
ney, Inc. September 23, accompanied
surmounted with a four-way sign in There is an elaborate automatic by Wilson Leahy of the Agfa staff,
lights of “Agfa.” sprinkler system, with fire-proof he left for New York. The two will
The entrance is into a room with remain in that state until about No-
a high-ceilinged dome that forms the vember 1.
first floor of the tower. Over it on By no means a minor factor of the
the second floor is the office of C. Invaluable Information Agfa Building is the open roof over
King Charney. The main administra- Please make my change of ad- the stock room or warehouse. With
tive office is reminiscent of that which dress effective with September an area of 50 by 70 feet, it is intend-
the companies have just left, with the issue. ed to be used as an open air con-
large counter extending the depth of ference place when the air is balmy;
Your magazine is much ap-
the room and under which are pro- for test shots as the occasion may
preciated reading and contains
vided ample storage facilities for of- arise, or for any other purpose which
invaluable information for me.
fice necessities usually consigned to
It is my intention to remain on may be suggested by 3500 square
the most remote part of a business feet of perfectly good area.
your mailing list indefinitely.
establishment. There is a good amount of adjacent
On the lower floor are three rooms H. C. LIEBERT. footage owned by Agfa Ansco, se-
devoted to laboratory and research Milwaukee. cured and being held by Agfa against
work, equipped with all the doodads the building demands of the future.

October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 415

and undoings, of the sports and the

It was a party of all ages, with

BULLETIN ON SOUND TRACKS special attention to the little ones

and particular honors for the veterans
of the lot.
T Research Council’s commit-
tee on standardization of theatre
sound projection equipment announces
variable area push-pull and the vari-
ous types of noise reduction tracks.
Membership of the committee in
On September
13 several hundred
in the Paramount Studio
Theater, and through the Movie Club’s
the preparation of a bulletin for re- charge of the council’s theatre sound courtesy following much effort in cut-
lease during the next month to all equipment standardization program, ting the film and synchronizing music
theatres in the United States and Can- under the chairmanship of John Hil- to accompany the sequences the Stu-
ada, illustrating the ten kinds of liard of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Stu- dio Club members in attendance re-
sound track now being used by the dios, consists of John Aalberg, Law- lived their big day of three months
studios for release prints. rence Aicholtz, Carl Dreher, Barton earlier.
Recent developments in sound re- Kreuzer, E. A. McClintock, K. F.
Following the picture of the picnic
cording technique and equipment have Morgan, Elmer Raguse, Gordon Saw- the management of the studio, in com-
made it possible for the studios to yer, William Thayer, Ralph Town- pliment to the Studio Club, screened
utilize various types of recording for send, S. J. Twining and Gordon S.
“Souls at Sea.” This is the new sub-
various purposes sometimes using — Mitchell, manager of the Research
ject which has been enjoying extend-
one type track for dialogue and an- Council.
ed runs throughout the country. In
other type track for special musical spite of the many great productions
effects, etc. that are being released during this
During the past several months the Paramount Amateur Club year there is every reason to believe
Research Council has received a great Stages Unusual Meeting “Souls at Sea” will be a strong con-
number of inquiries from theatre man- tender for its place as one of the
agers and projectionists requesting
information on the various kinds of
T HE a
night of September 13 was
gala occasion for the Para-
mount Movie Club. Last June on a
best ten. And that is praise indeed.

tracks now reaching the theatre. Sunday long looked forward to the
It was consequently decided to pre- members of the Paramount Studio
pare a technical handbook to be sent Club, an organization composed of the
to the approximately 17,000 theatres
in the United States and Canada in
workers on the lot of that major
organization, trooped over to Catalina



Testers Polishers used
. •


order to assist them to obtain the Island for the annual holiday. major studios. We are the Sole Mfrs.
greatest possible advantage from new The journey from the studio ap- and Distributors.
developments in sound and to help to proximates fifty miles, one-half of the • Mfrs. of 16mm and 35mm Recording •

improve the quality of the sound distance over deep water. On 16mm. Heads, Amplifiers, Developing Ma-
reaching the public. filmsome members of the Paramount chines, Printers, Etc.

The bulletin will contain illustra- Movie Club, headed by President Car- CINEMA ARTS— CRAFTS
tions of the various kinds of tracks some
neal, put on to film a record of 914 N. Fairfax HE-1984 Hollywood, Calif.
standard variable density, standard of the highlights of the day’s doings
variable area, single and double
squeeze tracks, variable density and

35MM — I6MM 8MM
Contact Printers,

Testers, Developing
6154 Santa Monica Blvd.

Hollywood, Calif.



35 mm to 16 mm
Cable address




San Francisco. California U. S. A.

MO. U83»
4516 Sunset Boulevard Night, No. Hollywood 1271
416 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

own and remained many

years. More
recently he has taken up directing.
Loyal Briggs, A.S.C., did a lot of
process work, with Bob Ray assist-

ON PARADE ing him. Otto Pierce was the operative

cameraman on the production, with
Paul Cable assisting. Frank Keis was
business manager.
The unit exposed more than fifty
thousand feet of negative. There were
Frank B. Good, A.S.C., and inci- the direction of Richard Talmadge,
dentally secretary of that organization who has had wide experience in and numerous hazards encountered by the
for some time, is home from Alaska around studios. troupe, as was to be expected in a
after a trip of three months picture- Talmadge was a member of a fa- location where it was in contact with
making. It was a Paramount unit mous family of stunt men and for glacier and iceberg and the naviga-
of “Spawn of the North,” which a long time was a double for Douglas tion of Wrangle Narrows. In these
Henry Hathaway will direct when it Fairbanks in the years when that scenes as well as others in the trip
formally goes into production in Hol- more active player delighted the mil- all of the crew wore life preservers.

lywood. All of the northern scenes lions with his feats of daring. Then In the case of the glacier the dan-
and backgrounds were made under Talmadge went into the work on his ger came from the separation from
the main body of ice blocks weighing
thousands of tons, with the conse-
quent young tidal wave that followed
the immersion.
Everything Photographic
for Professional and Amateur Skill Required

New and Used, bought, sold, rented and Plenty of skill was required, too,
repaired. Designers and manufac- on the part of the skippers in navi-
turers of H. C. E. Combination gating the narrows from the town of
lens shade and filter-holder
Wrangle to Petersburg. The tide
for any size lens.
flows fast and rises high. In the six-
Hollywood Camera Exchange hour run ninety-two light buoys were
1600 Cahuenga Blvd., passed in the narrows. There was
Tel. HO 3651
hardly a stretch of 150 feet straight-
Cable Address: HOcamex away.
Send for Bargain Catalog “It is marvelous,” declared Frank
in speaking of the zigzagging back
and forth, “how the skippers of large
boats are able to navigate through
the narrows in bad water. The tide
in one of the narrows rises so high
and so fast that it can’t force itself
through the gorge into the lake, with
the result a waterfall is formed.
“It about three-quarters of an
hour after full high tide before a
boat can get through. Then the tide
starts to recede, and the water fall


for all types of
silent and sound cameras, lenses, magazines,
motors, etc., wanted regardless of condition.
Write today
20-22 W. 22nd St. New York City
The B-M Model "E" Sound-On-Film Recording Galvanometer, shown
above, combines the advantages of the variable area type of sound
track, with a frequency range of 0 to 10,000 cycles. Its physical dimen-
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Night Phones: HE-I3I I; CR-9907
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 417

promptly changes from the white tered for the work. One of these, the went for the cannery owners and the
water into the salt water on the other Sylph, became the camera boat, and Indians, the latter of whom consti-
side of the chuck. The narrows are Frank describes it as a “honey” for tuted a majority of the skippers.
about four or five hundred feet long steadiness. “That same remark goes T
and the salt water is about 150 deep for Skipper Bill Marsha,” the camera-
Ira Morgan, A.S.C., was unkindly
at the entrance of the narrows.” man continued. “This former mid- treated by the fates that presided
The secretary of the A.S.C. in the westerner has been on this boat seven
over the publication Technicians Cred-
line of his duty had an opportunity years, and he knows the boat and
its. He directed the photography on
to get a remarkable air view of a the Alaskan country.”
Grand National’s “The Girl Said No,”
part of Alaskan terrain. He traveled The A.S.C. man declares the resi- but according to the handbook quoted
about 190 miles to the west coast to dents of Ketchikan and Metlakatla, it was some one else. Not only was
look at canneries there from a photo- on Annette Island, in which neighbor- the offense committed once; it was
graphic standpoint. “Marvelous coun- hood most of the cannery stuff was persisted in, just as a regular jinx
try,” he declared with enthusiasm, done, together with the salmon traps, will do when he gets on the trail of a
“The mountains literally are covered both floating and standing, did every- live blunder. What made it worse, the
with lakes and waterfalls, just one thing in their power to make the stay man who got it couldn’t use it, and
after another. of the troupe over the three months as of course it was a good picture, too.
pleasant as possible. This remark That’s the way it goes.
Great Pilots

“And while we
are on that subject,”
he continued, “the pilots in that coun-
try certainly are the real article. It
was my privilege to travel with Herb
Munger. The big pontoon ships are
equipped with two-way radio. To
follow Herb put that big baby down
into rough water, avoiding nets and movioLRs
fighting tides running eight and nine
miles an hour, is a rare treat. Those
men up there fly in weather and do —
it as part of a day’s work that —
would with plenty of justification keep
some of their brothers in the states
safely on the ground.”
The completed picture should con-
tain an abundance of melodrama. As
piracy is not unrelated to the theme
there were many chases in these rough
waters. Ketchikan, the first port of
entry into Alaska, is the center of the
story, and everything around the
town was photographed either straight
or in process. The locale extended to
Kill Spill Light
Juneau, a couple of hundred miles
At Ketchikan two boats were char-
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418 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

Whether she do or no it is pos-

sible a majority of any doubters that

SOME COMMENT, SOME FACT stillhave been atop the fence will
slide to theground and concede that
Hepburn qualifies as an honest to
goodness actress. If “Stage Door”
was designed for that purpose it at-
THE ALPHABET WIDENS time since that Hepburn in acting
tained it; Hepburn faces the issue
Perhaps no actor or actress in re- ran the gamut of emotions from A
and conquers. She gives a splendid
cent years has been the subject of to B.
wider controversy as to individual Of course the thoughtless and the The picture is one to see and one
judgment in what constitutes obedi- unfeeling, usually in a majority,
not to miss. It is brilliant in its
ence to Hamlet’s injunction of the art laughed. would be interesting if
lines and rare in its humanity. Con-
of acting than Katherine Hepburn. Dorothy Parker is inclined to add, viction of its truth to life follows its
One sharp-tongued woman, of merci- after viewing “Stage Door,” anything
less wit and ruthless disregard of the to her alphabetical estimation of Hep-
feelings of others, suggested some burn as an actress. AMAZING FIGURES
UST as a basis on which to form
J an estimate of the number of cam-
eras that are being manufactured in
the United States, it is announced
Fully Guaranteed Used 35mm Equipment that since last May, in the one state
Mitchell, Bell & Howell, Akeley, Holmes Projectors, Sound and Silent. of California alone, more than sixty
DeBrie, Universal, Pathe Cameras. De Vry Suit Case Model Projectors. thousand cameras of one of the lesser
Portable Sound Recording Outfits.
We buy, sell and rent priced brands have been sold. That
Eyemo and De Vry Spring Driven
anything Photographic.
means roughly in the United States if
the same will and ability to buy pre-
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Cable Address: CAMERAS Beyond question the makers of the
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Keeping step with the invading

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October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 419

would ascend for the ambulance and new “open-front” field case that per-
the convening of the commission in mits quick operation.
Interesting, Educational
lunacy. The case is made in two sections
. . . My interest in moviemak- —a skeleton inner shell that holds
ing lies the 8mm.
strictly in the camera horizontally in picture-
RUFE DAVIS UNIQUE field. The various articles writ- making position and a folding outer
ten in your magazine for such shell that drops down hinge-fashion,
UFE DAVIS brings a new brand
R of humor to the screen. He is
as different as Chaplin. Where the
other amateurs as myself I have
found to be very interesting and
out of the lens field. The outer shell
fastens to the inner with five glove-
educational. snaps and cn abe taken off entirely if
great funster combines slapstick and the user wishes.
subtlety, pathetic and comic, the new Construction is of fine tan “bridle”
Minneapolis, Sept. 6.
funmaker has an individuality dis- leather. Neck strap rings are placed
tinctively his own in the field of broad at the upper corners of the inner
fun. Very likely the new Paramount shell, which is lined with velveteen
player has abilities as yet unsounded Eastman Builds Case for and fits the camera body snugly. A
or not yet drawn upon. spring steel frame behind the vel-
Kodak Bantam Special veteen lining gives added safety
Had Davis come over the horizon
a few years ago he would have been Users of Kodak Bantam Specials grip, but allows quick removal of the
thrust into a two-reel comedy series who wish to give the camera the pro- camera for reloading. A cut-out at
without loss of time following “Moun- tection of a case yet have it ready the back gives ready access to the
tain Music.” Now with a much better for immediate use will welcome a sliding film window cover.
break in “This Way, Please,” in which
he holds the screen seemingly for a
half dozen full minutes, practically
without interruption, easily he will
rate one of the top funsters of the
Aside from the mixed-up exhibition
routine due to double features Davis’
indicated spot is in two-reelers. With
that situation out front it would seem
his best chance as a business bringer
would be in a headliner spot in a
robust comedy or musical. Something
like “Down on the Farm,” would you
say, and give the hog under the fence
and the dogs another chance.

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420 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

BELIEVE NEW CAMERA which had to be ground and polished

to within a millionth of an inch of
diameter, is
The lens, four inches in
concave at the edges and

MAKES ECLIPSE FIND convex in the center.

Prof. Smiley also reported that his

three negatives, each made from ex-
FFERING the sun at the time of the eclipse, one ceptionally sensitive showed
O his photographs of the solar
eclipse in Peru last June may be the
the possibility that
might suspect the wedge of light of
being the zodiacal light.”
coronal streamers
extending for
about 4,000,000 miles into space, or
first to have caught the zodiacal light He added that he was sure the about four times the sun’s diameter.
in the neighborhood of the sun, Prof. wedge was not the result of a stray This is as far as they could be seen
Charles H. Smiley of Frown Uni- thumb-print, since the negative was with the naked eye from the observ-
versity described the results of his so dense that only l/3000th of the ing site at Callan, Peru, 14,000 feet
expedition high into the Andes Moun- incident light passes through it. He above sea level.
tains before meetings of the American pointed out that a drawing made by The sun in eclipse appears as a
Astronomical Society in \\ illiams- the astronomer Langley at a solar mere pinhead on his negatives, with
town, Mass., Sept 9. eclipse in 1878 showed a similar the rest of the circular film, the size
The zodiacal light is a faintly wedge-shaped region of light. cf a half dollar, recording the coronal
luminous band seen best at the equa- Taken on an f/1 streamers and surrounding sky, in-
tor, extending vertically there from Prof. Smiley’s photographs were cluding the wedge-shaped band which
the horizon at evening. The early taken wfith a Schmidt astronomical may be the zodiacal light.
light is said to come from small par- “candid” camera, reported to be the Prof. Smiley hopes to photograph
ticles of matter moving in the same fastest of its kind ever used on an the total solar eclipse of Oct. 1, 1940,
plane with the earth. It has never eclipse expedition. It has a lens from South America, in order to ver-
been photographed close to the sun speed of f/1, a focal length of four ify the results of his expedition to
before. inches, and a lens-mirror system Peru this year.
Wedge-Shaped Region
“Beyond the corona,” Prof. Smiley
said, “the exposure on a double-coat-
ed orthochromatic emulsion showed a
wedge-shaped region, extending along
the eliptic, slightly lighter than the
Film Tested Laboratory
remaining region around the sun.
This wedge of light extended from
one edge of the film to the visible
horizon, a distance of about 12 de-
“If authoritieshad not pronounced Sound Recording Equipment
it impossible to photograph the zo-
diacal light in the neighborhood of

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climb over
are two ways to get through
fence. The hard way is to
.. . the easy way is to slip
red. Its exceptional fineness of grain
permits larger screen projection with-
out noticeable grain.
Hypan is a new fine-grain panchromatic
Some movie makers struggle to get top- film that gives you sparkling screen
notch results without availing them- results with added snap and luster. In
selves of films that make it easier. addition its speed in daylight, for which
Two such films are Agfa Superpan and it is particularly suited, is practically

Agfa Hypan. that of Superpan.

Superpan is an ideal film for indoors. It Roth films are available in 100 ft. and
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October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 425



Cinematography in 8mm Cameras Aid

in Dentistry 426

By Henry A. Linek, D.D.S.

SOCIETY Movie Club News 428

OF AMATEUR Three-Lens Turret Built for

8mm Users 429

CINEMATOGRAPHERS Half Across World and Back in Color.. 430

When Added Scenes Close Up the Gaps. 431

By Daniel B'. Clark, A.S.C.

BOARD OF REVIEW Grace Moore Is Keen Filmer of Intimate

Shots 434
Victor Milner, President, A.S.C., Director By William Stull, A.S.C.

of Photography Paramount Studios, Acad-

emy Award Winner 1935 Automatic Development Has Its
Advantages 435
Karl Struss, A.S.C., Director of Photog-
raphy, Paramount Studios, Academy Award Da-Lite Has New Method for Glass
Beaded Screens 436
Winner, 1928

Fred W. Jackman, Treasurer, American So- Cut, Brothers, Cut with Care 437
ciety of
American Concern Gets Bulk of Bra-
zilian Business 438
Dan Clark, A.S.C., Director of Photog-
raphy, 20th Century-Fox How Films Aid in Advertising 439

David Abel, A.S.C., Director of Photog-

raphy of Fred Astaire Productions, R.K.O.
426 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

Loscher, president of the Los Angeles

8mm. Club. These two men have pro-

CINEMATOGRAPHY duced and are still producing scien-

tific pictures receiving national ac-
claim by the dental profession.

The writer, who happens to be an
8mm. enthusiast, soon found himself
endeavoring to produce a dental film

AID IN DENTISTRY for educational purposes. And al-

though he realizes the reader may
have little concern as to how dental
pictures should be made, there may
Expert Amateur Tells of Advances Made be a few problems solved that will
apply to other types of filming.
in Visual Education Through Help of In any cine filming the abundant
Ultra Close-Ups and Other Expedients use of close-ups has always been ad-
vised, but in the making of a tech-
nical picture their use is imperative.
By Henry A. Linek, D.D.S. In fact, every scene should confine
Member Faculty University of Southern California College of Dentistry, itself to the immediate field of op-
Member Los Angeles 8mm. Club eration.
As in the case of a dental picture,
one may begin by giving a close-up

V ISUAL education! These are the

words that now predominate in
all discussions concerning the
modernization of teaching methods.
by means of the eye are retained for

periods of time
images received through the sense of
than those
of the patient in the chair and the
dental assistant’s hands fastening the
napkin about the patient’s shoulders.
After this introduction, the dentist’s
Within recent months educators seem And also, they tell us, pictures re-
hands, with instruments examining
to be united in the opinion that owing main far longer in our memory than
the offending tooth, are shown.
to the ever crowding demands made facts gleaned from the printed page.
As the dentist proceeds to operate
upon the curricula in schools there Advertisers have known this; editors
we cut into an “ultra close-up,” and
is a need for ‘‘speeding up’' the proc- have known it, and now schools are
most all scenes that follow will show
ess of transmitting information to realizing its value.
the action of instruments and the
students and at the same time pre-
U.S.C. Pioneers manipulation of materials within the
senting it in a manner that the in-
tooth itself.
formation will be retained. In this matter of visual education
Having mentioned “ultra close-ups”
The answer to this problem is “vis- the University of Southern California
it may be well to explain
ualization.” By visualization is meant, College of Dentistry has pioneered. how they
are made, as their use will open up
in this case, knowledge obtained and Ten years ago it was the first dental
retained through the medium of sight.
new fields, such as the fascinating
school to inaugurate a Department of
subject of photographing garden in-
All of us are aware through our own Cinematography. And the success of
sects. Imagine the thrill of filling the
experiences and will therefore agree this undertaking is credited to Dr.
screen with objects and scenes no
with the psychologists who tell us A. C. La Touche of the Los Angeles
larger than a postage stamp!
that images transmitted to the brain Cinema Club and Dr. F. Robert
Extreme Close-Ups
If you own a telephoto lens, a
Harrison sunshade and enjoy mak-
ing simple gadgets, here is one way
of making extreme close-ups, with an
assurance of sharp focus and perfect
The idea presented here is for an
Eastman Model 60. However, the same
principle can be applied to any make
of camera.
Using %-inch ply wood, make a
base board 214 inches by 16 inches.
Then attach 14 -inch side flanges, mak-
ing sure the camera will fit between.
Drill a 5/16-inch hole to accommo-
date a Harrison tripod screw as lo-
cated in drawing. Also drill a hole
to receive a 14 -inch diameter metal
rod 314 inches long and threaded at
one end. Using a nut on top and an-
other below the base, fastens this rod,
which acts as a sun shade support.
Construct the hinged pointer as
shown in the illustration, but do not
attach it permanently to the base un-
til test shots are made at various
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 427

distances and recorded, order to

in However, since
plete the simulation. explanatory title. If more familiar
determine position for sharpest focus. many operations are not performed objects are used, as for example, a
The distance from the tip of the with the rubber dam in place it will stick of sealing wax, have it lying
pointer to the front of camera will then be necessary to shoot directly with a label below.
be approximately 9% inches. on living tissues.
Lighting and Exposure
How to Use Composition
Then when the w’ax is used the

The Harrison sunshade is used These shots can be made steady if audience is not mystified. If a gas
merely to support an auxiliary lens. the patient is instructed to relax and flame is to be shown it will not photo-
This lens may be removed from any if the dentist is reminded not to apply graph unless the oxygen is reduced
small titler. It can be removed undue pressure against the teeth. by adjusting the vent. This maxes
by grinding off the rivet heads, and After each shot the pointer of the a yellow flame which will then reg-
it is a simple matter to replace it in position finder is raised, and if it ister.

the titler again when needed by using strikes the same location as before To show a lapse of time while
small bolts instead of rivets in the you know that the patient’s head has materials used must be allowed to
retaining ring. not moved during the scene. “set,” or to dry, or to be heated, etc.,
The lens will be too large to slip Having hurdled two obstacles in the interval may be bridged with a
into the sunshade, but by carefully dental filming, let us consider other —
fade out fade in. As in the case of
grinding two parallel sides the proper phases equally important. When mak- heating or cooling an object, flashes
width can be obtained. This grinding ing a technical picture the camera- showing the required temperatures on
will not ruin the lens for future man should not overlook his oppor- a thermometer will be instructive.
titling purposes. tunities for good composition. The When lighting for Type A Koda-
To use, set the telephoto lens at same rules apply as for other type of chrome film the writer uses a cluster
infinity; have pointer touch the object picture. of four No. 1 photofloods at a dis-
to be photographed; lock the tripod When it is necessary to show a se- tance of 2 feet and set at an angle
in position; lower the pointer and ries of scenes, all similar in their ac- to the field on all close-ups. This
shoot. tion, change the camera angle fre- gives a three-quarter lighting with a
You will have photographed an quently to break the monotony. Na- probable f/8 reading. Light shadows
area % by % of an inch! And to turally, tricky angle shots have no are desirable because they give depth
photograph an area 2 by 2 1/£ inches place in a scientific picture, but the and contour to the subjects.
change to the 13mm. lens. For larger judicious selection of camera positions To determine the proper exposure
shots, remove the auxiliary lens and is always good “cine.” with a meter for very small objects
focus in the usual manner. It will When photographing hands in ac- it will be necessary to substitute a

not be necessary to remove the posi- tion keep them below the center line larger object such as a sheet of paper
tion finder from the tripod. of the frame, as this reacts more or fabric having similar color and
restfully upon the audience. When brightness. When taking meter read-
Steadiness Essential photographing hands at a bench, a ings check the exposure at the point
harmonious arrangement should be of interest and let the other areas
One of the problems in dental film- made of the materials and tools used. take care of themselves.
ing and especially when using the
If there are bottles, cans, jars, or This same rule may be applied to
“ultra close-up” is that caused by the
boxes in the scene, place large dis- scenes taken with Kodachrome. Where
inadvertent moving of the patient’s
tinctive labels on each so that when there is a large area of wThite or very
head. A slight movement literally
contents are used, the audience will light colors the exposure should fie
throws the field out of the picture.
be informed without necessity of an made for them, allowing the darker
If theoperation is being performed
with a rubber dam in place it is a
simple matter to overcome this diffi-
culty by faking the shots with a
dummy mouth.
Extracted teeth similar to those of
the patient’s are selected and ar-
ranged in a wooden frame. When the
rubber dam is applied not even a
dentist can detect the deception in
the picture.
A device similar to a titling frame
is built of wood. The base is about 2
feet long and snaps on to the arms
of a dental chair in easy access to
the dental operating unit and cabinet.
At one end is a boxlike stand 12
inches high. This holds the wooden
block containing the carefully pre-
pared “set.”
On a track a movable block sup-
ports the camera. Small wood clamps
lock the camera and “staged” teeth
firmly in place. Thus, camera and
teeth are constantly retained in a rel-
ative position, and a rock steady pic-
ture is assured.
In the editing, flashes of the patient
The pointer is attached by a hinge. The sunshade holds a supplementary lens. Using a tele-
are cut in from time to time to com- photo lens gives an area %by %
of an inch.
428 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

contend that because of their small

size 8mm. pictures are naturally more
if you are an 8mm. fan you
will probably insist that your pictures
are equal, if not superior, to those
made with a 16mm. camera. How-
ever, should we ask the man who has
never owned a camera he will in-
variably reply that he can see no dif-
ference. So there you are!
There is one fact, though, that must
be recognized. That is, 8mm. is here
to stay. It has not been found want-
ing. And if the 8mm. camera insists
as it does upon entering scientific and
educational fields, manufacturers will
necessarily be obliged to heed the de-
mands for a de luxe model camera.
This camera will have, like some of
its big brothers, a turret lens mount,
ground glass focusing, a rewind,
frame counter and all the other ac-
coutrements that the 8mm. owner en-
shades to take care of themselves. alyze this question further by asking vies in the finest 16mm. cameras.
This prevents a light area from another. Therefore, let us hope that our
“burning’' the scene. “Is the quality of 8mm. as good as American camera manufacturers will
Why 8mm? results attained with a 16mm. cam- soon recognize this ever growing
The above question is often asked. era?” The answer to this question need and thereby contribute to the
The most reasonable answer is “It depends upon the camera you own. further advancement of 8mm. in edu-
ismore economical.” But let us an- If you shoot with a 16 you will likely cation.

MOVIE CLUB NEWS entries. Mr. Hague, Mr. Becker, and

Mr. Scull were asked to bring their
entries to the next meeting to be
Los Angeles 8mm Club soon take place. It was
officers will
suggested an amendment to the by-
shown owing to the lateness of the
On September 14 the regular meet- evening.
laws be drawn making possible the
ing of the Los Angeles 8mm. Club distribution of officers in the Club,
M. R. ARMSTRONG, Secretary.
was held at the Eastman Auditorium, that the work might be allotted more
6706 Santa Monica boulevard. A1 evenly. Upon motion of Mr. Carpenter Philadelphia Cinema
Leitch, chairman of the social com- it was decided that our present by- The Philadelphia Cinema Club
mittee, in the absence of Vice Presi- laws be amended to create the offices started its series of Fall meetings by
dent Walter, introduced A. H. Barnett, of secretary, treasurer and editor of its September meeting, held in the
Mrs. H. J. Barney, Volney P. Burdick, the club paper in view of the amount Rose Room, of the Hotel Adelphia, on
A. B. Callow, Leslie A. Coleman, Bob of work involved. It was suggested September 14. A turnout of sixty
Roberts, Joe Compton, E. L. Emeneg- the secretary and editor be allowed to greeted this opening session, which
ger, A. B. Allenbaugh and John G. appoint their assistants. featured as its principal speaker Ken-
Esterly, all new members, to the club. The technical committee session neth F. Space of the Horman Founda-
We are proud to say this is the larg- proved to be most hlepful. tion, who talked on “Editing.”
est number of new members accepted The projection of members’ films Mr. Space is unusually well quali-
at any one meeting in the history of for analysis was next in order and
the club.
fied to speak on this subject. He
several most interesting pictures were gave a lot of help with this perplex-
C. G. Cornell of the news items com- viewed. Dr. Taylor’s picture taken ing problem. He has been a pho-
mittee called attention to interesting on a yacht cruise to Honolulu was tographer for seventeen years, a
articles published in various amateur shown and some beautiful shots were moviemaker eleven years and recently
motion picture magazines. He men- displayed on this kodachrome film. has returned from a five months tour
tioned in particular the article on C. J. VerHalen announced the win- of the Southern States, shooting
vacation filming which appeared in the ners of the one-reeler contest of the some 29,000 feet of 16mm. pictures
American Cinematographer written club. Dr. John M. Griffin with his in color and black and white and
by Club Member John E. Walter. Also Kodachrome picture was the proud 2500 still pictures. He made the
the article written by William Stull, winner, receiving four No. 200 photo- first experimental movie used by
A.S.C., on titling devijes used by Dr. flood lamps as prize. The second prize Agfa-Ansco, and after two years in
H. E. Linek. was entitled “Mountain Music” by its research laboratory became official
Mr. Leitch announced the picnic to the secretary, and C. W. A. Cadarette cameraman for several years.
be held on Sunday, Sept. 26, in Grif- with his “Lazy Bones” carried away After leaving Agfa he made indus-
fith Park, at the location known as third prize. trial and commercial motion pictures
Mineral Wells. Other entries in the contest also until going to New York, three years
An open discussion was held regard- were shown and President Loscher ago, to make the first “modernistic”
ing the annual banquet of the club. handed each entrant the “judges publicity film for Sherman Price As-
It will be held at the Victor Hugo classification” sheet recently inaugu-
Saturday evening, December 11. rated as a feature of the club, to He has been with the Harmon
It was announced the election of point out mistakes and weak points In (Continued on Page 444)
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 429


F one were to attempt a survey recalibration. Thus 8mm. users who duralumin, which has a moderately
of the users of 8mm. cameras to own 16mm. cameras such as the polished silverlike appearance and is
I determine the most urgently de- Filmo, Victor, etc., can interchange non-tainishing.
sired improvement in equipment, the the lenses purchased for these with Bell developed this turret at the
answer would be an overwhelming their “eights,” obtaining a much wider insistence of an 8mm. enthusiast, and
demand for a lens turret. Slowly, as range of focal lengths than normally every detail of the design and work-
8mm. enticed more and more serious possible with regular 8mm. equip- manship bespeaks its practical origin.
filmers, the “eights” have acquired ment. The designer is strongly to be com-
virtually all of the mechanical re- The regular finder serves un- mended for having devised this at-
finements of 16mm. equipment with changed. The hinged mattes for de- tachment, which so greatly extends
the one remarkable exception of the fining the field of telephoto lenses the range of the eight millimetre
invaluable multiple-lens turret. may be retained if desired. Other- camera’s usefulness without making
Users of 8mm. cameras will there- wise, professional type finder mattes any fundamental change in the basic
fore welcome the news that an excel- of heavy tinted celluloid are used. design of the camera itself.
lent three-lens turret has been made Good Appearance He is also developing a means of
and several have been sold. It is In fitting this turret to the Bell direct focusing on a ground glass fo-
designed and built by Theo M. Bell, and Howell “eights” the regular op- cusing screen, for use with cameras
who for many years has been well erating lever is covered by the turret equipped with this turret. He plans
and favorably known in the motion plate. A
simple extension fitting car- to provide a direct magnifying sys-
picture industry as a maker of fine ries this lever to a convenient posi- tem, viewing the full frame, rather
professional cinemachinery. The ini- tion at the side of the camera, where than the indirect or prismatic types.
tial model is designed for use with it is operated in the usual way. A full description of this focusing
the Filmo Eights; but types adaptable The direction of movement of this system will be given in these pages
to Eastman and other 8mm. cameras extension lever is the same as that at the earliest date.
are forthcoming shortly. of the original operating lever. Pro-
A unique feature of the design is vision is made to accommodate the Elmer Dyer, A.S.C., and Mrs. Dyer
the fact that the turret makes no upward movement of the lever for are on the way home from London,
fundamental change in the camera or cameras equipped for single frame re- where the flying filmer has been do-
its mechanism. The present type, lease. ing his stuff for MGM. Following
made for use with Bell and Howell The appearance of the turret is at- the completion of the stint at the stu-
8mm. cameras, is applied by merely tractive and harmonizes well with the dio the Dyers did the grand tour of
removing the regular front plate of finish of the camera. The turret and Europe. They’ll be saying howdy any
the camera and substituting the plate its base plate are of machine finished day now.
which carries the turret.
If for any reason it may be desired
to use the camera subsequently with-
out the turret, the original front plate
may be replaced and the camera will
be restored to its original condition.
The entire construction of the Bell
turret is of duralumin, and the design
is so compact that the installation
adds very little to either size or the
weight of the camera. The turret
measures about three inches in di-
ameter and is scarcely three-six-
teenths of an inch thick. It operates
in the conventional manner, revolv-
ing freely, with a spring-actuated
catch which gives an audible click
when any lens is in photographing
position in front of the aperture.
Several methods of lens mounting
may be used. The regular Bell and
Howell bayonet-type lens mounting
may be fitted to any or all of the
three lens mounts if desired. It is
also possible to remove these fittings
from the lens and screw the lens on
to a standard 40-thread screw mount.
In addition, a simple adapter makes
it possible to utilize any standard
16mm. camera lens without need for Side view of three-turret lens mounted on 8mm. camera

430 American Cinematographer • October, 1937


matter of record in more newspaper photographers), the miles of empty ocean to Wake Island,

A S a ties of
it is worth chron-
ways than one travelers are seen boarding the plane, a tiny spot of sand scarcely larger
icling that the first person to the motors are revved up, and the than a pocket handkerchief in the
make the complete trans-pacific air huge ship takes off. midst of leagues of ocean.
trip from San Francisco to Hongkong Every traveler stopping at this re-
In Honolulu Harbor
was a 16mm. moviemaker. mote spot recalls particularly the
The holder of the No. 1 ticket on
of this part of the picture, myriads of incredibly tame seabirds
Morse explains, was taken for him by which, aside from a naval radio crew
the China Clipper’s first through
a moviemaking friend. “In the first and Pan American’s newly installed
was Carlton
flight across the Pacific
place,” he remarks, “when one is in force, are almost the island’s sole
E. Morse, author of radio’s “One
the middle of all this excitement he inhabitants. Morse’s camera faith-
Man’s Family” program, and cine-
isn’t likely to have much time for fully verifies this impression, with
filmer with a Magazine Cine-Kodak.
moviemaking. Secondly, of course, the close-ups and slow-motion long shots
As a result, the Clipper’s flight
camera had to go aboard ahead of of these surprisingly unwild fowl.
liveson in eight hundred feet of ex- time with the rest of my baggage.
cellentKodachrome, made under what Finally, how else could I film this Starts Home
were in many instances trying photo- particular take-off unless I did it by Finishing the next “hop” at Guam,
graphic conditions. proxy ?” the camera lingers lovingly over this
The begins with intimate
film Morse’s camera, however, swings little-known American possession
scenes showing
the civic send-off into action upon the plane’s arrival which, Morse says, is far more nearly
which sped the plane and its pas- in Honolulu. Hinting discreetly at the the idyllic South Sea island of ro-
sengers on their way. Fortunately a official welcome these first trippers mance than any of the plane’s more
silent film, it turns quickly from the received in Hawaii, the film shows publicized stopping places.
monotony of stolid political figures glimpses of both the modern and the The next sequence carries plane and
addressing the microphone to far less familiar, older parts of the passengers to Manila, and thence to
more interesting and personal scenes
of Morse meeting his fellow-passen-
island. —
Hongkong the end of the run where,
Off again the next morning to Mid- to his surprise, Morse finds himself
gers and the Clipper’s crew. way Island, we glimpse something of greeted by showery weather condi-
These introductions completed the airline’s establishment there, and tions which, aside from the setting,
(punctuated, of course, by the activi- olf again across another thousand might easily be duplicated without
leaving San Francisco.
The return trip, made over the
same route, is wisely only suggested,
and the viewer is left with colorful
impressions of strange lands, inter-
spersed with exquisite scenes of the
bizarre world seen only when flying
above mile high clouds.
As Morse is editing the film, its
half-hour running time brings the
audience something of the same ka-
leidoscopic melange of strange sights
and scenes he himself must have ex-
perienced on the journey that took
him twice across the largest of oceans
within twelve days.

No Regrets, but
“I don’t in the regret the
quick trip I made,” Morse remarks,
“but I certainly can’t advise any
filmer to take it so hurriedly. The
trip in itself is such an overwhelm-
ingly wonderful experience you owe
it to yourself (unless badly pressed
for time) to make a few stopovers
so that you can film things ade-
“Naturally the plane’s schedules
are arranged in the interests of fly-
Carlton E. Morse, the flying filmer who was the China Clipper’s first through passenger on its ing rather than filming. All along the
maiden flight to Hong Kong, shows his ticket to Ann Shelley of his “One Man’s Family”
radio cast. way we would take off early ip the
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 431

morning and land rather late in the line has planted on these isolated but particularly at sunset after a
evening, to take off again the next islets thousands of miles from civili- showery day, or at dawn, is a thing
morning. This doesn’t leave much zation.” of such other-worldly loveliness no
time or light for serious cinema- For various reasons not unconnect- words can describe it,” the traveler
tography. ed with the foreign possessions over declares. “The deep tones of the sky

Stopovers Will Help

which the Clippers fly the use of —
above the flecks of gray ocean show-
cameras in the plane itself is official- ing far below through breaks in the
results I got are far more
ly tabu. Cameras themselves are per- —
cloud floor and above all the twisted,
to the credit of the camera and missible, but at the start of each incredible beauty of the clouds them-
exposure meter than to anything I flight thesteward solemnly collects selves, a visual symphony in white
may have done. Like a newsreel them and places them in a cupboard. and gray, peachbloom and gold, have
cinematographer, I had to take what Morse, however, who was a news- to be described in color film or not
I could get and hope the audience paperman before radio claimed him, at all.
would like it. is still too much the reporter to be
“If I were taking the trip again wholly complaisant under such re- Picture in Words
I would plan for stopovers at several strictions. He soon learned where the
points: certainly inGuam, and if pos- cameras were hidden, and on the long, “Sometimes you feel you are flying
sible in Honolulu, and Hongkong. At drowsy all-day flights it was not too over the mountains of a dream; at
each of these places there is plenty to difficult occasionally to sneak the other times, you feel as though you
film between planes, and each offers camera out of the locker and steal a were flying over polar icebergs.
one a complete change of surround- few scenes. One of the berths is Throughout is more color than one
ings, with new things to see and ex- always made up for the convenience —
would think possible for in addition
perience every moment. of sleepy or indisposed passengers. to the colorings of sky, sea, clcuds
“Traveling this way, there is an- and dawn, nature often throws in a
other, strictly photographic advan-
Beauty of View perfect rainbow for good measure,
tage, too. This is the fact that you Itoffered an excellent vantage with its arch stretched across the
can plan your film supply more ac- point for scene-stealing. Accordingly carpet of clouds far below.
curately. As you know, the amount Morse’s picture is embellished with a “The beauty of these sights alone
of baggage one can carry on these few stolen scenes of the interior of makes the trip worth while, and if
long overwater flights is somewhat the plane, and of the indescribably you can capture them on Kodachrome
limited; and until you place them on beautiful cloudland above which the they will make your film something
an airline’s scales you can’t have any plane flies. that will for many years renew the
idea how much even the lightest ot “The beauty of the view seen when thrill of soaring half way across the
home movie cameras and a fair sup- flying above the clouds at any time, world.”
ply of film weigh. On my trip I was
husbanding my film
against the time when I might have
none for irreplaceable scenes.
“But if I were making the trip
again I would plan for this, and send
a good supply of film ahead to each
stopping place. When I got there I
would send my exposed rolls back to
the processing station by mail, while
I carried on with a fresh supply, se- T’S a big advantage, when you and must have your picture finished
cure in the knowledge that more
I have a problem, to be able to learn
what someone else, faced with a

on a certain date well, often you
fresh film would be waiting at that can’t go back and make those miss-
end of that hop. similar one, has done to reach a solu- ing scenes as you would like.
tion. When it comes to moviemaking What’s the answer ? “Added scenes.”
Intimate Shots the users of sub-standard cineboxes In other words, scenes made on a sim-
can very often gain such an advantage ilar but less expensive location, which
“Working way, I would have
by turning to see what the profes- can be cut into the existing footage
both th« time and the film to cover
sional has done to solve the same sort so perfectly even an expert can’t tell
many details of the air trip more
of problems. where one set stops and the other
thoroughly. For instance, going
straight through as I did, there was Right now, one of the big questions begins.
is this matter of bridging the gaps
no chance to film one of the huge Just a Load of Land
in vacation film continuities occa-
planes landing or taking off. And
sioned by scenes that were forgotten For instance, suppose our company
there are such matters as landing
facilities and servicing methods.
or unfilmable. I’ve faced the same has been working among the sand
problem often enough myself, not dunes of the Arizona deserts, and
“In some cases the plane can taxi
only with my 16mm. camera but with when we get back to Hollywood we
right up to the shore, tying up to a
my 35 mm. studio outfit. Nearly al- find that certain closer shots of the
landing and servicing float. In others,
ways there is a way to fill those gaps, actors would strengthen the picture.
the plane moors to a buoy nearly a
and without undue expense, at that. Well, there’s no point in taking an
mile offshore, discharging the passen-
Very often indeed a studio unit expensive company several hundred
gers into a lighter while the service
will come back from an arduous loca- miles for just a few scenes, so we
crew connect hoses to pipes on the tion trip to discover that some scenes make our “added scenes” at home in
buoy through which fuel and oil are might be done better, or that others Hollywood.
pumped from the tanks on shore. might be supplemented or replaced to Sometimes a truckload of sand on
“And how those mechanics swarm good advantage. Now it costs money the stage floor and a painted sky
over the plane the minute it comes to send a studio troup on location io backing representing clouds have
in! It is a story in itself. So, too, retake these scenes, and when you turned the trick; at other times close-
are the hotel accommodations the air- have just so much money to spend, ups from angles that give a back-
— —

432 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

ground of sky and clouds have been for that one shot, and besides, it was surfboard riders at Wai-
pits, of the

all that was necessary. the wrong time of year for such a and so on.

This latter treatment will work trip, since Death Valley is emphat- Every now and then the profes-
every bit as well with an 8mm. or a ically not a summer resort. sional, like the amateur, may find he
16mm. camera as it does with 35mm. Myresourceful friend simply needs to make some “added scenes”
film. So we have our first point in bought himself a five-cent colored showing a player who for one reason
making added scenes. If it’s close postcard of the view he wanted, put or another is no longer available.
shots we
need, select an inconspicu- it on the easel of his title-board, and This, professionally, became front-

ous background one similar to what made his panorama oy slowly sliding page news after the recent death of
might be expected on the real loca- the card across the camera’s field! one of our greatest stars, when the
tion —
and make the necessary shots On the screen the result was entirely picture was posthumously finished
from angles that don’t make the back- successful. with the star’s stand-in filling a gap
ground too conspicuous. doubling for her in the long-shots.
For instance, suppose you spent the Postcards as Title Stuff This particular aspect of the prob-
summer in New England. Back home, lem is one the amateur fortunately
Here’s another professional trick
you suddenly decide you need a few has seldom to solve, but in a lesser
that can bolster up ailing amateur
close-ups of yourself or of your party. degree other professionals have en-

What could be easier or more con- films! Postcards can be trimmed to
countered similar problems and solved

vincing than to make those close-
fit most amateur titlers,
choose cards which have no figures
and if you
them with tricks the sub-standard
ups with a background of sky, of filmer can copy.
that ought to be moving you can add
tree-trunks, or even of non-committal
surprisingly to your travel films Josef Von Sternberg, A.S.C., in
grass ?
even to shots where ordinarily there making his first “Salvation
A pine limb in the foreground often Hunters,” hired an expensive actor
helps in such a shot; and you can
would not be enough light for cine-
matography, or scenes where ama- for a single day to play the villain’s
find a pine or two in almost every
teur cameras are strictly forbidden. role. When the day was done there
part of the country, even if only in
still remained a number of scenes re-
Another 16mm. -shooting acquaint-
the park.
Often, though, both the professional ance of mine carried this idea one —
quiring this menace but there was
In his travels he con-
no money left to re-engage so costly
and the amateur will need medium step farther.
a player. Luckily, Von Sternberg’s
shots or long shots as well as close- fines his camerawork largely to in-
profile was not unlike the actor’s; and
ups. The same methods will suffice, timate shots of the people he meets,
so Joe’s shadow, projected on the
but the background must be chosen and to candid shots of the native life
wall by a spotlight, finished playing
much more carefully. in the places he visits.
the part.
For strictly scenic shots, he simply
Look Around Home buys one of the commercially avail- Don’t Forget Yourself
Cleverly planned camera angles can able travel reels of the place, reason- Sub-standard filmers can’t often do
do a great deal to disguise our arti-
this, but they can frequently let the
fice. For example, suppose you were
rear of one person double for the
one of those lucky people who trav-
back of somebody else. One of my
eled in Europe this summer, but that
filming friends came back from a trip
you came back without enough shots
to Mexico City and discovered, ap-
of yourself to prove you were actually
parently too late, that he had forgot-
ten some needed shots of himself
Now while there are plenty of spots
photographing some picturesque
in the modern parts of European
cities that can be more or less paral-
leled in America, they are not the Nothing daunted, he called in one
spots most American filmers would of his neighbors, draped him with a
be likely to include in their pictures. serape and sombrero brought from
On the other hand, an outstanding Mexico, and, training his camera on
characteristic of many of the older an innocuous stucco wall, made the
cities there is the cobblestone paving necessary shots using his own face
of the streets. and his friend’s serape-draped rear
And somewhere in most of Ameri- elevation!
ca’s larger cities you will find a few The number of African animals who
bits of cobblestoned paving that can have died on the screen from well-
double excellently as a European placed shots fired by heroic hunters
background for a downward-pointing six thousand miles away in California
camera angle. If American cars show is something terrific. Yet as long
up in this shot, it will still be all Daniel Clark, A. S. C. as the hunter was actually in Africa
right, as long as their licenses are to fire the fatal shot, it is relatively
not seen, for Detroit motors, like ing that the professional cinema- unimportant where he may have been
Hollywood movies, are found every- tographer who made the reel would when pictured doing so.
where. undoubtedly have better weather con- Therefore, if your films of your fall
Postcard for Locale ditions than any average tourist could hunting trip show everything but how
On the other hand, your predica- hope for. you fired when you bagged your deer,
ment may be like that of one of my Certainly, some of his films bear why not “stage” the shot for the
professional friends who, making a this out. I recall especially one reel
camera when you get home?
35mm. color film on a rather short on his trip to Hawaii, in which he in- After all, there’s still a world of
budget, found that he needed one pan- tercut his own personal, intimate truth in the statement of the pro-
oramic long shot of Death Valley to scenes with professional shots of the ducer at whom Hollywod has laughed
complete his picture. His budget was islands. Few if any amateurs travel- for twenty-five years, “A tree is a
too far gone to permit even a thought ing as he did could have equaled the tree; a rock is a rock: shoot it in
of going the several hundred miles purchased footage of Kilauea’s fire Griffith park!”

October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 433

Full-color Kodachronte is
just us effective - just us
easy to use. indoors us out

utdoors, indoors, fair weather and foul,

movie makers are finding Kodachrome the

film. It makes bright-day shots vividly
the amazingly fast Type A
the movie in colors of startling realism.
It’s an amazing film

—and amazingly easy to


realistic. . .dull-day scenes surprisingly colorful. use. All standard 8 mm. and 16 mm. cameras
And indoors, under inexpensive Photofloods, load with regular daylight Kodachrome and
Type A Kodachrome for Photoflood light.

Many “still’’ cameras, too. Your Cine-Kodak

dealer has the full story —and the film. Prices,

including processing: “Daylight” or Type A

$4.75 for 50-foot 16 mm. rolls, $0 for 100-foot
16 mm. rolls, $5 for 50-foot magazines. . .for

Cine-Kodaks Eight — $3.75.

434 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

—work in every scene in a pic-

ture. Sometimes the player may be
off duty for several days at a time
while scenes that require only other
members of the cast are made. And

KEEN FILMER OF when you are on a production

cially when, like

starring in it your own job makes
such demands on your time and en-
Miss Moore, you’re

INTIMATE SHOTS ergy that you value those few days

you don’t have to report on the stage!
Yet if your sub-standard camera
misses the scenes made on your days
off there are going to be some big
Her 16mm. Pictures on Stage gaps in your continuity.
“Finally, making a complete sub-
Show What Was Done and How standard version of a big studio fea-
ture would take an awful lot of film.
A two-reel home movie is considered
By WILLIAM STULL, A.S.C. plenty long; a feature like ‘I’ll Take
Romance’ may run eight, ten or a
EVERAL years ago John Arnold, into Joe Walker, A.S.C., who is the dozen reels.
perennial director of photography on “Miss Moore hit on a really sensible
S A.S.C., and the writer were dis-
cussing the various studio folk
who use 16mm. cineboxes. After run-
the Moore filmusicals. In due course
I asked him whether the star still fol-
way to get around these difficulties.
Digs Under Surface
ning down a list that seemed like a lowed the 16mm. hobby. “Instead of being a voiceless ver-
“who’s who” of filmdom, Arnold re- “I’ll say she does!” replied Joe.
sion of the studio production her
marked: “Whenever she was on the set dur- 16mm. picture was a subject that
“You know', we’ve got an opera star ing the making of ‘I’ll Take Romance’
showed how the studio film was made
on this lot who could show a lot of her 16mm. camera was very much in
and who did it.
our 16mm. -making old guard plenty evidence. It got to be as much a part
“I don’t think everyone would have
of tricks in moviemaking. She’s of the troup as the 35mm. camera
had that idea; but you might expect
Grace Moore, of the Metropolitan that was photographing the profes-
it of Miss Moore, for she is always
Opera. sional production.
more interested in people and their
“The other day dropped in on the
I Surmounts Silence Handicap doings than in places or things.”
set with my own Filmo, and instead “What’s more, she used real good That is just the sort of a picture
of asking me what sort of a gadget sense in her sub-standard picture. it turned out to be. Instead of be-
I had in my hand Miss Moore came Quite a few players have at one time ing a pale shadow of “I’ll Take Ro-
up and told me she had one, too or another tried to make 16mm. ver- mance” it is a colorful narrative of
and began asking for very specific ad- sions of the pictures in which they what goes on in a studio.
vice about some of her own movie- played. On paper, that’s a swell idea; Of course, Grace Moore and the
making problems.” but in practice it has a lot of draw- supporting players are seen, but the
In the years that have since passed backs. Moore 16mm. opus also shows the
Grace Moore has moved to another “First of all, the studio’s production director of photography and his cam-
studio and become one of the indus- is in sound, while the sub-standard era crew at their work; the electri-
try’s top-ranking songbirds. And version just naturally has to be a cians setting up lamps; the “grips,”
every time I’ve seen a Grace Moore silent picture. Can’t you imagine the property men, the recording en-
film I’ve wondered about her 16mm. how disappointing a silent version of gineers, the unseen but important
filming. a Grace Moore filmwould be ? musicians, the wardrobe and make-up
At a recent A.S.C. gathering I ran “Next, very —
few players even persons, and all the dozens of un-
seen workers whose skill makes a
major feature possible.
It is next to impossible to get
Grace Moore to take credit for mak-
ing this unusual home movie. In-
stead she insists that it is a real ccil-
lective film. Whenever possible, she
photographed the scenes herself; at
other times her husband, Valentin
Parera, who is also an enthusiastic
filmer, officiated at the camera.
But this, she tells, was just the be-
ginning. The camera was always on
the set, and from the start it was
understood that any member of the
troup who saw an interesting scene
was free to take the camera and
shoot that scene.
As a result, on the screen one may
see in rapid succession a scene Miss
Moore made of, say, the sound man,
GRACE MOORE Films Make-Up Artist Jack Duffy and her hairdresser, wardrobe girl and maid followed by other shots made by
for a scene in her 16 mm. film about those who made “I’ll Take Romance.” (Continued on Page 441)
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 435

T wenty-five
professional motion pic-
ture negative and positive were
developed by the “rack and tank”
ago ail
Story of Actual Operation
ofMachine That Processes
Amateur Film Without the
to dry.
wound on
ample to allow the film
end is
a driven take-up it is
a 2000-foot reel ready to
have each roll separated and returned
method, a system in which the film to the respective owners of each roll.
was wound on a rack and then in- Hazard of Handling Injury The machine is so arranged that it
serted in tanks for the various proc- can run continuously until the entire
esses of developing. Then it would a room about 24 feet long, the device day’s work is done, provision being
be rewound off the racks on to a big taking up about two-thirds of the made to splice on additional reels of
drum that revolved until the film was space. In what is termed the “wet exposed film at the feed-in end with-
dry. This was a long, laborious proc- end” there is a large tank approxi- out stopping. Likewise full reels
ess that left much to be desired. mately 36 inches wide by 36 inches can be removed and replaced with
If in the process the laboratory deep by 7 feet long. The tank is empty reels at the take-up end with-
technician forgot to take a rack of divided into nine compartments, each out stopping.
film out on time the picture suffered; one accommodating the particular One of the “bugs” that had to be
or if it came out too soon it was solution necessary in the processing ironed out in the building of the ma-
just as bad. And then, too, there of reversible films. chine was ascribed to the fact that
would be fingermarks, scratches, digs Suspended immediately above the acetate base film after being wet
and dust added while the film dried tank by means of cables and counter- stretches from three to four feet to
on the big whirling drum. weights was the mechanism that car- each hundred. With a thread-up of
Many more things happened due to ried the film over a series of rollers over 1000 feet in the wet end it may
the handling and rehandling of the through the various tanks. The mech- be easily seen some means of taking
film. anism contained nine separate units, care of an additional thirty to forty
Today, except in the instance of one one over each tank. feet of loose film must be made in
major manufacturer of 16mm. ama- Each unit carried twenty rollers the wet end of the machine.
teur reversible film who has
perfected across the top and nineteen at the bot-
Shrinks Back in Drying
automatic machines for his own ex- tom. A drive shaft led down from the
clusive use, the majority of amateur main frame to the bottom rollers During drying the film again must
film still is processed by the same of each of the nine units, and was so shrink back to its normal length, or
antique method of early day movies. constructed as to drive the bottom pitch, so again in the dry box the

For a long time it has been known rollers. mechanism must allow for this shrink-
in the trade in Southern California A continuous length of clear film age or the film will break.
there was in operation a 16mm. au- leader was threaded over these rol- Previously we have mentioned the

tomatic machine for three and more lers from top to bottom across each
unit and then on to the next unit,
film is driven through the entire ma-
chine by the lower rollers and not
years, in fact. Then last April Walter
W. Bell, the manufacturer of the one and so on until it came out at the ap- the top rollers. In this lies the secret
just mentioned, began work on a pointed end. By means of a gear this of compensating for stretch and
second. entire mechanism is lowered into the shrinkage of the film. Immediately
tanks, one unit into each of the nine when the film starts to stretch in
This was completed nearly three
compartments. the wet end it tends to fall away
months ago and was installed in the from the bottom rollers, which nat-
plant of the Hollywoodland company, Completes Process
urally slows the speed of the film at
in South Gate, several miles from With the film and mechanism now that particular place.
Hollywood. It has been in full opera- submerged in solution a two-thousand- This slack is then transmitted to
tion and successfully ever since. foot reel of exposed film is stapled the next rollers back, and so on, thus
Automatic Operation to the end of the leader film, a switch never allowing an undue amount of
is snapped on and the film is started slack to accumulate in one place.
While these automatic developing
on its way winding over and over The same process applies to the points
machines usually are surrounded with
through the first set of rollers in the where the film shrinks, for as it
genuine secrecy this reporter was
first tank. It soon reaches the end tightens the rollers drive to full speed
given an opportunity through the in-
of the first developer. Then it crosses identical to the speed it is fed into
vitation of Walter Bell and the court-
over the last top roller and into the the machine before the film stretches,
esy of Ben Doty to see the newer
next tank, a wash tank. thus preventing it from breaking.
one in operation.
On and on it goes, back and forth High pressure airvalves blow the
These machines take the film in at from tank to tank, until it has com- excess solution off the film as it
one end, develop it first as a negative pleted its run through the “wet end.” passes from one tank to another. Also
and then re-expose and redevelop it Now, completely processed, it passes air is used to dry the film, both emul-
as a positive. Then the film is into the dry box, a completely in- sion side and back, before passing
washed, dried, polished and wound closed glass case, 3 feet wide, 6 feet into the dry box. The result is that
ready to be run on the projector. All long by 7 high. the finished film needs no polishing
this is automatic and continuous in Here the film again passes over and is assured of being perfectly
operation. another series of rollers, there being clean.
The newer machine is installed in four tiers in all. The thread-up in In the dry box, which is air tight,
American Cinematographer • October, 1937

the volume of air and heat can be the present time travelers in commer-
regulated to dry the film correctly re- cial airplanes are prohibited from
gardless of outside air conditions. making pictures of the territory over
Also all air entering the dry box is which they pass, the new restrictions
filtered through the latest type glass will be extended to include all trav-

filters, insuring a spotless film. elers whether journeying by land, air

or water.
Compensation for Error
Visitors are forbidden to take pic-
Never is it necessary to touch the
tures while in fortified zones and
film from start to finish and scratches
other specified military areas.
and digs cannot occur, for at all times
the emulsion side runs away from the
rollers, which are so constituted as Moore Wins Contest
not to touch the back of the film J. Kinney Moore, S.A.C., member
except for a narrow edge well within and maker of “Nite Life,” which was
the perforation line. awarded a special prize for outstand-
Since the average amateur varies ing special effects photography in
somewhat in the exposure of each The American Cinematographer’s
individual scene on a roll of film it 1936 contest, has received notice an-
can be quickly realized that in the other of his films has carried off top
rack and tank process of develop- honors in a national contest spon-
ment the laboratory man can only sored jointly by Liberty and Pete
develop for the average best results. Smith’s MGM short subject depart-
By machine processing it is possible Front view of 8mm. camera fitted with three ment.
lens turret. See page 429.
to compensate for over and under His one - reel 16mm. production
exposure of each individual scene. “Prize Winner” has been awarded
The re-exposure device, which di- The machine has a total of 650 film premier honors in Liberty’s contest
rects a beam of light to the film as it rollers, and it takes 2050 feet of and a cash prize of $500. It is under-
passes into the second developer, can leader to thread it. Machines such as stood the Liberty contest was to
be varied with each scene, thus al- this are entirely custom built and secure material suitable for profes-
lowing more or less action by the must be engineered to meet individual sional remaking as a Pete Smith
second developer, which tends to even requirements as well as to meet vary- short.
up the final density of the finished ing conditions in different parts of
film, compensating for the amateur’s the country.
errors in exposure to a great degree. Since all solutions must be main- Da-Lite Has New Method
In other words, the machine proc- tained to within a half degree plus
or minus and dry box air to a
for Glass Beaded Screens
essing system uses time and tempera-
ture fixed on both first and second given humidity, regardless of outside Da-Lite Screen Company, Inc., Chi-
development and control ultimate weather conditions, thermostatic con- cago, announces important improve-
density and contrast by re-exposure, trolled refrigeration and heat must ments in the manufacture of its glass-
while by rack and tank it is neces- be utilized to obtain such results ac- beaded screens. A new method of ap-
sary to vary first and second devel- cording to the weather. plying beads to the surface of the
opment since re-exposure in the labor- The foregoing may afford you a screen provides more uniform distri-
atory is fixed to completion for the more or less brief description of the bution of the beads, greater smooth-
entire roll. great care and thought that go into ness, greater density of beads per
The machine that has been de- making your film a better film, to tell square inch and perfect adhesion.
scribed is made to run both 16mm. you just what happens to your film As a result of these improvements
reversible and double 8mm. reversible, from the time you send it in for proc- the reflected light is more diffusive
provision being made to compensate essing until the moment you receive and the picture is free from sparkle
re-exposure on both pictures of dou- it back. and glare. Graininess is eliminated.
ble 8, as two separate beams of light Walter Bell, the manufacturer of Color tones are brought out bril-
are used when running this type the machine, as previously stated, is liantly and faithfully. Details are
film. at work on an automatic developer sharply defined.
The capacity of the machine is 2000 for an 8mm. film. It is expected to The new process not only improves
feet of film an hour. It can be operated be finished a week or two after this the quality of pictures but increases
by one man and an assistant. Aside magazine is published. We
plan to the life of the screen. The fabric
from the superior quality of work show a photograph of it at an early stays white and pliable indefinitely.
resulting as compared with the rack date. The beads adhere tightly and are
and tank system the saving effected Mr. Bell for twelve years has given guaranteed not to shatter off, even
in time and labor is of vital import- his entire time to the amateur field. when exposed to excessive humidity.
ance. He is well known to a host in the in- Da-Lite glass-beaded screens are
650 Rollers dustry. —
available in many styles box type
All metal parts that come in con- table models, hanging wall screens
tact with solutions are made from a Chinese Clamp Down and the popular Da-Lite Challenger,
special type of acid-resisting stain- New regulations concerning the which has a tripod attached to the
less steel, while all gears, bearings making of pictures in China app’ving case and can be set up instantly any-
and film rollers are fabricated from particularly to travelers have been where.
linen bakelite. Other parts, like the formulated by the Ministry of Interior Da-Lite, with more than a quarter
main frame and accessories, are made and are awaiting the approval of the of a century of experience in mak-
from duralumin, the same metal that Executive Yuan, according to a report ing screens for all requirements,
is used in the cosntruction of later to the Department of Commerce by recommends the glass-beaded surface
type airplanes. Water and air pipe H. W. Howard, Assistant American for most users but also makes screens
lines are of a special type copper Trade Commissioner, Shanghai. with mat white and silver surfaces
tubing. The report stated that although at for special requirements.
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 437

How the Unsocial Crew of

Cinematographer, Director,
Producer and Film Editor
every scene necessary to get your
May Operate as One Human idea over to the audience. If you
haven’t, and you can do so, make those
missing scenes. Remember that the
By WILLIAM STULL, A.S.C. audience can judge only by what it
sees on the screen; it can’t jump the
gaps as your mind does, for the audi-
O of the hardest parts of ama- ture is trying to get over to the audi- ence won’t be fortified with your
teur moviemaking: is the fact ence. It may be an idea about places knowledge of the subject.
that most of us have to he or scenery; it may be an idea about At this stage of the game I have
Cinematographer, Director, Producer people; it may be an idea dealing with found it a good idea to give the pic-
and Film Editor all rolled into one. some fact or operation. But every ture one or two “sneak previews” be-
On paper, this combination looks nice film is always trying to tell the audi- fore various friends. By friends I
enough. In practice, it can be plain, —
ence something and that something mean people who know you well
unadulterated Gehenna, for each of is the story. enough to be frank, and who know
these four divided interests is inclined The starting point of any job of enough about filming to criticize con-
to pull in a different direction. editing is to eliminate the purely structively. In preference, too, pick
The conflict is often at its worst mechanical defects like fogged friends who know little enough about
when we come to the matter of cut- frames, out-of-focus or badly exposed your subject so their minds won’t
ting a picture. Judging by most of shots, and to assemble the scenes in parallel yours in skipping across un-
the results seen on home movie continuity. noticed gaps in continuity.
screens, the editorial member of this Lots of otherwise discerning Aim- These “preview reactions” should
one-man quadrumvirate seldom yells ers stop right there and consider their furnish a good idea of how to pro-
half loud enough. In other words, the job of editing done. And that, brother, ceed in finishing the job. They will
“special interests” of pet scenes, is one whale of a mistake, for the point out gaps to be filled by added
pennywise film hoarding, and so on real work of editing is only begun! scenes or (if no retakes are possible)
seem to dominate the job to the detri- After all, what right have you, as bridged by titles. They will unhesi-
ment of the whole. Editor, to trust that you as Cinema- tatingly let you know if anything is
I wish I could cite some magical tographer and Director have made not clear.
formula that would paralyze the three each scene absolutely perfect? At last comes the most critical
selfish Messrs. Hyde so that the Edi- If you were cutting someone else’s stage of the whole editorial job: edit-
torial Dr. Jekyll could work undis- efforts,you know very well you’d be- ing for tempo.
turbed. The nearest approach is a gin hunting flaws at this point. Well,
clear understanding of what film edit- try it out on your own films. Approach of the Storm
ing really is, and how vital to the suc- With the picture assembled this
cess of any picture.
This something you just can’t
way, in what the professional calls the govern by any known rules, for each
“firstrough cut,” you can begin to picture makes own requirements.
Make Story Behave
analyze it. Run it and rerun it,
There are, however, some pretty well
Basically, the film editor’s job is studying each scene to see if it really established facts which can be fol-
to make the -story behave. His shears helps the picture’s basic idea to move lowed universally. Long scenes and
must keep the film’s story in the forward. If it doesn’t, out with it!
relatively few cuts will give almost
straigh and narrow path and get out The film will be stronger without it. any action a slow tempo.
of it every bit of cinematic force it Short scenes and quick cuts will
Give “Sneak Previews”
give a fast tempo, especially if the
And now we’ve brought up that About here, you will, if you deal cuts are to and from a variety of
point of stories, don’t shy off just be- honestly with yourself, begin to see angles. Long shots of almost any-
cause your own film doesn’t happen those pet scenes going. At least those thing tend to wax’d a slower tempo;
to be of the dramatic variety: it has pet shots of which we all make two, closer shots to a faster tempo, in-
a story none the less. Every film has, three and four takes, differing only creasing as the camera approaches
whether it’s Cecil DeMille’s latest ef- in some minor detail of filtering, ex- the subject. Combine these funda-
fort or the newest Univex-toting nov- posure, or the like. A good scene mental principles, and you have the
ice’s maiden roll of 8mm. rarely needs to be repeated; and such whole secret of filmic rhythm.
Perhaps you don’t consciously call repetition almost always weakens the Putting it into practice is not hard
it a story, but it is one in spite of you. effect of good camerawork. once you’re grasped these fundamen-
It is the fundamental idea your pic- Next, make sure that you have tals. One example comes immediately

438 American Cinematographer October, 1937

haps the slowest-looking thing in a earn your pay! Put the editorial foot
to my mind as I think of this: A pic-
picture is a big airliner shown in a down hard upon the Director and
ture made by Paul Burnford in Eng-
long shot, even though it really trav- Cinematographer who urge that this
land, which won a prize in the Ameri-
els at 200 miles an hour. Suppose you shot or that be retained because of its
can Cinematographer Contest two
have two or three of these longshots. pictorial beauty or personal interest,
years ago.
Alone, they are disappointing. and upon the Producer who hates the
Basically, all he had was a collec-
But break each one up into two or thought of throwing away film for
tion of photographically good shots
three shorter scenes, and intercut a which he paid his good money. Re-
of the English countryside under vari-

ous conditions cloudless calm, an in- lot of short angle-shots (made on the member that the audience — even

creasing breeze, lising clouds, strong ground) of whirling propellers, of the —

though a non-paying one is the ulti-
long, lean nose of the ship; of the mate judge of any film, and that audi-
wind, and a rainstorm. Half at least
airspeed indicator, cloud shots made ences can only judge by what they
of the film’s success could be laid to
the cutting. in the air, and so on and you will — see on the screen.
have a sequence which really seems See to it that they see what you, as
Burnford began with long, slow
to move at 200 miles an hour! Director, Cinematographer and Pro-
long shots of the placid landscapes,
and then came some slightly shorter In other words, once you start —
ducer want them to see and you, as
working for yourself as Film Editor, Editor, will have done your job well.
scenes of the same and similar land-
scapes with billowy clouds piling up.

Then in increasingly short cuts
were shots of the grain fields rippling ONE AMERICAN CONCERN GETS BULK
in the freshening wind, shown in closer
and closer shots; then closer shots of OF LIMITED BRAZILIAN BUSINESS
branches waving in the gale. Next,
there was a close shot of the once RAZIL
affords a relatively lim- Argentine, which has a population of
placid surface of a pond as the first
raindrops pattered down, followed by
closer and shorter shots of the rain
B market for amateur motion
picture equipment, and possi-
bilities for any material expansion in
less than one-fourth of Brazil, are
over three times greater than in that
country. This is confirmed by U. S.
falling. demand do not appear to be particu- export statistics for 1935, which show
Planting the Idea larly encouraging, reports Trade Com- that shipments to this market
missioner J. Winsor Ives, at Rio de amounted to only 5 units whereas
In increasingly close angles and
Janeiro. The limited spending power those to the Argentine totaled 53
shorter “flashes” shots of the angry
of the great bulk of the country’s units.
surf dashing against the rocks build
up to the climax. As the storm passes, population has tended to limit ma- A survey of the market indicated
terially the number of people who are that one American and one French,
the scenes grow longer and longer,
a position to pursue this hobby. (Pathe) manufacturer supply a ma-
with the angles retreating more and in
Furthermore, amateur photography jority of the limited number of 8 and
more into the slower-paced long shots.
has not gained the degree of popular- 16 mm. motion picture cameras and
Even the scenes of the surf, now sub-
ity which is found in the United
projectors sold in the market annual-
sided to a slow ground swell, increase
in length and slowness in tempo, until States and many other countries of ly. During the past year a German
firm introduced a 16 mm. camera
once again we see the placid country- the world.
side, revealed in long, restful long This fact is evident from a state- which has not enjoyed particularly
favorable reception. It is estimated
shots. ment made by the local manager of
Of course there are innumerable the sales of a well-known
branch American made 8 and 16 mm. cam-
variations in the way
these principles American camera manufacturer to the eras account for approximately 80
can be put to work. For instance, in effect that annual sales of sub-stand- per cent of the sales.
a documentary film, things you want ard motion picture cameras in the The greatest deterrent to the sale
especially well understood can best of amateur motion picture cameras
be told in long scenes, with some l’epe- through ordinary distribution chan-
tition. nels is the lack of suitable developing
En ed Re Ced
You can often begin with long
shots to “plant” the idea, and then
8 TO 16 TO 8 and editing facilities, both of which
services are afforded by the sales
elaborate on it with close-ups which W. Colburn Laboratory branch of the large American manu-
are allowed to run more than ordi- Special Motion Picture Printing facturer now established here.
narily long. Conversely, if in any sort 1197 MERCHANDISE MART
of a picture you want to portray the
idea of confusion quickly, do it with
Mrs. Akeley in Canada
a quick succession of very short shots for Scientific Research
from a variety of angles. Mary L. Jobe Akeley, widow of Carl
Shorten the Scenes K0DACHR0ME Akeley, famous naturalist, African
explorer and camera designer, is un-
Lastly, these tricks of cutting can
help you give tempo to scenes and se- DUPLICATES Sr dertaking scientific work in British
Columbia, a region in which she pre-
quences that lack it. For example, STITH-NOBLE CORP.
many a scene can be synthetically 6362 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood. Calif. viously spent many yeais and where
sped up by simply cutting the exits the Canadian government named a
and entrances of the characters close- lofty mountain, Mt. Jobe, for her dis-
ly —
in one case, cutting before the tinguished achievements in mountain-
player is out of the picture; even as eering.
he starts to go; in the other, cutting With her goes a Leica camera
when he is well into the picture, so equipped with a 50mm Summar and
he has less vacant space to cover be- a 135mm Hektor lens with which she
fore starting important action. will make still pictures for illustrat-
In the same way, you can “pep up” ing another book to add to her pre-
movement by quicker cutting. Per- viously published ones.
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 439

were obtained in approximately three

months’ time.
Naturally, the company cameraman,


being more familiar with “Caterpillar”
products, is better able to illustrate
certain features of the product than
is an outsider. However, many of the

IN ADVERTISING free lance photographers, who have

been making pictures for the com-
pany for many years and who are in
close contact with the machines in
their own territories, are able to get
Caterpillar Tractor Large User of fine material concerning strictly sea-
sonal jobs.
Photo Equipment in Sales Boosting After the work print is completely
edited a very carefully written narra-
tion is prepared, a good narrator is
VERYyear Caterpillar Tractor Eyemo uses the customary F'2.5 Tay-

E Company prepares a series of

one and two reel films, most of
which are made for the express pur-
lor-Hobson-Cooke lens, and the big
camera is equipped with a 1%-inch
Taylor-Hobson-Cooke F2 lens, a 47mm
selected and the film is recorded.
The laboratory then prepares sound
prints which are placed in the hands
of the sales development division. This
pose of selling Caterpillar products. Taylor-Hobson-Cooke F2.5 lens, a 3- division has previously scheduled one
Usually, in this group are included inch Taylor-Hobson-Cooke 2.5 lens,
and two day schools or shows at the
one or two films which are of a more and a 6 % -inch Taylor-Hobson-Cooke
place of business of each of the domes-
general interest, and which are sup- F3.5 lens. There are also three 400-
tic distributors in the Caterpillar or-
posed to be more entertaining than foot magazines with the outfit.
selling pieces. Occasionally, the company photog- The motion pictures are supple-
The pictures are prepared in two rapher and an assistant are sent to mented by one or two slide film-illus-
ways. Free lance cameramen from territories where there are no regu- trated lectures as well as numerous
all parts of the world submit film to lar contributingcameramen. In these cut away models of the various prod-
the company on a speculative basis. cases, bothmotion pictures and 8 by ucts manufactured by the company.
From this footage is selected any 10 are obtained, covering all
Seven different crews, equipped with
which might have a definite use in the phases of jobs visited. A special large trucks, carry the sound equip-
films being prepared at that time, or camera car is provided for such trips. ment, films, cutaways, etc., to the dis-
in any film planned for the near tributor’sorganizations in all parts
future. Record the Film
of the United States.
When there is a particular story in Recently a 13,000-mile trip of this At that time 16mm sound-on-film
mind these various sequences are sort was included. Thorough coverage prints and 16mm silent titled prints
screened, and those which illustrate of Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, of all subjects are made available to
the point to be made in the story are Louisiana and Arkansas was obtained. any of the dealers and distributors
selected and assembled. With the aid of an assistant about 500 who have projects and who use them
acceptable stills and nearly 15,000 feet in their sales work. Most distributors
There may at that time be several
of 35mm motion picture negative have 16mm silent projectors, and in
thousand feet of film available to tell
the desired story, and it then becomes
a question of editing the footage to
make the smoothest flowing story pos-
sible with the minimum number of
scenes necessary to make transitions
from one sequence to another.
The other method of producing pic-
tures is to prepare the entire story
beforehand, write a working script on
it and delegate the company camera-
man to shoot it, scene by scene. For
example, when a picture was needed
on a new product (the Caterpillar
Auto Patrol) locations were selected
for the various sequences in mind, the
script was prepared, and the entire
picture filmed by the company’s own
Array of Lenses
Caterpillar Tractor is completely
equipped in this respect. A Bell and
Howell studio camera, equipped with
Mitchell finder, sun shade, filters and
all accessories, as well as an Akeley
tripod, form the nucleus of the outfit.
In addition to that, there is an
Eyemo camera for use in making all
odd and unusual angle shots. The
: 7

440 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

the pastfew years a great many of like the writer who chooses to pipe
them have changed over to sound. GET down on his facts in order his story
may be convincing rather than tell
Forty Films in Three Years
That these pictures are put to an
YOUR LEICA the truth and see his tale dis-
aggressive and profitable use by the
NOW credited.”
salesmen is proved by the fact that in The artist has been commissioned

the company’s files are many letters to reproduce on canvas all the mis-
stating that actual sales running into sions on the coast.
many thousands of dollars were di- •
rectly traceable to the use of motion KIPLING DUG FOR FACTS
It is impossible to put on a demon-
Rudyard Kipling was another
stration of a tractor and snow plow writer cheated by death from seeing
working in a snow storm in the on the screen one of his favorite
middle of summer, but it is a simple brain children, “Captains Coura-
matter to set up a 16mm projector geous.” The story was written about
and show the prospect exactly what 1895, when the author was thirty
a tractor and snow plow will do. years old and already easily in the
Model G with Xenon f: 1.5 first ten writers in the world. Mark
Caterpillar Tractor has made avail- Lens and Rapid Winder
Twain was one of the first to recog-
able to its distributors nearly forty
pictures in the past three years. These nize and acclaim his greatness and —
pictures are on such subjects as snow Mark then was just double the age
removal, general farming, good or- Pay for it as you use it of Kipling, with the most of his work
chard practice, farming in the wheat done.
belt, the simplicity of the Diesel en-
Kipling’s story of the fishermen,
gine, Southern logging, Western log- Now you can buy a LEICA camera. LEITZ the Gloucestermen, was no potboiler.
ging, road maintenance with the Auto He dug deep for his facts, visited
Binoculars or any LEICA equipment on a Gloucester, aided by a friend who
Patrol, earth moving, stationary en-
gines, soil erosion control and numer- years before had been a member of
down payment of only 20% and you can
ous other topics of general interest. the Gloucester fleet. He visited T
That the intelligent use of motion take as long as one year to pay the bal-
Wharf in Boston, patronized sailors’
pictures and still shots has been a fac- eating houses, studied charts and dug
tor in the company’s rapid growth is ance. Your purchase is insured during up old tales.

an acknowledged fact. Certainly it Before Kipling went to sea on a

has proved itself well worthwhile, for this entire period. Gloucesterman he attended the annual
every year new pictures are planned memorial service held in one of the
and produced by the company. churches in Gloucester, dedicated to
SEE YOUR LEICA DEALER TODAY. the men of the town who had failed
ASK HIM ABOUT THIS NEW PLAN. to return. There were many lost every
By the Sounding Sea year. MGM
has softened the rough-
(Continued from Page 405)
ness of the service on its harrowing
nized was doing the examining. Well, side, which of course in no way will
here’s where we’d find out if there against its entertainment
were any romance behind this U.S.A.
man on a Mexican police force. So
eica militate
In other days, as this writer saw it
we crossed the street, still under on one memorable occasion in his
scrutiny, but with our hands very boyhood, before the schooners had the
carefully swinging free and avoiding THE ORIGINAL MINIATURE CANDID CAMERA sharp lines they carry today, the call-
any appearance of possible belliger- ing of a name from the roll might
ence. be followed by a sob or a scream.
“I’ve got a crazy idea you’re an
American,” said the reporter as he Gloucestermen Are Heroes, Too
came up to the cop. “No,” was the
E. LEITZ, Inc. • 730 Fifth Ave. • N. Y. - Dept. 9 Gloucester had its heroes in real
answer, after a slight pause, but with
life, One of these was Howard
no lessening of the chill in the eyes,
Blackburn, doryman lost from his ship
“Mexican.” There was a casual chat
ed the many fine examples of paint- in the fog. He knew he must keep
of a moment or so and the two sepa-
ing on the walls of the studio. Noting moving or freeze. He knew if he ex-
this reporter admiring a striking re- posed his hands he would lose them
Oh, well, it would have been a
production of a towering snow crested if by any slim chance he saved his
good story had the hunch been right.
mountain, with the floor of the adja- life. He
accepted the alternative of

cent valley seemingly thickly carpeted leting hishands freeze on the oars.
UNDERSTATEMENT with Spring’s most gorgeous desert After many hours he rowed ashore.
OMING home Labor day there flowers, somewhat whimsically she The hands were amputated.
C was stopover for an hour at
a declared The Seamen’s Aid Society advanced
Blackburn $500. With the money he
Laguna. Looking with keenly inter- “That’s old San Jacinto. Really it
ested eyes in a window of an artist’s is not a too faithful portrayal of the

opened a saloon and prospered. In
store the missus was invited by a model. Had I included in my subject the course of time he authorized the
charming woman to come in and all the snow at the time on the crest writing of a check for $500, for re-
wander around. There was prompt and all the flowers that crowded about turn to the society.
acceptance. its base I would have been accused It fell to this writer, then a lad of

The young matron proved be to of exaggerating the fact.” seventeen, combined foreman, make-
Joane Cromwell, the artist of marine, “Mighty interesting,” was the re- up, head-setter, ad-setter, copy cutter
landscape and portraiture who creat- sponse. “So the artist sometimes is —
for five girl compositors one of them
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 441

to become the mother of a son later other man’s. He said some other Grace Moore Keen Filmer battalion commander to be killed things, too, as he warmed to his
at the Hindenberg Line fireman for— rather large subject. (Continued from Page 434)

the upright boiler and pressman for The society accepted the check for Stillman Irving Lippman showing
the old one-cylinder Hoe press, to ac- five hundred —
with thanks. how the sound engineer placed the
company Herb Nichols, the combined “mike” position to catch Miss
editor, reporter —
and what a reporter ‘ANGEL’ IS SMART Moore’s singing, and finally an un-
that man
was, what a nose for news usual angle-shot made by an elec-
and a wit to extract it from an un-
willing witness —
and mailing super-
intendent while he “covered” the func-
T those amateurs as well as pro-
fessionals who enjoy sitting in
on a well-made picture, one that has
trician who spotted a good scene
from his position high over the set
on the lamprail.
tion. class in every department and par-
ticularly in the writing, directing and Much Kodachrome
One of the WCTUers made a mili-
photography, may we commend to According to Miss Moore, this lent
tant objection to accepting money
their attention Paramount’s “Angel.” an interesting tang of adventure to
that had come from a saloonkeeper.
It has upon it the stamp of Ernst the affair, for until a roll of film came
The riot was on. There were plenty
Lubitsch, his indelible stamp if you back from the laboratory she often
to stand with the WCTUer. As the
wish. It was adapted by Samson had very little idea as to what was
temperature rapidly ascended Dr. Al-
Raphaelson, another veteran. It was on the film. At times, she admits,
bert Ryder secured the floor. The
photographed by Charles Lang, Jr., she got some surprises, as for in-
doctor was more than a minister of
A.S.C., and the special photographic stance the day when the wife of one
the town. He was more than a man
effects came from the hand of Farciot of the technicians worked on the set
of God. He was a man of men, a
chaplain of a state guard regiment,
Edouart, A.S.C. —
as an extra and the 16mm. “rushes”
a good sport, meaning perhaps an Here is the cast which superbly in- showed an amazing number of close-
ability to see two sides of a question, terpreted the rarely clever lines, the ups of that particular extra!
and an orator in the best sense. lines of literary quality: Marlene Die- A large proportion of the footage
trich, Herbert Marshall, Melvyn Doug- of this film is in Kodachrome, and
The drama and the excitement
las, Edward Everett Horton, Ernest is surprisingly effective. Theoretical-
were heightened by the manner of the
Cossart, Laura Hope Crews, Herbert ly, it would seem as though a studio
doctor, as at first without uttering a
Mundin, Ivan Lebedeff, Dennie Moore, set lit for today’s Super-X film, which
word he surveyed the members of
Lionel Pape and Phillis Coghlan. is so much faster than any color
the audience, looking from one to an-
Just to indicate the length to which film, would not be adequately illu-
other. Slowly and quietly he began
the director has gone to secure the minated for color filming.
his attack on the WCTUers and their
“class” to which reference has been In practice, however, this did not
made Eddie Horton plays a dead pan hold true, for the difference between
He pointed out that Blackburn had valet. And how! the f:2.7 lenses and 170-degree shut-
adopted the only means he knew to ters of studio cameras and the f:1.8
make a living, how he had succeeded lens and 216-degree shutter of the
beyond expectation, how he won the Show Televised Subjects Filmo is sufficient to equalize the dif-
esteem of the citizens, and declared ference in actual film-speeds.
his belief that in the sight of Christ
on Full Theater Screen
So successful are Miss Moore’s
this man’s money was as good as an- Daily Variety, in a telegram from
London, announces Gaumont-British
secretly has shown televised subjects
on a full-sized screen. G. B., it is
stated, controls the Baird Television
Company, which it may be assumed YOUR PERFORMANCE
is the same organization which in
former years first was known to
American film men as the manufac- The Kino-Hypar //2.T-//3 series
turer of a topnotch projection ma- are Goerz Precision Lenses which
chine. give you that clear-cut crisp bril-
Minor technical results remain, it liancy so essential in good movie
is declared, but it is claimed by those making. They are made in focal
who have seen the reproductions the
lengths from 15mm. to 100mm.
screening is as steady as film pro-
and can be fitted in suitable focus-
jection and nearly as clear.
ing mounts to amateur and profes-
sional movie cameras.

The 1937 Christmas Seals
Cinematic accessories includ-
ing the Goerz Effect Device,
the Goerz Variable Field View
Finder and the Goerz Reflex
Focuser are useful and pre-
cise instruments that en-
hance the pleasures of ama-
teur cinematography.

Literature on Request
BUY and
USE them C.fc$OEfcZ
Junior Splicer with two geared rewinds
all mounted on 21" board.
The National, State, and Local Tubercu-
losis Associations in the United States
1053 So. Olive St. Los Angeles, Calif. 317 East 34- Stv New York
442 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

FOR 8mm and 16mm SUBJECTS
o ne Th ousan d Doll ars
In Prizes
$500 Cash $500 Equipment
When the contest announcement September issue made this figure read $500 it
in the
was an error, as may have been by those who had read the correct statement in
the preceding announcements of June and July. Also it may have been indicated by the
context, which correctly and as usual read as follows:

There will be six other cash prizes, of $50 each, for, respectively,

Photography, Color, Scenario, Home Movie, Educational, Scenic

The Contest Ends Midnight, November 30 Next

No Entrance Fee — Original Films Only — No Dupes — No Reduction From 35mm
The Contest is Worldwide
Open Only to 8mm or 16mm amateurs 1782 No. Orange Drive
Hollywood, California
or amateur clubs
• Please send me one of your official entry blanks.
Iintend to enter a (16mm 8mm) picture in your
In the event of a tie prizes of equal 1937 contest. I understand my entry must be in
value will be awarded to tieing your office not later than November 30, 1937.
If you intend to enter please
send coupon printed on
this page for official Address
entry blank
October, 1937 • American Cinematographer 443

Among Equipment Prizes

Will Be-
Model 11 Victor Master Silent Projector (complete with carrying
case). Optional credit will be issued insum of $147 against pur-
chase of Models 4 or 5 Victor Camera, any model Victor Sound-on-
Film Animatophone, Model 22 Silent Victor Master Projector.


Will award $100 in merchandise to be selected by contestant
adjudged maker of film best in photographic technique and made
entirely with Bell and Howell cameras, either 8mm. or 16mm.


Contributes without reservation as to the character of the film
submitted one Weston Cine Exposure Meter, Model 819.


Six 100-foot rolls Agfa 16 mm. Hypan Reversible Film and six
100-foot rolls Agfa 16mm. Fine-Grain Plenachrome Reversible
Film. The rolls of Hypan are to go to the person winning the
highest award and using Agfa Film for it. The Plenachrome rolls
are to go to the next highest prize winner who takes his prize-
winning picture on Agfa Film.


Astro f:1.8 20mm. lens, to be awarded at the discretion of the



To the maker of the best 8mm. or 16mm. color picture a Harrison

Color Meter in leather case, complete with six 11,4-inch meter-
matched filters in leather filter-fold.
— —;

444 American Cinematographer • October, 1937

Kodachrome scenes, at any rate, that

they are said to be in a great measure
responsible for her insistence that
her next studio production be photo-
graphed in natural color. FOR sale BELL AND HOWELL 170° CAMERAS—High
Stillman Lippman, who was Miss
speed shuttles high — speed gear boxes — 400
REBUILT SILENCED AND STANDARD and 1000 foot Bell & Howell magazines
Moore’s chief 16mm. assistant on her BELL & HOWELL 170° CAMERAS— Bell & Howell
tripods —motors. AKELEY
Akeley motors.
last picture, verifies the reports of Hi-speed gear boxes. Bell & Howell Hi- High speed motors. Sunshades, lenses and
speed shuttles rebuilt Duplex sound and pic-
her photographic ability. “When she ture printers pair used Simplex portable
Write or Wire
started bringing the camera to the sound projectors with 2000 ft. magazines. Bell CAMERA EQUIPMENT, INC.
& Howell 1000 ft., 400 ft. magazines. Motors, 1600 Broadway New York City
studio,” he says, “both she and her sunshades, finders, lenses and all accessories. Tel. Circle. 6-5080 Cable: Cinequip
husband were better than average Write, MOTION PICTURE
wire or cable.
amateur photographers. AVE.. NEW YORK, N. Y. CINECAMERA. Standard Mitchell Camera, serial
number above 200 40, 50, 75 mm. Pan
Seeks Expert Advice ;

Tachar Astro lenses upright Mitchell finder

“All through the picture she kept

two 1000-foot magazines or four-400 foot


BING CHANNEL. Cost over $20,000. Com- magazines Mitchell tripod and friction head
after all of the photographic crew for plete with variable density light valve re-
and cases

perfect mechanical condition

corder, noise reduction amplifier, P.E.C. ;

advice and coaching. And now w e’re r $2300.00 FAXON DEAN, INC., 4516 Sunset
monitoring amplifier, beat frequency oscil- Boulevard, Hollywood, Calif.
all of us ready to certify that both lator, 220 volts, 3 phase motor generator, 32
volt gasoline Delco battery charging unit,
she and Parera are able to hold their condenser and dynamic microphones, over
SINGLE system camera and equipment. Priv-
ate. Box 271, American Cinematographer.
own in mighty near any moviemaking 1000 foot of cable, spares and accessories
too numerous to mention. Dubbing Chan- BELL-HOWELL CAMERA SILENCED,
company. nel consists of two 3 phase motor driven dis-
ed for color, variable area, single system
“And inone respect especially tributors, 2 interlocking motors, 4 position
sound. Complete outfit, like new, ready
mixer, phonograph turn tables, 2 high fidel-
they’re streetsahead of most ama- ity dubbing heads with magazines and loop
to shoot. $2750.00. Hollywood Camera Ex-
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood,
teurs. Instead of concerning them- racks, P. E, C. amplifiers, etc. There are Ca ifornia. Cable Hoeamex.
also hundreds of dollars worth of spare
selves mainly with shooting scenery parts including meters, transformers, chokes,
Price of entire Channel and Truck,
or purposeless shots of people look- etc.
and case, like new, $119. Devry
f2.5-2" lens,
ing uncomfortable in front of the
$5000. FEARLESS CAMERA CO., 8572 Portable sound film outfit, with latest ampli-
Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. fier and speaker, ready for show, $179.50
camera, they get shots of people 8x10 Screen $10 Griswald Splicer $11.50

and have the people doing something BELL & HOWELL 5-WAY SOUND PRINTER. Devry Camera with f3.5 visual focus, motor,
Generators, Panel
Control Boards, Duplex $59.50. Complete line 8, 16mm outfits, films,
natural and interesting. Printers, Sound Moviolas, Developing Ma- Sound Silent Film library. Trades Accepted,
“Miss Moore is an inveterate trav- chines, Blimps, Dolly, B & H
splicers, Mit- Bought. MOGULL’S House of Bargains.
chell and B & H Silent Cameras, Motors, MOGULL BROS., 1944-A Boston Road, New
eler, you know, and if she made her High-Speed Gear Boxes, Light Testers, York. Kilpatrick 5-4700.
films in the ordinary way the pictures Projection and Lighting Equipment. Guar-

of one trip to her Riviera villa would

anteed optically and mechanically perfect. WANTED
Send for 1937 Bargain Catalogue. Holly-
be pretty much like those of every wood Camera Exchange. 1600 Cahuenga WE PAY CASH FOR YOUR USED CAMERA,
Blvd., Hollywood, California. Cable Ho- LABORATORY AND STUDIO EQUIPMENT.
other trip. But on each trip she camex. Write, wire or cable
brings back new and interesting shots MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, INC.
of prominent people she has met
WE BUY. SELL AND RENT PROFESSION- 723 Seventh Avenue, New York City
AL AND 16mm EQUIPMENT NEW AND Cable Address : Cinecamera
royalty, statesmen, great artists and USED. WE ARE DISTRIBUTORS FOR

RUBY CAMERA EXCHANGE, 729 Seventh Professional Camera
in first class condition,
scenery. Ave., New York City. Established since 1910. complete with accessories and 12 volt motor
“Those pictures are the really worth- if possible. Send full details. Must be
LATE MODEL SILENCED MITCHELL cam- reasonable price. Peter George, 1924 Rose
while ones: a motion picture album of era — Pan
Astro lenses, all accessories. Fear- St., Regina, Sask., Canada.
less Blimp, blimp friction head, Mole-Rich-
living memories. Of course not every- ardson perambulator. Complete unit for WANTED : We
pay cash for everything pho-
one can make intimate movies of studio production. tographic. Send full information and low-
est cash prices. Hollywood Camera Ex-
these people; but if more home movie- MOTION PICTURE CAMERA SUPPLY, INC. change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood,
makers would use their cineboxes the 723 Seventh Avenue Calif.
New York City
way Grace Moore does, remembering Cable: Cinecamera Telephone: BRyant 9-7754 WANTED — Used 12 volt electric motor for
to get plenty of intimate scenes of the Eyemo and modern Eyemo tripod. Box 270,
DEBRIE CAMERA, Parvo, 8 magazines, tri- American Cinematographer.
interesting people they meet, vacation pod and cases, $1200.00 cost will sell for
movies would have a much longer $200.00 almost new, bargains in 16-35mm OPTICAL PRINTER for 16 mm trick work,
cameras. We Buy Anything. Block Cam- new or used, send price and description.
lived interest. —
era 154 E. 47th St., New York. A. Borras, Bustleton, Pa.
“After all, vacation films are sup-
posed to capture the things we want
exhibited his twT o-reel Kodachrome
to —
remember and human beings
that good editing really shows the
difference between the work of the covering industrial lighting, and its
give us more memories than scenery.
amateur and the professional. He benefits as applied to industry. The
So why not film human beings?”
called attention to the fact that the film was done by Mr. Hoot to indi-
use of maps in amateur films goes a cate particular emphasis on the angle
long way toward establishing the lo- of lighting as applied to industrial
Philadelphia Cinema cale, which otherwise is left to the work.
(Continued from Page 428) imagination. He pointed out how Ripley W. Bugbee had another one
Foundation directing and photograph-
maps can be tied in to the film and of his gorgeous color symphonies
used most advantageously. called “The Flower Garden,” which
ing sociological and teachers’ films
for two and a half years, has lec- The tie-in between lighting as ap- was exhibited with an appropriate
tured to Binghampton Movie Club as plied to industry and lighting as ap- musical background.
technical director, to New York Tele- plied to the taking of the picture Films for the Fall Contest will be
phone Camera Club, Mount Kisco to illustrate it brought up some in- seen beginning with the October meet-
Movie group, Photoplay class at New teresting discussions. Mr. Space joined ing. All members are requested to
York University and others. with the other members of the club present films as promptly as possible
In his talk on the subject of edit- to discuss and criticize this particular to the Committee.
ing, as applied to amateur cinematog- film. B N. LEVENE,
raphy, Mr. Space stressed the fact R. M. Hoot, president of the club, Chairman of Publications Committee.

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