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Summary of Class VIII & X

Geography
Resource:
Anything that can be used to satisfy our needs provided it is

i. Technologically accessible
ii. Economically feasible
iii. Culturally acceptable

Necessary Conditions for a thing to become Resource:

1. Utility
2. Value. Utility gives a thing a value. Things become resources only when they have value. Value
means worth. Some resources have economic value (Ex: Metals) while some do not (Ex:
Beautiful Landscape). Some resources may become economically valuable with time(Anything
that gets patented)

Factors that change things into Resources:

1. Time
2. Technology
3. People, their ideas, knowledge, inventions, discoveries lead to creation of resources

The process of transformation of things into resources involves inter dependent relationship between
nature, technology and institutions.

Are Resources free gifts of nature?


No. Resources are a function of human activities. Human beings themselves are essential components
of resources. They transform things into resources and use them.

Classification of Resources:
1. Natural
2. Human made
3. Human

Natural Resources:
Resources drawn from nature and used without much modification

Ex: Air, Water, Soil, Minerals etc

1. They can be used directly


2. Sometimes technology may be needed to use it in best possible way

Natural resources are further classified based on

1. Origin
2. Exhaustibility
3. Ownership
4. Status of Development
5. Distribution

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Origin:
Based on origin resources can be abiotic and biotic.

Biotic resources have life and are obtained from Biosphere whereas abiotic resources are non living.

Soils,Rocks,Metals are examples of Abiotic resources

Plants, animals, Human beings are examples of Biotic resources

Exhaustibility:
Based on exhaustibility resources can be Renewable and Non-Renewable

Renewable Resources:

Resources which can be renewed quickly through physical, chemical and mechanical process. Some
of these are unlimited and are not affected by human activities such as wind and Solar energy.
Careless use of certain renewable resources like forests, water, soil can affect their stock.
Renewable resources are further divided into continuous or flow(Ex: Wind, Water) and Biological(Ex:
Forests, Wild life)

Non-Renewable Resources:

Resources which have limited stock and take millions of years to get replenished. These are further
classified into Recyclable (Ex: Metals) and Non-Recyclable (Ex: Fossil fuels)

Ownership:
Individual Resources:

These are owned privately by individuals

Community owned Resources:

These are resources which are accessible to all members of community

Ex: Village ponds, Burial ground, Grazing grounds, Public parks, Playgrounds

National Resources:

All minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area
upto 12 nautical miles from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the
nation

12 Nautical Mile = 22.224 km

International Resources:

Some international institutions regulate some resources. Oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles
of the Exclusive economic zone belong to open ocean and no country can utilize these without
concurrence of international institutions.

Distribution:
Resources that are found everywhere like air are Ubiquitous, whereas those found only in certain
places are localized (Ex: copper, iron ore)

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Distribution of natural resources depends on physical factors such as

1. Terrain
2. Climate
3. Altitude

Distribution of resources in unequal because these factor vary much over the earth

Status of Development:
Potential Resources:

Those whose entire quantity may not be known and are not being used at present. Level of technology
at present may not be advanced to easily utilize these resources.

Ex: Uranium found in Ladakh

Developed Resources:

Resources whose quantity have been known for utilization. Development of these resources depends
on

1. Technology and
2. Level of Feasibility

Actual Resources:

Resources whose quantity is known and is being used at present

Stock:
Materials which have potential to satisfy human needs but we do not have appropriate technology to
access these, are included among stock

Reserves:
It is a subset of stock which can be put into use with existing technology but their use hasn’t been
started

Human Made Resources:


Sometimes natural resources can become resources only when their original form has been changed.
People use natural resources to make buildings, bridges, roads, vehicles etc which are known as human
resources.

Technology is also a human made resource

Human Resource:
Human resource refer to number of people and abilities of people both physical and mental. People are
human resources. People create more resources when they have knowledge, skill and technology.
Hence they are a special resource and ultimate resource.

A resource that develops resources.

Their distribution is also varied over the world just like other resources. Education and health make
people a valuable resource. Improving quality of people’s skills so that they can create more resources is

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known as Human Resource Development. Ministry of Human Resource development was created in
1985 to enhance people’s skills

DEVELOPMENT OF RESOURCES:
Resources are useful for human survival, maintain quality of life and Economic development. Belief
that resources are free gifts of nature has led to indiscriminate use of resources which led to
following major socio-economic and environmental problems

1. Depletion of resources.
2. Accumulation of resources in few hands dividing society into two segments have and have not’s.
3. Global ecological crisis such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution
and land degradation.

CONSERVING RESOURCES:
Using resources carefully and giving them time to get renewed is known as resource conservation.
There are many ways of resource conservation. Each person can contribute by reducing consumption,
recycling, and reusing things.

Gandhi in his words-“There is enough for everyone’s need but not for any body’s greed”

1. At International level Resource Conservation was advocated for first time by Club of Rome in a
systematic way in 1968
2. Brundtland Commission 1987 introduced sustainable development and advocated it as
means for resource conservation

Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life. Sustainable existence is a
component of sustainable development.

Sustainable Development:
Balancing need to use resources and also conserve them for future is called sustainable development.

(or)

Development should take place without damaging environment and development in the present
should not compromise with the needs of future.

Earth summit:
1. Held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro
2. It was conference on Environmental pollution and Socio-economic development
3. Leaders signed declaration on Global climatic change, desertification and biological diversity
known as AGENDA 21
4. They adopted AGENDA 21 for achieving sustainable development in 21st century
5. It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation
6. One major objective of Agenda 21 is that every local govt should draw its own Agenda 21

Resource Planning in India:


Planning is widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources. Resource planning is a complex
process which involves

1. Identification and inventory of resources across all regions of the country through surveying,
mapping and quantitative and qualitative estimation of resources

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2. Evolving a planning structure for implementing resource development plans
3. Matching resource development plans with overall national development plans

Resources and Development:


Availability of resources is a necessary condition for development but mere availability in the absence
of technology and institutions may hinder development.

Land Resources
Introduction:
Land is an important natural resource. It covers about 30% of total area of earth and all parts of land
are not habitable.

Uneven distribution of population is mainly due varied characteristics of land and climate.

1. Rugged topography, steep slopes, low lying areas susceptible to water logging, desert areas,
thick forested areas are sparsely populated.
2. Plains and river valleys offer suitable land for agriculture, hence densely populated.

In India

45% 0f land area---Plain (provides facilities for agriculture and industry)

30% of land area---Mountains (ensure perennial flow of rivers and provide facilities for tourism)

25% of land area---Plateau (possesses rich reserves of minerals and forests)

Total Geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq km

Land use:
Land is used for agriculture, setting up industries, mining, forestry, building houses and roads. This is
called land use. Land is of finite magnitude, hence it is important to use available land for various
purposes with careful planning.

Land use is determined by physical factors such as

1. Topography
2. Soil
3. Climate
4. Minerals
5. Availability of water

And Human factors such as

1. Population density
2. Technology

Refer NCERT Class X for Land Utilisation and Land Use Pattern

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Land Degradation:
Continuous use of land without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it lead to land
degradation. Human activities have not only brought land degradation but also accelerated the pace of
it.

Land Degradation, Land Slides, Soil Erosion, Desertification are major threats to environment because
of expansion of agriculture and construction activities

Growing population and their needs has resulted in destruction of forests and arable land

In India

30% of degraded land belongs to category of Forest degraded area

55% of degraded land belongs to category of Water eroded area

10% of degraded land belongs to category of Wind eroded area

Degraded Land
Water eroded area
5.00% Forest Degraded area
10.00%
Wind eroded area
Saline and Alkanline
30.00% 55.00% deposits

Rest belongs to saline and alkaline


deposits

Reasons for land degradation in states:

Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, MP, Orissa ---- Deforestation due to mining

Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Maharashtra --- Over Grazing

Punjab, Haryana, Western UP ---- Over irrigation led to water logging leading to increase in soil
salinity and alkalinity

Mineral processing industries generate dust in the atmosphere. After settling down on earth it
retards infiltration of water in to the soil

Conservation of Land resource:


There are many ways to solve problems of land degradation

1. Afforestation
2. Planting of shelter belts of plants, control on over grazing
3. Stabilisation of sand dunes by planting thorny bushes
4. Control of mining activities, proper discharge of industrial wastes
5. Regulated use of Chemical pesticides and fertilisers

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Landslides:
Mass movement of rock, earth down a slope. They often occur in conjunction with volcanoes, Earth
quake, floods. Prolonged spell of rainfall can cause heavy landslide that can block flow of river. Such
blocks upon bursting cause damage to settlements. Landslides are major disaster in Hilly Terrain

Mitigating Techniques:

1. Increase in vegetation cover to arrest landslide


2. Construction of retention wall to stop land from sliding
3. Hazard mapping to locate areas prone to landslide. Such areas can be avoided for building
settlements
4. Surface drainage

Soil
Introduction:
Thin layer of grainy substance covering surface of earth is called soil. Soil is made up of organic matter
(Humus) and inorganic matter (Minerals, weathered rocks). This happens through process of
weathering. Right mix of minerals and humus makes the soil fertile. It takes millions of years to form
soil a few cm of depth. Landforms determine type of soil.

1. It is an important renewable natural resource

Factors of Soil Formation:


Major factors are

1. Nature of parent rock or Bed rock


2. Climate
3. Topography
4. Role of organic matter and Time

Change in temperature, action of running water, wind and glaciers etc also contribute to formation of
soil

Degradation of Soil:
Denudation of soil cover and subsequent washing down is called soil erosion.

Soil erosion and depletion are major threats to soil as resource. Human and natural factors lead to
degradation of soil. Factors leading to soil degradation are

1. Deforestation, overgrazing
2. Over use of pesticides and fertilisers
3. Floods, landslides, rainwash

Generally there is balance between soil formation and soil erosion. Sometimes balance is disturbed
through human activities.

1. Running water cuts through clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies making land unfit
for cultivation, such land is known as bad land. In Chambal basin such lands are called ravines

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2. Sometimes water flows as sheet down a slope and top soil is washed away. This is known as
sheet erosion
3. Wind blows loose soil off flat or slopes known as wind erosion
4. Ploughing in a wrong way i.e., up and down the slope form channels for quick flow of water
leading to soil erosion

Soil Conservation Measures:


1. Mulching: Bare ground b/w plants is covered with layer of organic matter like straw to retain
soil moisture
2. Contour Barriers
3. Rock Dam: Rocks are piled up to slowdown flow of water. This prevents gullies
4. Terrace Farming: Reduce surface runoff
5. Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different time to
protect soil from rain wash
6. Contour ploughing: Ploughing parallel to contours of hill slope to create a natural barrier for
water flow
7. Shelter belts: In coastal and dry regions rows of trees are planted to check wind movement.
They contributed significantly in stabilizing sand dunes and desert.
8. Strip cropping: Large fields are divided into strips and strips of grass are left to grow b/w crops

Natural vegetation and wild life


Introduction:

Natural vegetation and wild life exists in the narrow zone of contact between atmosphere, lithosphere,
biosphere that we call biosphere. In bio sphere all living beings are inter related and inter dependent
for survival. This is known as Ecosystem.

Wild life includes animals, birds, insects, as well as aquatic life forms. Bee help in pollination and
play a role of decomposer, birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well. Vulture is a
scavenger and vital cleanser of environment.

Vultures in Indian subcontinent are dying due to kidney failure after scavenging livestock treated
with Diclofenac (Painkiller).

Flora and Fauna in India:


India has nearly 8% of total number of species in the world.

81,000 species of fauna

47,000 species of flora ( around 1/3rd are endemic species)

State of Forest Report:


It submits report on total forest cover of the country. It does not differentiate b/w plantation and
natural forests. Hence these reports fail to deliver accurate information about loss of natural forests.

State of forest report, 2011 indicated increase in forest cover but this is due to plantations not increase
in natural forests.

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Critical Species: Species on verge of Extinction

Animals-- Cheetah, Pink-headed duck, Mountain quail, Forest spotted owlet

Plants---- Madhuca insignis, Hubbardia hepatanueron (species of grass)

CATEGORIES OF EXISTING PLANTS AND ANIMALS:


Based on IUCN (International Union for conservation of Nature) we can classify as

1.Normal Species: Species whose population levels are considered to be normal

Ex: cattle, sal, pine, rodents

2.Endangered Species: Species in danger of extinction. Survival of such species is difficult if such
negative forces that led to decline in population continue to operate

Ex: Black buck, Crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, Lion tailed macaque, Sangai

3.Vulnerable Species: Species whose population had declined to levels where it is likely to move into
endangered if negative forces continue to operate.

Ex: Blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin

4.Rare Species: Species with small population, may move into vulnerable or endangered category if
negative forces affecting them continue to operate

Ex: Himalayan brown deer, Wild Asiatic buffalo, Desert fox, Hornbill

5.Endemic Species: Species which are found in some particular geographical area.

Ex: Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman Wild pig, Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh

6.Extinct Species: Species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may
occur. A species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or entire earth

Ex: Asiatic cheetah, Pink headed duck

IUCN also publishes a RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES

FACTORS THAT CAUSE DEPLETION OF FLORA AND FAUNA:


Greatest damage done to Indian forests was during colonial period by expansion of railways,
enrichment plantation etc

Enrichment Plantation:
Single valuable species was extensively planted and other species eliminated. Teak
monoculture has damaged forests in South India. Chir pine plantations in Himalayas have
replaced Himalayan oak and Rhododendron forests.

1. Deforestation:
a. After independence agricultural expansion is major factor. Substantial parts of tribal belts
have been degraded by shifting cultivation
b. Large scale developmental projects. Forests were cleared for river valley projects
c. Mining is another important factor behind deforestation

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2. Natural Factors:
a. Forest fires, Landslides, Tsunami, Soil erosion
3. Hunting and poaching
4. Habitat destruction

Animals are poached for collection and illegal trade of hides, skins, nails, teeth etc

CONSERVATION OF FOREST AND WILD LIFE IN INDIA:


Conservation in the background of declining wildlife population and forests has become essential

Indian Wildlife (protection) act, 1972 has provisions for protecting habitats. All India list of protected
species was also published.

Main Thrust of Programme:

Protecting remaining population of certain endangered species by

1. Banning hunting
2. Giving legal protection to habitats
3. Restricting trade in wild life

An International convention CITES has been established that lists several species of animals and birds
in which trade is prohibited

Cites:
The convention on international trade in Endangered species of wild fauna and flora. It is an
agreement between governments aimed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild
animals and plants doesn’t threaten their survival.

Under CITES corals,cacti,orchids etc are also protected

Central government announced several projects for protecting specific animals including

1. Tiger
2. One-horned Rhinoceros
3. Kashmir stag (or) Hangul
4. Three types of Crocodiles--- Fresh water, Salt water and Gharial
5. Asiatic lion (Last remaining habitat of Asiatic lion is Gir forests in Gujarat)

Black buck, Great Indian Bustard, Indian elephant have been given full or partial legal protection
against hunting and trade throughout India.

National parks, Wild life sanctuaries, Bio sphere reserves are made to protect natural vegetation and
wild life. Conservation of Creeks, Wetlands (Ramsar Wetland Convention) is necessary to save precious
resource from depletion

Recent focus of conservation projects:


Biodiversity rather than few of its components. Even insects are beginning to find place in conservation
planning.

TYPES AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOREST AND NATURAL RESOURCES:


In India much of Forest and Wildlife resources are either owned or directly managed by government
through forest department or other departments. These are classified as
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1. Reserved forests:
More than half of total forest land has been declared as reserve forests. These are regarded
as most valuable as far as conservation of forests and wild life resources are concerned

2. Protected forests:
Almost 1/3rd of total forest area is protected forests. These are protected from further depletion

3. Unclassed forests:

Forest Area
17.00% Reserved Forests
Protected Forests
Unclassed Forests
50.00%
33.00%

Other forests and wastelands belonging to


both government and private individuals and communities

Reserved and protected forests are referred to as permanent forest estates maintained for
purpose of producing timber and protective reasons

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