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 Transmission
 Transmission Line
Design
80mw 100km

1. Most Economical Voltage calculation


 The most eonomia! "o!tage is gi"en #$ the %o!!owing
%o!!owing em&iria! %orm'!a(

 Lt   P  * 1000


+
1.6 cos φ  * Nc * 150
Eonomia! )o!tage
)o!tage *) eo+,-.-/

here

Lt, Length o% transmission !ine, 100km

P, Power to #e transmitte2,80mw

os3, Power %ator,0.48

N, No. o% ir'it,1

 Then 'sing the a#o"e %orm'!a we get Veo = 135.47kv

Nearest 5tan2ar2 )o!tage , 167 k"

 Taking
 Taking 167 k" as a re'ire2 "o!tage as it is more near to the o#taine2
o#taine2
eonomia! "o!tage 5o stan2ar2 "o!tage !e"e! o% transmission !ine , 167 k"

1.7 Cheking Tehnia! Criterion(

5'rge im&e2ane !oa2ing *59L+,):;<!,167:;=00,=6.-> mw

5'rge im&e2ane o% o"erhea2 !ine*<!+,=00;N,=00;1,=00?

e ha"e 

P!imit,m%/59L
M'!ti&!$ing @ator*m%+,7.>7-

5o P!imit, 7.>7-/=6.->,11=.6= mw

5ine P!imit P

Hene the tehnia! riterion is satisBe2 so we se!et the "o!tage !e"e! o%


167 k"

)o!tage Le"e! %or gi"en Power 167 k"


 Transmission
 Transmission
N'm#er o% Ckt 7
Power @ator*os3+ 0. 4 8
Length O% Tansmission Line 100 km

2. Calculation Of Insulation Discs


@or a!! the a!'!ations o% n'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss we onsi2ere2 the
%o!!owing "a!'e o% 2ierent %ator(

@O, @!asho"er ithstan2 atio,1.-

NAC@,Non Atmos&heri Con2ition @ator,1.1

@5,@ator O% 5a%et$,1.7

Maim'm 5$stem )o!tage %or 167 k", 1=- k" *10F a#o"e the s$stem
"o!tage+

5withing to 9m&'!se atio*59+,1.1-

5withing 5'rge atio*55+,7.8

7.1 N'm#er o% ins'!ator re'ire2


re'ire2 %or tem&orar$ o"er"o!tage

 Tem&orar$
 Tem&orar$ o;"*)+,G7/k/)LL  I "aires %rom 1 to 0.> a"g,0.8

E'i"a!ent Jasho"er "o!tage, Tem&orar$ o;"*)+ / @O/ NAC@/@5


  ,G7/0.8/1=-/1.1-/1.1/1.7
,7=4.07 k"
@rom stan2ar2 ta#!e n'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss re'ire2 to withstan2 a#o"e
e'i"a!ent "o!tage is 7

7.7 N'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss re'ire2 to withstan2 ontin'o's o&erating


"o!tage(

a.E'i"a!ent 2r$ 1 min Jasho"er "o!tage,E'i"a!ent 2r$ 1 min


"o!tage/@O/NAC@/5@
,7>-*%rom ta#!e+/1.1-/1.1/1.7
,=07.7K k"
@rom stan2ar2 ta#!e n'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss re'ire2 to withstan2 a#o"e
e'i"a!ent "o!tage is K
#. E'i"a!ent wet 1 min Jasho"er "o!tage,E'i"a!ent wet 1 min
"o!tage/@O/NAC@/5@
  ,760*%rom
ta#!e+/1.1-/1.1/1.7
,6=4.1= k" k"
@rom stan2ar2 ta#!e n'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss re'ire2 to withstan2 a#o"e
e'i"a!ent "o!tage is 4

7.6 N'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss re'ire2 %or swithing o"er"o!tage(

5; o"er"o!tage,*G7;G6+/ma. 5$stem O;) /55/59

5withing im&'!se %o",swithing o;"/swithing to im&'s!e


ratio*59+/@O/NAC@/@5
  ,*G7;G6+/1=-/1.1-/7.8/1.1-/1.1/1.7
,-K8.>4 k"
@rom stan2ar2 ta#!e n'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss re'ire2 to withstan2 a#o"e
e'i"a!ent "o!tage is >

7.= N'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss re'ire2


re'ire2 %or the !ightning O;)(

E'i"a!ent 9m&'s!e %o",e'i"a!ent !ightning o;"/@O/NAC@/@5


  ,--0/1.1-/1.1/1.7
,86=.4 k"
@rom stan2ar2 ta#!e n'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss re'ire2 to withstan2 a#o"e
e'i"a!ent "o!tage is 4

!" Voltage level Desc#i$tion Voltage %evel "um(e# Of Discs


&kv'
1. Tem&o
em&orarar$
r$ o;"
o;" a&&
a&&eaeari
ring
ng a
aross the
the 7=4.07 7
ins'!ator
7. Contin'o's )o )o!tage
a. Cont
Contin'
in'o'
o'ss o;"
o;" in DY
DY =07.7K K
on2ition 86=.7K 4
#. Cont
Contin'
in'o'
o'ss o;"
o;" in ET
ET
on2ition

6. 5withing o;" -K8.>4 >


=. O;) 2'e to !ightning 86=.4 4
 Ta#!e
 Ta#!e 1(
Hene %rom the a#o"e ta#!e the re'ire2
re'ire2 n'm#er o% ins'!ator 2iss to
withstan2 a!! t$&es o% "o!tage !e"e! in a!! on2ition %or gi"en s$stem is 4

)e*ui#e+ num(e# of insulato# +iscs = ,

3. -i# Clea#ance Calculation


a, minim'm 2istane *!earane re'irement+
re'irement+ %rom a !ine
!ine on2'tor to an$
earthe2 o#et an2 is gi"en #$ the %o!!owing re!ation(

a, maim'm s$stem "o!tage7-


/G7 m
G6
,*1=-/G7+;G6 7-
,1=6.64m ,1.=6m

C!earane*! +,7a,78>.K8m ,7.8>m


# ,1.-a,71-.K8m,7.1-m

2 , *1.-a;7 !+;tan60 ,>87.48m,>.87m


L , aG7 ,707.K8m,7.07m
 Y , *La+;G*1*La+: /*;$+:+ , 6K8.17m,6.K8m the ratio o% ;$ ranges
%rom 1;6 to 1;=
 Y;7 , 184.17m,1.84m
C ,#7!,K84.6=m,K.84m
 Ta#!e
 Ta#!e 7(
Air !earane %orm the earthe2 o#et*a+ 1.=6m
 Tower
 Tower i2th*#+
i2th*#+ 7.1-m
)ertia! 2istane #etween two a2aent 6.K8m
on2'tor*$+
Horionta! 2istane #etween two a2aent K.84m
on2'tor*+
Height o% the earth wire %rom the to& ross >.87m
arm*2+

4. Con+ucto# an+ toe# selection

Line 'rrent is a!'!ate2 as


9,P;*G6/)!!/os3/N+
 ,80000000;*G6/167000/0.48/1+
,6-K.0- Am&

Com&aring this "a!'e o% 'rrent with the 'rrent arr$ing a&ait$ %rom the
gi"en stan2ar2 A5C on2'tor ta#!e on2'tor LEOPAD is o% right hoie.
 @'rther
 @'rther we ha"e to Bn2 the eien$ o% !ine an2 it sho'!2 #e 4=F
  Eien$,Po't;Pin
,Po't;*Po'tP!oss+
,Po't;*Po'tP!oss+ 4=F

Loss,6/9:/*>-+
*>-+,70[1a!&ha*T70+]
here T, maim'm a!!owa#!e tem&erat're
Take T, >- 2egree entigra2e
entigra 2e
 Ta#!e
 Ta#!e 6(
Name O%  Tota!
 Tota! Eien$*
5N Con2'tor 70 >- *ohm+ P!oss*watt+ F+
0.714 0.7-8K 4460708.1 88.4-K8K
1 Leo&ar2 6 K= 7-.8KK= >1 7-4
0.771 0.7>17 1007-744. 88.8>640
7 Co$ote = -7 7>.17-7 0K 41K
0.777 0.7>70 100->44>. 88.867>6
6 Tiger 1 K8 7>.70K8 0= 716
0.18= 0.71K- 86=488K.K 40.-=40>
= o!%   = 47 71.K-47 -> 80K
0.1-8 0.18K- K14-717.6 41.K=81-
- L$n 4 07 18.K-07 84 >-4
0.16K 0.1>77 >77>140.K 47.KK476
> Panther - - 1>.77- 08 =8K
0.177 0.1==6 --6K416.> 46.-7-KK
K Lion 6 1= 1=.=61= 7> 846
0.110 0.1600 =440008.8 4=.178K1
8 Qear 7 6> 16.006> == 176
0.084 0.10>0 =0K06=6.8 4-.1-8=0
4 Roat 84 K 10.>0K07 K= K01

@or the on2'tor LEOPAD


LEOPAD the eien$
eien$ is 88.4-F whih isS4=F
isS4=F so
Con2'tor QEA is hosen sine eien$ 4=F
@or on2'tor QEA
Con2'tor 2iameter,76.=-mm ,0.076=-m
RM %or in2'tane,0.KK88r,0.004161m
RM %or a&aitane,r,0.011K7-m
RMD,>.78m

5. Co#ona ince$tion voltage c#ite#ion

)i , 71.1/RM/!n*RMD;RM+/m/δ
Where , m=roughness factor= 0.9 for ASCR conductor 
Δ=relative density of air=0.9
!f "#R is in cm $ci =%%..&'v( )er )hase
!f $ci*$s&)er )hase( design is safe from corona effect.

$ci= +.-.+&cm(-0.9-0.9-ln&/.+10.0+(
  =2+.90'v
$s&)hase(= 2+132 =/.+ 'v

4ere, $ci*$s so no corona occurs.

6. Voltage
Voltage regulation criterion

5or a conductor 6ear,


Con2'tor 2iameter,76.=-mm ,0.076=-m
RM %or in2'tane,0.KK88r,0.004161m
RM %or a&aitane,r,0.011K7-m
RMD,>.78m
esistane
esistane o% who!e !ine*+,16.006>ohm
 9n2'tane o% ho!e !ength *L+ ,7 / 10 K !n *RMD;RMi+/L
  ,0.16H
2Π ε 
*  L * e3
  GMD  
ln   
 GMRc  
Ca&aitane o% who!e !ength*C+,
2∗π ∗ε
, ln ( 6.28 / 0.011725)  /100000

  ,8.8=/eK
,0.88 '% 

Now 9m&e2ane o% the Line *<+ ,    7%L


,16.006>   =0.8=
  ,=7.8>SK7.66
5'se&tane
ne o%
o% th
the Li
Line *Y
*Y+ , 6
61=.1-/C
  ,6.1=/e=
  ,6.1=/e=S40
 ,<;L, =7.8>SK7.66;100000
=7.8>SK7.66;100000 ,=.78/e=SK7.66
$ ,Y;L,6.1=/e4S40
U,G$
 A, B, C, D parameters calculation
A,D,*1Y<;7+ ,1.00-=

Q, <*1Y<;=+, =7.8>SK7.66

C, Y*1Y<;=+,6.1=/e=S40

Now 5en2ing en2 )o!tage *)s+ , A/)r Q/9r


,1.00-=/167  =7.8>SK7.66/0.6-K

  ,1=8.01SK7.66
,1=8.-K k"
)o!tage eg'!ation *)+, *V)sV;A V)rV +;V)r
, 11.4= F
)o!tage reg'!ation S 17F so this on2'tor /E-) an #e 'se2.

7. Tension calculation for different conductor with different span in


different condition

5our different conductors 7elo8 conductor 7ear in ASCR conductor ta7le is chosen. 4ence
tension calculation 8ill 7e done for conductor 6ear, "oat, :eer and Shee); 8ith s)an length
+0m, +m, 200m, 2+m and 20m. <ension for <oughest, Stringing and asiest condition are
calculated and ta7ulated 7elo8. Sam)le is also sho8n..

Sam)le calculation for conductor 6ear>


 Area of conductor=2+/.mm?
 @inear e)ansion coefficient&al)ha( =.2-eB/ )er degree c
#odulus of elasticity &(=0.-e/ 'g1cm?

<ension at the toughest condition &<(= &ultimate tensile strength(1&factor of safety(=/ 'g
Weight of conductor&Wc(=+9 'g1'm
Wind ressure = 00 'g1m?
Weight due to the 8ind force&W8(=s)an length-&+12(-diameter of conductor-air )ressure
  =00-000-+2.D 7>e6/7;6
,1->6.66 kg
Weight of ice &8ice( = 0
√ ( wc + wice ) 2 + ww 2
2

Weight for toughest condition &8( =


= 9+.D 'g1'm

Weight for the stringing and easiest condition &8 +( = +9'g.


<hen, the tension at stringing &< +( and the easiest condition &< 2( is calculated using the follo8ing
eEuation 'no8n as STRINGING EQUATION .
2
T 2 
2  [T 
2+k 
2 +
  k 
 ]
 ] - k 2 = 0
1 ………………………………….. (1)
Where,
 2 2

= − T 1 + α (θ 2 − θ 1) AE  +
W   L
1
 K 1 AE 
 24T  1
2

and,
2 2
W 2  L
 AE 
24
2=
K 2 
  .
5rom the a7ove data, the values of F and F+ for the s)an of +0m are given 7yG
F=B29+2.9 'g
F+=0.992-e0 'g
 Hsing the stringing eEuation the value of <+ is found to 7e,
<+= D220.0, B+22.0+IJD
4ence <+ = D220.0 'g

Similarly , <2 is calculated 7y the similar )rocedure as a7ove. 5or the calculation of <2 the value
of F and F+ fro +0m s)an is given 7y>
F=B.0+
F+=0.992-e0
 Hsing stringing eEuation 8e get,
<2= +99.2, B.//IJ2.9
4ence, <2= +99.2 Fg

!n the similar
similar manne
manner,
r, the
the values
values of tensions
tensions for
for different
different conduc
conductor
tor and s)an length
length is
ta7ulated 7elo8G
 <a7le DG Conductor 8eight and tension

Con2'to Diameter*
5N r  m+ w ie 1 7 T1
1->6.666 1487.=
1 Qear 1714 0.076=- 666 0 1> 1714 ->--
1K61.666 778-.-
7 Roat 1=47 0.07-4K 666 0 1- 1=47 >840
7-68.4
6 5hee& 1K7> 0.07K46 18>7 0 71 1K7> 4=--
7700.1
= I'n2ah 1787 0.07>87 1K88 0 0> 1787 =-01
1447.>>>
- Deer 14KK 0.07484 >>K 0 780K 14KK 411-

<a7le G Calculation of tension at easiest and toughest condition


5&an
5 Con2't Lengt I1 %or I1 %or
N or h  T7 I7 %or T7 T7  T6 I7 %or T6 T6

6476.> 4461144K ==74.K  4461144K 7488.7
1 Qear 7-0 6 K1 = 18K>.06 K1 1

6K-1.1 1701>K-1 =6K8.0  1701>K-1 6070.-
7K- > K76 8 1K06.-- K76 4

6->7.7 1=60047K =67>.6  1=60047K 60-0.4
600 - >K0 1 1-1=.>- >K0 4

66->.4 1>K86K7K  1>K86K7K 60K4.6
67- 7 >16 =7K-.7 1604.67 >16 1

616-.1 14=>-1-1  14=>-1-1 610-.>
6-0 K --1 =77-.= 108K.-> --1 7


=8K7.0 187=408K  187=408K
7 Roat 7-0 K 1>K -=K4.8 76>0.== 1>K 6>4>.7

=>87.K 7708164- -=61.7  7708164- 6K=-.7
7K- 7 =K7 K 71K1.04 =K7 K

==K-.6 7>7K8>8- -687.=  7>7K8>8- 6K41.>
600 = -70 7 14>6.K1 -70 1

=7=4.4 608=04-K -666.4 608=04-K 686-.1
67- 6 617 6 1K68.6 617 -

=00>.= 6-K>8710 -78>.6  6-K>8710 68K-.4
6-0 4 8=K 4 1=4=.8> 8=K 7


K=K-.8 7861>0K0 K47>.-  7861>0K0 -=44.8
6 5hee& 7-0 K 867 = =->6.K8 867 8

K667.0 6=7>7==- K886.6  6=7>7==- --6K.6
7K- = K0K - ==14.4> K0K >

K1K=.- =0KK-1=1  =0KK-1=1 --K=.-
600 7 448 K868.7 =7>7.== 448 >
 =K8-=1-4 KK41.-  =K8-=1-4 ->11.1
67- K006.6 K0> > =041.77 K0> 6

>818.6 --=44=48 KK=6.8 --=44=48 ->=>.8
6-0 8 861 K 640>.6 861 7

I'n2ha 61-=.> 11K=-768 6414.7  11K=-768 7=->.7
= h 7-0 - 87> 8 -04.-08 87> K
 1=711K68 =00=.8  1=711K68
7K- 6118.8 4K4 K =K6.>-= 4K4 7-47.1

60K4.- 1>4161=6 =040.6  1>4161=6 7K14.4
600 6 404 4 =6=.68> 404 4

606>.8 148=4=-6  148=4=-6 781=.7
67- - >1- =1K-.= 641.K06 >1- >

7440.K 76070>>8 =7-4.-  76070>>8 74>0.0
6-0 - 048 = 6=-.>0> 048 =


>>0>.K =7=646-K K68=.4  =7=646-K =48>.K
- Deer 7-0 - -14 7 6780.04 -14 1
 -16-1>77 K6=7.8  -16-1>77
7K- >640.- -48 4 60>6.8- -48 -0>-.6

>1-6.> >1117>K= K600.6  >1117>K= -1=0.0
600 > 87K = 787K.01 87K 4

-84>.7 K1K77-1= K7-K.8  K1K77-1= -710.4
67- 6 70K 1 7->4.-K 70K 7
 861811=0 K71-.K  861811=0 -7KK.K
6-0 ->18.7 K6K K 7741.-= K6K 8

0. Ea#t i#e selection


5rom the earth 8ire ta7le,
H<S= 0 'g
Kverall diameter= 9.D mm
Stranding1 Wire =12.mm
 Air )ressure=
)ressure= 00 'g1m?
'g1m?
<ension = + 'g

,. eigt of toe# calculation

We 'no8 the maimum sag is given 7y,

#aimum sag &:ma( = &W @+(1 &-<2(>


Where, W= 8eight of conductor 
@= length s)an
<2= <ension at easiest condition
Sam)le calculation for conductor 6ear>
W= +9 'g
@=0.+'m
<2= +9.+ 'g
<hen, :ma= 2.m
#inimum ground clearance&hg(=.2+m
4eight of lo8er conductor&4(= hgL:ma= 0.0m
4eightof middle conductor&4+(= 4Ly1+= +.29m
4eight of to)most to) most conductor&42(=4LM =D.+m
<otal height of to8er&4t(= 42Ld= +.0m

<a7le /G

4eight and the force of the to8er 


Con2't Dma* @w*kg @ew*k
5N or 5 &a n m+ H1*m+ H7*m+ H6*m+ + g+
6.18K00 640.86
1 Qear 0.7- =1 10.-0K 17.64K 1=.78K 66 1-K.-
6.8->7K 11.1K> 16.0>> 1=.4-> =74.41 1K6.7
  0.7K- - 7K 7K 7K >K -
=.-8478 11.404 16.K44 1-.>84
0.6 -4 74 74 74 =>4 184
-.68>06 17.K0> 1=.-4> 1>.=8> -08.08 70=.K
  0.67- >4 0= 0= 0= 66 -
0.6- >.7=>-7 16.->> 1-.=-> 1K.6=> -=K.1> 770.-
8 -6 -6 -6 >K

6.1-6-K 10.=K6 17.6>6 1=.7-6 =67.86


7 Roat 0.7- >> -8 -8 -8 66 1-K.-
6.81-87 11.16- 16.07- 1=.41- =K>.11 1K6.7
  0.7K- KK 86 86 86 >K -
=.-=11- 11.8>1 16.K-1 1-.>=1
0.6 0= 1- 1- 1- -14.= 184
-.674-= 17.>=4 1=.-64 1>.=74 ->7.>8 70=.K
  0.67- =- -= -= -= 66 -
>.18101 16.-01 1-.641 1K.781 >0-.4>
  0.6- 07 01 01 01 >K 770.-

7.=-1K- 4.KK1K 11.>>1 16.--1


6 5hee& 0.7- 8 -8 K> K> =>-.- 1-K.-
7.4>>>7 10.78> 17.1K> 1=.0>> 1K6.7
  0.7K- K7 >6 >6 >6 -17.0- -
6.-60-6 10.8-0 17.K=0 1=.>60
0.6 1> -6 -6 -6 --8.> 184
=.1=6=K 11.=>6 16.6-6 1-.7=6 70=.K
  0.67- 11 =K =K =K >0-.1- -
=.80-== 17.17- 1=.01- 1-.40-
  0.6- -8 =- =- =- >-1.K 770.-

=.0KK-K 11.64K 16.78K 16.78K


= I'n2ah 0.7- =4 -K -K -K ==K 1-K.-
=.4668> 17.7-6 1=.1=6 1=.1=6 1K6.7
  0.7K- -K 8K 8K 8K =41.K -
-.8K1K0 16.141 1-.081 1-.081
0.6 K4 K1 K1 K1 -6>.= 184
>.84110 1=.711 1>.101 1>.101 70=.K
  0.67- 1K 1 1 1 -81.1 -
K.4470= 1-.617 1K.707 1K.707
  0.6- >4 0- 0- 0- >7-.8 770.-

6.04K74 10.=1K 17.60K 17.60K =48.1>


- Deer 0.7- -1 6 6 6 >K 1-K.-
6.K=KK7 11.0>K 17.4-K 17.4-K -=K.48 1K6.7
  0.7K- K1 K6 K6 K6 66 -
=.=>010 11.K80 16.>K0 16.>K0
0.6 - 1 1 1 -4K.8 184
-.76==7 17.--= 1=.=== 1=.=== >=K.>1 70=.K
  0.67- 8K =6 =6 =6 >K -
>.0K0>4 16.640 1-.780 1-.780 >4K.=6
  0.6- 8= K K K 66 770.-

1. /en+ing moment calculation


:ue to )o8er conductor>

.6ending moment acting on to8er due to )o8er conductor considering 8ind force
6#)8 = 58c-&4L4+L42(
+. 6ending moment due to turning of the )o8er conductor 
6m)t=+< sin&N1+( -&4L4+L42(
-&4L4+L4 2( Oneed to calculate N for +, , 20 degreeP
:ue to earth 8ire>

.6ending moment acting on to8er due to earth 8ire

6m8e=5e8-4t

+.6ending moment due to turning of the earth 8ire

6met=+< sin&N1+(-4t Oneed to calculate N for +, , 20 degreeP

<a7le  G6ending moment calculation

Con2't 5&a Qm&tA* Qm&tQ* Qm&tC* QmetA* QmetQ*1- QmetC*6


or n Qm&w 7+ 1-+ 60+ Qmew 7+ + 0+ QMA QMQ QM
1=-6-. K6=0.8= 1088>K. 667=.6 7106.6 1-K61.17 61140.86 7K60=. 88=4=. 1-K
Qear 7-0 =4 1 -=406.7 1 -6 67 618 61 01 1>
1>8-7. KK6K.1= -K8>K.7 11=K==. 6KK7.K 71K0.0 1>774.46 671K4.8= 60-67. 4=K77. 1>K
7K- 76 K 6 - = 7> 60K >8 1= 16
14=1-. 81K1.14 >1116.- 171181. =7-=.7 77=6.0 1>KK>.7= 667>6.0- 6=08=. 101-- 1K8
600 > K - > -- K1 8>> 77 17 4.>
777=8. >=>=7.1 1781K8. =KK1.4 7677.= 1K6K0.0> 6===0.== 6K48-. 10406 184
67- 01 8>=7.44 > = 11 >8 44- 4= 68 7.1
7-6K1. 41-7.-7 >8=-6.0 -678.K 7=08.7 18011.64 6-K17.06 =77>1. 11K1> 707
6-0 84 K - 16-K6- 14 1K >4- 8- 6- -.1
1>0-=. 8414.84 >>K16.1 1677K-. 6614.0 7100.0 1-K0>.70 611=1.=6 60646. 101K4
Roat 7-0 1 > 8 6 88 01 4-4 -K 04 7.> 187
18>0-. 464K.>8 K078>.> 1646>0. 6K>-.K 71>-.4 1>144.K8 67170.0K 6646=. 1088- 146
7K- == 8 - > 67 4- K>7 > 8> K.>
71=7K. 4470.48 K=700.= 1=K170. =7=-.1 7768.7 1>K=0.6K 6K861. 11>>1 70-
600 0= 6 - K -K K= 604 66141.47 => 6
7=-=6. 10=84.K K8=-=.- 1-----. =K>0.6 761>.8 1K67K.4> 6=6->.4> =7110. 17-08 714
67- =8 8 8 > == 64 -48 K4 == >.=
7K4K4. 1110=.0 860=4.0 1>=>>-. -61=.7 7=01.> 1K4>7.-> 6->1-.71 =>K44. 16=60
6-0 67 4 = 7 K6 88 >61 4K 6> -.7 766
1>78-. 11-=-.K 8>6-7.7 1K171=. 6708.- 7060.0 1-186.1= 6010=.67 660K0. 17107 770
5hee& 7-0 >- - 4 K -7 >= 1K- =K 01 4.>
18K0-. 170--.= 401>=.K 1K8KK6. 6>18.> 7081.6 1-->>.8K 608>-.1K 6>=>0. 1780- 761
7K- 16 4 > 4 08 K7 --= 1> > -.=
716-0. 17>16.K 4=6=0.6 =0-=.1 716K.- 1-48K.1- 61>48.=8 =01->. 16-K6 7==
600 -8 4 7 18K0-6 - >- -= 01 04 7.7
7=7=7. 16770.> 488K8.4 =-1K.= 7148.> 1>==6.48 67>0=.7- ==1K4. 1==08 7-K
67- -> 6 8 14>0-7 4> =- 16= 06 66 6
7K=01. 168K>.0 106K80. 70-KK0. -010.4 77>=.> 1>46K.6- 66-87.=8 =8--6. 1-616 7K1
6-0 > 7 K 4 >1 17 66- 7 14 0.>
1>4K6. -4>-.>7 ==>1-.K 88=>-.K 61>>.4 7006.K 1=48>.7= 74K16.47 78110. K4K=7. 168
I'n2ah 7-0 81 - 1 6 =6 68 -18 8K 11 K1
1446=. >6>4.70 =K>66.4 4==-0.= 6>61.4 7084.0 1->7=.== 604K4.61 6707=. 8>87=. 1=8
7K- 6 6 4 K 4 >4 1>6 0> -> K7
767--. >811.71 -0464.K 10100-. =164.= 7187.- 1>676.=1 676>-.70 6>688. 4=>-8. 1>0
600 >4 > 1 7 76 7- 8>4 -1 8- 7=
7>4K0. K741.>> 108174. =>46.0 778=.1 1K086.1K 668K1.>1 =1764. 1067K 1K6
67- KK - -=-67.4 4 4> 04 >6K 71 >= 4.4
61117. -8=16.- 11-87=. -74>.8 7646.8 1K406.K1 6-=48.-6 =>>16. 117K7 18K
6-0 6> K810.-- 6 > >1 14 =>> 1K -4 >.-
18646. 8K8-1.1 1K=14=. 61>>.4 704=.6 1->>=.7> 610-8.7> 6-=01. 17-0K 77>
Deer 7-0 7- 11K=>.K 8 > =6 46 7KK -8 78 -.>
71601. 47=4=.0 186=00. 6>61.4 71-4.7 1>1=4.06 67014.== 64=>0. 166-K
7K- 8> 176>K.- - K 4 04 14K 0= -> >.4 7=0
7=-1-. 160=K.= 4K-K4.1 146=86. =164.= 7760.1 1>>K4.4> 660K7.1- =6466. 1=741 7--
600 4K 6 1 - 76 48 4>> -6 07 =.-
780>6. 16K8>.= 10610>. 70===6. =>46.0 760K.6 1K7-K.0K 6=71>.=1 =88-0. 1-611
67- 6> 8 6 7 4> > -8- 08 6 4.4 7K1
614K1. 1=-8=.> 1040K-. 71>7K4. -74>.8 7640.> 1K880.6- 6-=-7.70 -=7==. 1>=77 784
6-0 81 > K - >1 4- 0-= >> 07 =.8

11. Equivalent weight calculation

Weight of to8er &Wt( = ∗ ∗√ BM ∗ F . S .


0.0016  Ht  8here, 4t is in 5t and 6# is in 'l7Bft.
  =0.000/2-4t- √ Bm
Bm∗2
4t is in m and 6m is in 'gBm.
= +. tonnes
<a7le G <he ta7le for 8eight of to8er .
Con2't 5&a A"g ost;tower;s
ro n tA tQ  tC t;t&wer ost;tower &an L
6.1176 -.>060 K.=8=4 K.0K7KK= ->-871.4K
Qear 7-0 7 44 08 K=8 48 77>6.78K414
6.64-- -.480K K.4-=7 K.-40>-1 >0K7-7.10
7K- 77 76 - 66= >8 7708.184=K4
6.K086 >.=017 8.=KK7 8.1>--16 >-67=1.0=
600 >7 K8 >= 07K 77 71KK.=K01=1
=.0-6= >.8>K6 4.0->8 8.8017-6 K0=100.7=
67- 1= >= 6= 0=> 6K 71>>.=>7788
=.=666 K.681K 4.>4>0 4.-01478 K>01-=.60
6-0 66 77 04 87= > 71K1.8>4==>
6.7K8= -.4448 8.0=00 K.-=7KK7 >06=71.K8
Roat 7-0 >1 -= -1 7-> 0= 7=16.>8K177
6.-K60 >.644- 8.-644 8.0886K4 >=K0K0.64
7K- 8K -K -= 488 41 76-7.4867>4
6.848- >.8==> 4.04>4 8.>46488 >4--14.0>
600 =8 78 11 608 => 7618.64>887
=.7-K= K.66KK 4.K164 4.6>6>7- K=4040.0>
67- 41 >- 6K 87K >7 760=.847-11
=.>-7> K.8818 10.64= 10.101=4 808114.--
6-0 =1 11 77 ==6 => 7608.416016
6.60-4 >.67=6 8.-=7- K.8>=>6= >741K0.KK
5hee& 7-0 07 41 08 K0= >6 7-1>.>8610-
7K- 6.--84 >.>>4K 8.4K>8 8.66>0=K >>>886.81 7=7-.0670=8
K7 81 0> >>= 67
6.86-8 K.0-71 4.=-86 8.8-->>8 K08=-6.=-
600 14 88 K 18- =8 76>1.-11-1>
=.1686 K.=K6- 4.4846 4.=7>6K6 K-=104.84
67- -- 1 7> K71 KK 7670.6681=K
=.=>8- K.46-K 10.-K1 10.0-11- 80=047.K6
6-0 = =K 46 418 == 774K.=0K816
6.7411 -.-=67 K.600> K.11=K-> ->4180.=4
I'n2ah 7-0 K1 -7 >6 70- >= 77K>.K7148>
6.>=4> >.0046 K.8K71 K.K-K168 >70-K1.11
7K- 06 7- 1- 4== -- 77->.>77768
=.0=44 >.-670 8.-17> 8.=K>1=1 >K8041.61
600 47 =- 87 =64 -1 77>0.60=68=
=.=4>7 K.11-6 4.77>K 4.7KK>=7 K=7711.=1
67- 76 8- 16 K7= K4 7786.K7K==
=.4476 K.K>6- 10.018 10.1>KK8 816=77.>>
6-0 14 7> 8 67- 06 767=.0>=K==
6.-788 >.>674 8.4671 8.78=0K- >>7K7>.07
Deer 7-0 6 >6 6- 6-8 8> 7>-0.40=11-
6.8=04 K.0>>8 4.=K4= 8.8K7-16 K04801.11
7K- -> 1 -- 4-7 >7 7-81.04=4>8
=.18>0 K.-=44 10.084 4.-7-404 K>70K7.K>
600 7K -4 14 -6- 78 7-=0.7=7-=6
8.08-7 10.K>= 10.7=8-0 814880.>K
  67
67- =.->>8 >= -> 8=- -K 7-77.K04KK1
=.48>1 8.>K-K 11.-08 11.0==K= 886-K4.K7
6-0 7- =1 4K >-7 1= 7-7=.-16=4

4ence the most economical s)an is 2+ m.

12. !election of most economical con+ucto#


c on+ucto#..
<a7le 9G Calculation of num7er of to8ers and total cost.
Con2't ost;tower;s& N'm#er o%  Tota!
 Tota!
5N or Eo 5&an an  Tower
 Tower Cost*5+
21024
1 /e
/ea# 325 21.4 30 
7 Roat 67- 760=.84 608 760K14=84
6 5hee& 67- 7670.66 608 7677>-066
= I'n2ah 67- 7786.K7 608 778>006K7
- Deer 67- 7-77.K 608 7-7-777K0

Qo8,
5or conductor cost calculation
@et, cost of steel= Rs 0 )er 'g
Cost of Al = 200 )er 'g
:e). 5actor= 0.
@ife time= + years
Sam)le calculation,
 5or 6earG
 s)an length=2+m, Al 8eight )er 'm= 2D 'g, Steel 8eight )er 'm= D'g

Cost of )o8er conductor 


<otal
<otal Al 8eight= 00-2D=2D00'g
<otal Steel 8eight=00-D=D00'g
<otal conductor cost= Rs +D000
4ence, total cost= Conductor costL <o8er cost=Rs D9D0+9+
n
( +i )
i 1
 Annual ca)ital
ca)ital cost &A(= ( 1 + i ) −1 -
n

= Rs +//9+/.+
L@ 0. -
LL@ 0.6
ate, 4 s;'n
it ea' )o8er loss )er 'm= D9.9'81'm
Cost of energy loss= l-@@5-time-rate )er '8h
= Rs ,0,+2D.
,0,+2D.

<otal Annual Cost= Rs&+//9+/.9L0+2D.( =Rs +D9.99

<a7leG 0 Conductor cost calculation


 Tota!
 Tota! ost
Con2't  Tota!
 Tota! A!  Tota!
 Tota! 5tee! o%  Tota!
 Tota! Tower
Tower Ann'a!
or weight t on2'tor Cost Tota! Cost Cost*s+
7=77KK>= 7>>417>
Qear K6=00 =8-00 7-=1-000 71>8>7>=> > 1.7
7>1KK1=8 788688>
Roat 84>00 -4>00 610-7000 760K14=84 4 0.6
7>81K-06 74-==67
5hee& 106>00 >4000 6-410000 7677>-066 6 >.=
7>666=6K 740110=
I'n2ah 117000 1>700 6=K6=000 778>006K7 7 0.1
746>8-7K 676-=K=
Deer 118800 K8400 =11>6000 7-7-777K0 0 0

13. !election of economical con+ucto#


 Ta#!e
 Ta#!e 11( 5e!etion o% eonomia! on2'tor
Name
O% Ann'a! Cost  Tota!
 Tota!
Con2't  Tota!
 Tota! Ann'a! E!e @orm on2 Ann'a!
or 70 >- *ohm+ P!*kw+ Cost an2 tower *s+
0.11 0.16006 16.006 =4.40008 118076>. 7K8K1=48.
Qear 07 > > 8== 847 7>>417>1.14 08
0.08 0.10>0K 10.>0K =0.K06=6 4>7K1K.K 74801-K8.
Roat 44 07 07 8K= 661 788688>0.6 06
0.0K 0.041>8 6-.186>6 8671>6.6 606K>=84.
5hee& KK > 4.1>8> K>K 487 74-==67>.= 8
0.0K 0.08KK7 8.KK71 66.>>718 K4>1KK.4 7480K718.
I'n2ah =6 17 7 60K -= 740110=0.1 0-
0.0> 0.08000 60.K00K8 K7>16=.8 660808K=.
Deer K8 = 8.000= 06> -K1 676-=K=0.06 84

So, 8e can easily see from a7ove ta7le that 6AR conductor
conductor 8ith a s)an 2+m
8ill 7e the most economical conductor for the transmission line as the sum of cost of to8er,
conductor cost and energy loss cost is minimum for 6AR conductor.

14. Design Specification:

ELECTRICAL ARA!ETERS

PARAMETERS VALUES
POWER (P) 80m
LE!"T# (L) 100 $m
 !UM%ER O& 'R'UTS (!c) 1
A'SR 'on*c+o, %EAR S-nl/ c$+
APARAMETER 1.0054
%PARAMETER  =7.8>SK7.66
'PARAMETER  6.1=/e=S40
PARAMETER 1.0054
L!E !U'TA!'E (L) 0.13 #
L!E 'APA'TA!'E (') 0.88 *  
L!E MPEA!'E () 42.862.33
L!E SUS'EPTA!'E() 6.1=/e=S40
VOLTA"E RE"ULATO! 11.74
E&&'E!' 74.12
'ORO!A !'EPTO!
!'EP TO! VOLTA"E
VOLTA"E 2+.90'v &hase(

!EC"A#ICAL ARA!ETERS

PARAMETERS VALUES
SPA! LE!"T# 325M

T1 56559"

T2 4427.49"

T3 2788.219"

# 3.18M

#1 10.50M

#2 12.37M

#3 14.28M

TOWER WE"#T .0 Ton/