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aGb} uPsf] oy]i6 k|df0fx? e]6fpg ;lsG5 . sfo{qmdnfO{ ;Daf]wg ub}{ sfsL{n] ;f] ePg . cfˆgf cleJolQm lgaf{w /fVg csf]{ #) xhf/ dfG5] d5{g\ . ;Qfdf cfªdf nufPsf] n'uf / z/L/afx]s
;+;b\jfbL bnx?sf] xflnd'xfnLdf ag]sf] ;/sf/n] 7f]s'jf u/]sL x'g\ . pgn] s]bf/eQm pgL;Fu cfˆgf] eGg' s]xL 5}g . s]
dfy]df cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg ljk/Lt o;}u/L dg{ lbg] < s:tf] cGofo xf]
b]z / hgtfnfO{ yk k|tfl8t ug]{ sfo{ u/]sf] 5 . lrlsT;f lzIff ljw] o s NofP/ of] <
;/sf/n] zf] i fs ;fdGtL sd;] sd oL g]tfn] pleP/
b'O{ ltxfO{ ax'dtsf] bDe b]vfpFb} ;/sf/ ;+ljwfg Jofkf/Lx?nfO{ ;xof]u / dfOtL3/ xfdLnfO{ dfkmL b]pm eGg ;Sb}gg\ <
d08nfnufotsf 7fpFdf lj/f]w k|bz{g logsf 8/n] pgLaf/] cfh s]xL
/ k|rlnt lgod, sfg'gsf] lvNnL p8fpFb5 } . ug{ /f]s nufP/ ;fdGtL Jojxf/ gn]lvPnf . t/, Oltxf;df n]lvg]5
;/sf/sf] kl5Nnf] r/0fsf] sfo{zn } L x]bf{ lg/ª\sz ' u/]sf] eGb} lj/f]w ul/g\ . ls canfdfly h;/L 3fF6L GofsL
k"jk{ w| fgGofofwLz ;'zLnf sfsL{n] GofsL ltgL dfl/Og\ . of] b]zsf nflu
/fhtGqsf] eGbf klg rsf]{ b]lvPsf] 5 . ;/sf/n] klAns l8km]G; PnfOG;n] d+unaf/ 7"nf] sn+s x'g]5 . eLd;]g yfkfsL
/fhwfgLdf cfof] h gf u/] s f] :jf:gLnfO{ h;/L /f0ffsfndf a]OHhtL
zflGtk"0f{ ;ef / lj/f]w ug{ aGb]h nufPsf] 5 . sfo{qmddf u/]sf] ;Daf]wg M æd}n] ul/of] . gf+ u f] kf/] / dg{ ljjz
jsfntsf] hLjg latfPF . agfOof] . To:t}, 36gf xf] of] . / t,
;+ljwfg k|bQ hgtfsf] df}lns xssf] lvNnL k| w fgGofofwLz klg ePF . t/, d s'g} ;/sf/sf] gfd lng rfxGgF . t/, ;/sf/df clt b':v nfU5 . cfwf /ftdf ltgsf
p8fpFb} ;/sf/ tfgfzfxL 9Ën] cufl8 a9]sf] cfhef]ln d cfkmF} ls+st{Joljd"9 cfPkl5 zf]ifs Jofkf/LnfO{ ;xof]u ug{x' G' 5 . Tof] klg af/]df ;lDemPF eg] ax't b':v nfU5 .
ePsf] 5' . s] u/f}F s] gu/f}F cfkm}Fn] /flt pgsf] af/]df ;lDemPF eg]
s:tf eg] zf]ifs, ;fdGtL Jofkf/L 7"nfa8f elgg]x¿sf]
5 . zflGt;'/Iffsf] gfddf hgtfsf] df}lns lg0f{o ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g . lxhf]sf]
k[i7kf]ifs eP/ a:g'xG' 5 . pgLx¿s} pGglt xf];\
em;+u–em;+u x'G5, ax't kL8f ePsf]
;/sf/ / cfhsf] ;/sf/df s]xL 5 . d]l8sndf x]g{' t To:t} 5 .
xsdfly aGb]h nufpg], lagfsf/0f lu/ˆtf/ ug],{ km/s 5}g . hgtfn] ef]6 lbP/ eGg'xG' 5 . /, lxhf] cfkm}nF ] NofPsf] s'/f vf/]h u/] eg]/ Pslbg Pp6f s]6f] e]6]F . ax't b'MvL
lhtfPsf 5g\ . cf; u/]sf 5g\, tL xfdLn] s;/L kTofpg] < xfdL eGg afWo x'G5f}F . ;/sf/ lyof] . 3/;DklQ a] r ] / hfgsL
e"7f d'2fdf km;fpg] sfo{ lbgk|ltlbg al9/x]sf] ;a} lg/fzfdf ablnPsf] 5 . d]l8sn sn]hdf egf{ ePsf] aGb
k| l tkIfdf a:bf ;8s / /] l nª
t ;fdGtL /x]5 . d'vn] dfq ;}4flGts s'/f ug]{ Jojxf/ eP5, Tof] sn]h . p;sf] ;j{Zj g}
5 . h;sf] pbfx/0fsf] nflu d'ud' f g]skfsf] eTsfpg] lgif]wf1f kfngf ug{' klg ;a} vQd Û b'Mv dfGg] s'/f 5– b]zdf !% xhf/ a9Ln] x/0f eof] lg Û s] u/]sf] of] < Jofkf/
;fdfgf ;f+:s[lts kl/jf/n] u/]sf] sfo{qmddf k|x/L gkg]{ < Hofg u'dfP . kl/jt{g cfof] eGg'xG' 5 . t/, ablnPsf] u/]sf] < d}n] d]/} kl/jf/df b]v]sf]
Tolta]nf :jtGq Gookflnsf klg 5}g . oxL ul/aL /fVg'xG' 5, Jofkf/LnfO{ kf]:g'xG' 5 . 5' . 5f]/f] lrlsT;s k9fpFbf vr{
x:tIf]k / 8f= uf]ljGb s];Lsf] cgzg k|s/0fnfO{ rflxGYof] . t/, ;Qfdf cfPkl5 t:s/sf] gfOs] aGg'xG' 5 . ltgnfO{ k[i7kf]if0f ub}{ lxF8g\ x' G' 5 gk'u]/ Pshf]/ ;'6 xfNg g;s]sf] .
cbfnt klg k/tGq x'gk' g]{ . lgif]wf1f o:tf] b'Mv u/]/ ufF; s6fO{–s6fO{
lng ;lsG5 . nufpg'kg]{, clg s] of] …/3's'n /Lt eg] csf]{ #) xhf/ dfG5] d5{g\ . vfPsf] . lrlsT;s k9\g %) cf}F nfv
;/sf/n] nf]stGqsf] wHhL p8fpFb} u/]sf o:tf ;bf rlncfof]Ú eGg's} k'g/fj[lQ )))) nfUg], o:tf] Jofkf/ b'lgofFdf sxLF
xf]Og < JolQmdfly cGofo eof] kqklqsf k9\5'– ;/sf/n] /]n, kfgLhxfh x'G5 < k9fpg] a]nfdf hfoh]yf,
xs{tx? cfkm}dF f lgGbgLo, 3[l0ft / nfhdbf]{ 5 . ;dfhdfly cGofo eof] eg] dflg;n] s'bfpg] ;a} n]v]sf] 5 . t/, cfdhgtfsf] ;j{Zj, lem6Lu'G6f ;s]/ k9fpg]
sxfF uP/ af]Ng] < b"/b/fhdf jf vfg kfpg], /f]u nfUbf pkrf/ ug{ kfpg] tnarflxF @) xhf/ klg gkfpg] <
o;/L ;/sf/n] g} ;+ljwfgsf] wHhL p8fpFb} h+undf uP/ af]n]/ t ePg ;8s
clwsf/} 5} g . ahf/ lgl:sg' x f] ; \ ljiffQm
;/sf/n] ha/h:tL ljb]z ws]Nb} 5,
jf pko'Qm 7fFpdf g} cfP/ af]Ng'k5{ . ltgnfO{ . o;/L s;/L x'G5 /fi6«sf]
hgtfdfly lg/+sz ' tf nfb\g] xf] eg] ljb|fx] sf] ljsNk hxfF cfjfh ;'lgG5, ToxLF cfP/ t/sf/L a]Rg /flvPsf] 5 . d]/f >Ldfg\ b'uf{ pGglt <
af]Ng'k5{ . of] d'n'sdf k~rfotL ;'j]bL 5tdf t/sf/L /f]k]/ kl/jf/nfO{ v'jfpg ;/sf/df a;]/ gf6s u/]/ x'bF g} .
5}g . @$) jif]{ lg/+sz ' /fhtGqsf] h/f] pv]n/] Joj:yfdf klg ToxL b]lvof] . 7fpF– afWo x'g'x'G5 . cfwf/e"t / Go"gtd s'/f g} ul/asf 3/df, d'; ' x/sf 3/df kfs]sf]
kmfNg ;Sg] hgtfn] of] ;/sf/sf] b'O{ ltxfO{sf] 7fpFdf lgif]w ul/GYof], af]Ng lbFb}g kfPsf 5}gg\ . 7'N7"nf / xfjfsf s'/f u/]/ eft vfP/ /fi6«sf] ljsf; x'bF g} . b]zsf]
lyof] . dfgj clwsf/sf] b'?kof]u eof] x'Fb}g . cfwf/e"t / Go"gtd s'/f g} kfPsf ljsf; ug]{ g]tfn] ;a}eGbf tnsf]
bDenfO{ If0fe/d} Wj:t kfg{ ;Sg]5g\ . To;}n] eg]/ af]lnGYof] . sfFu|];sf] ;/sf/df
5}gg\ . 7'N7"nf / xfjfsf s'/f u/]/ x'Fb}g .æ ul/asf] af/]df ;f]r, uf]ljGb s];Ln]
klg ToxL eof] . To;kl5sf Joj:yfdf h;/L . a? k~rfotsf a]nf cl:t
;/sf/n] cfˆgf] lg/+sz ' tfjfbL / kmf;LjfbL rl/q klg pxL . h;h;sf] ;/sf/ cfof] kfpg'k5{ . 8fS6/ uf]ljGb s];LnfO{ x'g]nfO{ aGb'sn] hf]ufPsf] 5 . ;]gf, dg{e' Psf lrlsT;s pk]Gb| b]jsf]6fn]
pxL k|j[lQ bf]xf]l/Psf] 5 . km]l/Psf] b]Vbf crDd nfU5 . g pgsf ;Gtfg k|x/Ln] hf]ufPsf 5g\ . o'4sfndf eft k9\g kfpg'eof] . cfh ul/asf 5f]/fn]
tTsfn ;'wfg'k{ 5{ . cGoyf ca hgtf r'k nfu]/ t efif0f dfq} xf] . lgrf]8df eGg] xf] 5g\ g sf]xL kl/jf/ 5g\ . pgn] cfˆgf v'jfpg g;s]/, rGbf lbg g;s]/ k9\g kfpFbg} g\ . d}n] d]l8sn k9\g]
a:g] 5}gg\, r]tgf eof . eg] ;a}sf] :jefj pxL 5 . o:t} xf]
eg] !% xhf/eGbf a9L dflg;sf]
nflu u/]sf] xf] of] < !% k6s eO;Sof]
cgzg a;]sf] . pgsf] of] n8fOF
dfG5] dfl/Psf 5g\ . Toqf dfG5]
dfl/P, t/ kl/jt{ g sf gfddf
rfxgf eP/ 5fqj[lQ gkfPsf] /
em'lG8P/ dg{ afWo ePsf] 36gf
alnbfgL s]sf nflu < ul/asf lglDt g} t xf]nf lg . dflg;n] s] kfP < …sfu s/fpFb} uof],{ Ohnf;d} ;'gF] . Pp6Ln] d]/} cufl8
ufnL ubf{ Ifdtf a9\5 Û xfdLn] b] V of} F , )^@–^# sf]
cfGbf] n gdf dflg;x¿ ;8sdf
ul/asf 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] :jf:Yo ;]jf,
lzIff kx'Frdf k'uf];\ eg]/ xf]nf lg Û
lkgf ;'Sb} u¥of]Ú eg]h:t} ePg /
of] < o:tf] sfd xf]nf eg]/ dnfO{
elgg\– Dof8d d]/f] ;a} s'/f k'us
t/ tLgk6s cfj]bg lbFbf klg oL
] f] 5,

sf7df8f}F . s;}nfO{{ ufnL ubf{ jf tyf sl7gfO{x¿ em]Ng] / To;lj?4 plqPsf . olb To;f] gePsf] eP ul/an] klg wgL;/x pkrf/ kfpmg\ slxNo} nfu]sf] lyPg . u+ufdfofsf] ck/fwLn] 5fqj[lQ lbPgg\ . d ef]ln g}
s;}sf] ufnL vfFbf s;nfO{{ kf] dHhf dfgl;s ¿kdf tof/ x'g] lxDdt / kl/jt{ g cfpF b } g Yof] . t/, eg]/ xf]nf lg Û b"/–b/fh, cljsl;t t gfd lnFbf klg P]7g x'G5 . tkfO{+ em'lG8P/ d5{' . d}n] km};nf ul/lbPF–
nfUnf / < s;}nfO{{ ufnL ug{' jf cfkm}n] zlQm k|fKt x'G5 . kl/jt{gkl5 klg pxL k'g' /fj[lQ < 7fpFdf c:ktfn agf];\ . dflg; sNkgf ug{ ;Sg'xG' 5 < d}n] ldl;n ltgnfO{ k9\g kfpg] Joj:yf ldnfpg",
ufnL vfg' /fd|f] s'/f xf]Og . o;n] ha dflg;n] cfkm'nfO{{ s]xL cK7]/f] hgtfn] s] kl/jt{g kfP t < lkgf csfn gd¿g\ eg]/ xf]nf lg Û of] x]/]sf] 5' . lh1f;f nfu]/ k9]F . s'g} lbg}k5{, oL ;dj]bgf a'‰g'kb}g{ . o;/L
dflg;sf] efjgfdf rf]6 k'Ub5 . t/, k/]sf] jf s;}n] wf]sf lbPsf] s'/f ;'Sb} sfu s/fpFb} h:t} ePg / < eGg' gfhfoh xf] / < pgn] !$ k6s lbg ax;;d]t ;'g]F xf]nf . d]/f Jofkf/ g} ul//xg] . d]l8sn lzIff s]
Pp6f cWoogn] eg] ufnLn] dflg;sf] ‰jf§ ;'G5 / p;sf] d'vaf6 tTsfn} dnfO{ csf]{ s'/f klg eGg dg nfu]sf] u/]sf] k|of;:j¿k ljw]os v8f eof] . xftaf6 sfd ePgg\ . cnu s'/f Jofkf/ xf] < oxfFsf c:ktfnsf] s] s'/f
Ifdtf a9fpg] / s'g} ;d:ofsf] ;fdgf ufnL lgl:sG5 eg] o;sf] cy{ pm 5 . 8/ klg 5– slt s'/f eGg x'g] Pp6f ;fbuL JolQmn] b]zsf n8]/ xf] . t/, d}n] x]/]sf] 5' . tkfO{+ ug{' < PskN6 dnfO{ ;fgf] /f]u nfu]5 .
ug]{ lxDdtdf j[l4 ug]{ tYo kQf cfˆgf] dgaf6} ;d:of;Fu n8\g tof/ xf], slt gx'g] xf] < t/ klg d NofPsf] pknlAw d]6g\ vf]Hg] < olb ;lDemg'; ' \ g Tof] 5f]/f]nfO{ . u+ufdfofsf] Ps nfv ^) xhf/ vr{ ubf{ klg /f]u
nufPsf] 5 . olb tkfOFn] s;}nfO{{ e]/x]sf] x'G5 . zf]wsf qmddf w]/} cfdgful/s g} eO;s]sf] dflg; x'F . o;f] xf] eg] t ;/sf/ zf]ifs, ;§f sf]xL g]tfsf] 5f]/f] d/]sf] eP tL kQf nfu]g . 7"nf c:ktfnsf] of] xfnt
;fj{hlgs:yfgdf ufnLunf}h ug{e' of] ljBfyL{x¿nfO{{ pgLx¿sf] lgs} g} lr;f] lxhf] g]kfnL sfFu; ]| / g]skf dfcf]jfbL ;fdGtLsf] nfOgdf kf] k' U of] Û ?Fb}gy] < cfˆgf 5f]/fnfO{ o'j/fh 5 . clGtddf vf]O s;/L xf] b}j ;+of]un]
eg] tkfOFn] dfG5]x¿n] c;Eo tyf kfgL /flvPsf] efF8fdf xft 8'afpg s]Gb|sf] ;/sf/ lyof] . ;/sf/df x'bF f cfdhgtfsf] dfu, ul/an] vfg– agfP/ pEofpF5g\, ;8sdf Û ltgsf kQf nfUof] / pkrf/ u/]F .
v/fa dflg; eg]/ ;f]RF b5g\ . t/, elgof] . lr;f] kfgLdf xft 8'afpg] g]kfnL sfFu; ]| nfO{ u+ufdfof b'lvgg\ . nufpg kfpg'k5{, pkrf/ kfpg'k5{ gfddf sfo{ q md u5{ g \ . uf] / vf kqklqsf k9\5–' ;/sf/n] /]n,
xfdLn] hfg cGhfgdf b}lgs lhjgdf lalQs} w]/} ljBfyL{x¿sf] d'vaf6 x]g{ hfg] km';b{ ldn]g . o'4df sfG5f] eGg] t ;fdfGo clwsf/sf] s'/f xf] . km'hn] sL Pp6L ;fdfGo kl/jf/sL kfgLhxfh s'bfpg] ;a} n]vs ] f] 5 . t/,
w]/} k6s s;}nfO{{ ufnL ul//x]sf x'G5f}F tTsfn} ufnL lgl:sof] . t/ crDd 5f]/f] dfl/of] . >Ldfg\sf] zj lqe'jg of] ljb|fx] sf] s'/f xf] / < o;nfO{ ljb|fx] dlxnf, h;sf] ev{/ P;Pn;L kf; cfdhgtfsf] vfg kfpg], /f]u nfUbf
/ ufnL vfO/x]sf klg x'g;S5f}F . s] eof] eg] ;'?df To;/L ufnL u/]sf ljZjljBfno lzIf0f c:ktfn dflgG5 < ;'Gbf klg crDd Û pgn] u/]sf] !^ jf !& jif{sf] 5f]/f] v';L pkrf/ ug{ kfpg] clwsf/} 5}g . ahf/
s;}nfO{{ ufnL ul//xg] dflg;sf] ljBfyL{x¿ g} lr;f] kfgLdf w]/a} /] dxf/fhu~hdf cnkq 5 . h]7f] 5f]/f] t kmut dfy]df cfof]usf] k|ltj]bg dgfpg dfjnL uPsf lyof] . lgl:sg'xf];\ ljiffQm t/sf/L a]Rg
cfbtnfO{{ c? dfG5]n] /fd|f] dfGb}gg\ . ;Dd xft /fVg ;kmn eP ufnL a]kQf eof] . lxhf] sfFu|];n] b]v]g jf sfof{Gjog u/ g eg]sf 5g\ . d}n] t/,af6}df dfl/P . >Ldfg\ dfl/P . /flvPsf] 5 . d]/f >Ldfg\ b'uf{ ;'jb] L
t/ zf]wstf{x¿n] eg] ufnL ug{' gu/]sf ljBfyL{x¿n] eGbf . yfxf kfPg Tof] . t/, cfh u+ufdfof st} k9]F– Tof] k|ltj]bgsf] cEof; cfk"m d[To'sf] ;F3f/df l5g\ . csf{] 5tdf t/sf/L /f]k/] kl/jf/nfO{ v'jfpg
dflg;sf] :jf:Yosf nflu nfebfos lr;f] kfgLdf xft xfNbf ;'?df e]6\g hfg s;/L ;s]sf] < clxn]sf] ef/tn] ug{ vf]lh/x]sf] 5 . k|ltj]bgsf] 5f]/f] stf 5 kQf] 5}g . ;/sf/n] afWo x'gx' G' 5 . cfwf/e"t / Go"gtd
/x]sf] atfPsf 5g\ . pgLx¿sf d'vaf6 ufnL glgsfn]sf ljBfyL{x¿n] ;/sf/nfO{ klg u+ufdfofnfO{ e]6\g k|efj ToxfF;Dd k'Uof] . t/, hxfF v8f 3fF6L Gofs]/ dfb}{ 5 . xfdL ;a}n] s'/f g} kfPsf 5}gg\ . 7'N7"nf / xfjfsf
cg';f/ s;}nfO{{ ufnL ugf{n] dflg;sf] eg] w]/} a]/;Dd Tof] 708f kfgLdf hfg] km';{b 5}g . x]g{'xf]nf, ef]ln eof], ToxfFrflxF a]kQf 5 . dfb}{ 5f}F . lsgeg], xfdL af]Nb}gf},F xfdL s'/f u/]/ x'bF g} . cfwf/e"t / Go"gtd
ÅbonfO{{ lgs} ;Gtf]if k|fKt x'G5 . / xft 8'afpg ;s]gg\ / xft aflx/ lgl:sPkl5 O:o' agfpF 5 . xf] , d s'g} ;/sf/sf] gfd lng ;a} ldn]/ dfl//x]sf 5f}F . ;+;f/n] s'/f g} kfPsf 5}gg\ . 7'N7"nf / xfjfsf
cf;Gg ;d:ofx¿nfO{{ ;lhn};Fu lgsflnxfn] . zf]wstf{x¿sf cg';f/ ;aeGbf b'MvnfUbf] s'/f xf], of] . rfxGgF . t/, ;/sf/df cfPkl5 b]Vbf s] eGnf < Pp6L dlxnf PSn} ^ s'/f u/]/ x'bF g} .Æ
;fdfgf ug{ pm tof/ x'G5 . a]nfotdf o;/L dflg;n] s;}nfo{ ufnL ubf{ jf sltko s'/f zf:jt x'G5g\ . sltko zf]ifs Jofkf/LnfO{ ;xof]u ug{x' G' 5 . jif{b]lv Gofosf nflu n8\b} l5g\ .
;g\ @))( df Ps ljZjljBfnon]
;fdflhs zf]w u/]sf] lyof] . To;df
hf]8;Fu lrRofP/ ckzJb af]Nbf
p;sf] ;/L/df Pl8«gnfO{g gfds
s'/f /fi6«nfO{ geO{ gx'g] s'/f x'G5g\ .
Odfgbf/L, e|i6frf//lxt ;dfh .
Tof] klg s:tf eg] zf]ifs, ;fdGtL
Jofkf/L 7" n fa8f elgg] x ¿sf]
c¿ s]xLsf nflu xf]Og . vfg b]pm,
3/ agfOb]pm t eg]sL xf]Ogg\ lg Û 5f]/f;/x
s]xL ;+Vofdf ufnLafh dflg;x¿nfO{{ xdf]g{ lgl:sG5 . o;n] dflg;sf] kL8f zfGt / ;' J ojl:yt ;dfh . k[i7kf]ifs eP/ a:g'xG' 5 . pgLx¿s} Gofosf nflu 56k6fO/x]sL l5g\ .
;fd]n u/fOPsf] lyof] . s]xL lbgsf] ;xg] Ifdtfdf j[l4 ub{5 . /f]rs kIfkft/lxt ljlwsf] zf;g . of] pGglt xf];\ eGg'xG' 5 . /, lxhf] cfkm}n F ] x/]snfO{ cfˆgf] ;Gtfgsf] dfof x'G5 . 5f]/LnfO{ :s'n
cWoog tyf lgu/fgLaf6 of] kl/0ffd tYo t s] eg] kL8f ;xg] Ifdtf zf:jt s'/f xf] . t/, oxfF t Pp6f NofPsf] s'/f vf/]h u/] eg]/ xfdLn] ;/sf/df a:g]nfO{ klg x'G5 .
cfof] sL ufnL ugf{ n ] s' g } k lg
dflg;nfO{{ eljiodf cfpg] ;d:of
j[ l 4sf] of] lgod k' ? ifdf eGbf
dlxnfdf w]/} nfu" x'G5 .
bn ;/sf/df cfpFbf csf]n { fO{ ldr]s} s;/L kTofpg] < xfdL eGg afWo of] d'ns ' df xfdL tLgj6L dlxnf k9\g k7fcf}+
5 . clxn] ;ft 7fpFdf lgif]wf1f hf/L x'G5f}F . ;/sf/ t ;fdGtL /x]5 . v8f ePsf lyof}F . u+ufdfof klg
@)&% ;fn c;f/ @$ ut] cfOtaf/ 3

;fdflhs bnfn k'hF Ljfb / ;'wf/sf] rl/q
cG8/nfOg sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf]
g]t[Tjdf ag]sf] ;/sf/sf] Aoaxf/
lgb|fdf nDk;f/ k/] klg ;fdflhs
bnfn k'FhLjfbsf] 3f]rfO{ / kL8faf6
sl/a Ps ;o lbgsf] j/k/ cfp"bf
bnfn k'FhLjfbL la;+ultsf] phfu/
ldN5 h;n] cg]s k|sf/sf] Aofkf/
ug{ hfg]sf] 5 .
:yfgdf clxn] ?= & ul/Psf] 5, h'g
;flassf]eGbf !$)) k|ltztn] a9L
k|wfgGofofwLz, k|wfg;]gfklt, k|wfg
k|x/L, k|wfg Aofkf/L, k|wfg pBf]uklt
;fdflhs bnfn k'h F LjfbL x'g] 5 eGg] h¥ofs–h'?Ss p7\g] 5 . xfdLn] PsPs u/L e}/x]sf 5g\ . r'gfj kl5 j8fWoIfx?sf] clxn]sf] wGbf xf] . lautdf ?= @ ltg{' kg]{ :yfgdf / ;a} If]qsf k|wfgx?sf] 6]a'naf6
/fhg}lts ;+Zn]if0f xfd|f] kf6L{n] w]/} eg] s f lyof} F , o; k| s f/sf] ;'g kmN5 eGg] e|d ;dfKt x'bF } uPsf] d'gfkmfd"ns Aofkf/sf] ?kdf s;/L clxn] ?= @@ ltg{' k/]sf] 5 h'g ;'? x'G5 / tnsf txut lgsfo x'"b}
klxn] cyjf @)&$ sf] r'gfjL hgk| l t/f] w n] b] z df a} 1 flgs 5 dflg;x?df . hgtfsf] xftaf6 rn]sf] 5 < To;sf] ;fgf] pbfx/0f ;flassf]eGbf !!)) k|ltztn] a9L jf8{ ;b:o, n]vgbf;, hg;Dks{,
kl/0ffd / ;/sf/ agfpg] k|lqmofdf ;dfhjfbL qmflGtnfO{ hGd lbg]5 . 3/ hldgx? lgSnb} u}/x]sf 5g\ . x] / f} F . ;/sf/L ah] 6 af6 8f] h / xf] . b}n]vdf hgtfdfly yf]kl/Psf] Ko'kf;Ddsf u'Gb|L r6fO{df k'U5 . o;
g} u/]sf] lyof] . Tof] Pp6f a}1flgs oxL lgisif{nfO{ oxf" ;+If]kdf laZn]if0f Tof] ;DklQ 7"nf 7"nf a}+skltx?sf] lslgG5 / Tof] 8f]h/n] ug]{ sfdsf] ;/sf/L s/ ltg]{ ?k}ofF hDdf ug{ k| s f/sf] l:ylt /fli6« o k' F h Lsf]
7]Ssf cfkm}F to ul/G5 . 8f]h/df hgtfn] lab]z hfg' k/]sf] 5, 3/ cefjdf /fHo ;+rfngsf nflu bft[
wd]{Gb| af:tf]nf nfUg] vr{ OGwg / ug]{ sfdsf] ;do
lgwf{/0f klg cfkmF} to ul/G5 . o;n]
5f8g' k/]sf] 5 . cfdbfdL gx'g]
;DklQsf] s/ ltg{' kg]{ / s/ glt/
lgsfoaf6 lnOg] cGt/f{ l i6« o
lgsfox?sf] C0faf6 k}bf x'G5 . rLg,
;+;b\jfbsf] ;s{; leq s] u/]sf] 5 eg] j8fWoIfx?nfO{ ;DklQ hkmt ug]{ ;'sD' af;L agfpg] cd] l /sf, a] n fot, k| m fG;, ?;,
8f]h/sf] dflns agfPsf] 5 . pgLx?n] /fHosf] gLlt slt kL8fbflo 5 hfkfgh:tf b]zx?df laZj a}+s,
a's;{ L dfg]{ ;a} …/fhg}lts o; k|sf/sf] sfd w}/} 7fp"df cfkm}F hgtfsf nflu ;a}n] cg'e"lt u/]sf cGt/f{li6«o d'bf| sf]ifn] C0f k|afx ubf{
u/]sf 5g\, / yf]/}sf] xsdf cfˆgf 5g\ . Pshgf o'jfn] eg], lautdf k|afx ug]{ k'FhLsf] s/ klxn] e'QmfgL
kf6L{x?Ú / tL kf6L{sf gft]bf/dkm{t\ . To:t}u/L, hgtfsf nQf–sk8f h'6fpg ef/t hfg' kYof],{ ug{' k5{ . g]kfn, ef/t a+unfb]z
nflu cfaZos kg]{ ;/sf/L sfd clxn] To;df yk /fHosf] s/ h'6fpg h:tf cNklasl;t b]zx?df C0f
kfq …hgk|ltlglwx?Úsf jfkt ;] j fu| f xLsf] uR5cg' ; f/ ef/t hfg' k/]sf] 5 . ha oxL s/ lng'eGbf klxn]g} Aofh e'QmfgL ug{'
pDd]bjf/sf nflu r'gfaL kfl/>lds lnO{ G 5 . sltko Aofkf/L Aoa;foL, pBf]uklt / laQo k5{ / C0f lbP afkt lglZrt
cWoIfx?n] kfl/>lds v'nf ?kdf ;' b vf] / x?dfly nufOG5 k|ltzt sld;g klg e'Qfg ug{' k5{ .
dfxf}n gf/fdf …hg;]jfÚ / dfUg] u/]sf klg 5g\, olb kfl/>lds hgtfdflysf] ;fdflhs df/ s}of} o; k|sf/sf] a}wflgs e|i6frf/n] b]zsf]
glng] xf] eg] r'gfadf ePsf] vr{ xhf/ u'0ff a9]/ hfG5 / u}/x]sf] ;Dk"0f{ lgsfonfO{ e|i6frf/L agfp"5,
of]hgfdf …d'gfkmfo'Qm p7fpg c;Dej x'g] 5 . lhNnfsf 5 . lsgeg] ;/sf/n] Pp6} ;fdfg hg;]jfsf nflu u7g ul/Psf ;Dk"0f{
ufp" / gu/kflnsfaf6 s'g} hgtf of Pp6} lalQo sf/f]af/dfly ;of} ;+oGqnfO{ n'6v;f]6 ug]{ 8s}tsf]
Aofkf/Ú lyof] . b]zdf ljsf;sf] of]hgf, cfly{s ;xof]u, k6s s/ nufpg] u5{ . lab]z;+u e"ldsfdf ktg u/fpg k'U5 .
/fli6«o k'h F L gx'g] / ;fd'lxs ;d:of lnP/ ufp" jf gu/sf Aofkf/ ;Gt'ng ug{ b]zdf cfk\mgf] k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLn] b'Oj6f
cWoIfx?, k|bz ] sf ;ef;bx? / k|bz ] /fli6«o pTkfbg z"Go ePkl5 b]z of zAb 5f8]sf 5g\, …d e|i6frf/ ub}{g
bnfn k'h " Ldf rNg' kg]{ ;/sf/sf k|ltlglwx?sf] k'Ubf klxn] /fi6«sf] b}lgs hLag ;+rfng /fHon] / ug{ klg lbGgÚ . of] egfO{ ?kdf
s'g kf6L{sf] elg ;f]Wg] ul/G5 . ;Dk"0f{ a:t' cfoft ug{k' g]{ cj:yf hlt ;'Gb/ / cfbz{k0" f{ b]lvG5 o;sf]
cj:yfdf /fhg}lts If]qn] kf6L{sf] ;+nUgtfaf/] atfpg grfxg] cfp"5 . cfoft ul/g] a:t' b]zsf] ;f/ xhf/f} u'0ff s'?k / sk6k"0f{
AolQmx?nfO{ ufp" jf gu/df lrg]sf] l:ylt x]/L hLagofkgsf ;a} dfn 5 . Pp6f dfq pbfx/0f lnp", s'g}
bnfn k'h F Lsf] ;]jf ug{k' g]{ s'g AolQmsf] eGg] ul/G5 / Tof] AolQm x'G5g\ / cfjZos kbf{ ?k}ofF–k};f;Dd klg ;/sf/L ;DklQ glng], e|i6frf/
/fhg}lts afWotf 5 . h;sf] sf/0f /fhgLlt eg]sf] gfkmfd"ns cfk\mgf] kf6L{sf] xf] of xf]Og, cfk"mnfO{ cfoft ul/G5 . tL a:t'x?df cfoft gug]{ / ug{ klg glbg] P]nfg ug]{
ef]6 lbg] AolQm xf] of xf]Og eGg] s/ nufOG5 . cfofltt a:t' lat/0f g]kfnsf k|wfgdGqL g]kfnL sfFu; ]| sf
Aofkf/ x'g] u5{ . ufp"sf j8fWoIfb]lv gu/kflnsfnsf s' / fsf] lgSof} { n u/] / dfq Tof] x'"bf lat/0fdf klg s/ nufOG5 . g]tf s[i0fk|;fb e§/fO{ lyP, h;n],
AolQm;+u ;DalGwt ;/sf/L sfdsf] bnfn k'h F LjfbL n'6 leq s'g} a:t' tTsflng ;Grf/ dfWoddf
cWoIfx?n] ;fdfGo cj:yfdf klg bz nfvb]lv s/f]8;Dd vr{ ;'?jft ul/G5 . ha sfd x'G5 ta Ps xhf/ k6s lat/0f eof] eg] cfPcg';f/, l;+xb/af/df k|a]z ubf{
To;df sldzgsf] dfqf klxn] g} To;df Ps xhf/ k6s s/ nufpg] Pp6f 5ftf / Pp6f ;'/fO{ lnP/
u/] . sltkon] Tof]eGbf klg a9L vr{ u/] . of] pgLx?sf] s6fOPsf] x'G5 . slt;Dd ul/Psf] ;Defjgf klg /xG5 . h:tf], s'g} uPsf lyP . l;+xb/af/ a;'Gh]n vfP,
kfOPsf] 5 eg], vfg]kfgL of]hgfsf Aoa;foL of pBf]ukltn] a}s + af6 Ps lko hLpgsf nflu, /fi6« k|d'vsf]
Aofkf/sf nflu nufgL lyof] . clxn] Tof] nufgL p7fpg' afWotf nflu tLg nfv ?k}ofF 5'6\ofp"bf c/j ?k}of lnP/ Aoa;fo of pBf]u x}l;otn] sfd ug{sf nflu . Toxf"af6
klg 5 . rfnL; xhf/ sld;g lnOPsf] 5 / u/]sf] 5 eg] klxnf] zt{ a}ssf] s/ kms{bf pxL ;'/fO{ / 5ftf lnP/
b'O{ nfv ;f7Lxhf/ dfq pkef]QmfnfO{ ltg{' kg]{ x'G5 / Psxhf/ 7fp"df k|of]u kmls{P . pgsf] gddf af:tadf s'g}
)))) lbOPsf] 5 . of] eg]sf] s'n /sdsf] eof] eg] xhf/ :yfgdf g} cfo tyf e| i 6frf/ ePg, AolQmut nfe
!# k|ltzt xf] . ha s'g} j8fWoIfn] laqmLs/ nufOG5 . pkef] Q m u/] g g\ . t/, pgs} ;dodf
c/fhtstfsf] ?kdf abgfd eO;s]sf] ;+;bjfbn] g]kfnL ;xh k|sf/sf] ;]jfdf cfk"mnfO{ ;a{;fwf/0f hgtf ;a} 7fp"df s/ sf7df8f}Fsf] ;8s ;fa'g kfgLn] w'g]
pEofpg k|oTg u/]sf] 5, To;sf] ltg{ afWo x'G5g\ . ;8s 5]psf] gf/f;lxt d]nfDrL vfg]kfgL ;'?jft
hgtfsf] lxt ug{ ;Sb}g eGg] tYo cj g]kfnsf] ;8sb]lv 3/df b}lgs emu8f, cfly{s cefj, /] i 6' / ] G 6df lrof vf" b f xf] ; of eof] / e|i6frf/sf] r+u'ndf km;]sf]
;bg;Dd / d}bfgb]lv dxn;Dd a:g] dflg;n] a'em\ g] tYo ;fdflhs hl6ntf / r'gfjL C0f emf]k8Ldf Ps Kofs /S;L lkp"bf, d]nfDrL of]hgfn] clxn];Dd s/La
ltg{sf nflu 3/sf] ;DklQ a]Rg' kg]{ ;}lgs hjfgsf] a'6 lsGbf xf];\ of #) aif{ kf/ u/]sf] 5 . ;dosf] of]
eO;s]sf] 5 . bz aif{sf] o'4do cf"lwa]x/Laf6 på]lnt hgtf l:ylt ;d]t cfPsf] 5 . ;+;bLo k|wfgdGqLsf] 6f]kL lsGbf, laafxsf] cGt/fndf ;of} g]tfx?, xhf/f}
cGwsf/sf] cGtxLg z[ + v nf, nflu uxgf lsGbf xf];\ of ;'xfu/ftsf sd{rf/Lx?, bh{gf} bft[ lgsfox?n]
afx| aif{sf] k6\ofl/nf] slyt zflGt k|lqmofsf] if8\oGqaf6 hgtfaf6 b' Z dgL sdfpg' kg] { nflu s08d lsGbf, ;a} :yfgdf Eof6 d]nfDrL kl/of]hgfaf6 cs't ;DklQ
afWotf, uPsf] r'gfasf] t'ngfdf s}of} s/ cyjf a:t'sf] pkef]u u/]sf] sdfP, sfF u | ] ; / Pdfn] s f ;a}
lynlylnP/ cfn:ok"0f{ lgb|fdf nDk;f/ k/] klg ;fdflhs u'0ff a9L vr{ h'6fpg g;Sg] xf] eg] s/ nufOsf] 5 . g]tfx?n] k+rfotsf la?4 ;+3if{ ubf{
bnfn k'h F Ljfbsf] 3f]rfO{ / kL8faf6 h¥ofs–h'?Ss p7\g] csf] { r' g fadf k/fhosf]
;' l glZrttfsf] sf/0f b] v fpF b }
/fli6«o pTkfbg x'GYof], b]z leq
gful/ssf nflu /f]huf/L x'GYof] /
kmf6]sf rKkn / RofltPsf ;'?jfn–
sf]6 abn] t/ kfgL clxn];Dd
l:yltdf k'us ] f] 5 . cG8/nfO{g g]skf / g]kfnL sf+u; ]| af6 Aofkf/ ;Gt'ng a/fa/sf] cj:yfdf cfPsf] 5}g . kl/of]hgfsf] ;'?jft
lgaf{lrt sltko j8fWoIfx? / j8f x'GYof] eg], l;4fGttM o; k|sf/sf] x'"bf hlGdPsL aflnsf dGqL x'Fbf
laZn]0fsf cfwf/df ul/Psf] lyof] . ul/G5 . r' g fjsf] ;dodf h' g kf]N6fdf s]lGb|t eO/x]sf] 5 . ;fdfGo ;b:ox?sf] egfO{ t oxf";Dd /x]sf] a's{';L s/n] k'FhLsf] Aofks ;+rf/ pgsf] efif0f clxn] klg ltg} x/kmx?
xfdLn] eg]sf lyof}F, /fli6«o k'FhLsf] tl/sfn] vr{ ul/Psf] lyof], clxn] hgtfsf] dfq xf]Og, b]zsf sltko kfOof] ls olb g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] afx]s ;fx]b} w]/} c;/ kfYof]{ . t/ kl9G5g\, h'g s[i0fk|;fbsf] 6]andf
ljsf; / cfly{s cfwf/ gePsf] sltko k/flht /fhg}lts g]tfx?sf] lhNnfx?df lgaf{rg xf/]sf sltko pko'Q { m lgsfz;lxtsf] /fhLgfdfsf] bnfn k'FhLjfbL cfly{s ;+/rgfsf] 8«fˆ6 ul/Psf lyP, …d]nfDrLsf] sfd
b]zsf …hgk|ltlglwÚsf pDd]bjf/x?n] pl7af; ePsf] 5 / sltkosf] j8fWoIfx?n] r'gfjsf] C0f ltg{sf dfu u/]sf] xf] eg] pgLx? tTsfn sf/0f Psflt/ hgtfdf b}lgs leif0f ;DkGg x'"b}5, kfgL bz}df cfp"5Ú .
r'gfj lhTsf nflu h'g dfqfdf lalNnaf7 . lht]sf s]xL g]tfx?sf nflu nflu 3/ hldg / ;DklQ a]Rg afWo /fhLgfdf lbg t}of/ 5g\ . o;n] df/ k/]sf] x'G5 / csf]{lt/ b]zaf6 k|wfgdGqL cf]nLsf] k|lta4tf klg
dflyb]lv tn;Dd vr{ u/]sf 5g\, kmlnkmfk ePsf] 5 eg] lht]sf cTolws ePsf 5g\ . lht]sf j8fWoIfx? b'O{ b'Oj{ 6f tYox?nfO{ phfu/ u/]sf] 5, 7"nf] dfqfdf k'FhLsf] knfog e}/x]sf] ToxL af;L gf/f xf], h'g pgn] u/]sf]
To;sf] kl/0ffd b]zdf e|i6frf/, g]tfx?sf nflu clezfk klg . k|sf/sf b]vf k5{g\ . h;n] lgw{Ss;+u klxnf] tYo xf] ;+;b\jfbL /fhg}lts x'G5 . o;af6 s]an ToxL tYo k'li6 /fi6«3ft, pgsf] ;/sf/n] u/]sf]
3';vf]/L, dxFuL, sfnfahf/L x'g]5 . ;+;b\jfbsf] ;s{; leq a's{;L e|i6frf/ ug{ ;S5g\ / To;nfO{ g]tfx? :jod\ bnfn k'h F Lkltx? x'g, ePsf] 5, hf] xfdLn] eg]sf lyof}F ls sfg'gL e|i6frf/ / pgsf] kf6L{n] u/]sf]
xfdLn] eg]sf lyof},F ;/sf/n] l:y/tf, dfg]{ ;a} …/fhg}lts kf6L{x?Ú / tL Aofkf/sf] hfdf lbg ;S5g\, pgLx? / bf]>f] pgLx? hgtsf k|ltlglw x'g} /fli6« o k' F h Lsf] ljsf; / To; b]zsf] k/flwgtfsf] k|lqmofn] k'li6
zflGt / ;d[l4sf] h'g gf/f lbPsf] kf6L{ s f kfq …hgk| l tlglwx?Úsf dfnfdfn ePsf 5g\, pgLx?sf] nflu ;Sb}gg\ / x'g klg ;Dej 5}g . cg'?kdf] cfly{s cfwf/ gePsf] u/] s f] 5 . s] x L ;do klxn]
5, / To;df ;dfhjfb pGd' v pDd]bjf/sf nflu r'gfaL dfxf}n r'gfa kmlnkmfk ePsf] 5 . h;n] /fhg}lts g]tT[ jsf] ;Gbe{df s'g} klg b]zsf …hgk|ltlglwÚsf pDd]bjf/x?n] kqklqsfx?n] phfu/ u/]sf lyP,
elgPsf] 5, at{dfg bnfn k'FhLjfbL gf/fdf …hg;] j fÚ / of] h gfdf lht] / klg To; k| s f/sf] sfd AolQm /fhg}lts gLlt / cfbz{sf r'gfj lhTsf nflu h'g dfqfdf g]kfnsf wgL g]tfx?df z]/axfb'/sf]
pTkfbg ;DaGwsf] sf/0f Tof] …d'gfkmfo'Qm Aofkf/Ú lyof] . b]zdf ldnfpg ;Sb}gg\, pgLx?sf nflu vr{ sf/0f lgaf{lrt gx'b" f;Dd s'g} kf6L{sf] dflyb]lv tn;Dd vr{ u/]sf 5g\ ;DklQ $% ca{ a/fa/ 5, k|r08sf]
kmf;Ljfbdf ablng] 5 . xfdLn] eg]sf /fli6«o k'FhL gx'g] / bnfn k'"hLdf u/]sf] nfvf}F ?k}ofF p7fpg d'l:sn k|ltlglw xf] / lgaf{lrt e};s] kZrft To;sf] kl/0ffd b]zdf e|i6frf/, ;DkQL @% ca{ a/fa/ / s]kL
lyof}F, cfˆgf] s';L{ l6sfpgsf nflu rNg' kg]{ cj:yfdf /fhg}lts If]qn] k/]sf] 5 . -o; k|sf/sf] xljut ;'vt{] , ;Dk"0f{ hgtfsf] k|ltlglw x'g' k5{ . 3';vf]/L, dxFuL, sfnfahf/Lafx]s cf]nLsf] ;DklQ !% ca{ a/fa/sf] .
g} lsg gxf];\, ;/sf/n] ;dfhdf bnfn k'h F Lsf] ;]jf ug{k' g]{ /fhg}lts b}nv] , sflnsf]6 / s}nfnLsf] ;fdfGo t/, of] bnfn ;+;bLo Aoa:yfdf s]xL x'g] 5}g . t/, k|wfgdGqLsf] x}l;otn] ;+;bdf
;bf;otf k"as { ;fdflhs las[ltsf afWotf 5 . h;sf] sf/0f /fhgLlt ;a]{df b]vfk/]sf] 5 . of] ;a]{n] lgaf{lrt AolQm g kf6L{sf] k|ltlglw bnfn k'h F LjfbL Aoa:yfsf] d'xfg a'emfO{Psf] ;DklQsf] laa/0fdf s]xL
la?4 h'g k|sf/sf sbdx? rfNg]5, eg]sf] gfkmfd"ns Aofkf/ x'g] u5{ . jf:tadf b] z sf] d" n k| a [ l Qsf] x'G5 g hgtfsf], jf:tljs cy{df p eg]sf] e|i6frf/ xf] . xfdLn] klxn] nfv gub / s]xL s/f]8 k'Ug] lhG;Lsf]
b]zsf] ptkfbg ;DaGwsf sf/0f Tof] ufp"sf j8fWoIfb]lv gu/kflnsfnsf k|ltlglwTj u5{_ . g]kfnL sfFu|]; bnfn k'FhLjfbL n'6]/fx?sf] k|ltlglw klg s}of} n]vx?df :ki6 u/]sf 5f}F km]xl/:t b]vfOof], h;n] !% ca{
hgtfsf la?4 kl/nlIft x'g] 5 / cWoIfx?n] ;fdfGo cj:yfdf klg kf6L{af6 k|ltlglwTj ug]{ Pshgf / Psflwsf/jfbL k'FhLklt au{sf] ls /fHosf g]tfx?, sd{rf/Lx?, k'¥ofp"bg} . of] cfkm}d F f Pp6f g}lts
b]zdf n'6v;f]6 ug]{ Psflwsf/ bz nfvb]lv s/f]8;Dd vr{ u/] . j8fWoIfsf] xlaut Pshgf dfs]af6 akmfbf/ gf]s/ x'g] u5{ . ;'/Iff lgsfo, Gofo ;Dkfbgstf{x?sf] e|i6frf/ xf] . oxf" egfO{sf] tfTko{ s]
k'FhLjfb tyf To;sf] jkmfbf/ gf]s/ sltkon] Tof]eGbf klg a9L vr{ u/] . k|ltlglwTj ug]{;Fu ldN5 . h;n] csf]{lt/ :yflgo / k|b]z ;/sf/ jf:tlas rfxgf lakl/t bnfn xf] eg] olb s]kL cf]nLn] pgn]
bnfn k'FhLjfbsf] kIfkf]if0f ug]{ x'g] of] pgLx?sf] Aofkf/sf nflu nufgL ghfg]sf] sf/0f r'gfaL vr{ p7fpg ag]kl5 To;sf] Aoa:yfkgsf nflu k'FhLjfbL pTkfbg ;DaGwsf] sf/0f e|i6frf/ gug]{ / ug{ klg glbg] s;d
5 . xfdLn] eg]sf lyof}F, To;n] bz lyof] . clxn] Tof] nufgL p7fpg' dxfef/tsf] ;fdgf ug{' k/]sf] 5 . hgtfdfly eLif0f s/ yf]kl/Psf] 5 . e|i6frf/ /fHosf] ;a}eGbf dflyNnf] g} vfP/ s[i0fk|;fb aGg vf]h]sf x'g
aif{sf] o'4do cf"lwa]x/Laf6 på]lnt afWotf klg 5 . t/, Pshgf Pdfn] s f] tkm{ a f6 hfh/sf]6 h:tf] las6 lhNnfdf lgsfoaf6 ;'? x'G5 / Tof] kL/fld8 eg] h;/L s[i0fk|;fbsf] xftdf 5ftf
hgtf bz afx| aif{sf] k6\of/nfUbf] :yfgLo r'gfasf] Ps aif{, ;+;bLo k|ltlglwTj ug]{ j8fWoIfsf] rl/q csf]{ :yfg x]/L s/sf] bfo/f km/s ul/Psf] cfsf/df tn;Dd km}ln+b} hfG5 . / ;'/fO{ /x] klg b]zaf6 e|i6frf/
if8\oGqaf6 lynlylnP/ cfnZok"0f{ r'gfasf] s]xL dlxgf / ;/sf/ ag]sf] Pshgf sf"u; ]| / dfs]sf] k|ltlglw;+u 5 . lautdf %) k};f s/ ltg{'kg]{ ctM e|i6frf/sf] z[+vnf k|wfgdGqL, -af“sL % k]hdf_
4 @)&% ;fn c;f/ @$ ut] cfOtaf/

oL sf/ h;sf] d"No lsg]sf] #
kz'kltdf dfkb08 ljk/Lt ‘lk|–ˆofa’ ejg
sf7df8f}F . ljZj ;Dkbf ;"rLdf sfuhft k]z gu/]sf] sf]ifn] e"sDkkl5 dfkb08 pNn]v 5 . c:yfoL ?kdf sfof{no ;~rfngsf
aif{df %@ k|ltzt;Dd efp 36\5
sf7df8f}F . s'g} klg j:t' pkof]u ul/;s]kl5 To;sf] d"Nodf s6f}tL
;"rLs[t kz'klt If]qdf ;+/rgf lgdf{0f ;a} ;/sf/L sfof{non] …lk|–ˆofaÚ ejg o;sf] -!_ g+ a' F b fd} …ejg nflu …lk|–ˆofaÚ ejg agfOPsf] x'bF } hfG5 / lglZrt cjlwkl5 To;sf] d"No z"Go x'G5 . of] s'/f ;jf/L;fwgdf
ug{ tf]lsPsf] dfkb08 ljk/Lt b'O{ agfPem}F of] ejg lgdf{0f u/]sf] 5 . k/Dk/fut g]kfnL z}nLdf agfpg'kg]5 { Ú atfp5g . …kz'klt If]qsf] u'?of]hgf ;d]t nfu" x'G5 . cfOl;sf/;\ 86sdn] u/]sf] cWoogcg';f/ cf};t ;jf/Lsf]
j6f …lk|–ˆofaÚ -c:yfoL k|sl[ tsf_ ejg sf]ifn] c:yfoL egL lgdf{0f u/] klg eGg] jfSof+z ePklg …lk|–ˆofaÚ lgdf{0f z'? ePsf] 5, u'?of]hgfn] sxfF l8lk|l;P;g tLg jif{kl5 #% k|ltztsf b/n] 36\5 . t/, Tof] b/sf]
agfOPsf] 5 . lj;+ @)^$ b]lv g} ejg @%–#) jif{ l6S5 . agfpFbf o;sf] pNn+3g ul/Psf] 5 . sxfF s] s] ;+/rgf aGg] egL lglb{i6 l8lk|l;P;g lu/fj6 ;a} ;jf/Ldf eg] nfu" x'bF g} . w]/} l8lk|l;Pl6ª ;jf/Ln]
kz'klt If]q ljsf; sf]ifn] sfof{no …dfkb08cg';f/ c:yfoL ejg g} o;}u/L -&_ g+ df …cf/;L;L / :6Ln u/]kl5 of] ;+/rgf eTsG5, bL3{sfnLg # jif{sf] cjlwdf $^ b]lv %@ k|ltzt Eofn" u'dfpF5g\ . cfOl;sf/;\
ejg agfpg] tof/L u/]sf] lyof] . sf]if agfpg klg ;ldltaf6 l;kmfl/; lnO{ k|md] :6«Sr/nfO{ leqkl§ kg]{ / O{6F n] k|of]hgsf nflu o;sf] lgdf{0f ePsf] 86sdn] of] cWoogdf $ s/f]8eGbf a9L sf/ laqmLsf] ljZn]if0f ul/Psf]
;~rfns kl/ifbdf k'/fgf ;Qn g} dxfgu/kflnsfaf6 gS;f kf; ufx|f] 5f]Kg] u/L ejg agfpg :jLs[lt xf]OgÚ–pgn] eg] . hgfPsf] 5 . tLg jif{df w]/} d"No u'dfpg] ;jf/Lx¿af/] pNn]v ul/Psf]
hL0ff]4{ f/ u/]/ a:g'k5{ eGg] dt a9L u/fpg'k5{Ú– k'/ftTj clws[t e§/fO{n] lbg ;lsg]5 . ;f] afx]s cf/;L;L / o;cl3 sf] i fn] kz' k ltsf] 5 . To:df ;a} eGbf a9L d"Nodf x|f; cfpg] * sf/x¿ o:tf /x]sf 5g\ .
ePkl5 ;kmn x'g ;s]sf] lyPg . eGg'eof] . ;ldltdf u'7L ;+:yfg, :6Ln k|md] :6«Sr/ b]lvg] / ejgsf] d" n dlGb/ If] q af6 ;fl/Psf c8L P–#
e"sDkkl5 w]/} ;/sf/L sfof{non] …lk|– sf7df8f}F pkTosf ljsf; k|flws/0f, ufx|fd] f l;d]G6, r"g cflb nufpg kfOg] :yfgLojf;LnfO{ ltnu+ufdf Joj:yf c8L P–#sf]
ˆofaÚ ejg agfP . To;sf] k|efj dxfgu/kflnsf / ljefusf k|dv ' 5}gÚ eGg] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . u/]sf] hUufdf ag]sf 3/ ;f9] b'O{ d"No # jif{df $&=(
;Dkbf If]q kz'kltdf klg k¥of] . k' / ftTj clws[ t ;d] t cfdlGqt sf]ifsf k"j{ ;b:o;lrj 8f 608g tnfeGbf cUnf agfpg gkfpg] lg0f{o k| l tzt 36\ o f]
sf]ifn] sfof{no ejg agfpg k'/ftTj ;b:osf ?kdf /xg] Joj:yf 5 . lj;+ e"sDkn] sfof{no ejg rls{P/ kfgL u/]sf] lyof] . kl5 sf]ifn] g} Tof] lg0f{o cyf{t\ of] sf/sf]
ljefudf l;kmfl/;sf nflu @)&) df3 @)&# k';b]lv z'? ePsf] of] ejg l5g] { ;d:of b] l vPkl5 c:yfoL kl/jt{g u/L hlt tnfsf] klg agfpg l8lk| l ;P;g pQm
@$ ut] lgj]bg lbPsf] lyof] . ljefun] ut jif{ c;f/df ;DkGg eof] . k|of]hgsf nflu …lk|–ˆofaÚ ejg kfpg] Joj:yf u¥of] . ;fl/Psf k| l tztn] sdL
To;} jif{ ejg lgdf{0f x'g] :ynsf] To;dWo]sf] sf]if sfof{no k|jz ] ug]{ agfOPsf] atfpg'xG' 5 . e"sDkkl5sf] kl/jf/sf] 3/ agfpg] gS;f sf]ifn] g} cfof] . k|of]u eO;s]sf] sf/df o:tf] b"/ s]xL a9L x'g] kfOPsf] pQm
lg/LIf0f u¥of] . lg/LIf0fkl5 tnfsf] d"nåf/ glhs} ag]sf] ejgdf ;b:o ;d:of ;dfwfgsf nflu l;+xb/af/b]lv agfOlbPsf] lyof] . Ps} lsl;dsf 3/ cWoogdf pNn]v 5 . k|of]u ePsf] tLg jif{ k"/fgf] c8L P–# sf/ sl/a
prfO ldnfpg, ‰ofn /fVg] :yfg ;lrj, sf]iffWoIf / sfo{sf/L lgb]z
{ ssf] b]ze/sf ;/sf/L sfof{nodf c:yfoL lgdf{0f u/L kz'klt If]q cfpg] wfld{s @! xhf/ !@) 8n/df kfOG5 .
lglZrt u/]/ sfuhft k]z ug{ sfo{ sIf :yfkgf ul/Psf] 5 . csf]{ k|of]hgsf nflu …lk|–ˆofaÚ ejg ko{6snfO{ cfslif{t ug]{ of]hgf cfk"mv'zL kmS;jfug lh6f
elgPsfdf xfn;Dd gcfPsf] k'/ftTj ejgdf eg] sf]ifsf] n]vf zfvf :yfkgf agfOPsf] lyof] . ‰ofn, 9f]sf tyf cUnf] 3/ agfpg lbPkl5 t'lxPsf] 5 . kmS;jfugsf] lh6f # jif{df
clws[t b]jG] b| e§/fO{n] atfP . k|frLg ul/Psf] 5 . k"j{ ;b:o;lrj 8f ltgsf vfkf klg g]kfnL k/Dk/fut ;+oQ' m /fi6« ;+3Lo z}lIfs, j}1flgs / $*=! k| l tztn] l8lk| l ;P6;\
:df/s ;+/If0f P]g—@)!# cg';f/ uf]ljGb 608g cfˆgf] sfo{sfnsf] z}nLsf] x'gk' g]{ dfkb08 sf]ifn] ldr]sf] ;f+:s[lts ;+:yf -o'g:] sf]_ n] ;g\ !(&& x'g5 ] . tL jif{ k|of]u ePsf] of] sf/
ljefusf k' / ftTj clws[ t sf] clGtd ;dodf dfkb08 ljk/Ltsf] 5 . sf]ifsf clwsf/L eg] …lk|–ˆofaÚ sf] ;+/If0f of]hgfcGtu{t ;g\ !(&( sl/a !# xhf/ !%& cd]l/sL
;+of]hsTjdf u7g x'g] k|frLg :df/s of] ejgdf ;g{ rfxg'ePsf] lyof] t/ ejg lgdf{0f ug{ yf]/} ;do / sd b]lv kz'klt If]qnfO{ ljZj ;Dkbf 8n/d} kfOg]5 .
;+/If0f ;xof]u ;ldltsf] l;kmfl/;df Eofpg'ePg . sf]if P]g—@)$$ sf] vr{ nfUg] ePsfn] o:tf] ;+/rgf ;"rLdf ;"lrs[t u/]sf] xf] . ;/f]sf/ lqm;n/ @))
dfq sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfn] bkmf !) adf]lhd …kz'klt If]qsf] agfOPsf] bfaL u5{ g \ . sf] i fsf ePsf lgsfon] g} cfk"mv'zL ;+/rgf lqm;n/ @)) sf/ olt
:df/s If]qdf lgdf{0f x'g] ;+/rgfsf] dfkb08Ú ag]sf] lyof] . dfkb08sf] sfo{sf/L lgb]z { s /d]zs'df/ pk|t] L agfpg yfn]kl5 ;Dkbf ;"rLaf6 x6\g ;:tf] d" N odf kfOG5 ls
gS;f kf; u5{ . ljefun] eg]sf] a'bF f @ -s_ df ejg lgdf{0f;DaGwL e"sDkn] n]vf zfvfsf] ejg rls{Pkl5 ;Sg] :yfgLojf;Lsf] lrGtf 5 . tkfO{ + n ] kTofpg} g;Sg]

dn]l;ofdf cfk|jf;L sfdbf/lj?4 w/ks8, bh{gf}+ g]kfnL kqmfp
sf7df8f}F . g]kfnL sfdbf/sf] k|dv
' cj}wflgs cfk|jf;L sfdbf/ kqmfp 5g\ . dn]l;ofdf sl/a % nfv /f]Sg / plrt gLltut ;'wf/ ub}{
lsl;dsf] x'G5 . tLg jif{
k"/fgf] lqm;n/ @))sf] d"No
!$ xhf/ !! 8n/dfq /x]sf]
5 jf egf}F pQm d"Nod} vl/b ug{ ;lsG5 . of] sf/sf] l8lk|l;P;g $*=$
j}bl] zs /f]huf/Lsf] uGtJo dn]l;ofn] kl/;s]sf 5g\ . cGo If]qdf ;d]t g]kfnLx¿ j}wflgs ¿kdf sfo{/t pgLx¿sf] ;xL Joj:yfkg ug{ k|ltztn] lu/fj6 cfPsf] b]lvG5, # jif{df .
cj}wflgs cfk|jf;L sfdbf/lj?4 sof}F ljb]zL sfdbf/dfly vfgtnf;L /x]sf] / xhf/f}F cj}wflgs cj:yfdf ;/sf/nfO{ u/]sf 5g\ . ljleGg kmf] 8 { 6p/;
b]ze } l/ w/ks8 yfn]kl5 g]kfnL;lxt kqmfp ul/Psf] va/x¿ ;fj{hlgs /x]sf] x'g;Sg] cg'dfg 5 . ;/sf/L clwsf/jfbL ;d"x Pj+ ;+3;+:yfx¿n] lqm;n/ @)) h:t}
;of}F cfk|jf;L sfdbf/ kqmfp k/]sf ePsf 5 . dn]l;ofdf sl/a % nfv tYofÍ cg';f/ o;cl3 j}wflgs x'g sfdbf/x¿ cj} w flgs x' g ' d f kmf]8{ 6p/; l8lk|l;P;g
5g\ . kqmfp kg]{ sfdbf/x¿sf] olsg g]kfnLx¿ j}wflgs ¿kdf sfo{/t lbOPsf] sfo{qmddfkm{t >d :jLs[lt afWotfx¿ /x] s f eGb} w/ks8 lgSs} w]/} s6f}tL x'g] u/]sf]
;+Vof yxf geP klg w/ks8nfO{ /x]sf] / xhf/f}F cj}wflgs cj:yfdf lng] k|lqmofdf btf{ ePsf & nfv $$ ;d:of ;dfwfgsf] ;xL pkfo gePsf] 5 . To;}n] cd]l/sL sf/
lg/Gt/tf lbOPsf] 5 . sltko /x]sf] x'g;Sg] cg'dfg 5 . xhf/eGbf a9L cfk|jf;L sfdbf/dWo] cf}NF ofPsf 5g\ . pgLx¿n] cj}wflgs lgdf{tf sDklg kmf]8{n]
clwsf/jfbL ;+:yfx¿n] pQm sbdn] ;/sf/L tYofÍ cg';f/ o;cl3 em08} cfwfh;f]n] dfq} k"0f{ k|lqmofkl5 cfk| j f;L sfdbf/x¿sf] dfgj 6p/;sf] ;]8fg ;]ud]G6sf]
sfdbf/nfO{ c;' / lIft agfPsf] j}wflgs x'g lbOPsf] sfo{qmddfkm{t >d :jLs[lt kfPsf lyP . clwsf/sf] Vofn ub}{ ;Ddfghgs pTkfbg g} aGb ul/;s]sf] 5 . # jif{ k"/fgf] 6p/;sf] !* xhf/ (* cd]l/sL
k|ltlqmof lbPsf 5g\ . >d :jLs[lt lng] k|lqmofdf btf{ pQm sfo{qmdaf6 xhf/f}F g]kfnL Jojxf/ ug{;d]t cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ . 8n/d} kfOG5 . of] sf/n] # jif{df $(=& k|ltzt d"No u'dfPsf] b]lvG5 .
o;}aLr, ljb]zL sfdbf/x¿sf] ePsf & nfv $$ xhf/eGbf a9L nfeflGjt ePsf lyP . t/, s}of}Fn] tL ;+:yfdWo]sf] Ps gy{ ;fpy aLPd8An" y| L l;l/h
lge{/tf x6fpg dn]l;ofn] gofF gLlt cfk| j f;L sfdbf/dWo] em08} cem};Dd klg >d :jLs[lt gkfPsf] Olgl;ol6esf k|dv ' Pl8«g k]l//fn] eg], aLPd8An"sf] y|L l;l/hsf]
cjnDag ug]{ tof/L ul//x]sf] ToxfFsf cfwfh;f]n] dfq} k"0f{ k|lqmofkl5 >d u'gf;f] u/]sf 5g\ . g]kfnL b"tfjf;n] …dnfO{ nfUb}g ls clxn]sf] w/ks8n] sf/ ahf/df lgSs} rlr{t /x]sf]
cvaf/x¿n] hgfPsf 5g\ . ljb]zL :jLs[ l t kfPsf lyP . pQm :jb] z kms{ g cj} w flgs g] k fnL ;lx kl/0ffd lbG5, w/ks8sf sf/0f 5 . t/, # jif{ k"/fgf] of] sf/sf]
sfdbf/dflysf] k/lge{/tf 36fpg sfo{qmdaf6 xhf/f}F g]kfnL nfeflGjt sfdbf/nfO{ cfu|x ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . g/fd| f k| s [ l tsf dfgj clwsf/ l8lk|l;P;g $(=* k|ltzt;Dd
eGb} k6s–k6s dn]l;of ;/sf/n] ePsf lyP . t/ s}of}Fn] cem};Dd t/ cfddfkmL / w/ks8 ;d]t ;Fu} pNn+3gsf 36gfx¿ x'g] dfq geO s6f}tL x'g] u/]sf] 5 . tL jif{
cj}w sfdbf/x¿nfO{ sfg"gL x}l;ot klg >d :jLs[lt gkfPsf] u'gf;f] eO/x]sfn]af6}df kqmfp kl/g] qf;df sfdbf/x¿ Psbd} hf] l vdk" 0 f{ k|of]u ePsf] of] sf/sf] d"No @$ xhf/ @$ 8n/;Dddfq x'g] u/]sf] 5 .
sfod ug]{ cj;/x¿ lbPsf] lyof] . u/]sf 5g\ . g]kfnL b"tfjf;n] :jb]z sltko To:tf sfdbf/ g] k fnL cj:yftkm{ ws]lnG5g\ .Ú …ToxL eP/ dl;{ l 8h O{ – Snf;
c9fO{ jif{ cl3b]lv …k'gM egf{ / kms{g cj}wflgs g]kfnL sfdbf/nfO{ b"tfjf;;Dd lgw{Ss k'Ug ;ls/x]sf xfdLn] sfdbf/sf] dfu / cfk"lt{ b'j} cgk]lIft?kdf dl;{l8h a]~h ;L–Snf; of] ;"rLdf b]lvPsf] 5}g .
cfddfkmLÚ sfo{qmddfkm{t To:tf cfu|x ub}{ cfPsf] 5 . t/ cfddfkmL 5} g g\ . cWofudg ljefusf ;Daf]wg x'g] lsl;dsf] k"0f{ ;dfwfg Tof]eGbf dx+uf] O{–Snf; df]8n of] ;"rLdf b]lvPsf] 5 . tLg jif{kl5 dl;{l8h
sfdbf/nfO{ k'gM /f]hfuf/L jf 3/ kms{g / w/ks8 ;d]t ;Fu} eO/x]sfn]af6}df clwsf/Lx?n] cfufdL cui6 vf]Hg'k5{, xfdLn] ;/sf/nfO{ 5fkf dfg]{
;lsg] P]lR5s cj;/ lbOPsf] lyof] . kqmfp kl/g] qf;df sltko To:tf dlxgf;Dddf :jb]z kms{g cj}wflgs sfd /f]Sg elg/x]sf 5f}F .Ú jiff}bF{ l] v
pQm sfo{qmdsf] cjlw h'g dlxgfdf sfdbf/ g]kfnL b"tfjf;;Dd lgw{Ss cfk|jf;Lx¿nfO{ eg]sf 5g\ . To:tf] cj}wflgs cfk|jf;L sfdbf/sf] ;d:of
;lsP nuQ} dn]l;of ;/sf/n] yk k'Ug ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ . gul/P sfdbf/ / pgLx¿nfO{ em]ln/x]sf] dn]l;ofn] ljb]zL sfdbf/
s8fO ug{ yfn]sf] xf] . oBlk cfddfkmL cWofudg ljefusf clwsf/Lx?n] /f]huf/L lbg] /f]huf/bftf b'j}nfO{ Joj:yfkgdf l;+ufk'/sf] gLlt ;d]t
sfo{qmd eg] cfufdL dlxgf;Dd /xg] cfufdL cui6 dlxgf;Dddf :jb]z sf/afxL ul/g] r]tfjgL pgLx¿n] cWoog ug]{ hgfOPsf] 5 . k|wfgdGqL
hgfOPsf] 5 . dn] l ;ofnL kms{g cj}wflgs cfk|jf;Lx¿nfO{ lbPsf 5g\ . cfk|jf;L sfdbf/ / 8f= dxfyL/ df]xDdbn] s]xL lbgcl3sf]
;~rf/dfWodx¿sf cg' ; f/ eg] s f 5g\ . kqmfp kg] { d f dfgjclwsf/sf] If]qdf lqmofzLn Ps sfo{ q mddf ljb] z L sfdbf/
utcfOtjf/ /fhwfgL SjfnfnDk'/ / OG8f]gl] ;ofnLb]lv af+Unfb]zL / g]kfnL ;+3;+:yfx¿n] xfn hf/L cj}wflgs Joj:yfkg ug{ gLltut cWoog
cf;kf;sf If]qaf6 dfq} @@( hgf nufot ljleGg d'ns ' sf gful/sx¿ cfk|jf;L sfdbf/dflysf] w/ks8 eO/x]sf];d]t atfPsf lyP . a]~h O{–Snf;sf] d"No #$ xhf/ !) 8n/ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . of] # jif{df $(=(
k|ltztsf] l8lk|l;P;g xf] .

e"sDkkLl8t /ldtfsf b'O6{ } d[uf}nf kmn] , arfO{ lbg 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] cg'go
sf7df8f}F . e"sDkkLl8t /ldtf lgjf;L sfsL{ ljut & dlxgfb]lv aufP/ hDdf u/]sf] wg ;DktL ut cfˆgL cfdfnfO{ ;xof] u u/] /
kmS;jfug k;f6
kmS;jfugsf] ld8;fOh ;]8fgn] # jif{df cfˆgf] Eofn" %)=& k|ltztn] u'dfPsf]
5 . # jif{ k|of]u ePsf] kmS;jfugsf] k;f6 !$ xhf/ ( ;o ^ 8n/d} kfOG5 .

sfsL{sf b'O6{ } d[uf}nf km]n eP/ nfdf] sf7df8f}Fsf] hf]/kf6Ll:yt g]kfn a}zfv !@ sf] e"sDkn] 3/;Fu} u'Dof] . arfO{lbg ;a};uF cg'/f]w u/]sf 5g\ .
;dob]lv c:ktfnsf] a]8df 5g\ . d] l 8sn sn] h df z} o fdf clncln afFsL /x]sf] To;sf] nuQ} >Ldfg\ afns[i0f / /ldtfn] dhb"/
bf]nvfsf] led]Zj/ g/kflnsf–* lhn' 56k6fO/x]sL 5g\ . >d / kl;gf a}zfv @( ut] bf]nvfs} l;+u6LnfO{ u/] / 3/ vr{ rnfpg' s f] ;fy}
s]Gb| agfP/ uPsf] bf];|f] e"sDkn] 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ k9fO/x]sf lyP . xKtfdf
k"/} Wj:t agfof] . e"sDkaf6 t+u|Lb} Ps k6s 8fOnf;L; ubf{ /ldtfsf]
u/]sf] /ldtfsf] kl/jf/df csf]{ 7"nf] :jf:Yodf s]xL ;'wf/ ePsf] 5 .
a|hkft lglDtof] . 5f]/f /lj sfsL{sf lrlsT;ssf cg';f/ cem} w]/} ;do
cg';f/ ;Grf] gePkl5 /ldtfnfO{ 8fOnfl;; ug{ ' k 5{ t/ cfly{ s
c:ktfn NofpFbf lrlsT;sn] b'a} cefjsf sf/0f pkrf/ g} /f]lsPsf] aLPd8An" % l;l/h
d[uf}nfn] sfd ug{ g;Sg] cj:yfdf eGb} 5f]/L ;'l:dtfn] ;xof]usf] nflu ;a}eGbf w]/}
k'u]sf] atfP . To;kl5 kl/jf/df ;a};Fu cfu|x u/]sL 5g\ . …tkfO{Fsf] l8lk|l;P;g
;d:of lglDtof] . ;fgf] ;xof]un] d]/L cfdfsf] Hofg s6f}tL x'g] sf/df
…e"sDkaf6 lj:tf/} t+uL| b} lyof}+ . aRg ;S5 . d]/L cfdfnfO{ arfpg aLPd8An"sf] %
cfdfsf b'a} d[uf}nf km]n eP . ;xof]u ul/lbg x'g cg'/f]w ub{5'Ú l;l/h /x]sf] 5 .
pkrf/df ;a} C0f ;fk6 u/] / ;'l:dtfn] elgg\ . of] sf/n] # jif{df
;lsof] . ca s]xL afFsL 5}g . cfly{s ;xof] u ug{ rfxg] n ] 5f] / L %@=^ d" N o
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;flRrs} ko{6sLo If]q ePsf] atfP . sfd ug{x' G' 5 .Ú k|r08kl5 af]ns
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;' s ' D af;Lsf] hLagaf/] , e" s Dk
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yfn]sf 5g\ . x'Dnfsf] ufp"df hGd]sf]
x'DnL xf];\ of xf]gf]nn ' s
' f] 6fk'df hGd]sf]
sf7df8f}F . k"j{dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf hgjfbL /fHo Joj:yf < a'h{'jf ldn]sf] eGb} lasn] o:tf] ca:yfdf /fHon] lgdf{0f u/, hgtfsf] gub nufgL afnsx?n] hGd] kl5 slxNo} klg cd]l/sg, t'Kr]sf] eHofªdf hGd]sf]
s] G b| L o ;b:o tyf jfO{ l ;Pn ;dfhjfbsf] a f6f] of j} 1 flgs qmflGtsf/Lx?sf cfFvf gv'n] ;lxb, ug]{ jftfj/0f b]p, /fli6«o pBf]ux? cfdfsf] b"w r':g gkfpg] eof] . /S;L tfdfª xf]; of 6f]lsof]df hGd]sf]
gjnk'/sf ;+of]hs u0f]z las …u'/fF;Ú ;dfhjfbsf]af6f] < eGg] s'/f cfh a] k Qf / 3fOt] x ?sf] qm' a fgLsf] vf]n, pBf]ukltnfO{ ;:tf] Aofhdf C0f k"0f{ ?kn] aGb ug]{ s'/f ;xL xf]Og / hfkfgL, nf]xf]/s ] f] lsgf/df lu§L s'6b\ }
Pdfn] / dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf PstfnfO{ g] k fn g] k fnsf qmflGtsf/L ckdfg x'g] atfP . k|afx u/, Aoa;foLsf] ;DklQsf] /Iff x'g' klg ;Sb}g . hGd]sf] b}nv ] L xf];\ of n08gsf] zx/df
Ifl0fs hd36 eGb} ljb|fx] u/]sf 5g\ . sDo'lg:6x?sf cufl8 hLjgd/0fsf] lj1lKtdf cufl8 elgPsf] 5, …of] u/ / b]zsf] cfdgful/ssf] /f]huf/L /S;L aGb ug]{ sDo'lgi6 gLlt hGd]sf] a]nfotL, sf7df8f}s F f] uNnLdf
pgn] dfcf]jfbL s]Gb| Pdfn]s/0f k|Zgsf] ?kdf g]skf -dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|_ Pstfn] yk lg/ª\s'ztfsf] emNsf] ;'lglZrt u/ cfDbfgLsf ;'lglZrt ;dfhsf] kl/jt{gsf] ;fwgsf] ?kdf hGd]sf] g]jf/ xf];\ of sf/fsfzdf
ePsf] eGb} g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{df / Pdfn]sf] slyt Pstf gfds ;d]t lbO/x]sf] 5 . cfhsf] o:tf] u/ . oL sfdx?sf nflu hg;xefuLtf NofOPsf] xf] / x'gk' 5{ . ;fdfGotof, hGd]sf] lrsfgf], clxn]sf] ljZjdf
k|j]z u/]sf 5g\ . k"j{dfcf]jfbL ljifd kl/l:yltdf ;d] t xfdL ljsf; ug{,' 5nkmn ax; rnfpg', dflg;n] cfTd;Gtf]ifsf] vflt/ /S;L cfˆgf] k|ultsf nflu ;a}n] ;a};u+
s]Gb|sf] s]Gb|Lo ;b:o ;d]t /x]sf qmflGtsf/Lx?sf cfFvfdf /tGwf] nfUof] /fHo ;+oGqsf] k|of]u ug{' t stf xf] lkpg] u5{ . wgL dflg;x?n] ;'vb ;dfg k|lt:kwf{ ug{' k5{ . o;n] x/]s
lasn] Pdfn] / dfs]sf] PstfnfO{ eg], ;f]Rg ;Sg] lbdfu / af]Ng ;Sg] stf, oL laifodf cfjfh p7fPsf] ;" r ssf] ?kdf /S;L lkp" 5 g\ . g]kfnLnfO{ cfˆgf] ;Gtfsf] ela:ok|lt
slyt ePsf] atfpFb} o;n] yk lha|f]df Kof/fnfO; eof] eg] / ;'Gg cleof]udf, /fli6«o k'h F Lsf] ljsf; ul/ax?n] ul/aLsf] rfkn] k}bf ePsf] lrlGtt agfp"5 . c/jklt ;'hftfn]
lg/+s'ztf emNsf] lbPsf] atfP . ;Sg] sfg aGb eof] eg] !& xhf/ x'gk' 5{ eg]sf] sf/0fn], ;a} g]kfnLnfO{ kL8f la;{g kLpg] u5{g\ . sDo'lgi6sf] pkrf/ ug{ nfvf}F 8n/ /fHosf] sf]if
a'waf/ Ps lj1lKt hf/L u/]/ lasn] dxfg\ ;lxbx?n] aufPsf] /ut, xhf/f}+ /f]huf/L lbg' k5{ eg]sf] sf/0f, ;/f]sf/ b]zsf] a]lyltsf] ;dfwfg vr{ ubf{ dg{ nfu]sf dlxnfn] aL/
ljKnjn] g]tT[ j u/]sf] g]skfdf k|jz ] 3fOt]x?n] u'dfPsf c+s, ;fy} a]kQf pBdLx?sf] ;DklQsf] /Iff u/ eg]sf] ug{';+u /x]sf] 5 . wgL dflg;sf] c:ktfndf pkrf/sf nflu 5
u/]sf] 3f]if0ff u/]sf 5g\ . jfO{l;Pn Ifl0fs hd36n] k}bf ul/lbPsf] 5 of]4fx?n] lbPsf] qm'jfgL / nfvf}+ sf/0f xfd|f] kf6L{nfO{ ;8sdf af]Ng ;f+:s[lts k|efjdf k/]/ ul/a hgtfsf] dlxgfsf] kfnf] kv{g' k5{ . ;fdflhs
gjnk'/sf ;+of]hs ;d]t /x]sf eg] log} k|Zgx?sf] af:tljs / ;fFrf] hgtfn] u/]sf] Tofu alnbfg / glbg], ;+u7g ug{ glbg], ;+3if{ ug{ /S;L kLpg] ;d:ofn] /fhg}lts b[li6n] bnfn k'h F Ljfbsf] pTkL8gn] hgtfsf]
lasn] bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yf jf pQ/ vf]h]/ cfdg]kfnL hgtfnfO{ ;dk{k0fdfly 7"nf] ckdfg / uDeL/ glbg] P]nfg of] ;/sf/n] u/]sf] 5 . k|ltlqmofjfbL ;QfnfO{ kmfObf k'¥ofPsf] c;Gtf]if dfq a9fpg] 5}g, l:y/tf,
hgjfbL /fHo Joj:yf < a'h{'jf hfgsf/L u/fpg' kg]{ Ps P]ltxfl;s wf]sf ;d]t x'g]5 .Ú k"j{hgd'lQm o;n] g]kfn sDo'l' gi6 kf6L{sf g]tf / x'G5, cfly{s b[li6n] Psflwsf/jfbL zflGt, ;d[l4 / ;dfhjfbsf] gf/fdf
;dfhjfbsf] j} 1 flgs g}lts lhDd]jf/L xfdL hgtf, /fi6« / ;]gfsf sdf08/ ;d]t /x]sf ;+of]hs sfo{stf{x?nfO{ h]ndf xfn]sf] 5 . k'h
F LjfbLnfO{ / ;fdflhs b[li6n] lkpg] g]kfnsf nfn ;/bf/x?n] hgtfaLr
;dfhjfbsf] a f6f] < eGg] s' / f cfˆgf ju{k|lt k|ltj4 of]4fx?sf] lasn] blIf0fkGyL, ;+zf]wgjfbL / tfh'a nfUg] s'/f t s] 5 eg] AolQm / kl/jf/nfO{ kLl8t agfPsf] 5/]sf] e|d Rofltg] 5 . o;n] hgtfnfO{
qmflGtsf/L sDo'lg:6x?sf] cufl8 sfFwdf cfPsf] 5Ú lasn] hf/L u/]sf] bnfnx?sf] Pstf k|lqmofaf6 ljb|f]x cbfntn] ;kmfO{ bPsf aGbLx?nfO{ x'G5 . To;sf/0f sDo'lgi6x?n] /S;L k|lt/f]wdf p7fpg] 5 / o;k|sf/sf]
hLjgd/0fsf] k|Zg ePsf] ;d]t atfP . lj1lKtdf pNn]v 5 . Pdfn] / dfs]sf] u/L j}slNks qmflGtsf/Laf6f]df ;/sf/n] cbfntsf] kl/;/af6} aGb ug{s ' f] tfTko{ Tof] a]lyltsf] cGTo hgk| l t/f] w n] b] z df a} 1 flgs
…bnfn ;+ ; bLo Joj:yf jf Pstfn] emg\ lg/+s'ztfsf] emNsf] cfpg ;d]t ckLn u/]sf 5g\ . lu/kmtf/ u/]sf] 5 . ;/sf/n] b]zsf] ug],{ hgr]tgf ljsf; ug],{ b]zdf ;dfhjfbL qmflGtnfO{ hGd lbg]5 .
6 @)&% ;fn c;f/ @$ ut] cfOtaf/

;? uf}td, ;f+uLlts cfsfzdf rlDsnf] tf/fsf] ?kdf pbfpFb}
sf7df8f}F . g]kfnL ;f+uLlts u/]sL x'g\ . laut nfdf] ;do sf] uPsL x'g . /fhwfgLsf] glhs} /x]sf] Ps df]8nsf] ?kdf ;d]t lrlglG5g\ .
uhnx?
– lnnf bfxfn
cfsfzdf rlDsnf] tf/fsf] ?kdf calwdf ;+uLt If]qdf pgn] k5fl8 sfe|] hGdynf] ePsL uflosf ;? ;'dw'/ cfjfhsf] ;fy} ;'Gb/ d'xf/ cfsfz / wtL{ klg sxLF g sxLF hf]l8Psf] 5
pbfpb} u/]sL uflosf x'g ;? uf}td, kms]{/ x]g{' k/]sf] 5}g nuftf/ pgn] uf}td sf7df8f}FnfO sd{ynf] agfP/ / ldn]sf] z/L/ ePsL ;'Gb/L uflosf
;fg}b]lv ufogdf ?rL /fVg] rrf{sf] Ps kl5 csf]{ ;kmntf xfl;n ub}{ ;f+uLlts If]qdf pbfPsf] gfd xf] . ;? ;'Gb/ tg ;+u} ;'Gb/ dgsL klg kTy/nfO{ s'bF /] oxfF eujfg\ dflgPsf] 5
lzv/ 6]Sb} u/]sL uflosf ;? uf}td cufl8 a9L /x]sL l5g\ . cfˆgf] ljleGg rlr{t uLtx? ufpFb} wgL l5g . ;/n ;w} xf;]/ af]Ng]
rrf{sf] lzv/df r9\b} u/]sL uflosf cltg} ldng;f/ :jefals ld7f]
…;?Ú g]kfnL ;'ud ;+uLtdf rNtLsf] cfjfhsf] wgL uflosf ;?n] w]/} k9\g dg 5 p;sf] v'nf lstfasf] kfgf
gfd xf] . ;'dw'/ :j/sL wgL ;? sfo{qmddf cjf8{ / ;Ddfg ;d]t d]/f] lbndf t p g} /fh agL ;lhPsf] 5
kl5Nnf] ;do kk uLt, cfw'lgs uLt, kfO;s] s L l5g\ . pgnfO{ Ps
lth tyf nf]suLt / rnlrqsf] ax'cfoflds k|ltefzfnL, e;{n6fOn
kfZj{ ufog tyf cGo pgsf rlr{t uflosf eGg ;lsG5, ;fRr} pgLdf ge]6s
] f] dfG5] / grfv]sf] :jfb s:tf] xf]nf
uLtx?sf sf/0f a9L rrf{df l5g\ . x/k|sf/sf] uLt ufpg ;Sg] Ifdtf
sl/a %–^ aif{b]lv ;f+uLlts klg 5 pgsf] g]kfnL efiffdf, g]kfnL dgdf ;Fw} d]/f] v'Nb'nLsf] afF; agfOPsf] 5
If]qdf ;lqmo ;?n] nueu ;oeGbf cfw'lgs uLt, uhn, ehg, nf]suLt,
a];L uLt ufO;s]sL 5g\ . 5f]6f] tyf g]kfln lkmNdL uLtx? ;a} If]qdf
;dodf g} cfk"mnfO{ g]kfnL ;f+uLlts pgsf] ld7f] cfjfh ;'Gg ;lsG5 eg] km'N5 xf]nf km'n /f]k] k|d
] sf] of] k|d
] gu/Ldf
If]qdf :yflkt ug{ ;kmn tyf lx6 pgL h'g;'s} uLtnfO{ klg pN6f]af6 6f9} eP klg cfpg] hfg]af6f] vf]lnPsf] 5
uLtx? lbP/ ;Dk'0f{ ;+uLt k|d] L g]kfnL ufpg ;Sg] k|ltefsf] wgL l5g .
bfh'efO tyf lbbLalxgLx? dfem To;}n] t pgL elG5g\ uLt ;+uLt
rlr{t aGg ;kmn pgL lg/Gt/ d]/f] k|f0f xf], ;+uLt d]/f] /utdf 5 x'g ;S5 Pslbg ;u/dfyf klg ;d'b| oxfF
g]kfnL ;'ud ;+uLtdf cfk"mnfO{ / d]/f] x/]s w8\sgdf 5 . uflosf
:yflkt agfpg ;kmn ePsL l5g ;? elG5g\ g]kfnL ;+uLt eg]sf] xfd|f] 3d08 gu/ s;}n] hLjg kf];fsdf ;lhPsf] 5
eg] cfk"mnfO{ e;{n6fOn uflosfsf] ;Dklt xf] ;:s[lt xf], To;}n] xfdLn] )))
?kdf :yflkt u/]/ lg/Gt/ rrf{df o;nfO{ ;d|If0f / k|a4{g ug{' xfd|f]
g} l5g\ . uflosf ;? b]z leq dfq st{Ao xf] / g]kfnL ;f+uLlts If]q
h'bfOb]p dfofsf tL g;fn' gh/x/
geP/ lab]zdf x'g] sfo{qmddf ;d]t tyf uLt ;+ u Ltsf] :t/nfO{ cfO a; c+ufnf]df kmfnL b]p 8/x?
pgsf] dfu a9\b} uPsf] 5 eg] pgsf] cGt/f{li6«o If]qdf kl/lrt u/fpg'
laut nfdf] ;dob] l v lalwat ;'dw'/ cfjfh, d]xgt / kl/>dn] :j/ tyf ufog z}nLsf] rf}tkmL{ k|;z + f klg xfd|f] bfloTj xf] .
?kdfg} Aoa;flos ufog If]qdf k|jz
] ubf{g} pgn] of] ;kmntf xfl;n ub}{ x'g] u/]sf] 5 . pgL uflosf dfq geP/ – piff /0fkx]nL dbxf]z d':sfg;Fu} km];a'sdf ltdL b]Vbf

@% jif{kl5 eLd;]gn] ‘sfG5L’ NofP
sf7df8f}F . PsfPs ufot If]qaf6 lbPsf lyP . oxL uLtnfO{ k'g P/]Gh awfO{ tyf z'esfdgf lbPsf lyP . bL3{ u' ? ª, ;8sk] 6 L xl/ofnL
pd'Qm e} plk|m lbG5g\ oL d]/f /x/x?

gog ltd|f ;f/} nf]eL r'Das h:tf] cfsif{s
x/fPsf eLd;]g nfdf km]l/ b]vfk/]sf ^ dlxgf cl3 l/d]s lnP/ cfPsf ldnfk dfl;ssf] cfof]hgfdf ePsf] cleoGtf s] k L kf} 8 ] n nufotsf
5g\ . @% jif{cl3 ufog If]qdf k|jz ] nfdfn] clxn] gofF uLt …x] sfG5LÚ sfo{qmdsf] ;xlhs/0f ldnfksL JolQmTjx? / ;~rf/sdL{sf] pkl:ylt nfU5 eP x'GYof] df]afOn d} l5l/hfg] r/x?
u/]sf nfdfn] …x] sfG5LÚ ahf/df lnP/ cfPsf x'g\ . …x] sfG5LÚ nfO{ sfo{sf/L ;Dkfbs uLtf clwsf/Ln] /x]sf] lyof] . eLd;]g 6L nfdfn] @%
NofPsf 5g\ . rlr{ t ufosx? Ps sfo{qmdaLr ;fj{hlgs ul/Psf] u/]sL lyOg . ljsfz l;Njfnsf] zAb jif{cl3 @% j6f uLt ufPsf lyP .
cf]dljqmd lji6, ;~ho >]i7, ;+hLj 5 . g]kfnsf] klxnf] 6]Dkf] rfns, / ;ËLt /x] s f] …x] sfG5LÚsf] To;kl5 pgsf] lj>fd nfUof] . ufog x/fpF5' ltdL leq} d cfp vfp s;dx?
k|wfg, xl/z dfy]df / of]u]Zj/ Joj;foL tyf ;flxTos JolQmTj nIdL lel8of]nfO{ ;+ho kf08]n] lgb]{zg If] q af6 pgL 6fl9Pkl5 pgsf] dfofsf] eG;f/ l5g{ ltl/lbpnf s/x?
cdfTo;Fu} sfo{qmdx?df uLt ufpFb} zdf{sf] k|dv
' cfltYotfdf …x] sfG5LÚ u/]sf x'g\ . lel8of]df k"l0fdf nfdf, sl/c/sf] ;'?jft rnlrq If]qtkm{
lxF8]sf ufos nfdf @% jif{kl5 k'g uof] . pgn] v]n]sf] klxnf] rnlrq )))
ufog If]qdf kmls{Psf 5g\ . nfdf ;Ldf/]vf lyof] . h'g rnlrq @)%# ca dnfO{ ltd|f] ld7f] aft rflxof]
olt nfdf] ;dokl5 ;fËLlts If]qdf ;fndf lgdf{0f ePsf] lyof] . uLt
sdAofs ePsf x'g\ . ljBfyL{ x'bF fb]lv /]sl8{ªs} l;nl;nfdf rnlrqsf] 6f9faf6 xf]Og ;Fu} a:g] ;fy rlxof] .
g} uLt ufpFb} lxF8]sf nfdfsf] ;f]v ckm/ cfPsf] nfdfn] atfP . …Pp6L
rlr{t ufos aGg] lyof] . cflv/ pgL ;'Gb/L d dfly d5]{Ú / …klxnf] e]6d}
ufos t ag] g} t/ ufog If]qaf6 eof] xfd|f] lrgf/LÚ af]nsf] uLt rfln; sf6] kl5 /dfpg' 5}g dnfO{
nfdf] ;do x/fP . ca pgn] ufog eLd;]gsf Tolta]nfsf rlr{t uLt a};
F x'bF d
} f a};fn' tL Kof/ rflxof]
If]qaf6 slxn} g efUg] atfP . pgL lyof] . pgsf uLtx? Tolta]nf
eG5g, …d cfˆg} sf/0fn] ufog /]l8of] g]kfnaf6 v'a aHg] u/]sf]
If] q af6 x/fPF . d @% jif{ ; Dd pgL atfpF5g\ . cfw'lgs / nf]s slt u? b'Mv of] b'O{ lbgsf] lhGbuLdf
hflu/df nfu]+ clg Tof] aLrdf lkmNd ;fj{hlgs ul/Psf] xf] . ;fj{hlgs bf]h{] nfdf / PnLgf u'?ªnfO{ lkmrl/ª kk uLt ufpg ?rfpg] nfdf kl5Nnf]
v]Ng lt/ klg nfu]+ . t/, ca d sfo{qmddf jl/i7 nf]s ufos s'df/ ul/Psf] 5 . ljsfz e'h]nsf] P/]~h, ;do o'jf k':tfx?sf nflu klg dg ;a} b'v la;f{pg] Gofgf] Tof] sfv rflxof] .
ufog If]qd} kmls{Psf] 5' .Ú j:g]t, jl/i7 snfsf/ pQd s];L, lbg]zh+u /f0ffn] ;Dkfbg u/]sf] kg]{ uLt lnP/ cfpg] tof/Ldf /x]sf]
…d';'Ss xfF;L lbFbf Hofg} n'6\of]Ú esf/L Pd8L;Lsf k|dv' tyf uLtsf/ uLtsf] lel8of]nfO{ esf/L Pd8L;Ln] atfP . …uPsf] jif{ /]l8of] g]kfnaf6
eGg] af]nsf] uLt g} nfdfn] ufPsf] a;Gt ljTof;L yfkf, ldnfksf s[i0f ahf/df NofPsf] xf] . ljlzi7 ufossf];Ddfg kfPsf] lyP,
d/] kl5 :ju{ sf] rfxfgf 5}g dnfO{
klxnf] uLt xf] . h'g uLt @)$& e';fn, lgb]z
{ s ;+ho kf08], sf7df8f}F sfo{qmddf ufos lzlz/ of]uL, pQm;Ddfg ldn]kl5 uLt ufpg afr'Gh]n ltd|f] lgZrn rfn rflxof] .
;fndf /]s8{ ul/Psf] lyof] . ljZj dxfgu/ kfnLsf j8f g+= # sf j8f ;ËLtsf/ /fdhL g]kfnL, uLtsf/ phf{ ylkPsf]n] cfk"m ca ufog
aNnesf] zAbdf tof/ ePsf] of] cWoIf bLks s];L nufotn] eLd;]g ;'/]Gb| /fgf, ;flxTosf/ g/k|;fb If]qnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbg nfu]sf] x'FÚ
uLtnfO{ zDe'lht afF:sf]6fn] ;ËLt 6L nfdfnfO{ gofF cfudgsf nflu lwtfn, al/i7 5fofFsf/ k|sfz df:s], eLd;]gn] eg] . xfF;f]df xfF;f] ld;fpg] b'vdf dg

pkTosfsf !$# :yfgdf c:yfoL kfls{ªsf] Joj:yf
sf7df8f}F . 6«flkms Joj:yfkgnfO{ cufl8, ljleGg c:ktfn cufl8, afuahf/ kßsGof SofDk;5]p, @( Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . tf]lsPsf] :yfgeGbf
lunf;df lunf; ldnfpg] ;fd rlxof] .

:j:y kqsfl/tfsf] ljsf;
;xh agfpgsf nflu pkTosfsf !$# nf]sGynL, sf}zn6f/, ;ftbf]af6f], gDa/ j8f sfof{no cufl8, lvrfkf]v/L, cGo :yfgdf ofqL r9fpg] tyf cf]/fNg]
:yfgdf b'Ok{ f+u]| / rf/kf+u]| ;jf/L–
;fwgnfO{ c:yfoL kfls{ªsf] Joj:yf
PsfGts'gfnufotsf ^) :yfgdf #(&
6\ofS;L kfls{ª ug{ ldNg]u/L :yfg
wd{ky, Ko'vfrf]s, w/x/faf6f] blIf0f,
sn+sL dfnkf]t cufl8, ls6f dlGb/
u/]df 6«flkms k|x/Ln] sf/afxL ug]5
o:t}, dxfzfvfn] dxfgu/kflnsf;Fu
{ . :jtGq / xsclwsf/sf] hu]gf{,
ldnfOPsf] 5 . sf7df8f} F
dxfgu/kflnsfsf] ;xsfo{df dxfgu/Lo
5'6o\ fPsf] 5 .
g]kfn ld6/ 6\ofS;L Joj;foL ;+3sf
kl/;/nufot *# :yfgdf df]6/;fOsn
tyf sf/ kfls{ªsf] cNksfnLg Joj:yf
ldn] / pkTosfdf ePsf ofqL
k|ltIffnosf];d]t cWoog u/]sf] 5 .
/fli6«o ;j{dfGo k|rng /
6«flkms k|x/L dxfzfvfn] pkTosfsf cWoIf ch{g' uf}td pkTosfdf 6\ofS;L u/]sf] 5 . dxfzfvfsf cg';f/ xfn pkTosfsf #^ dfGotfnfO{ ;dfof]hg ub}{ cufl8
^) :yfgdf 6\ofS;L, *# :yfgdf sf/ kfls{ªsf nflu lj=;+= @)^( df g} sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfsf ;"rgf :yfgdf k|ltIffno /x]sf 5g\ . dxfzfvfn]
/ df]6/;fOsn /fVg ldNg]u/L c:yfoL cWoog ul/;lsPsf] / ;f]xLcg';f/ clwsf/L j;Gt cfrfo{ dxfgu/kflnsf, u/]sf] cWoogcg';f/ pkTosfdf !)# a9\g' cfhsf] ckl/xfo{
kfls{ªsf] Joj:yf ldnfPsf] xf] .
dxfzfvfsf k|jQmf ;'/G] b|k;| fb d}gfnLn]
clxn] dxfzfvf / dxfgu/kflnsfsf]
;lqmotfdf :yfg 5'6o\ fP/ /fd|f] sfdsf]
6«flkms k|x/L dxfzfvf, ;8s /
oftfoftsf k|ltlglw a;]/ tTsfnsf
:yfgdf ofqL k|ltIffno cfjZos /x]sf]
5 . dxfzfvfsf k|dv ' j;Gts'df/ kGt cfjZostf xf] .
pkTosfsf] 6«flkms Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;xh yfngL ePsf] atfpF5g\ . …;'?df 6\ofS;L nflu cNksfnLg?kdf kfls{ ª pkTosfsf] 6«flkms Joj:yfkg /fd|f]
agfpg sf7df8f},F eQmk'/ / nlntk'/df kfls{ªsf nflu :yfg 5'6o\ fP klg af6f] Joj:yfkg ul/Psf] atfpF 5 g\ . agfpgsf nflu dxfzfvfn] kfls{ª:yn,
c:yfoL?kdf ;jf/L kfls{ªsf] Joj:yf lj:tf/sf sf/0f x6]sf] lyof] . clxn] …tTsfnsf nflu tf]lsPsf] :yfgdf k|ltIffno, j}slNks af6f]nufotsf]
ldnfOPsf] atfP . …a; :6kdf af]8{ k'gM :yfg 5'6o\ fP/ /fd|f] sfd ePsf] kfls{ ª sf] Joj:yf ldnfP klg cWoog ul//x]sf] atfpF5g\ . s]xL lbg
/fVg], km/flsnf]af6f]df kfls{ª ug],{ 5Ú– pgL eG5g\ . oftfoft Joj:yf bL3{sfnLg?ksf nflu gu/;efdfkm{t\ cufl8 dfq dxfzfvfn] ko{6sLo a;
;fF3/' f]af6f]sf ;jf/L x6fpg]nufotsf ljefun] lbPsf] tYof+scg';f/ xfn ag]sf sfg'gsf] cfwf/df cufl8 a9\5f}Ú+ – kfls{ª If]qnfO{ sflGtkynfO{ ;f]xv
| §' ] ;f/]sf]
sfdnfO{ k|fyldstf lbPsf 5f}Ú+ –pgn] sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf emG8} !! xhf/ pgL eG5g\ . g]kfn oftfoft Joj;foL lyof] . xfn g]kfne/ @& nfveGbf a9L
eg] . dxfzfvfn] ef]6flx6L, hdn, k'/fgf] 6\ofS;L /x]sf 5g\ . o:t}, dxfzfvf / /fli6«o dxf;+3sf dxf;lrj ;/f]h 7"nf tyf ;fgf ;jf/L–;fwg /x]sf 5g\
a;kfs{, ;'Gwf/f uf]Zjf/f x'nfs u]6, dxfgu/kflnsfn] df]6/;fOsn tyf l;6f}nf ;jf/L–;fwg kfls{ªsf nflu eg] sf7df8f}F pkTosfdf dfq emG8} !!
lvrfkf]v/L, wd{ky, z+s/b]j u]6, 7d]n sf/ kfls{ªsf nflu klg cNksfnLg /fHon] 5'§} If]q agfpg'kg]{ atfpF5g\ . nfv ;jf/L–;fwg cfjt–hfjt u5{g\ . g] k fn ;/sf/
;~rosf]if u]6, b/af/dfu{ kf7zfnf, :yfg 5'6\ofPsf] 5 . b/af/dfu{, k"jf{wf/sf] ljsf; eP dfq ;jf/L–;fwg 7"nf ;jf/L–;fwgnfO{ eg] tf]lsPsf]
s[i0fkfp/f]6L klZrd, Pc/kf]6{ cufl8, /fgLkf]v/L cfo'Qm sfof{no cufl8, k|1f cfjt–hfjtdf ;xhtf x'g] pgsf] egfO :yfgdf dfq a; kfls{ªsf] Joj:yf
;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
cGt/f{ l i6« o ;Dd] n g s] G b| l :yt
kfgL6\of+sL cufl8, sf]6Z] j/ 6«flkms
ejg klZrdk§L, rf/ vfn kl/;/
klZrd, z+s/b]j SofDk; cufl8,
5 . xfn pkTosfdf dfq @(* :yfgdf
a;leq ofqL r9fpg tyf cf]/fNg ldNg]
ul/Psf] dxfzfvfn] hgfPsf] 5 .
– cRo't /]UdL
;"rgf ljefu
@)&% ;fn c;f/ @$ ut] cfOtaf/ 7

;xofqLnfO{ w/ks8 u/] afkt slt sld;g cfpF5, sd/]8 <
oltv]/ g]kfnL /fhgLltn] cgf}7f] pxfF n ] qmflGtsf] lglDt cfd g]tfsfo{stf{nfO{ lu/ˆtf/ ug]{, em'§f g]skfsf s]lGb|o ;Nnfxsf/ ;ldlt
d]o/ / j8fcWoIfx?aLr dfOGo"6 vf];fvf];
sf7df8f} F . afh' / fsf] al8dflnsf gu/kflnsfsf d] o / /
j8fcWoIfx?aLrsf] ljjfb r'lnPsf] 5 . g]kfnL sfFu|]; / k"j{ Pdfn] /
/ csNkgLo df]8 lnPsf] 5 lsgeg] g]tfsfo{stf{ / hgtfnfO{ clkn klg d'2f nufpg] sfddf pxfF ;s[o eP/ cWoIf c;f/] sfsf, kf6L{sf lklaPd dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|af6 u/L tLg kf6L{sf pDd]bjf/ lgjf{lrt ePsf oxfFsf
@)%@ ;fndf ;j{xf/f ju{sf] d'lQm ug{' eof] . t/ o;sf] s]xL ;dokl5 nfUg' ePsf] s'/f :ki6 g} 5g\ . e/t ad, k'jd{ GqL tyf hg;/sf/ hgk|ltlglwx?aLr ;'?b]lv g} ljjfb x'Fb} cfPsf] 5 . clxn] Pdfn] /
nflu eGb} hgo'4 3f]if0ff u/]/ ;+u} pxfF k'g cfk"mn] nfnu2f/ 3f]if0ff o' j fx¿sf] /fli6« o ;Dd] n gdf s]lGb|o pkk|dv ' kbd /fO{, s]lGb|o dfs]sf] PsLs/0fkl5 Tof] ljjfbn] rsf]{ ?k lnPsf] 5 . b'a} kf6L{sf k|ltlglwx?
;b:o ds/ u' ? ª, cg] d ;3
Ps 7fpFdf cfPkl5 sfFu|]; sdhf]/ ePsf] 5 . al8dflnsf gu/kflnsfdf
;dk{0f e§/fO{ qmflGtsf/L s]lGb|o dxf;lrj lw/]Gb|f
pkfWofnufot $) hgfnfO{ ljgfsf/0f sfFu|];af6 kbdaxfb'/ a8'jfn ljhoL ePsf lyP . kl5Nnf] ljjfbdf
gu/kflnsfsf] dfOGo"6 vf];fvf]; ePsf] 5 . t/, dfOGo"6 k"j{Pdfn]af6
k|r08, afa'/fdn] qmfGtLk|lt lu/ˆtf/ ug]{ sfd jfbn s} lgb]z { gdf
eof] . of] xs{tsf] rf}ykmL lj/f]wkl5 lgjf{lrt ePsf j8fcWoIfx?n] sAhfdf lnPsf x'g\ . pgLx?n] gu/kl/ifbdf
u2f/L u/]sf] / g]kfnL cf;f/] sfsf nufot #! hgfnfO{ l/xf /fhgLlts cf:yfsf cfwf/df ah]6 ljlgof]hg u/]sf] eGb} lg0fo{ k'l:tsf -
u/] klg lklaPd e/t ad, kbd dfOGo"6_ vf];]sf x'g\ . gu/kflnsfsf] a}7s eO/x]sf a]nf g]skf Pdfn]sf
hgtfnfO{ wf]sf lbPsf] eGb} g]q /fO{nfufPt ;ft hgfnfO{ ;fj{hlgs j8fWoIf ePsf ;a}n] xNnf u/]sf] / Ps hgfn] dfOGo"6 vf];]/ efu]sf]
d'2f nufpg] sfd ul/of] . o;}u/L atfOPsf] 5 . j8f gDa/ @, #, $, & / ( sf j8fWoIfn] dfOGo"6 vf];]/
ljqmd rGb ljKnjsf] kxndf g]skfsf lklaPd cf]d k|sfz k'gnfO{ a}7saf6 efu]sf lyP . nuQ} pgLx?n] kqsf/;Dd]ng ;d]t u/] . cfk"mx?sf]
@)^( ;fndf klxnf] k6s klg ckx/0f z}nLdf sf7df8fFa} f6 kfFrj6f a'Fbfdf c;xdlt /x]sf] atfP .
lu/ˆtf/ ul/Psf] 5 . o:n] jfbn of]hgfdf ah]6g ljlgof]hg gePsf], tTsfnLg g]skf Pdfn]sf] tkm{af6
cflwsfl/s ?kdf kf6L{ laefhg st}af6 lgof]lht ?kdf kl/rflnt j8fWoIf ljho ePsf of]hgfdf ah]6 sd ljlgof]hg ul/Psf], :yfgLo
x'bf ls/0f, jfbn, ljKnjx?;ª} eP/ qmflGtsf/L / kl/jt{gsf/L ;/sf/ jflif{s of]hgf tyf ah]6 th{'df lbUbz{gnfO{ a]jf:tf ul/Psf]
zlQmnfO{ bdg ug{ ;s[o ePsf] s'/f nufotsf cf/f]k nufPsf 5g\ . cfk"mx?sf dfu k"/f geP yk cfGbf]ngsf
x'gx' G' Yof] / k|r08nfO{ nfn k'li6 x'G5 . otf ;fdfGo w/f}6Ldf l/xf sfo{qmd ug]{ r]tfjgL j8f gDa/ ( sf j8fWoIf ljgf]bs'df/ lasn] atfP .
x'ge' PsL O6x/L pkdxfgu/ kflnsfls
u2f/ 3f]if0ff ug]{ dfG5] jfbn ;]qm]6/L la/tf tfl/v a'‰g\ hfbf
gu/kflnsfdf ;'?b]lv ePsf] ljjfbaf6 :yfgLo lbSs ePsf 5g\ . hgtfsf]
cbfntaf6 g} @ jif{sL gfafns 5f]/L sfd ug{ k7fPsf k|ltlglwx? cfk;L n8fOFdf Jo:t ePkl5 pgLx? lg/f;
cfkm}F x'gx' G' Yof] . bf];f| ] ;+ljwfg;efsf] lgjf{rg k|ltufdL xf] ;lxt a]kQf agfpg] sfd ePsf] 5, ePsf 5g\, ljsf; / ;]jf k|efljt ePsf 5g\ .
eg]/ alxisf/ ug{df klg jfbn sd/]8 cfkm}F ;s[o eP/ o:n] jfbnsf] lgof]lht of]hgf xf] eGg]
s'/fdf slx st} z+sf 5}g\ . t;y{ o;/L x'g]5 dfgj hfltsf] ljgfz Û
nfUg' eof] . ;D;bLo Joj:yfaf6 hgtfsf] d'lQm gx'g] jfbnn] cfkm}n F ] agfPsf] ;+ljwfgnfO{ sf7df8f}F . s'g} ;do 8fOgf];/ ;a}eGbf zlQmzfnL hLj lyP, h'g
eGb} pxfFn] qmflGtsf] lglDt cfd g]tfsfo{stf{ / hgtfnfO{ r'gf}tL lbb} h'g vfnsf] xs{t ub}{ k"0f{¿kdf cGTo eof] . clxn] dflg; ;a}eGbf zlQmzfnL 5, t/ dflg;sf]
x'gx' G' 5 of] lgGbgLo 5 . nf]stflGqs ;kmfofsf] cfz+sf klg lgs} k|an 5 . k[YjLdf hLjg ljut %) s/f]8
clkn klg ug{' eof] . t/ o;sf] s]xL ;dokl5 pxfF k'g Joj:yf of] cfkltk'0f{ 5 . t;y{ o:tf jif{b]lv 5 . clxn];Dd kfFr k6s o:tf] cj:yf cfof], ha ;a}eGbf a9L
xs{t ;/sf/ / u[xdGqfnon] tTsfn km}lnof] / k|efjL k|hfltx¿? ljn'Kt eof] . eljiodf ;j{gfzsf] 5}6f} r/0f
cfk"mn] nfnu2f/ 3f]if0ff u/]sf] k|r08nfO{ cWoIf dfGb} pxfsf] g/f]s] o;sf] z;Qm k|ltsf/ ug{s ' f] cfpg]5 / dflg;sf nflu of] g/fd|f] 5, lsgeg] of] a]nf w/tLdf ;a}eGbf
kf6L{ k|jz ] ug{e' of] . o;lardf y'k}| pQf/ r9fjx? klg ljsNk 5}g /fHo ljb]zL sf] lgb]z { gdf k|an k|hflt dflg;s} 5 .
b]znfO{ hah{:t åGådf ws]Ng rfxfG5
OUNof08sf] nL8\; o'lgel;{6Lsf j}1flgsx¿n] ;j{gfz / qmldsdfly
eP . ;+ljwfghf/L eP;+u} :yfgLo lgsfosf] lgjf{rg klg eGg] s'/f g]skfdfyLsf] k|ltjGw
zf]w u/]sf 5g\ . j}1flgsx¿sf cg';f/ clGtd ;j{gfzsf] 36gf ^=^
w/ks8n] :ki6 kfb{5 . t;y{ qmfGtL
;lsof] . cfh oxL ;D;bLo Joj:yfsf] u[xdGqL cyf{t hgtfsf] cfGbf]ng bdg / s/f]8 jif{ klxnf ePsf] lyof] . Tolta]nf Pp6f 7'nf] w'ds]t' k[YjL;Fu
w/ks8af6 /f] S g vf] H g' ;' o { s f] 7f]lSsof] / !% s/f]8 jif{;Dd w/tLdf ljr/0f u/]sf] 8fOgf];/ Ps em8\sfd}
/fdaxfb'/ yfkf jfbn x'gx' G' 5 eg] ljKnj a}1flgs ls/0fnfO{ xTs]nfn] 5]Sg] d'vt{ f ug{' ljgfz eof] . 8fOgf];/sf] t'ngfdf dflg;n] k[YjLdf lgs} sd ;do latfPsf]
;dfhjfbsf] lglDt PsLs[t hgqmfGtLsf] sfo{lbzf lnP/ h:t} xf] . cGtt oL / o:tf xs{t 5, sl/a !% nfv jif{ .
/fHon] tTsfn aGb u/L plrt j}1flgsx¿sf cg';f/ ljutdf ePsf 36gfsf qmddf, Ps ;dfg
lg/Gt/ qmflGtsf] ofqfdf x'gx' G' 5 . ;+of]u egf} of lgof]lht ;dfwfgsf]af6f] g/f]h] b]zdf km]l/ csf]{ b]lvg] jf lgs} sd cGt/jfnf k|hfltx¿sf] %) b]lv (% k|ltzt;Dd ljgf
jfbn sd/]8 u[xdGqL ePsf] ef]lnkN6 g} ljKnj sd/]8sf] gofF cflwj]xl] / rfF8} g} cfpg]jfnf 5 ePsf] 5 . zf]w l6dsf k|dv ' k|fk] m];/ Pn]Sh]G8/ 8glxn eG5g\–hLjfZdfx¿sf]
/ Tof] cfwLn] bnfn ;Qf / ltgsf cfwf/df ljutdf Jofkfs ;kmfof x]/]/ yfxf x'G5 ls df}h'bf hLjx¿ nf]k
gfddf jf/]G6 hf/L ul/of] . of] ; ;Fu
F } /fhgLltn] cem k]lrnf] ;a}vfn] dltof/ / Ph]G6x?sf] gfd x'g] /ˆtf/ klg lgs} pRr 5 . csf]{ zAbdf eGg] xf] eg] w/tL ;j{gfzsf]
lgzfgf d]6fpg]df s'g} ;Gb]x 5}g . 5}6f} r/0ftkm{ al9/x]sf] 5 .
df]8 of ?k lnPsf] 5 . ; ;Fu
F } hgo'4 n8]sf] ;xofqLnfO{ clxn];Ddsf] a:t'ut / /fhgLlts zf]w l6dsf cg';f/ ;j{gfzsf nflu lhDd]jf/ sof} 36gfx¿ lkmnxfn
lagf nfh ;/d jfbn sd/]8n] jf/]G6 hf/L dfq ug{' ePg cj:yf x]bf{ s]lk cf]ln, 1fg]Gb| / jfbn dflg;sf] a;df 5}g . Oltxf;nfO{ x]g]{ xf] eg] yfxf x'G5 ls vuf]nLo jf
sdn yfkf aGg] ef/tLo of]hgfx? e'ueL{o kl/jt{g / clwsf+z hLj phfl8Psf 5g\ . @) s/f]8 jif{ klxnf
ljleGg ldlt / :yfgaf6 g]skfsf g]tfsfo{stf{nfO{ lu/ˆtf/ ;f/ g} hgtf dfyL r/d bdg ePsf] 6«fOPlzs–h'/fl;s sfnsf qmddf klg oxL eof] . k|fk] m];/ 8glxnsf cg';f/–
eGgnfO{ lxrlsrfpg' kg]{ sf/0f 5}g .
ug],{ em'§f d'2f nufpg] sfddf pxfF ;s[o eP/ nfUg' ePsf] oltv]/ g]skfnfO{ dfq xf]Og c?
o:tf hLj of] kl/l:yltx¿sf cg';f/ :jodnfO{ lgs} lta|tfsf ;fy 9fNg
kfPgg\ / tL nf]k ePÚ 6«fOPlzs–h'/fl;s sfnsf *) k|ltzt hLjg
s'/f :ki6 g} 5g\ . h'g;'s} /fhgLlts bn / JoltnfO{
zflGtk'0f{ cfGbf]ng ug{ ;d]t k|ltjGw kl/jt{gsf] anL ag] .
o'4 n8]sf k|r08 afa'/fd, ls/0f, u/]sf] k|r08nfO{ cWoIf dfGb} pxfsf] ;xefuL x'g lj/f6gu/ k'Ug' ePsf nfpg] sfd /fHon] u/]/ nf]stfGqsf] oBlk dxfljgfzsf tL 36gfx¿ ;do laTb} hfg] qmddf ;':t eP .
jfbn, ljKnjx? !) jif{sf] dxfg kf6L{ k|jz
] ug{e ' of] . o;lardf y'k}| g]skfsf g]tfx? x]dGt k|sfz cf]ln, cfj/0fdf kmfl;jfb nfbg nflu k/]sf] oxL sf/0f xf] ls sf]xL / ;l/;[k k|hfltsf sof} hLj ar] . /, km]l/ lj:tf/}
hgo'4 !( lbg] cfGbf]ng klxnf] pQf/ r9fjx? klg eP . kbd /fO{nufPt #)) o'jfx¿nfO{ 5 . t/ aGb'ssf] andf zf;sx? lj:tf/} qmlds ljsf;sf ;fy} :tgwf/L / kG5L ag] . lat]sf 36gfx¿sf]
;+ljwfg ;efsf] lgjf{rg;Dd ;+u} ;+ljwfghf/L eP;+u} :yfgLo lgsfosf] lgoGq0fdf lng] sfd klg jfbn s} w]/} nfdf] ;do l6s]sf] Oltxf; 5}g . cfwf/df glthf lgsfNg] xf] eg] cfufdL dxfljgfzdf ;a}eGbf a9L gf]S;fg
/x]sf ;xofqLx? cfh km/s km/s lgjf{rg klg ;lsof] . cfh oxL ;lqmotf ePsf] lyof] . pxfFnfO{ ljleGg kl5Nnf] ljZj /fhgLltnfO{ x]bf{ dflg;s} x'g]5 . 8glxn eG5g\–@) s/f]8 jif{ klxnf km'6]sf Hjfnfd'vLn]
kf6L{df 5g . k|r08, afa'/fdn] ;D;bLo Joj:yfsf] u[ x dGqL cf/f]kx? nfufOP klg kl5 ef]hk'/ Oltxf;df slx st} gem'ss ] f] cd]l/ls jfo'd08ndf w]/e } Gbf w]/} sfa{g 8fOcS;fO6 / u|Lg xfp; Uof; 5f8]sf] 5,
qmfGtLk|lt u2f/L u/]sf] / g]kfnL /fdaxfb'/ yfkf jfbn x'g'x'G5 eg] lhNnf cbfntn] ;fdfGo w/f}6Ldf l/xf ;fd|fHojfb pQ/ sf]l/of;ª klxnf] o;sf sf/0faf6 k|f0f3fts Unf]an jfld{ª a9]sf] 5 . tYo of] 5 ls xfdL
hgtfnfO{ wf]sf lbPsf] eGb} g]q ljqmd ljKnj a}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf] lglDt u¥of] . clxn] klg g] s kfsf k6s em's]sf] 5 . o;n] s] s'/f dflg;sf] ultljlwx¿af6 To:t} cj:yf tof/ ul//x]sf 5f}, Tof] klg
rGb ljKnjsf] kxndf @)^( ;fndf PsLs[t hgqmfGtLsf] sfo{lbzf lnP/ g]tfsfo{stf{nfO{ o'4sflng cj:yfdf k|dfl0ft u5{ eg] ca ;fd|fHojfb / ;dosf] t'ngfdf sof} u'gf lta|tfsf ;fy .
klxnf] k6s cflwsfl/s ?kdf kf6L{ lg/Gt/ qmflGtsf] ofqfdf x'g'x'G5 . em} lg/Gt/ w/ks8 ug],{ a]kQf agfpg], ltgsf dltof/x? sdhf]/ alg;s] / dflg;s} sf/0f clxn] k|s[lt ljgfz eO;s]sf] 5 / sof} k|hfltx¿
laefhg x' b f ls/0f, jfbn, ;+of]u egf} of lgof]lht jfbn sd/]8 em'§f d'2f nfufpg] sfo{ eO/x]sf] 5 . sDo' l g:6 cyf{ t \ dfS;{ j fbLx? nf]k x'g] afWo eO;s]sf 5g\ . k|f]km];/ 8glxnsf cg';f/ s'g} klg c?
ljKnjx?;ª} x'g'x'GYof] / k|r08nfO{ u[xdGqL ePsf] ef]lnkN6 g} ljKnj g]skfsf sf]l; Jo'/f] OGrfh{ ls/0f /fO{, zlQm;Gt'ngdf cfO ;s] eGg] s'/f k|hfltsf] t'ngfdf dflg; w/tLdf ;a}eGbf a9L km}lnPsf] 5, …tkfO{+ eGg
nfn u2f/ 3f]if0ff ug]{ dfG5] jfbn sd/]8sf] gfddf jf/]G6 hf/L ul/of] . o' j f /] 8 kmf] ; { s f cWoIf ljjz k|i6 a'‰g ;lsG5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf ;lsG5 ls xfdL olt 7'nf] If]qdf km}lnPsf 5f} ls qmlds ljsf;sf] 7'nf]
cfkm}F x'gx' G' Yof] . bf];f| ] ;+ljwfg;efsf] of] ;ª} /fhgLltn] cem k]lrnf] df]8 /fO{ n fufot g] t f sfo{ s tf{ n fO{ s]kL, jfbnsf] lg/+sz ' z}nL slt lbg 36gfdf xfd|f] k"0f{¿kdf ;kmfof x'g] 5}g . t/ ;+;f/sf] clwsf+z cfjfbL
lgjf{rg k|ltufdL xf] eg]/ alxisf/ of ?k lnPsf] 5 . ;ª} hgo'4 n8]sf] /fhgLlts cf:yfsf] cfwf/df aGbL l6S5 Tof] rflx x]b{} hfg'k5{ t/ /fHo
clxn] klg cfxf/, kfgL / pmhf{sf nflu k|fs[lts ;+zf;gdf lge{/ 5 .
ug{df klg jfbn sd/]8 cfkm}F ;s[o ;xofqLnfO{ lagf nfh ;/d jfbn agfPsf] 5 eg] ev{/} sf7df8fFd } f cft+sn] ;Ldf gf3]kl5 hgtf k|ltsf/
eP/ nfUg' eof] . ;D;bLo sd/]8n] jf/]G6 hf/L dfq ug{' ePg ljleGg kf6L{af6 g]skfdf k|jz ] ug]{ ug{ afWo x'g5 ] g\ . cfh;Dd hgtfsf] k|sl[ tdf x'g] 7'nf] pynk'ynsf] c;/ dflg;df lglZrt ¿kdf gsf/fTds
Joj:yfaf6 hgtfsf] d'lQm gx'g] eGb} ljleGg ldlt / :yfgaf6 g]skfsf ;fyLx¿nfO{ :jfut ug]{ sfo{qmdaf6 zlQmn] xf/]sf] Oltxf; 5}g . x'g5] .
8 @)&% ;fnk|= c;f/
sf= lh= sf= b= @$
g+= ut] cfOtaf/
!^#÷@)^#÷^$

k| r 08===== nufOPsf] 5 . bnfn / nflu lgs} g} r'gf}tLk"0f{ aGg ;S5 . x'g] cj:yfn] ;+;ßf ePsf] ax'dtsf]
k"j{hgd'lQm ;]gf;Ddfg ub}{ ls/0fn]
;f] s'/f atfPsf x'g\ . pgn] k|r08–
hdLGbf/x?af6 g} ;'s'Daf;Lx?sf]
p7Laf; nufOPsf] 5 . a}b]lzs
/, g] k fnn] cGt/f{ l i6« o k/df0f'
;Demf}tfx?df ;d]t Wofg lbg'kg]{
andf b]z / hgtfsf jf:tljs
d'2fx¿nfO{ kG5fP/ cs"t ;DklQ
‘lgif]wf1f lkmtf{ gul/P s8f ;+3if{’
x:tIf]k, bnfnL / e|i6frf/sf ;fy} l:ylt cfpg ;Sg] lj1x? atfpF s'DNofpg] / ;Qfdf 6fFl;O/xg] ;kgf sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ -qmflGtsf/L dfcf]jfbL_ ;dly{t b]zeQm
s]kL g]t[Tjsf] -g]skf_ sDo'lg:6 hgu0ftflGqs df]rf{, g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo cWoIf ;LkL uh'/]nn] sf7df8f}F
gePsf] ;d]t 7f]s'jf u/]sf 5g\ . o; k|sf/sf ljs[lt / lj;+ultsf] lj/f]w 5g\ . tyflk o'/]lgod pTvgg eof] b]vs ] f ;+;b\jfbL n'6/] fx¿sf nflu,
ug]{ kf6L{ / To;sf g]tf sfo{stf{ dfly / To;nfO{ cGt/f{li6«o ahf/df a]Rg ;fdflhs bnfn k'h F LjfbLsf nflu g]kfn pkTosf nufot && j6} lhNnfsf ljleGg efudf cf]nL ;/sf/n] hf/L
ls/0fn] hgtfsf] alnbfgdf 6]s]/ u/]sf] lgif]wf1fsf] s8f lj/f]w ub}{ lgif]wf1f lkmtf{ gul/P To;sf lj?4
clxn] bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yfdf 8'as ] f] x:tIf]k / bdg ug]{ t/ v'nc ] fd o; ;lsof] eg] To;af6 g]kfnnfO{ 7"nf] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] r'gf}tL safkmdf x•L
k|sf/ cj}w wGbf ug]{ / b]z n'6g\ x] ?nfO{ kmfObf x'g ;S5 . c/a /fi6«x? t]n ag]sf] 5 .Æ s8f ;+3if{ ug]{ r]tfjfgL lbPsf 5g\ . uh'/n ] åf/f hf/L jQmJodf lj/f]w ug{
atfpFb} qmflGt ;DkGg ug{ c;n kfpg] ;+ljwfg k|bQ hgtfsf] df}lns clwsf/ vf]:g] u/L hf/L ul/Psf]
sDo'lg:6x? Psh'6 x'gk' g]{ atfP . ;+/If0f ug{n ' ] of] /fHo lab]zL bnfn / a]r/] wgL ePh:t} g]kfn klg wgL hgtfnfO{ ;8sdf af]Ng ;d]t /f]s
e|i6frf/Lx?s} kIfdf ePsf] s'/f k'li6 x'g ;Sg] sltkosf] bfaL 5 . nufP/ cf]nL ;/sf/ k~rfteGbf cem lgif]wf1fn] ;dfhjfbsf] cfwf/ tof/ kfg]{ axfgfdf cf]nL ;/sf/n] ;fdflhs
k|r08 g]kfnL hgtfsf] qmflGt / kmfl;jfb nfb\g vf]h]sf] df]rf{sf] k"jf{g'dfg ;fljt u/fPsf] 7f]s'jf ul/Psf]
kl/jt{gsf] n8fO{Fdf vngfos ag]/ ub{5 . cf]nL===== kmfl;jfbL aGb} uPsf] atfP s~rgn]
ev{/} ;DkGg lhNnf hgkl/ifb lj1lKtdf eg]sf 5g\ . pgn] g]tf l/xf 5 . uh'/]nåf/f hf/L jQmJodf elgPsf] 5, …cfˆgf hglj/f]wL s/t'tx?
b]vf ePsf] pgsf] egfO{ 5 . pgLx?s} …oL dfux¿ ljut nfdf] ;dob]lv pbflËg] eoaf6 u|:t of] k|lts[ofjfbL ;/sf/n] cfˆg} ;+ljwfgsf] wf/f !&
clxn]sf] ;/sf/n] klg hgtfnfO{ afFsn ] ] lhNnfsf] ofjt ;d:ofx?dfly gu/] hgk|lt/f]w ;+3if{df hfg afWo
s8f lgu/fgL a9fpg'sf ;fy}, o:tf b]zsf hNbfaNbf ;d:of /xL cfPsf x'g] r]tfjgL ;d]t lbPsf 5g\ . -@_ -s_ / -v_nfO{ ;d]t nTofpFb}, lgif]lwt If]qsf] 3f]if0ff u/]/ hgtfsf]
aGb's b]vfP/ t;f{pg vf]h]sf] eGb} 5g\ / hgtfn] u/]sf x/]s cfGbf]ngdf df}lns xs dfly xdnf ug]{ gLlt cl3 ;f/]sf] 5 . s'g} klg axfgfdf
o;n] qmflGtnfO{ yk an k'¥ofpg] vfn] ;a} k| s f/sf hglj/f] w L …xfd|f] kf6L{n] p7fPsf d'2fx¿ b]zdf
ultljlwx?sf] uDeL/ cg';Gwfg / bnfn k'h F LjfbLx¿af6 af/Daf/ wf]sf, x'g] cfd"n /fhgLlts kl/jt{gaf6 k"/f hgtfsf df}lns xs vf]:g] sfdnfO{ :jLsf/ ug{ ;lsGg . To;sf/0f,
atfP . pgn] k"jh { gd'lQm ;]gfnfO{ if8\oGq, bdg / ult/f]w xFb' } cfPsf] b]zsf ljleGg efudf lgif]lwt If]q 3f]if0ff u/L ;Lldt 7fpFx?df dfq hDdf
;+ul7t agfP/ qmflGtsf] nflu cfwf/ 5fgljg u/L e08fkmf]/ ug],{ bf]ifLnfO{ ul/g] ljifo x'g\ / of] dfu p7fpg] g]tf
sfjf{xL / cfd hgtfnfO{ Gofo k|bfg 5 . bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;DaGwdf rn]sf] / sfo{stf{x¿sf] lu/ˆtf/L / e"m§f eO{ k|bz{g ug{ kfpg] h'g lg0f{o ul/Psf] 5, o;nfO{ cljnDa vf/]h u/L
tof/ kfg{s ' f] ljsNk g/x]sf] atfpFb} g]kfn ;/sf/ clxn] cfˆg} gLlt / hgtfsf] clwsf/nfO{ s'l07t gug{ ;/sf/;Fu hf]8bf/ dfu ub{5f}+ . olb
hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] ;fdYo{ / Oltxf; ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . hgcbfnt d'2fx¿sf] kmGbf nufP/ ;dfwfg x'g
dfkm{t cGofodf k/]sf hgtfnfO{ Gofo gf/fsf] kmGbfdf n6\sg k'us ] f] ;a}nfO{ ;Sb}gg\ . slyt jfdsf gfddf ag]sf] To;f] ul/Pg eg] o;sf la?4 s8f ;+3if{ ul/g] s'/fsf] klg hfgsf/L
b]v/] ;/sf/ cft+lst ePsf] atfP . huhfx]/ 5 . tTsfnLg dfs]–Pdfn] u/fpg rfxG5f}+ .Ú
dxf;lrj ls/0fn] hgo'4df ePsf] lbg] hf/L sfo{nfO{ yk k|efjsf/L ;fdflhs bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;/sf/n]
agfpg] lg0f{o klg lnOPsf] . ;fy}, u7aGwgn] ax'dtsf] ;/sf/ ag]sf] hgtfdflysf] lu/ˆtf/L, w/ks8, g]tf ;f+ ; bb] l v pRr k| z f;sx¿nfO{ 5g\, t/ To;nfO{ g]kfnsf qmflGtsf/L
hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] of]ubfg slxNo} e'Ng cj:yfdf b]zdf l:y/tf, zflGt, ;d[l4
gx'g] / yk ;zQm agfpg'kg]d { f hf]8 hg;/f]sf/;Fu ;DalGwt ;a}sfddf / sfo{stf{x¿ y'g5]s u/L ;d:of s/f]8f}+sf] k|nf]egdf kf/]/ nfes/ hgtfn] c;kmn kfl/5f8\g] 5g\ .Ú
hgkl/ifb afFs] b[9tfk"js { cl3 a9g] / ;dfhjfb cfpg] cfZjf;g lbPsf] ;dfwfg x'G5 eGg] 7fg]sf] 5 eg] Tof] ltg{af6 Pg;]nnfO{ /f]Sb} cfPsf 5g\ . s§] n n] eg] , …ha b] z df
lbP . hgo'4sf ;lxb / a]kQf of]4fsf] lyof] . clxn]sf] e"d08nLs[t k'h F Ljfb
;kgf k"/f ug]{ bfloTj cfk"mx?dfly lg0f{ox? lnOPsf] klg ;DalGwt ;a}df p;sf nflu eoÍ/ dxFuf] x'g5 ] . Pg;] n sf] d' V o nufgLstf{ qmflGtsf/Lx¿sf] g]tT[ jdf zlQmzfnL
hfgsf/L ul/G5 . ;fy}, xfd|f] of] tyf pQ/;fd|fHojfbL ljZj kl/j]zdf …nf]stGqÚ sf] gf/f lbP/ nf]stGqsf] PlShP6fsf] Joj:yfkg x] g ] { hgcfGbf]ng p7\g5] , To;}sf] andf cf]nL
cfPsf] pgsf] egfO{ 5 . ;fd|fHojfbL Psflwsf/sf] s7k'tnL
g]skf -dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|_ ;+of]hs Gofok"0f{ cleofgdf nfda4 x'g tyf :j3f]lift dl;xf 7fGg] bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;ltznfnsf] ;d"x /l;og efOh/sf] ;/sf/ w'nf]lk7f] x'g5 ] .Ú cf]nL ;/sf/
;fy, ;dy{g / ;xof]u ug{ lhNnfaf;L g]kfnsf] bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;Qfsf] cGTo ;Qfn] Psflt/ ;Qf¿9 bnsf k'/fgf] ;d"x;Fu ldn]/ sn afOkf;df rf}tkmL{ ¿kdf PlSnPkl5 lgs} k/flht
uf]kfn ls/fFtLn] clxn]sf] bnfn gu/Lsg lbOPsf ;+;b\jjfbLsf jrg
;/sf/n] g} k"j{hgd'lQm ;]gfnfO{ cfd Gofok|d] L hg;d'bfo Pj+ ;DalGwt …hglgjf{lrtÚ k|ltlglw / g]tfx¿nfO{ ;+nUg /x]sf] Pg;]n ;|ft] bfjL u5{ . dfgl;stf af]s/] g]skf ljKnjsf g]tf
;a}df xflb{s cfXjfg ub{5f}+ .Æ clxn] pgLx¿s} 6fpsf]df ad eP/ ;d]t kf6L{sf s7k'tnLsf ¿kdf Jojxf/ Pg;]nn] k|ljlw x:tfGt/0f P]gcGtu{t sfo{stf{dfly bdg / w/ks8sf]af6f]
;lqmo / ;+ul7t x'g] jftfj/0f lj:kmf]6 x'g] cj:yf cfPsf] 5 . hgtfn]
agfO/x]sf] atfP . b]zaf6 ;fdGtL o;}aLr, g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] ub}{ ;bgdf af]Ng k|ltalGwt u/]sf] 5 /x]/ /l;og / ch/a}hfgsf Xofs/ ;dfpg k'us ] f] 5 .
o'jf ;+u7g o'y /]8 kmf];s { f s]lGb|o b]Vg] / a'‰g] u/L of] tYo :ki6 ePsf] / csf]l{ t/ slyt sfg'gx¿ kfl/t ub}{ tyf lecf]cfO{kL lu/f]xnfO{ g]kfn o;}aLr, g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf
zf;g / tfgfzfxL Joj:yf eTsfpg 5– bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yfn] ;+;ßf
hgo'4df ;lxb / a]kQf of]4fn] sf]iffWoIf lbg]zn] ufpF–ufpFaf6 bnfn hgtfnfO{ ;8sdf af]Ng / hgtfdf leqofO{ u}/sfg'gL sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf] g]tf sfo{stf{x¿dfly cf]nL ;/sf/n]
/ e|i6x?nfO{ nv]6g\ /f]NkfnL o'jfnfO{ b'Ol{ txfO ax'dt x'bF f klg g hgtfsf] ;Dk|]if0f ug]{ ;ef–h'n';x¿dfly ;d]t aflx/ cfPsf] 5 . ljb]zL Jofks bdg / w/ks8 ug{yfn]kl5
alnbfg / Tofu u/]sf] :d/0f u/fpFb} ;fj{ef}ldstfsf] /Iff ug]{ l:ylt agfpg
;lxb / a]kQfsf] ;kgfdfly k|r08n] lgb]z{ g lbPsf 5g\ . of]ª /]8 kmf];s { f] k|ltalGwt ub}{ nu]sf] 5 . o;n] k|fljlws leq\ofpg] gfddf ^ dlxgf;Dd gful/s ;dfh, dfgjclwsf/jfbL
t];|f] lhNnf;Dd]ngsf nflu /f]Nkf ;s]sf] 5, g t hgtfsf hNbfaNbf g]kfnsf] ;Qf ljutsf] k~rfoteGbf ljgf >d :jLs[lt sfd ug{ nufO{ ;+3;+u7gx¿n] To;sf] tLj| ¿kdf
wf]sf lbPsf] atfP . ca b]zdf ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg ug]{ . ;/sf/
qmflGt p7\g] ls/fFtLsf] wf/0ff 5 . k'u]sf lbg]zn] hgo'4df /f]NkfnL cem kmfl;jfbL aGb} uPsf] 5 / Pg;]nsf s]xL pRr sd{rf/Ln] lj/f]w / eT;{gf ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ .
o'jfx¿n] v]ns ] f] e"ldsfsf] pRr k|z; + f ag]bl] v b]zdf ce"tk"j{ ¿kdf dxFuL p;af6 /f0ff zf;gsf] rl/q b]vfpg] PlShP6f;Fu ldn]/ sn afOkf;sf] hgo'4sf qmddf tTsfnLg dfcf]jfbL
x/]s ;d"bfo /fHosf clwsf/sf] a9]sf] 5, e|i6frf/ / t:s/L a9]sf]
b[li6sf]n] ;a}lt/ k5fl8 kfl/Psf] ub}{ casf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtdf klg l:ylt aGb} uPsf] 5 . ;/sf/sf] sfd ub}{ cfO/x]sf] ;|ft] sf] bfjL 5 . / ;/sf/nfO{ jftf{sf nflu va/bf/L
/f]Nkfn] lg0ff{os e"ldsf v]Ng] ck]Iff 5 . b] z sf pBf] u L, Jofkf/L / o;k|sf/sf] rl/q b]lvg' b]zsf] cfrfo{sf] ;d"xn] 5f]6f] ;dodf cs't ug]{ gful/s ;dfhsf cu'jf 8f
eGb} ;+3if{df hfg'sf] ljsNk g/x]sf] pBdzLn hgtfsf] 9f8 ;]Sg] u/L
atfP . u/] . a}1flgs ;dfhjfbsf lglDt gjcf} k lgj] l zs cj:yf x' g ' / ;DklQ sdfpg'nfO{ klg pgLx? sn ;'Gb/dl0f bLlIftn] clxn] cf]nL ;/sf/n]
cfk"mx? lg/Gt/ nl8/x]sf] atfpFb} s/df j[l4 ul/Psf] 5 . hgtfsf ;fd|fHojfbL pTkL8gdf b]z kg{s ' f] afOkf;df ;+nUg /x]sf] cfwf/ b]lvg] g]skfsf g]tf sfo{stf{dfly eO/x]sf]
hgqmflGtsf dxfg zlxb kl/jf/ b}lgs pkef]usf j:t'df csNkgLo
;dfh g]kfnsf s]Gb|Lo ;+of]hs pgn] To;sf lj?4 pleg] ;a} sf/0f xf] eGg] xfd|f] kf6L{sf] 7x/ 5 . Pg;] n sf Ps pRr sd{ r f/L bdg / w/ks8sf] lj/f]w u/]sf 5g\ .
k|sf/sf tTjnfO{ l7s kfg{ b]z}e/ ¿kdf d"No j[l4 ul/Psf] 5 . ljutsf] t/ b]zsf ljBdfg /fli6«otf, hgtGq, atfpF5g\ . ;ltznfnnfO{ k|x/L b]lv jt{dfg ;+ljwfgn] g} zflGtk"0f{ ;ef,
s0f{ h lt a' 9 fyf] s L …;' l znÚ n] gjcf}klgj]lzs ;Qfsf] lg/Gt/tfdf
;/sf/n] hgo' 4 n8] / b] z af6 /]8 kmf];{ yk ;zQm aGb} uPsf] hghLljsfsf ;d:ofx¿ ;dfwfg ug{ g]tf / cbfnt;Dd ;]l6ª ldnfpg] h'n'z ug{ lbg] clwsf/dfly oxL
pNn] v u/] . ;of} + qmflGtsf/L hgtfn] ;‹if{ u/L NofPsf] u0ftGqdf /fhgLlts ;'ema'emsf] k|of]u u/L bnfn x'g\ bLks ltldlN;gf . s'g} ;do ;/sf/n] pNn+3g ul//x]sf] eGb}
;fdGtL /fhtGq kmfNg ;kmn ;d]t gful/ssf nflu :jf:Yo, lzIff
k"jh{ gd'lQm ;]gfsf] of]ubfgnfO{;Ddfg o'jfx¿sf] pT;fxk"0f{ hd36 /x]sf] ultzLn lgsf; lgsfNg'sf] ;§f u}/ cfjfl;o g]kfnL pk]Gb| dxtf]sf gful/s cu'jf 8f= bLlIftn] tLj| cfqmf]z
/]8 kmf];{sf] lhNnf;Dd]ng /f]Nkfsf] / /f]huf/L /fHosf] bfloTj geP/ kmfl;jfbsf] cEof; u/L qmflGtsf/L sd{rf/L /x]sf ltldlN;gfn] g} ;jf]R{ r JoQm u/] . bLlIftn] ;/sf/nfO{ o:tf
ug{ clegGbg sfo{qmdn] ;xof]u hgtfs} /ut r':g] b]zL tyf ljb]zL
k'¥ofpg] atfP . b]zdf a9\b} uO/x]sf] Ol/afªdf ;DkGg ePsf] xf] . df};dL kf6L{ / hgtfnfO{ tx nufpg] ;kgf cbfntdf ;]l6ª ldnfO{ Pg;]nnfO{ ^% xs{t /f]Sg cfu|x ;d]t u/]sf 5g\ .
k|lts'ntfnfO{ lrb}{ afhfufhf / dflkmofsf] Jofkf/ ag]sf] 5 . slyt of] ;/sf/n] b]vs ] f] 5 eg] ljutsf] cj{ nfes/ ltg{af6 /f]sfPsf x'g\ . bLlIftn] eg] -…ljKnj g]skfnufot
c/fhQmf / /fi6« 3 ftsf sf/0f ;+ljwfgsf] sfof{Gjog / ;/sf/ ag]bl] v
k"j{hgd'lQm ;]gfsf] sfFwdf gofF emfFsL;lxt o'jfx¿n] ¥ofnL lgsfn]sf Oltxf;df h:t} p;sf nflu of] eoÍ/ ;':tfaf;Ln]==== h'g;'s} kf6L{4f/f cfof]hgfdf x'g]
lyP . ;f] lhNnf;Dd]ngn] k[YjLsf] hgtfn] kfpg] 7fpF s]xL geP/ /fHonfO{ b'::jKg x'g5] . xfd|f] kf6L{ bnfn k'h F LjfbL
lhDd]jf/ yk]sf] atfP . lhDd]jf/L lbgsf nflu P3f/ ;ob]lv b'O{ xhf/ cfk"mx?n] gx/sf] l8n eTsfPsf zflGtk"0f{ sfo{qmddf k|x/L x:tIf]k, bdg
k"/f ug{ g]skf -dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|_ ;b}j cWoIftfdf @% ;b:oLo lhNnf ;Qf / ;fdflhs bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;':tfaf;Lsf] egfO{ 5 . ;':tf ufpFkflnsf / w/ks8 /f]lsgk5{ . lu/ˆtf/ ePsf
sfo{;ldlt lgjf{lrt u/]sf] 5 . k|ltzt;Dd s/ yf]kl/Psf] 5 . lzIff, ;/sf/af6 g]kfn /fi6« / g]kfnL
tof/ /x]sf] / ;+ul7t agfpg] sfd :jf:Yo, /f] h uf/L / hgtfsf] j8f g+ @ sf eLd Gof}kfg]n] wfgv]t ;a}nfO{ l/xf ul/g'k5{ .Ú hgo'4 /
tLj|tf al9/x]sf] atfP . kf/dfl0fs===== cfTd;Ddfgdf dflkmofs/0f ul/Psf]
hgtfdfly x'g] s'g} klg /fi6«3ft, 8'afgdf k/]sf] cfk"mx?;Fu gx/ hgcfGbf]ng u/]/ cfPsf kf6L{sf
k| r 08–cf] n L bnfn ;+ ; bLo Pp6f ljz]if lgodgsf/L lgsfo u7g e|i6frf/, t:s/L, hglj/f]wL xs{tsf] eTsfpg'sf] ljsNk gePsf] atfP . g]tfx¿ clxn] ;Qfdf x'g] / pgLx¿n]
5Ú lj1lKtdf pNn]v 5 . lj/f]w ub{5 . xfd|f] kf6L{ hgtfsf] d'lQm
Joj:yfdf km;]sf] / g]kfnL sfFu|]; x'g]5 . To;}n] g} kf/df0fljs kbfy{ b]zsf a]lrPsf k|fs[lts ;fwg kfgLsf] lgsf; gePkl5 gePsf] ;d]t g} cfˆg} lxhf]sf ;xsdL{x¿nfO{ bdg
lh0f{ ag]sf] a]nf gofF qmflGtsf/L / k| l jlwsf] ;b' k of] u sf nflu / k|ultsf] afws x'g] ;+;bsf] x/]s atfP . gx/ ag]bl] v g} 8'afg a]xf]b{} u/]/ hfg]af6f] canDag ug{' lgs} b':vb
;|ft] / e"–efuaf/] af]Ng g;s]sf sf/0f sfdx¿sf] k|ltjfb / k|lt/f]w ug]{ k|0f
zlQmn] hgtfsf] ;Qf ;DxfNg'kg]{ a]nf lgodgsf] sfd ug]5 { ,Ú k|jQmf ;'jb] Ln] cf]nL ;/sf/ 5f]6} ;dodf abgfd cfPsf ls;fgx¿n] @)$(–%) ePsf] gful/s cu'jf 8f= bLlIftsf]
cfO;s]sf] pgsf] egfO{ lyof] . eg], …of] P]g lgs} cfjZos eO;s]sf] ub{5 . xfd|f] kf6L{ /fli6«o :jfwLgtf, ;fnb]lv g} ;‹if{ ub}{ cfPklg cem};Dd egfO{ 5 . tTsfnLg dfn] -Pdfn]_n]
ePsf] atfP s~rgn] lj1lKtdf /fli6«o Pstf, hgtfsf] j}1flgs
sfo{qmddf /fhg a'9fyf]sL, l/df, lyof] .Ú of] P]g cfPkl5 o'/]lgod atfPsf 5g\ . pgn] dflyNnf] s0ff{nL, ;d:of ;/sf/L :t/af6 ;dfwfg ePsf] k+rfotL Joj:yfsf lj¿4 cfGbf]ng ubf{
sfdf{, k]df nfdf, hl6n sfsL{nufot pTvgg dfq} geP/ c:ktfnx?nfO{ ;dfhjfbsf lj?4 bnfn ;+;bLo 5}g . ut jif{ klg v]t hndUg cfk" m x¿n] tTsfnLg zf;s;F u
c?0f–#, lnk'n]s, ;':tf, dx]zk'/, Joj:yfn] yf]kg]{ ;+;b\jfbsf lj?4
;lxb kl/jf/ / k"jh { gd'lQm ;]gf u/L ljb] z af6 cTofw' l gs /] l 8P;g sfnfkfgL, sf]zL pRr afFwnufotdf ePkl5 u08s gx/sf] l8n cfGbf]ngsf/Lx¿nfO{ bdg gug{
kfF r bh{ g nfO{ ; Ddfg clegGbg d]l;gx? Nofpg;d]taf6f] v'Ng] 5 . hf]8bf/ k|lt/f]w ub{5 . t;y{ of] ls;fgx¿n] eTsfOlbPsf lyP . ;xhstf{sf] e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] Oltxf;
cfjfh p7fpg / k|lt/f]w ug{ cfˆgf] ;/sf/n] clxn] sf7df8f}aF f6 lu/ˆtf/
ul/Psf] lyof] . pgLx?n] hgo'4sf] lsgeg] kf/df0fljs kbfy{;DaGwL P]g kf6L{ cfjZos ePsf] atfpFb} s~rgn] :yfgLo ls;fgx¿sf] o:tf] sf]§ofpb} 8f= bLlIftn] clxn] cf]nL
g]tT[ jsf u2f/Lsf sf/0f cw'/f] ag]sf] gx'bF f pRr /]l8PlS6e kfj/ ePsf u/]Psf kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:o sd/]8 cj1fkl5 8' a fgaf6 k| e fljt cfGbf]ngnsf/L g]skfnfO{ bdgsf]af6f]
eg]sf 5g\, …5f]6} ;dodf g]kfnsf] bnfn cf]dk|sfz k'g, s]xL lbgcufl8
qmflGtnfO{ ;DkGg ug{ h:tf];'s} d]l;g Nofpg afwf k/]sf] 5 . P]g k'h
F LjfbL ;Qf hgtfsf] cfFvfdf gfË]emf/ ls;fgx¿nfO{ Ifltk"lt{ pknAw u/fpg] /f]Hg' cgf}7f] ePsf atfP . hgo'4sf
e"ldsf lgjf{x tof/ /x]sf] atfP . ag]kl5 ca c:ktfnx?n] Ps / b'O{ lu/ˆtf/ k/]sf kf]ln6Ao'/f] ;b:oåo ;xdlt ePsf] lyof] . t/, ;':tf qmddf cfk"mx¿n] ;+s6sfnnfO{ s'g}
ePsf] 5 . ;/sf/L nfrf/Llj?4 sd/]8 kbd /fO{, e/t ad / s]xL
hgcbfntdfkm{t\===== u|]8sf cTofw'lgs d]l;gx? Nofpg /fli6«otfsf] ;+j4{g ug]{ cfGbf]ngsf ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf /fdk|;fb kf08]sf k|jfx gu/]/ Toqf] e"ldsf k"/f u/]sf]
klgaf6f] v'Ng]5 . o:tf d]l;gsf] dlxgf cufl8 ;'g;/Laf6 lu/ˆtf/ cg';f/ ls;fgx¿n] cfh;Dd klg cfk"mx¿n] clxn] pg} cfGbf]ngsf/L
afWo 5g\, cy{tGq gfh's cj:yfdf ¿kdf lj/f6gu/sf] cglws[t ef/tLo k/]sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o sd/]8 ls/0f
5 / Jofkf/ 3f6f / j}b]lzs C0f b?kof]u ePdf cf0fljs xltof/;Dd SofDk x6fpg g]kfnL hgtfnfO{ g]kfn Ifltk"lt{ gkfPsf]n] cfqmf]lzt ePsf zlQm ;Qfdf k' u ] / km] l / k" / fgf
pTkfbg x'g] ePsfn] pTkfbsx?n] g} /fO{nufot ;Dk"0f{ sd/]8x¿nfO{ d'Qm 5g\ . lj ;+ @)!^ df u08s gx/sf] zf;sx¿sf]af6f] k5\ofpg' lgs}
olt r/d 5 ls sd{rf/Lsf] tna sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] ;‹if{ cfjZos ag]sf] u/f];\ . ;/sf/af6 bdgsf] k|lqmofnfO{
lbg klg C0f lng' kg]{ cj:yf ;[hgf kf/df0fljs P]g gePsf d'n'snfO{ 5 . b]zsf a]lrPsf k|fs[lts ;Dkbfsf] lgdf{0f;Fu} gx/sf] tn / dfly /x]sf] b'vnfUbf] ePsf] bLlIftn] b'v; ] f] kf]v] .
tL d]l;gx? a]Rg] u/]sf 5|g} g, h;n] lg/Gt/tf lbOG5 eg] To;n] hgtfsf] emG8} $% ;o laufxf v]tLof]Uo e"ld / o;}u/L, g]kfn jf/ Pzf]l;o;gsf
ePsf] 5 . /Iff ug{, dflyNnf] s0ff{nL, c?0f tLg, k| l t/f] w afx] s c¿ s' g } rLh
afFs] lhNnf klg o;af6 c5'tf] ubf{ g]kfnsf c:ktfnx? df/df kb}{ dflyNnf] d:of{ªb\ L– b'O,{ sf];L pRr s}of}F 3/x¿ jif]g{ L 8'afgdf kb}{ cfPsf] s]Gb|Lo cWoIf z]/axfb'/ s];Ln]
cfPsf lyP . of] P]g cfPkl5 aGg] lgDTofpg]5g} . xfd|f] kf6L{ o;k|sf/sf :yfgLojf;Lx? atfpF5g\ . Ifltk"lt{sf ;+ljwfgn] g} lbPsf] zflGtk"0f{ ;ef
5}g\ . ufpF–ufpFdf l;+xb/af/sf] gf/fn] afFwnufot ;Dk"0f{ /fi6«sf ljifodf ;/sf/L xs{ t lj?4 Jofks
cfh l;+xb/af/sf ;a} ljs[lt :yfgLo lgofds lgsfon] g} b] z leqsf cfjfh p7fpg / k|lt/f]w ug{ g]kfn nflu k6sk6s cfGbf]ng / ;xdlt h'nz ' dfly cf]nL ;/sf/n] bdg /
o'/l] god vfgLx?sf] ;+/If0fsf] of]hgf hgk|lt/f]wdf pqg afWo x'gk' g]5 { Æ x'Fb} cfPsf] eP klg ;d:of eg] w/ks8 u/]/ ;+ljwfgsf] g} pNn+3g
txdf cfPsf] 5 . :yfgLo lgsfox? sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ cfjZos ePsf] 5 . lj1lKtdf pNn]v ul/Psf] 5 .
cfdhgtfsf] kIfdf xf] O g ls agfpg] 5 . kf/df0fljs k|ljlwx?nfO{ To:t} u/L g]kfnsf RoflkPsf / bf]xf]l/O/fv]sf] 5 . gx/sf] l8n u/]sf] cf/f]k nufPsf 5g\ . ljBdfg
;Qfwf/Lx?sf] xflnd'xfnLsf] s]Gb| klg sfg'gsf] bfo/fdf NofP/ s[lif rf]l/Psf e"efux¿, lnk'ns ] , sfnfkfgL, Pg;] n ===== eTsfPklg :yfgLoaf;L ef/tLo kIfn] ;+ljwfgn] zflGtk"0f{ ;ef, h'nz ' /
ag]sf 5g\ . …cfkmF} af]S;L, cfkm}F wfdLÚ tyf kz'kfngsf If]qdf gofF k|ljlwx? lnlDkofw' / f, ;' : tf dx] z k' / ,
dfubfjL ub}{ cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ yk b'Mv lbg ;Sg] cfz+sf u/]sf 5g\ . lx88'n ug{ df}lns :jtGqtf lbPsf]
eg] h:t} cfh :yfgLo slyt Nofpg k|fT] ;fxg ug]{ 5 . dxfsfnLnufot c;LeGbf a9L :yfgsf]
ePsf] l;cfO{jLsf] /]s8{af6 v'Ng pgLx?n] cfk"mx?nfO{ ;/sf/n] g} ;xof]u eGb} cWoIf s];Ln] ljKnj g]skfsf g]tf
hgk|ltlglwx? cfkm}F bnfn, 7]s]bf/, oxL lgofds lgsfon] o'/l] godsf] /Iff ug{, To;af/] cfjfh p7fpg,
cfPsf] 5 . u/]sf] atfpFb} cfPsf 5g\ . :yfgLon] sfo{stf{x¿nfO{ lu/ˆtf/ u/]/ cf]nL
e|i6frf/L, sfnf]ahfl/of / t:s/ ;+/If0f, pTvgg\, e08f/0f, pkof]u hgtfnfO{ /fhgLlts hfu?stf lbg
Pg;]nn] d'ns' e/ ;a}eGbf a9L g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf dxf;lrj ;/sf/ lg/+sz ' ag]sf] atfP . cWoIf
ag]/ sdfpwGbf rnfO/x]sf 5g\, / lgof{tsf] of]hgf agfpg] 5 . / oL cGt/f{ l i6« o ljifonfO{
u|fxs /x]sf] bfaL ul//x]sf a]nf sn ljKnjnfO{ cfˆgf] ;d:ofdf ;fy lbg s];Ln] cfk"mx¿ ;w} nf]stGq /
:yfgLo lgsfo, k|zf;g / bnfnx?sf] o'/]lgod ljZj ahf/df lgs} dxFuf] cGt/f{li6«os/0f ug{ b]zsf nflu g]kfn
afOkf;df Pg;]nsf l;dsf8{ a9L cfu|x u/]sf 5g\ . ut jif{sf 8'afg dfgjclwsf/sf] kIfdf /x]sf]n] clxn]
ldn]dtf]df ;a}vfn] cj}w wGbf / kbfy{ dflgG5 . g]kfn ;/sf/n] sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ rflxPsf] 5 . Psflt/ k|of]u ePsf] v'Nbf ;d]t l;cfO{aLn] x'bF f klg ad xfg]/ u08s afFw eTsfpg cf]nL ;/sf/n] ljKnj g]skfnufot
kf/df0fljs kbfy{ tyf k|ljlwsf] Pg;]n lj?4 s'g} sf/afxL ug{ ;s]sf] :yfgLo n] dfu u/]sf lyP . ljleGg kf6L{sf g]tf sfo{st{dfly
t:s/L e}/x]sf] 5 . ljsf; lgdf{0fsf] b'Ol{ txfO ax'dt, ;fd|fHojfbL cf8 / 5} g . Pg;] n sf] @) k| l tzt w/k8s u/]/ unt u/]sf] wf/0ff JoQm
gfddf ah] 6 dfkm{ t \ kxF ' r jfnf lgodg tyf ;+/If0f ;DaGwL P]g
agfPkl5 g]kfndf /x]sf] o'/]lgod
hgtfdfly bdgsf] b'irqmsf] ;xf/f lnFb} nufgLstf{ ;ltznfn cfrfo{ n ]
cf]nLsf]===== u/] . …xfdL ;w} 8]df]qm];Lsf] kIfdf 5f},+
sfo{stf{ kf]:g] sfd e}/x]sf] 5 . ;fdflhs bnfn k'h F LjfbL ;Qf hgtfaf6 k|wfgdGqL s]kL zdf{ cf]nL / ;"rgf lx6n/h:t} lg/+sz ' / kmfl;jfbL aGg 8]df]qm];Ldf df}lns xs eGgfn] zflGtk"0f{
hgtf dfly cgfjZos s/sf] af]em pTvggsf] dfu{kz | :t x'g] eP klg lt/:s[t x'bF } hfg] / csf]l{ t/ ;Qf¿9 pGd'v ePsf] eGb} g]skf cWoIf s§]nn] ;ef h'nz
ljZjsf zlQm/fi6« x ?sf] Wofg tyf ;~rf/dGqL uf]sn ' af:sf]6fnfO{ ' / lx88'n ug]{ :jtGqtf
yf]kl/Psf] 5 . lgod ljkl/t qm;/ kf6L{af6} b]zsf] cfd"n kl/jt{g ug{ xftdf lnP/ ^% ca{ $) s/f]8 ljKnj g]skfsf g]tf sfo{stf{ lu/ˆtf/ lbPsf] 5 .Ú, jf/sf cWoIf s];Ln] eg],
pBf]u rnfP/ jghËn / ufpFa:tL g]kfnlt/ tflgg ;Sg] vt/f klg b]ze/ xhf/f}F qmflGtsf/L g]tf, sfo{stf{ u/]/ cf]nLn] cfˆgf] lrxfg cfkm}F vg]sf] …;+ljwfgn] g} lbPsf] clwsf/nfO{ cf]nL
plQs} x'g] 5 . vf;u/L d':tfªsf] k'h
F Lut nfes/ ltg{ c6]/ ul//x]sf
phf8 agfOPsf] 5 . rsf] { / hgtf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] 5g\ . s/ 5nLsf d'Vo of]hgfsf/ 7f]sj' f u/] . …cf]nL ;/sf/n] lgjf{rgsf] ;/sf/n] pNn+3g u/]sf] 5, of] lgs}
Aofhdfkm{ t hgtfsf] p7Laf; o'/f]lgod vfgLsf] ;'/Iff g]kfnsf PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] sfo{lbzfdf w|j' Ls[t Wjf+z b]vfP/ kmfl;jfb nfb\g vf]lh/x]sf b'vb 5 .Ú
;ltznfn / ;lrgnfn cfrfo{n]
If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|åf/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
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