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You are on page 1of 90

Systems

SUBJECT: Safety and Precautions TITLE: Procedures and practices for

safety in the workshop

TRAINING AIMS:

� Providing and maintaining a working environment that is safe.

� Demonstrate the importance of personal protective wear

� Read and implement rules and regulations in safety

� Ability to use the fire extinguishers.

� Differentiate between different type of extinguishers

Precautions with electrical fire

DESCRIPTION OF TASK:

� Identify that the floors of the workshop should be covered with an insulating

material Draw

� Chose the right overcoat and the right size

� Identify the emergency exit door

� Locate the first aid box

-It will protect your body and holds lose clothing.

Page 1

5. Wear insulated gloves for hands so that it will

protect against burns and injuries.

10. Use hand tools carefully, keep both hands behind the cutting edges.

make sure that the power supply is switched off so that it prevents the

component from damage.

Page 2

12. Don't run or play in the workshop/laboratory.

15. Make sure of the availability and access to first aid kits, fire extinguishers,

emergency stop buttons, exits and other safety equipments.

Screw Drivers

Parts: Blade, Rod, Handle

Uses :To tighten and loosen the screws.

Tester

To test the current, voltage in the plug/Equipment.

Slide Cutter

For cutting the wires

Page 3

Pliers

Combination Pliers

Parts: Jaws, Hinges, Arms.

Used for gripping or holding tight

Nose Pliers

Used for shaping, bending and twisting wires

Punch Plier

Automatic stripper

Wire Stripper

Hammers

Page 4

Soldering Iron

Hacksaw

Spanner

Driller

• Place the tools after working in the corresponding tool box.

Electrician Knife

Page 5

EXTINGUISHERS:

� Fire extinguishers are first aid equipments for controlling and putting out small

fires before they become large ones.

� Rule of firefighting is

- To save lives and property

- To get yourself and your family to safety before attempting to stop any fire.

Classification of fires:

• Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids, including petrol, grease, and oil.

Water: Class A

Water stored pressure extinguishers cool burning material by absorbing heat from the

burning material.

Powder based fire extinguishers separate the four parts of the “fire tetrahedron”. This

prevents the chemical reaction between heat, fuel and oxygen and halts the production of

fire sustaining "free-radicals", thus extinguishing the fire.

Page 6

Foam: Class A & B

This extinguisher type, which is generally applied to fuel fires, forms a frothy blanket or seal

over the fire, thereby starving the fire of oxygen and cooling the fire through the

evaporation of the water content in the foam.

CO2 is a clean gaseous agent which displaces oxygen and cools the fire. This extinguisher is

not intended for Class A fires as the high-pressure cloud of gas can scatter burning

materials. It is also not suitable for use on fires which contain their own oxygen source,

metals fires or cooking fat fires, making this extinguisher unsuitable for kitchen fires.

Wet chemical fire extinguishers put out a fire by forming a soapy foam blanket over

burning oil and by cooling the oil below its ignition temperature. Generally used for class A

and class F fires, this type of extinguisher is ideal for commercial kitchen cooking fat fires.

This extinguisher type is not suitable for electrical fires.

Page 7

Stages of fire fighting:

Page 8

Alert at the time of fire

� If You Discover a Fire – remember the acronym RACE!

� Rescue anyone in immediate danger of the fire, if you can do so safely.

� Alert others and emergency services to the fire. Activate the building’s fire alarm,

if equipped. Yell “Fire” to warn occupants to evacuate.

� Call 9999 to alert the fire department and always call from a safe location away

from the fire.

� Contain the spread of fire by closing windows and doors as you evacuate the area

and building.

� Evacuate to a safe place outside; preferably a pre-arranged meeting place..

P.A.S.S

P - Pull the pin

A – Aim at the base of the fire

S – Squeeze the handle

S – Sweep the fire

Page 9

P.A.S.S - P - Pull the pin

� Pull the pin.

� Some models require you to remove a locking pin on

the handle or lever.

� Some models may have other lever-releasing mechanisms,

such as a button

� Aim low and direct the hose nozzle or cone

at the base of the fire.

� If aim at the flames, the extinguishing agent

will flow right through the flames, and be ineffective.

� The extinguishing agent must hit the base of the fire.

� Most portable fire extinguishers must be used from a distance of 1.8 to 3 meters

(6 to 10 feet) to be effective.

P.A.S.S- S - Squeeze

� Squeeze the lever above the handle to discharge the extinguishing agent.

� Releasing the lever will stop the discharge.

� Some models may have a button instead of a lever.

P.A.S.S- S - Sweep

� Sweep the nozzle or hose from side to side at the base of the fire.

� Moving carefully toward the fire, keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the

fire and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out.

� Never turn your back on a fire; watch the fire area in case the fire re-ignites, and

repeat use of the extinguisher if necessary.

Page 10

COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01

Systems

SUBJECT: Common electrical circuits TITLE: Electric quantities

TRAINING AIMS:

� Understand the meaning of different electric quantities (current, voltage,

resistor ).

� Calculate voltage , current , total resistance value

� Build simple circuit

� Calculate for branch currents of series-parrel

� Understand Ohms law , Kirchoff's theorems and Thevenin laws

DESCRIPTION OF TASK:

Basic quantities

1- Charge

Most matter is macroscopically electrically neutral most of the time. Exceptions:

clouds thunderstorm, people on carpets in dry weather, plates of a charged capacitor…

Microscopically, of course, matter is full of charges. The application of an electric field

causes charges to drift, or move. Electrons will naturally move from lower electric

potential to higher potential. The rate at which the charges move depends on the

magnitude of the potential difference and the properties of the matter.

Charge is measured in Coulombs. An electron has charge : -1.6 x 10-19 C.

CURRENT

2- Current

1 Ampere flow of 1Coulomb per second

Current is defined as flow of positive charge!

3- voltage :

Voltage is the difference “Vab” means the

in electric potential potential at a minus the

between two points. potential at b.

Page 11

4- Power

Transfer of energy per unit time (Joules per second = Watts) In falling through a

potential drop V>0, a positive charge q gains energy

Potential energy change = qV for each charge q

Power = P = V (dq/dt) = VI

Terra T 1,000,000,000,000 1012

Giga G 1,000,000,000 109

Mega M 1,000,000 106

kilo k 1,000 103

none none 1 100

centi c 1/100 10-2

milli m 1/1,000 10-3

micro µ 1/1,000,000 10-6

nano n 1/1,000,000,000 10-9

pico p 1/1,000,000,000,000 10-12

Page 12

Power and Energy Quiz

1. What is the power dissipated by a circuit that passes a current of 1.6A when a

voltage of 6V is connected across it?

a) 3.75 W

b) 9.6 W

c) 3.75 J

d) 267 mW

it?

a) 267 W

b) 6.67 W

c) 267 mW

d) 900 mW

3. How much power is dissipated by a 150 Ω resistor when a current of 100 mA flows

through it?

a) 1.5 W

b) 66.67 mW

c) 2.25 mW

d) 2.5 W

Page 13

4. A resistor is needed to reduce the voltage supplying a circuit by 7V when the circuit

draws a current of 100mA. Choose the best resistor for the job from the values below.

a) 700 Ω 2 W

b) 70 Ω 0.5 W

c) 680 Ω 5 W

d) 68 Ω 1 W

mA current at a voltage of 2 V for 30 minutes?

a) 20 mW

b) 36 J

c) 0.6 J

d) 600 mW

Page 14

1 OHM

It can be defined as "The amount of resistance that will produce a potential difference

(p.d.) or voltage of 1 Volt across it when a current of 1 Ampere flowing through it."

1 AMPERE

It can be defined as "The amount of current which, when flowing through a resistance

of 1 Ohm will produce a potential difference of 1 Volt across the resistance."

1 VOLT

resistance of 1 Ohm through which a current of 1 Ampere is flowing."

Ohm´s Law

Ohm´

Note that when using these formula the values of V I and R written into the formula must be in its BASIC

UNIT i.e. VOLTS (not millivolts) Ohms (not kilohms) and AMPERES (not micro Amperes )etc.

Page 15

Ohm

Ohm´´s Law Quiz (Resistance, Voltage and Current).

Current)

1. What will be the potential difference across a 50Ω resistor if a current of 500mA is

flowing through it?

a) 0.25 Volts

b) 25 Volts

c) 5 Volts

d) 50 Volts

a) 2.4mA

b) 416.67mA

c) 240mA

d) 416.67µA

3. What value of resistor will be needed to produce a current of 100mA when a voltage

of 12V is applied across the resistor?

a) 120Ω

b) 8K3

c) 1K2

d) 830

Page 16

4. What voltage will be developed across a 560Ω resistor if a current of 20mA is flowing

through it?

a) 11.2mA

b) 112 Volts

c) 112mA

d) 11.2 Volts

5. What current passing through 10kΩ resistor will produce a voltage of 8V cross it?

a) 800mA

b) 800µA

c) 8mA

d) 80µA

Page 17

Branchs and nodes

Branch: Elements connected end-to-end, nothing coming off in between (in series)

Kirchhoff

For any node sequence A, B, C, D, …, M around a closed path, the voltage drop from A to

M is given by :

V =V +V +V +V

AE AB BC CD DE

E

Node:

Kirchhoff’’s Current Law (KCL)

Kirchhoff

Sum of currents entering node = sum of currents leaving node

= ∑i out

i1+i2 = i3 + i4

Page 18

Resistances in series

V AB

=V T

= V 1 +V 2

+V 3

KCL tells us that all of the elements in a single branch carry the same current

current. We

say these elements are in series

series.

Current entering node = Current leaving node : iin = iout

We apply Ohms law on the circuit : ( V = R.I )

so we simplify by I we find V AB = RT . I = R1. I + R2 . I + R3 . I

R =R +R +R

T 1 2 3

Resistances in parallel

Parallel

Resistors are said to be connected together in "Parallel

Parallel" when both of their terminals

are respectively connected to each terminal of the other resistor or resistors.

In the following resistors in parallel circuit the resistors R1, R2 and R3 are all

connected together in parallel between the two points A and B as shown

R T R 1 R 2 R 3

since we have : V =V =V =V

T 1 2 3

1 1 1 1

= + +

R T R 1 R 2 R 3

Page 19

Example 1:

Using Ohms Law, calculate the equivalent series resistance, the series current,

voltage drop and power for each resistor in the following resistors in series circuit.

All the data can be found by using Ohm's Law, and to make life a little easier we can

present this data in tabular form.

1-Theocratical : Compete the table

Resistance Current Voltage Power

R1 = 10Ω I1 = V1 = P1 =

R2 = 20Ω I2 = V2 = P2 =

R3 = 30Ω I3 = V3 = P3 =

RT = IT = VS = PT =

2- Practical : Build the circuit on the breadboard, and compete the table :

R1 = 10Ω I1 = V1 = P1 =

R2 = 20Ω I2 = V2 = P2 =

R3 = 30Ω I3 = V3 = P3 =

RT = IT = VS = PT =

3- Comment :

.....................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................

Page 20

Example 2: R1=1K Ω

R2=100 Ω

R4=5.6K

R3=10K Ω

2- calculate the theoretical value of :

� RT (theor ) = ..............................................................................................

.................................................................................................................

.................................................................................................................

� I T (theor ) = ..............................................................................................

� I (theor ) =...............................................................................................

1

� I (theor ) = ...............................................................................................

2

� RT ( pract ) =.................................

� I ( pract ) = ...................................

T

Page 21

Resistor Circuits Quiz

a) 831Ω

b) 1.83KΩ

c) 831KΩ

d) 151KΩ

2-

a) 10KΩ

b) 5.5KΩ

c) 454Ω

d) 2KΩ

a) 10.8KΩ

b) 3.3KΩ

c) 6.63KΩ

d) 18.3KΩ

Page 22

Potential Divider Network

Example

Calculate the voltage across X and Y.

a) Without RL connected

b) With RL connected

Page 23

Thevenin's theorem

Thevenin's theorem states that any circuit consisting of resistors and EMFs has an

equivalent circuit consisting of a single voltage source VTH in series with a single

resistor RTH.

The concept of "load" is useful at this point. Consider a partial circuit with two output

points held at potential difference Vout which are not connected to anything. A

resistor RL placed across the output will complete the circuit, allowing current to flow

through RL. The resistor RL is often said to be the "load" for the circuit. A load

connected to the output of our voltage divider circuit is shown in Fig. 2

The prescription for finding the Thevenin equivalent quantities VTH and RTH is as

follows:

� For an "open circuit" ( R L → ∞ ), then VTH = Vout .

V TH

� For a "short circuit" ( R L

→ 0 ), then R TH

=

I short

The basic procedure for solving a circuit using Thevenin's Theorem is as follows:

� 1. Remove the load resistor RL or component concerned.

� 2. Find RS by shorting all voltage sources or by open circuiting all the current

sources.

� 3. Find VS by the usual circuit analysis methods.

� 4. Find the current flowing through the load resistor RL

Page 24

COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01

Systems

SUBJECT: Common electrical circuits TITLE: Common electrical

components

TRAINING AIMS:

• Read and interpret schematic symbols of resistor

• Test resistors

• Read and interpret schematic symbols of capacitor

• Test capacitors

• Differentiate between different types of coils and transformers

• Construct series-parallel resistive circuit with DC source voltage

• Construct capacitive and inductive circuit with AC source voltage

• Test LCR circuit using oscilloscope and signal generator

DESCRIPTION OF TASKS:

Resistor construction

Because resistors are "passive components" they cannot amplify or increase voltages

currents or signals, they can only reduce them. Nevertheless they are a most essential

part of any electronic circuit..

Page 25

The Standard Resistor Colour Code Chart.

Yellow Violet Red = 4 7 2 = 4 7 x 102 = 4700 Ω or 4.7 KΩ .

4700Ω

Page 26

Find theoretical value using the colour code

Page 27

Surface Mount Resistors

4.7k

4.7kΩΩ SMD Resistor

Surface Mount Resistors or SMD Resistors, are very small rectangular shaped metal

oxide film resistor. They have a ceramic substrate body onto which is deposited a thick

layer of metal oxide resistance. The resistive value of the resistor is controlled by

increasing the desired thickness, length or type of deposited film being used and highly

accurate low tolerance resistors, down to 0.1% can be produced. They also have metal

terminals or caps at either end of the body which allows them to be soldered directly

onto printed circuit boards.

Surface Mount Resistors are printed with either a 3 or 4-digit numerical code which is

similar to that used on the more common axial type resistors to denote their resistive

value. Standard SMD resistors are marked with a three-digit code, in which the first

two digits represent the first two numbers of the resistance value with the third digit

being the multiplier, either x1, x10, x100 etc. For example:

"103" = 10 × 1,000 ohms = 10

kiloΩ´s

"392" = 39 × 100 ohms = 3.9

kiloΩ´s

"563" = 56 × 1,000 ohms = 56

kiloΩ´s

"105" = 10 × 100,000 ohms = 1

MegaΩ

BS 1852 Codes for Resistor Values

0.47Ω = R47 or 0R47

1.0Ω = 1R0

4.7Ω = 4R7

47Ω = 47R

470Ω = 470R or 0K47

1.0KΩ = 1K0

4.7KΩ = 4K7

47KΩ = 47K

Page 28

The Capacitor :

� The dielectric can be made of many insulating materials such as air, glass, paper,

plastic etc.

� A capacitor is capable of storing electrical charge and energy.

� The higher the value of capacitance, the more charge the capacitor can store.

� The larger the area of the plates or the smaller their separation the more charge

the capacitor can store.

� A capacitor is said to be "Fully Charged" when the voltage across its plates equals

the supply voltage.

� The symbol for electrical charge is Q and its unit is the Coulomb.

� Electrolytic capacitors are polarized. They have a +ve and a -ve terminal.

� Capacitance is measured in Farads

Farads, which is a very large unit

so micro-Farad ( µ F ), nano-Farad ( nF ) and pico-Farad ( pF ) are

generally used.

The basic construction and symbol for a parallel plate capacitor is given as:

that has the code 473J printed onto its body. Then the 4 =

1st digit

digit, the 7 = 2nd digi

digit, the 3 is the multiplier in

pico-Farads, pF and the letter J is the tolerance and this

translates to:

Then by just using numbers and letters as codes on the body of the capacitor we can easily

determine the value of its capacitance either in Pico-farad's, Nano-farads or Micro-farads

Page 29

1- Film Capacitor

Radial Lead Type Axial Lead Type Film Capacitors Ceramic Capacitors

2/ Variable Capacitor

3/ Electrolytic Capacitors

Charge on a Capacitor

Volts)

Page 30

Capacitors in Parallel

In the following circuit the capacitors, C1, C2 and C3 are all connected together in a

parallel branch between points A and B as shown.

Then we can define the total or equivalent circuit capacitance, CT as being the sum of

all the individual capacitances add together giving us the generalized equation of

Page 31

Capacitors in Series

Consider the following circuit in which the three capacitors, C1, C2 and C3 are all

connected together in a series branch across a supply voltage between points A and B.

The voltage drop across each capacitor will be different depending upon the values of

the individual capacitances. Then by applying Kirchoff's Voltage Law, ( KVL ) to the

above circuit, we get:

Since Q = CV or V = Q/C, substituting Q/C for each capacitor voltage VC in the above

KVL equation gives us

Page 32

The inductor

Inductor Symbols

An Inductor is nothing more than a coil of wire wound around a central core. For

most coils the current, ( i ) flowing through the coil produces a magnetic flux, ( NΦ )

around it that is proportional to this flow of electrical current.

milli m 1/1,000 10-3

micro µ 1/1,000,000 10-6

1/1,000,000,0

nano n 10-9

00

16. Where:

17. L is in Henries

18. N is the Number of Turns

19. Φ is the Magnetic Flux Linkage

20. Ι is in Amperes

Page 33

Inductors in Parallel

The voltage drop across all of the inductors in parallel will be the same. Then,

Inductors in Parallel have a Common Voltage across them and in our example

below the voltage across the inductors is given as:

VL1 = VL2 = VL3 = VAB ...etc

In the following circuit the inductors L1, L2 and L3 are all connected together in parallel

between the two points A and B.

The sum of the individual currents flowing through each inductor can be found using

Kirchoff's Current Law (KCL) where, IT = I1 + I2 + I3 and we know from the previous

tutorials on inductance that the self-induced emf across an inductor is given as: V = L

di/dt

Then by taking the values of the individual currents flowing through each inductor in

our circuit above, and substituting the current i for i1 + i2 + i3 the voltage across the

parallel combination is given as:

We can reduce it to give a final expression for calculating the total inductance of a

circuit when connecting inductors in parallel and this is given as

Page 34

Inductors in Series

Inductors in series are simply "added together" because the number of coil turns is

effectively increased, with the total circuit inductance LT being equal to the sum of all

the individual inductances added together.

The current, ( I ) that flows through the first inductor, L1 has no other way to go but

pass through the second inductor and the third and so on. Then, inductors in series

have a Common Current flowing through them, for example:

The sum of the individual voltage drops across each inductor can be found using

Kirchoff's Voltage Law (KVL) where, VT = V1 + V2 + V3 and we know from the

previous tutorials on inductance that the self-induced emf across an inductor is given

as: V = L di/dt.

So by taking the values of the individual voltage drops across each inductor in our

example above, the total inductance for the series combination is given as:

By dividing through the above equation by di/dt we can reduce it to give a final

expression for calculating the total inductance of a circuit when connecting inductors in

series and this is given as:

L =L +L +L

T 1 2 3

Page 35

The Transformer

Where:

• VS - is the Secondary Voltage

• NP - is the Number of Primary Windings

• NS - is the Number of Secondary Windings

• Φ (phi) - is the Flux Linkage

Example

A voltage transformer has 1500 turns of wire on its primary coil and 500 turns of wire

for its secondary coil. What will be the turns ratio (TR) of the transformer.

Page 36

Quiz

• a) A laminated iron cored inductor.

• b) A ferrite cored inductor.

• c) A preset inductor.

• d) An air cored inductor.

inductor's core?

• a) The material of the core.

• b) The material and size of the core.

• c) The shape and size of the core.

• d) The shape, size and material of the core.

•

encountered in electronic circuits?

• a) henrys.

• b) milli-henrys.

• c) henrys and milli-henrys.

• d) milli-henrys and micro-henrys.

•

4. What is the primary voltage applied to the transformer illustrated in Fig 11.6.1?

• a) 90V

• b) 18V

• c) 62.5V

• d) 0.4V

5. What is the value of current flowing through the resistor R in Fig 11.6.2 ?

• a) 240mA

• b) 6.7mA

• c) 18mA

• d) 125mA

Page 37

6. Refer to the diagram of an autotransformer in Fig. 11.6.3. If the voltage across A

and D is 230V, what will be (approximately) the voltage across A and B?

• a) 20V

• b) 4.5V

• c) 9.6V

• d) 11.4V

proportional to which of the following?

• a) Cross sectional area of the core and the length of the flux path.

• b) Cross sectional area and Permeability of the core

• c) c) Cross sectional area and Reluctance of the core.

• d) Permeability of the core and the length of the flux path.

• a) The distance between the plates

• b) The area of the plates

• c) The dielectric strength

• d) The charge multiplied by the applied voltage

� a) A preset capacitor

� b) An electrolytic capacitor

� c) A variable capacitor

� d) A ganged capacitor

10

10. As a capacitor charges

• a) Electrons gather on the negative plate and displace electrons from the positive

plate.

• b) Electrons flow across the dielectric layer until the capacitor is fully charged

• c) Electrons gather on the positive plate displacing electrons from the negative

plate.

• d) Current only flows through the capacitor for a short time.

Page 38

Serries-Parallel DC Circ

Se uits

rcu

Obje

bjecctive

This exercise will involve the analysis of basic series-parallel DC circuits with

resistors. The use of simple series-only and parallel-only sub-circuits is examined

as one technique to solve for desired currents and voltages.

Schematics

Sch

circuit1

circuit2

Proc

Proceedure

in parallel with R3. Determine the theoretical voltages at points A, B, and C with respect to

ground. Construct the circuit. Set the DMM to read DC voltage and apply it to the circuit from

point A to ground. Repeat the measurements at points B and C, determine the deviations, and

record the values

2. Applying KCL to the parallel sub-network, the current entering node B (i.e., the current

through R1) should equal the sum of the currents flowing through R2 and R3. These currents

may be determined through Ohm’s Law and/or the Current Divider Rule. Compute these

currents and record them . Using the DMM as an ammeter, measure these three currents and

record the values along with deviations .

3. Consider the circuit of circuit 2. R2, R3 and R4 create a series sub-network. This

sub-network is in parallel with R1. By observation then, the voltages at nodes A, B

and C should be identical as in any parallel circuit of similar construction. Due to the

series connection, the same current flows through R2, R3 and R4. Further, the

voltages across R2, R3 and R4 should sum up to the voltage at node C, as in any

similarly constructed series network. Finally, via KCL, the current exiting the source

must equal the sum of the currents entering R1 and R2.

Page 39

4. Build the circuit of circuit 2 with R1=1

1=1kk, R2 =2

=2..2k, R3 =4.7

=4.7kk, R4 =6.8k

=6.8k,,E=20

E=20vv

Using the series and parallel relations noted in Step 3, calculate the voltages at

points B, C, D and E. Measure these potentials with the DMM, determine the

deviations, and record the values

5.Calculate the currents leaving the source and flowing through R1 and R2. Record

these values Using the DMM as an ammeter, measure those same currents,

compute the deviations, and record the results

Data Tables

Voltage Theory Measured Deviation Current Theory Measured Deviation

VA R1

VB R2

VC R3

Circuit 1 Circuit 1

VB Source

VC R1

VD R2

VE

circuit 2

circuit 2

5. How would the voltages at A and B in circuit.1 change if a fourth resistor equal to

10 k was added in parallel with R3? What if this resistor was added in series with R3?

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Page 40

Network Calculations Quiz

a) 183mA

b) 5.46mA

c) 12mA

d) 2.4mA

2.

2.What is the value of the component current I1 in circuit 2?

a) 1.25mA

b) 800mA

c) 1.25A

d) 1.26µA

3.

3.Calculate the value of I2 in Circuit 2

a) 148mA

b) 148µA

c) 6.7mA

d) 39µA

Page 41

4.

4.Calculate the total resistance RTOT of Circuit 3

a) 1.36KΩ

b) 278Ω

c) 1.15KΩ

d) 319Ω

5.

5.What is the value of I1 in Circuit 3?

a) 500mA

b) 8.7mA

c) 21.3mA

d) 47mA

6.

6.Calculate the value of I2 in Circuit 3

a) 6.8mA

b) 21µA

c) 21mA

d) 14.7mA

a) 36mA

b) 8.7mA

c) 47mA

d) 6.8mA

Page 42

8. Calculate the potential difference VR2 across R2 in Circuit 4

a) 3V

b) 2.5V

c) 3.3V

d) 4.5V

a) 1.5mA

b) 1mA

c) 751µA

d) 500µA

a) 7.2KΩ

b) 5KΩ

c) 3.3KΩ

d) 33KΩ

Page 43

Sinusoidal Waveform

Then the generalized format used for analyzing and calculating the various values of

a Sinusoidal Waveform is as follows:

The sine wave therefore is a mathematical function and a naturally occurring shape, it is

also the basis of many other wave shapes and is therefore the most important waveform

in the study of AC theory. Other important wave forms commonly encountered in

electronics are;

• The Square wave:

• The Triangular wave:

• The Saw-tooth wave:

The PEAK TO PEAK value is the vertical distance between the top and bottom of the

wave. It will be measured in volts on a voltage waveform, and may be labeled VPP or

VPK−PK. In a current waveform it would be labeled IPP or IPK

PK− −PK

PK−

2- Instantaneous Value

This is the value (voltage or current) of a wave at any particular instant. often chosen to

coincide with some other event. The instantaneous value of a sine wave one quarter of

the way through the cycle will be equal to the peak value.

Page 44

3- Amplitude

The AMPLITUDE of a sine wave is the maximum vertical distance reached, in either

direction from the center line of the wave. As a sine wave is symmetrical about its center

line, the amplitude of the wave is half the peak to peak value, as shown

4- Peak value

The PEAK value of the wave is the highest value the wave reaches above a reference

value. The reference value normally used is zero. In a voltage waveform the peak value

may be labeled VPK or VMAX (IIPK or IMAX in a current waveform).

The PERIODIC TIME (given the symbol T) is the time, in seconds milliseconds etc. taken

for one complete cycle of the wave. It can be used to find the FREQUENCY of the wave

1

F using the formula T =

F

The AVERAGE value. This is normally taken to mean the average value of only half a

cycle of the wave. If the average of the full cycle was taken it would of course be zero,

as in a sine wave symmetrical about zero, there are equal excursions above and below

the zero line. Using only half a cycle, as illustrated , the average value (voltage or

current) is always 0.637 of the peak value of the wave.

VAV = VPK x 0.637 or IAV = IPK X 0.637

The RMS or ROOT MEAN SQUARED value is the value of the equivalent direct (non

varying) voltage or current which would provide the same energy to a circuit as the sine

wave measured.

If VAV (0.637) is multiplied by 1.11 the answer is 0.707, which is the RMS value. This

difference is called the Form Factor of the wave, and the relationship of 1.11 is only true

for a perfect sine wave. If the wave is some other shape, either the RMS or the average

value (or both) will change, and so will the relationship between them. This is important

when measuring AC voltages with a meter as it is the average value that most meters

actually measure. However they display the RMS value simply by multiplying the

voltage by 1.11. Therefore if the AC wave being measured is not a perfect sine wave the

reading will be slightly wrong. If you pay enough money however, you can buy a true

RMS meter that actually calculates the RMS value of non-sine waves.

Page 45

9- The Mains (Line) Supply

To demonstrate some of these characteristics in use, consider a very common sine

wave, the mains supply or line waveform, which in many parts of the world is a nominal

230V.

Electrical equipment that connects to the mains supply always carries a label giving information

about what supply the equipment can be connected to. These labels are quite variable in

appearance, but often there is a picture of a sine wave showing that an a.c. supply must be

used. The voltage quoted will be 230V (or 120V in the USA)or range of voltages including these

values. These voltages actually refer to the RMS value of the mains sine wave. The label also

states that the frequency of the supply, which is 50Hz in Europe or 60Hz in the USA.

From this small amount of information other values can be worked out:

b. The AVERAGE value of the waveform, as VAV = VPK x 0.637

c. The PEAK TO PEAK value of the waveform. This is twice the AMPLITUDE, which

(because the mains waveform is symmetrical about zero volts) is the same value as VPK.

Because VPK is already known from a. it follows that VPP = VPK x 2

1

d.The PERIODIC TIME which is given by T=

F

Page 46

AC Waves Quiz

1. If a sine wave has a RMS voltage of 12volts, what will be its Peak-to-Peak voltage?

• a) 33.9V

• b) 8.484V

• c) 16.9V

• d) 15.3V

2. What is the peak value of a sine wave whose VAV value is 15V ?

• a) 19V

• b) 9.5V

• c) 21.2V

• d) 23.5V

• a) An AC signal is any complex wave

• b) Has a rapidly changing voltage and a steady current

• c) Has values that change above and below a particular level

• d) An AC signal is always repetitive

• a) ...has many harmonics"

• b) ...is a complex wave"

• c) ...consists of a fundamental only"

• d) ...always has the same frequency"

• a) 2kHz

• b) 500Hz

• c) 2MHz

• d) 50Hz

• a) Periodic time

• b) Amplitude

• c) Frequency

• d) RMS value

7. With reference to Fig 1.3.1, if the level labeled X has a value of 2V what is the value

labeled B?

• a) The Root Mean Squared value.

• b) The Amplitude.

• c) The Average value.

• d) The Peak value.

Page 47

8. In Fig 1.3.2, how many complete cycles are shown?

• a) 2

• b) 3

• c) 4

• d) 7

• a) VRMS

• b) VMAX

• c) The Form Factor

• d) VAV

• a) It consists of a fundamental and an even number of harmonics.

• b) It consists of a fundamental and a number of even harmonics.

• c) It consists of a fundamental and a number of odd harmonics.

• d) It never has a DC component.

Page 48

AC through a Series R + L Circuit

Consider the circuit below was a pure non-inductive resistance; R is connected in series

with a pure inductance, L.

Where ,

Example

A coil has a resistance of 30Ω and an inductance of 0.5H. If the current flowing through

the coil is 4amps. What will be the value of the supply voltage if its frequency is 50Hz?

Page 49

AC through a Series (R + C) Circuit

Consider the circuit below where an ohmic resistance, R is connected in series with a

pure capacitance, C.

As VR = I.R and VC = I.XC the applied voltage will be the vector sum of the two as follows.

impedance, Z of the circuit.

Example

A capacitor which has an internal resistance of 10Ω's and a capacitance value of 100uF is

connected to a supply voltage given as V(t) = 100 sin (314t). Calculate the current

flowing through the capacitor. Also construct a voltage triangle showing the individual

voltage drops.

Page 50

Then the current flowing through the capacitor and the circuit is given as:

The analysis of a series RLC circuit is the same as that for the dual series RL and RC

circuits we looked at previously, except this time we need to take into account the

magnitudes of both XL and XC to find the overall circuit reactance. Series RLC circuits

are classed as second-order circuits because they contain two energy storage

elements, an inductance L and a capacitance C. Consider the RLC circuit below.

Page 51

Instantaneous Voltages for a Series RLC Circuit

By substituting these values into Pythagoras's equation above for the voltage triangle

will give us:

Example

A series RLC circuit containing a resistance of 12Ω, an inductance of 0.15H and a

capacitor of 100uF are connected in series across a 100V, 50Hz supply. Calculate the

total circuit impedance, the circuits current, power factor and draw the voltage phasor

diagram.

Page 52

Capacitive Reactance, XC.

Circuit Impedance, Z.

Circuits Current, I.

The fact that resonance occurs when XL = XC allows a formula to be

constructed that allows calculation of the resonant frequency (ƒr) of a circuit

from just the values of L and C. The most commonly used formula in electronics

for the series LCR circuit resonant frequency is:

Page 53

Application :

R= 100 Ω , C= o.o1 µ F , L= 100mH

Use the function generator for Vin ( 2.5 v AC , F=60Hz )

Solve

1- connect the output to the oscilloscope

2- chang the frequency and write your comment

3- Draw the wave form output

Page 54

The Parallel RLC Circuit

The Parallel RLC Circuit is the exact opposite to the series circuit we looked at in the

previous tutorial although some of the previous concepts and equations still apply.

However, the analysis of parallel RLC circuits can be a little more mathematically

difficult than for series RLC circuits so in this tutorial about parallel RLC circuits only

pure components are assumed in this tutorial to keep things simple.

This time instead of the current being common to the circuit components, the applied

voltage is now common to all so we need to find the individual branch currents through

each element. The total impedance, Z of a parallel RLC circuit is calculated using the

current of the circuit similar to that for a DC parallel circuit, the difference this time is

that admittance is used instead of impedance. Consider the parallel RLC circuit below.

Parallel RLC Circuit

Page 55

Impedance of a Parallel RLC Circuit

Example

A 50Ω resistor, a 20mH coil and a 5uF capacitor are all connected in parallel across a 50V,

100Hz supply. Calculate the total current drawn from the supply, the current for each

branch, the total impedance of the circuit and the phase angle. Also construct the current

and admittance triangles representing the circuit.

Page 56

3). Impedance, ( Z ):

Page 57

COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01

Systems

SUBJECT: Common electrical circuits TITLE: Basic tools and equipments

TRAINING AIMS:

� To interpret specifications for function generators.

� To learn the operational controls of function generators.

� To explain the concepts relating to grounding of oscilloscopes.

� To produce a waveform on an oscilloscope graticule.

� To analyze the effects of manipulating various typical oscilloscope controls.

� To manipulate a waveform so as to optimize its appearance.

� To evaluate a variety of basic oscilloscope waveforms.

� To operate vertically-related oscilloscope controls.

� To operate typical horizontally-related oscilloscope controls.

� Test the capacitor

� Test the resistor

� Test the coil

� Test the transformer

DESCRIPTION OF TASKS:

Page 58

Page 59

Page 60

TESTING RESISTANCE

for the resistor test Testing resistor with

digital multimeter

Page 61

TESTING FUSE :

is working

A fuse

Set to buzzer to test fuse . If the fuse is good X1 ohms

you will hear a sound

Pointer should go up

side of LCD monitor power supply Set to X1

ohm

A bigger coil can be check with LCR meter

A small coil can be test with an analog multimeter

Page 62

TESTING TRANSFORMER Pointer should not

go up

Primary Secondary

windin winding

g

to X10K ohms

Check for any short circuit between the primary and the secondary

winding . It should not show any reading under X1OK ohms

TESTING CAPACITOR :

Use a resistor to discharge capacitor leads

capacitor

Page 63

Use LCR meter to test capacitor

470 µF capacitor

470 µF capacitor

Negative pin

capacitor pin negative capacitor positive pin

Page 64

COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01

Systems

SUJECT: Soldering/Desoldering regular and TITLE: Soldering/Desoldering techniques

surface mount

TRAINING AIMS:

� Prepare and use the proper hand tools

� Prepare the main device/project to be soldered

� Ability to sold the parts mounted on a printed circuit board

� Work on soldering of surface-mounted electrical components

DESCRIPTION OF TASKS:

Practical Activity

This practical activity will introduce you to assembly soldering practices. It will enable

you to experience different soldering techniques. You will be required to identify and

load various electronics components to a printed wiring board. These components must

be correctly mounted and terminated using either the straight through or

semi-clinched lead termination method. Discuss the acceptance standards with the

teacher.

Practical Objectives

At the end of this practical activity you will be able to:

• Identify various electronic components.

• Clean, bend and mount on the board various electronic components using suitable

bending techniques as learned in the soldering practice unit.

• Terminate leads with semi-clinched and straight through lead terminations to

specified lengths.

• Solder, using the appropriate flux and solder, with respect to the specified

standards.

• Assess the quality of your solder terminations and indicate to the teacher any that do

not meet the prescribed standard.

Page 65

1-Basic Irons

There are many basic pencil style irons that are suitable for job

use. But you will need one that is capable of heating the joints

quickly enough. Choose an iron with 25 watts at a minimum.

2- Better Irons

An adjustable temperature iron with a

little more power will give you a bit

more control and allow you to work

faster.

3- Best Irons

A professional-style temperature-controlled iron with

interchangeable tips and 50 watts or more of power is

a joy to work with. Feedback control keeps the tip

temperature at precisely the level you set.

� Stand 2- Solder

Standard 60/40 lead/tin

Rosin Core Solder is the

easiest type to work with.

4- Vise

A vise holds your work steady as you solder.

This is important for both safety and sound joints.

3- Diagonal cutter

Page 66

6- Solder Sucker

A Solder Sucker is very helpful tools for

removing excess solder or when you need to

de-solder a joint. As the name implies, this

device literally sucks the solder out of the

joint.

7- Solder Wick

Solder Wick is another way to clean

excess solder from a joint. Unlike the

solder sucker, the wick soaks up the

molten solder.

Warnings

� DO NOT lay a soldering iron down on any surface. A soldering iron should either be

placed on a stand or sealed with a heat resistant cap after every use. Note: Master

Appliance's line of soldering irons is butane powered. All of our irons come with heat

protective caps.

� Soldering should be completed in a well ventilated area.

� Lead is present in most solders. Be sure to wash your hands after your project, or

better yet wear gloves.

� The tip of a soldering iron is very hot. Contact with the tip of a soldering iron would

result in a nasty burn.

� Your soldering iron will perform better if kept clean. A damp sponge can be used to

clean residue caused by flux material. A very small skim of flux should be applied to

the iron after the cleaning.

Page 67

Preparation

Plug and/or turn on your soldering iron to warm up.

If you are using a temperature controlled iron, set

it to 700F/370C for 60/40 or 750F/400C for

lead-free solder.While the iron is heating dampen

the sponge with a little bit of water.

Wipe the tip of the hot iron on the damp sponge to

clean off any oxidation. Do not use files or abrasives

to clean the tip. It will damage the plating and ruin

the tip.

Apply a small amount of solder to the tip and wipe

again to tin the tip. You should have a thin, shiny

layer of molten solder on the tip of your iron. If the

tip is badly oxidized and difficult to tin, it can

usually be reconditioned with some tip-tinning

paste.

Dirt, oxidation and oily fingerprints can prevent

the solder from wetting the solder-pad to create

a solid joint. All boards are plated to prevent

oxidation, but if your board appears dirty from

storage or handling, wipe it down with a

little isopropyl alcohol

This is very important! The parts being joined must not

move during the soldering process. If there is any

movement as the molten solder is solidifying, you will

end up with an unreliable 'cold joint'.Most through-hole

components can be immobilized by simply bending the

leads on the solder-side of the hole.

Page 68

Making a good solder joint

Once you have prepared your tools and the joint to be soldered, making a good solder

joint requires just a few simple steps

Heat the joint with the tip of the iron. Be sure to heat both the

solder pad and the component lead or pin. A small drop of solder

on the tip will help to transfer the heat to the joint quickly.

Touch the end of the solder to the joint so that it contacts both the

solder pad and the component lead or pin. It should melt and flow

smoothly onto both the pin and the pad. If the solder does not

flow, heat the joint for another second or two and try again.

Let It Flow

Keep heating the solder and allow it to flow into the joint.

It should fill the hole and flow smoothly onto both the

solder pad and the pin or component lead.

Let It Cool

Once enough solder has been added to the joint and it has

flowed well onto both the component lead and the solder

pad, remove the iron from the joint and allow it to cool

undisturbed.

Use your diagonal cutters to trim the lead close to the

board.

Note: This step applies only to components with wire

leads. It is not necessary to trim the pins on Integrated

circuit chips or sockets.

Page 69

Surface Mount Components

The previous page showed how to make a good through-hole joint. But more and

more components are only available in surface mount form these days. Not all surface

mount packages are easily worked by hand, but there are plenty that can be managed

with the same basic tools used for through-hole soldering.

Let's start with a surface-mount part common to several kits: The SD Card Holder:

Unlike many surface mount components, immobilizing

the SD card holder is relatively easy. There are small pegs

on the back that fit into positioning holes in the board. Once it

is in place, solder the four small corner tabs to make it

permanent

Start by putting the tip of the hot iron on the solder pad

adjacent to the pin. The pad will take longer to heat, so we

apply most of the heat to the pad to start.

When the joint is hot, apply solder to the side opposite

the iron. The solder should melt and start to flow into the

joint.

4- Let it Flow

Apply just enough solder to ensure a good joint, and

then keep the heat on while the solder wicks up

between the pin and the pad to make a good electrical

bond.

5- Let it Cool

Remove the iron and allow the joint to cool undisturbed.

Page 70

Common Soldering Problems

The ideal solder joint for through-hole components should resemble the diagram below.

The photos that follow show some common soldering problems, with suggestions for

repair and prevention:

Lifted Pad

This photo shows a solder pad that has become detached from the

surface of the circuit board. This most often occurs when trying to

de-solder components from the board. But it can result simply from

overworking the joint to the point where the adhesive bond between

copper and the board is destroyed.Lifted pads are especially

common on boards with thin copper layers and/or no through-plating

on the holes.

It may not be pretty, but a lifted pad can usually be repaired. The

simplest repair is to fold the lead over to a still-attached copper trace

and solder it as shown to the left. If your board has a solder-mask,

you will need to carefully scrape off enough to expose the bare

copper.Other alternatives are to follow the trace to the next via and

run a jumper to there. Or, in the worst case, follow the trace to the

nearest component and solder your jumper to the leg of that. Not

exactly pretty, but functional

Page 71

Competency

For this practical activity competency will be considered to be achieved if:

• 90% of all terminations you make are to the standard taught in the soldering practice

unit (a minimum of ‘good’ must be achieved)

• during the process that you use to solder the components to the board no copper pads

are delaminated.

Tools

Only a minimum of tools are needed for most kits. These are:

• A 10 – 30 watt soldering iron with a 1.5 – 4 mm tip.

• A small pair of side cutters.

• A small pair of long nose pliers.

• Wire strippers or a knife.

• A few screwdrivers.

• A multimeter for testing or troubleshooting.

Page 72

COURSE TITLE: Basic Electricity and COURSE CODE: EECIM01

Systems

SUBJECT: Troubleshoot general AC and DC TITLE: General electric circuit

electric circuits troubleshoot

TRAINING AIMS:

� Examine basic electric circuits

� Construct different electric circuit

� Test and measure electrical quantities

� Analyze OPEN and SHORT electric circuit

DESCRIPTION OF TASKS:

leading to the ability to carry out calculations involving DC circuits, inductive circuits,

capacitive circuits and AC fundamentals

Current will only flow IN A CIRCUIT. That is, around a continuous path (or multiple

paths) from and back to the source of EMF. Any interruption in the circuit, such as an

open switch, a break in the wiring, or a component such as a resistor that has changed

its resistance to an extremely high value will cause current to cease. The EMF will still

be present, but voltages and currents around the circuit will have changed or ceased

altogether. The open switch or the fault has caused what is commonly called an OPEN

CIRCUIT.

Remember that wherever an open circuit exists, although voltage may be present

there will be no current flow through the open circuit section of the circuit. Also, as

Power (P) is V x I and the current (I) = 0, no power will be dissipated.

Looking further at the simple circuit used in Labeling Voltages and Currents let´s put

some actual voltages and currents in and see what happens under "Open Circuit"

conditions.

Use the drop down box below the following diagram to select a number of open circuit

conditions that might occur in different parts of the circuit. Notice how the voltages

and currents around the circuit change depending on where the break in the circuit

(the open circuit) occurs. Checking the voltages around a circuit with a voltmeter, and

noticing where they differ from what would be expected in a correctly working circuit,

is one of the main techniques used for tracing a fault in any circuit.

Page 73

1- Open Circuit Examples.

Fault 1

................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................

Page 74

Page 75

2- Short Circuits default

If two points in a circuit are connected by some component or conductor having a

resistance of zero (or practically zero) ohms the two points are said to be SHORT

CIRCUITED or that there is a short circuit present. Under these conditions a larger

current will flow, due to the reduction in resistance, and there will be NO (or almost no)

POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE between the ends of the short circuit.

These conditions are illustrated below.

Page 76

Page 77

Introduction to filter

reject all unwanted frequencies of an electrical signal and accept or pass only those

signals wanted by the circuits designer. In other words they "filter-out" unwanted

signals and an ideal filter will separate and pass sinusoidal input signals based upon

their frequency.

In low frequency applications (up to 100kHz), passive filters are generally constructed

using simple RC(Resistor-Capacitor) networks, while higher frequency filters (above

100kHz) are usually made from RLC (Resistor-Inductor-Capacitor) components.

Passive filters are made up of passive components such as resistors, capacitors and

inductors and have no amplifying elements (transistors, op-amps, etc) so have no

signal gain, therefore their output level is always less than the input.

Introduction :

Filters are so named according to the frequency range of signals that they allow to

pass through them, while blocking or "attenuating" the rest. The most commonly

used filter designs are the:

1. The Low Pass Filter – the low pass filter only allows low frequency signals from 0Hz

to its cut-off frequency, ƒc point to pass while blocking those any higher.

�

� 2. The High Pass Filter – the high pass filter only allows high frequency signals

from its cut-off frequency, ƒc point and higher to infinity to pass through while

blocking those any lower.

�

� 3. The Band Pass Filter – the band pass filter allows signals falling within a certain

frequency band setup between two points to pass through while blocking both the

lower and higher frequencies either side of this frequency band.

Simple First-order passive filters (1st order) can be made by connecting together a

single resistor and a single capacitor in series across an input signal, ( Vin ) with the

output of the filter, ( Vout ) taken from the junction of these two components.

Depending on which way around we connect the resistor and the capacitor with

regards to the output signal determines the type of filter construction resulting in

either a Low Pass Filter or a High Pass Filter

Filter.

As the function of any filter is to allow signals of a given band of frequencies to pass

unaltered while attenuating or weakening all others that are not wanted, we can

define the amplitude response characteristics of an ideal filter by using an ideal

frequency response curve of the four basic filter types as shown.

Page 78

Ideal Filter Response Curves

Filters can be divided into two distinct types: active filters and passive filters. Active

filters contain amplifying devices to increase signal strength while passive do not

contain amplifying devices to strengthen the signal.

A simple passive RC Low Pass Filter or LPF LPF, can be easily made by connecting

together in series a single Resistor with a single Capacitor as shown below. In this

type of filter arrangement the input signal ( Vin ) is applied to the series combination

(both the Resistor and Capacitor together) but the output signal ( Vout ) is taken

across the capacitor only. This type of filter is known generally as a "first-order filter"

or "one-pole filter", why first-order or single-pole?, because it has only "one" reactive

component, the capacitor, in the circuit.

capacitor varies inversely with frequency, while the value of the resistor remains

constant as the frequency changes. At low frequencies the capacitive reactance, ( Xc )

of the capacitor will be very large compared to the resistive value of the resistor, R

and as a result the voltage across the capacitor, Vc will also be large while the voltage

drop across the resistor, Vr will be much lower. At high frequencies the reverse is true

with Vc being small and Vr being large.

While the circuit above is that of an RC Low Pass Filter circuit, it can also be classed as

a frequency variable potential divider circuit similar to the one we looked at in the

Page 79

Resistors tutorial. In that tutorial we used the following equation to calculate the

output voltage for two single resistors connected in series.

We also know that the capacitive reactance of a capacitor in an AC circuit is given as:

impedance, symbol Z and for a

series circuit consisting of a single resistor in series with a single capacitor, the circuit

impedance is calculated as:

Then by substituting our equation for impedance above into the resistive potential

divider equation gives us:

So, by using the potential divider equation of two resistors in series and substituting

for impedance we can calculate the output voltage of an RC Filter for any given

frequency.

Example

A Low Pass Filter circuit consisting of a resistor of 4k7Ω in series with a capacitor of

47nF is connected across a 10v sinusoidal supply. Calculate the output voltage

( Vout ) at a frequency of 100Hz and again at frequency of 10,000Hz or 10kHz.

At a frequency of 100Hz.

Page 80

At a frequency of 10kHz.

Frequency Response

We can see above, that as the frequency increases from 100Hz to 10kHz, the output

voltage ( Vout ) decreases from 9.9v to 0.718v. By plotting the output voltage against

the input frequency, the Frequency Response Curve or Bode Plot function of the

low pass filter can be found, as shown below.

The cut-off frequency point and phase shift angle can be found by using the following

equation:

Page 81

Then for our simple example of a "Low Low Pass Filter

Filter" circuit above, the cut-off

frequency (ƒc) is given as720Hz with an output voltage of 70.7% of the input voltage

value and a phase shift angle of (- 45o).

Time Constant

The time constant, tau ( τ ), is related to the cut-off frequency ƒc as.

R= 1K Ω , C = ??

breadboard

• Build a low pass filter that cut off frequency

more than 150HZ

• Use your mobile phone, to hear the effect of

this filter

....................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................

Comment :

....................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................

Page 82

2- The high Pass Filter

A High Pass Filter or HPF

HPF, is the exact opposite to that of the previously seen Low

Pass filter circuit, as now the two components have been interchanged with the

output signal ( Vout ) being taken from across the resistor as shown.

Where the low pass filter only allowed signals to pass below its cut-off frequency

point, ƒc, the passive high pass filter circuit as its name implies, only passes signals

above the selected cut-off point, ƒc eliminating any low frequency signals from the

waveform. Consider the circuit below.

In this circuit arrangement, the reactance of the capacitor is very high at low

frequencies so the capacitor acts like an open circuit and blocks any input signals at

Vin until the cut-off frequency point ( ƒc ) is reached. Above this cut-off frequency

point the reactance of the capacitor has reduced sufficiently as to now act more like a

short circuit allowing all of the input signal to pass directly to the output as shown

below in the High Pass Frequency Response Curve

Page 83

Cut-off Frequency and Phase Shift

The circuit gain, Av which is given as Vout/Vin (magnitude) and is calculated as:

Example

Calculate the cut-off or "breakpoint" frequency ( ƒc ) for a simple high pass filter

consisting of an 82pFcapacitor connected in series with a 240kΩ resistor.

Application :

47 nF

VIN VOUT

1.5 kΩ

0V

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……….............................................................................................................

Page 84

c. What is the impedance of the circuit at 1000 Hz.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………..................................................................................

......

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The cut-off frequency or ƒc point in a simple RC passive filter can be accurately

controlled using just a single resistor in series with a non-polarized capacitor, and

depending upon which way around they are connected either a low pass or a high pass

filter is obtained.

One simple use for these types of filters is in audio amplifier applications or circuits

such as in loudspeaker crossover filters or pre-amplifier tone controls. Sometimes it is

necessary to only pass a certain range of frequencies that do not begin at 0Hz, (DC)

or end at some high frequency point but are within a certain frequency band, either

narrow or wide.

By connecting or "cascading" together a single Low Pass Filter circuit with a High

Pass Filter circuit, we can produce another type of passive RC filter that passes a

selected range or "band" of frequencies that can be either narrow or wide while

attenuating all those outside of this range. This new type of passive filter arrangement

produces a frequency selective filter known commonly as a Band Pass Filter or BPF

for short.

Page 85

Unlike a low pass filter that only pass signals of a low frequency range or a high pass

filter which pass signals of a higher frequency range, a Band Pass Filters passes

signals within a certain "band" or "spread" of frequencies without distorting the input

signal or introducing extra noise. This band of frequencies can be any width and is

commonly known as the filters Bandwidth

Bandwidth. Bandwidth is defined as the frequency

range between two specified frequency cut-off points ( ƒc ), that are 3dB below the

maximum center or resonant peak while attenuating or weakening the others outside

of these two points.

Then for widely spread frequencies, we can simply define the term "bandwidth", BW

as being the difference between the lower cut-off frequency ( ƒcLOWER ) and the higher

cut-off frequency ( ƒcHIGHER ) points. In other words, BW = ƒH - ƒL. Clearly for a pass

band filter to function correctly, the cut-off frequency of the low pass filter must be

higher than the cut-off frequency for the high pass filter

Page 86

Example :

A second-order band pass filter is to be constructed using RC components that will

only allow a range of frequencies to pass above 1kHz (1,000Hz) and below 30kHz

(30,000Hz). Assuming that both the resistors have values of 10kΩ, calculate the

values of the two capacitors required.

The value of the capacitor C1 required to give a cut-off frequency ƒL of 1kHz with a

resistor value of 10kΩ is calculated as:

Then, the values of R1 and C1 required for the high pass stage to give a cut-off

frequency of 1.0kHz are,

R1 = 10kΩ´s and C1 = 15nF.

The value of the capacitor C2 required to give a cut-off frequency ƒH of 30kHz with a

resistor value of 10kΩ is calculated as:

Then, the values of R2 and C2 required for the low pass stage to give a cut-off

frequency of 30kHz are : R = 10kΩ´s and C = 510pF. However, the nearest preferred

value of the calculated capacitor value of 510pF is 560pF so this is used instead.

With the values of both the resistances R1 and R2 given as 10kΩ, and the two values

of the capacitors C1 and C2 found for both the high pass and low pass filters as 15nF

and 560pF respectively, then the circuit for our simple passive Band Pass Filter is

given as.

Page 87

Resonant Frequency.

We can also calculate the "Resonant" or "Centre Frequency" (ƒr) point of the band

pass filter were the output gain is at its maximum or peak value. This peak value is not

the arithmetic average of the upper and lower -3dB cut-off points as you might expect

but is in fact the "geometric" or mean value. This geometric mean value is calculated

as being

ƒr 2 = ƒc(UPPER) x ƒc(LOWER)

for example:

ƒL is the lower -3dB cut-off frequency point

ƒH is the upper -3db cut-off frequency point

and in our simple example above, the calculated cut-off frequencies were found to be

ƒL = 1,060 Hz and ƒH = 28,420 Hz using the filter values.

Then by substituting these values into the above equation gives a central resonant

frequency of:

Page 88

Filter Quiz

1. Refer to Fig 8.6.1. What is this circuit called when used with sinusoidal signals?

� a) A high pass filter

� b) A differentiator

� c) A low pass filter

� d) An integrator

2. With reference to Fig 8.6.2, which of the formula would be used to find the corner

frequency of a low pass filter?

� a) Formula a

� b) Formula b

� c) Formula c

� d) Formula d

3. Which of the following labels would most appropriately describe a High pass filter

when used in an audio amplifier

� a) Bass boost

� b) Bass cut

� c) Treble boost

� d) Treble cut

4. With reference to Fig 8.6.3 what would be the approximate amplitude of the signal

at the output?

� a) 1V

� b) 500mV

� c) 250mV

� d) 125mV

� a) Band stop filter

� b) Band pass filter

� c) High pass filter

� d) Low pass filter

Page 89

6. What will be the waveform at the output of Fig 8.6.5?

� a) A rounded square wave

� b) Differentiated pulses

� c) A triangular wave

� d) A parabolic wave

7. A square wave with a periodic time of 10µs is applied to the input of a differentiator

circuit. For differentiated pulses to appear at the output, the time constant of the CR

network should be approximately:

� a) 1µs

� b) 2.5µs

� c) 5µs

� d) 10µs

� a) Notch filter

� b) High pass filter

� c) Band pass filter

� d) Band stop filter

terminals of the circuit with the input shown, what will be the voltmeter reading?

� a) 5V

� b) 2.5V

� c) 1.25V

� d) 0V

10. With reference to Fig 8.6.6, if a triangular wave having a periodic time shorter

that the CR time constant of the circuit is applied to the input, the shape of the

waveform at the output would be approximately...?

� a) A Square wave

� b) A triangular wave

� c) Differentiated pulses

� d) A sine wave

Page 90

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