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UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD


Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology
Department of Structures & Environmental Engineering
SCHEME OF STUDIES
of
B.Sc. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

JUSTIFICATION OF DEGREE PROGRAMME

Pakistan, a developing country is presently on the pace of rural up gradation at par to


urbanization. Increasing population and industrial growth in turn result in an increase in
environmental pollution. Solutions to mitigate environmental pollution lie in the awareness and
proper techniques of environmental resources. Environmental Engineering is a key to identify,
monitor and control the environmental problems. In order to manage the environmental
problems trained and qualified manpower is required. The Environmental Engineering Program
at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, provides an opportunity to train the existing manpower
and to provide fresh graduates having B.Sc. degree in the Environmental Engineering.
Some of the broad objectives of the program should be to equip students and future
environmental engineers with the ability to:
• Understand the concepts of the environment and pollution;
• To understand the linkage between environmental engineering and other relevant areas;
• To provide knowledge, skills and understandings of rapid evolution of environmental
problems, together with greater public awareness and concern;
• Acquire an overview of both development planning and environmental planning;
• Understand the need for the various actors and the public to participate in both
environmental planning and management of environmental health and gain an insight
into their respective roles in the participatory process;
• To provide confidence to bring the environmental problems at government and
management level;
• To help the controlling authorities to develop more credible environmental planning and
engineering systems;
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• Establish a link between development, environmental planning and environmental


engineering.
Faculty members from other departments would be invited at the university based on
contributing a clear complementary role in the Environmental Engineering Program. This
involves developing human capital resources in the knowledge-based economy which will bring
about the changes needed to cope with limited water and other natural resources. New
technologies for water quality assurance and environmental conservation would be a magnet for
locating knowledge-based industries in the region and thus foster economic development. The
main strength will be the consolidation of a critical mass of top scientists at the UAF for the
requisite synergistic activities in environmental engineering. Environmental engineering can
provide solutions to problems so as to accelerate basic environmental research into practice.
Furthermore, intensified multidisciplinary collaboration between scientists and engineers would
result in enhanced creativity.
The objective of this program is poverty eradication and environmental protection. The priority
of this program is to enhance the educational experiences of Pakistani students. Components of
this program are directly relevant both to the priorities of education and environmental
conservation. Firstly, the learning programs that take advantage of the natural resources present
in Pakistan will dramatically enhance the educational experience of Pakistani students, promote
personal development, and increase their levels of human capital.
Secondly, the focus on environmental education that is built into the educational program will
lead to, greater sense of awareness and responsibility in the students. The Pakistan government
in various policy instruments has strongly supported environmental education as an integral part
of a national environmental strategy. By combining environmental education with experiential
learning the most lasting changes in behavior can be achieved

Eligibility Criteria

The applicants must have 60% marks in one of the following disciplines
1. F.Sc. Pre-Engineering with at least 60% pass marks
2. Three years Poly-Technic Diploma in Mechanical or chemical.
3. Intermediate (Pre-Agriculture)
* The applicants have to qualify the Entry Test of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
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Scholarships Opportunities:

The University of Agriculture also offers Merit and need based scholarships for students under
various scholarship schemes.

Advantages of Studying Here:

 Internationally & HEC/PEC recognized degree program.


 Excellent career opportunities.
 Modern equipment, Testing Laboratories, machines, software and hardware for
practical/research and study.
 Hands-on experience in current, interdisciplinary R&D projects.
 Opportunities to visit national/ international trade shows and conference.
 Strong linkage with Pakistan Textile industry and EPDA
 Strong linkage with National and International Organizations
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Scheme of Studies
B.Sc. Environmental Engineering

First Semester
Course No. Title of the Course Credit Hours
Major Courses
SEE-303 Introduction to Environmental Engineering 3(3-0)
ID-301 Fluid Mechanics 3(2-1)
Minor Courses
IS-202 or Islamic Studies or 3(3-0)
SSH-402 Ethics (for Foreign Students)
AGRON-319 Basic Agriculture for Engineers 3(2-1)
MATH-301 Linear Algebra & Calculus 3(3-0)
PY-301 Applied Physics 3(2-1)
Total Credit hours 18(15-3)

Second Semester
Course No. Title of the Course Credit Hours
Major Courses
SEE-302 Engineering Mechanics 3(2-1)
SEE-306 Engineering Drawing, Graphics and CAD 3(1-2)
SEE-308* Environment and Anthropology 2(2-0)
ID-302 Engineering Numerical Analysis 3(2-1)
Minor Courses
ENG-101 English Composition and Comprehension 3(3-0)
SSH-102 Pakistan Studies 2(2-0)
Total Credit hours 16(12-4)

Third Semester
Course No. Title of the Course Credit Hours
Major Courses
FMP-401 Engineering Thermodynamics 3(2-1)
SEE-501 Surveying and Leveling 4(2-2)
Minor Courses
CHEM-403 Environmental Chemistry 3(2-1)
CS-401 Computer Programming & Applications in Engineering 3(2-1)
MATH-401 Differential Equations, Power Series, Laplace Transform 3(3-0)
RS-401 Sociology for Engineers 2(2-0)
Total Credit hours 18(13-5)
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Forth Semester
Course No. Title of the Course Credit Hours
Major Courses
FMP-402 Instrumentation & Measurements 3(2-1)
SEE-404** Ecosystem Management 2(2-0)
SEE-402 Mechanics of Materials 3(2-1)
SEE-616 Environmental Modeling 3(3-0)
Minor Courses
AEE-302 Communication & Presentation Skill 3(2-1)
STAT-402 Statistics & Probability 3(2-1)
Total Credit hours 17(12-5)

Fifth Semester
Course No. Title of the Course Credit Hours
Major Courses
SEE-509 Water Supply Engineering 4(3-1)
SEE-511 Waste Water Engineering 4(3-1)
ID-503 Engineering Hydrology 3(2-1)
Minor Courses
Micro-505 Environmental Microbiological Techniques 3(2-1)
Elective –I 3
Total Credit hours 17

Sixth Semester
Course No. Title of the Course Credit Hours
Major Courses
SEE-506 Meteorology & Climate Change 3(2-1)
SEE-508 Water Pollution Control 3(3-0)
SEE-510 Environmental Health & Safety 2(2-0)
FMP-506 Energy Resources and Management 3(2-1)
Sub-Total Credit Hours 11(9-2)
SES-308 Environmental Microbiology 3(2-1)
Elective – II 3
Total Credit hours 17

Seventh Semester
Course No. Title of the Course Credit Hours
Major Courses
SEE-605 Engineering Materials 3(2-1)
SEE-609 Environmental Impact Assessment 3(3-0)
SEE-611 Renewable Energy and Environment 3(3-0)
SEE-619 Senior Project Design – I 3(0-3)
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SEE-618 Agricultural Pollution and Control 3(3-0)


Total Credit hours 15(11-4)

Eighth Semester
Course No. Title of the Course Credit Hours
Major Courses
SEE-610 Cleaner Production Technology 3(3-0)
SEE-622 Air and Noise Pollution Control 3(2-1)
SEE-624 Solid Waste Management 3(3-0)
SEE-620 Senior Project Design – II 3(0-3)
ID-608 Project Planning & Management 3(2-1)
Minor Courses
AE-602 Economics for Engineers 3(3-0)
Total Credit hours 18(13-5)

Total Credit Hours: 136

Note: Internship (Independent study/Consultancy within engineering discipline) during summer


semester at the end of 6th semester
*Department of Rural Sociology will provide the expertise of said course
**Department of Zoology and Fisheries will provide the expertise of said course
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LIST OF ELECTIVE COURSES IN B. Sc. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

 SEE-504 Water Supply and Sewerage 3(2-1)


 SEE-601 Landscape Engineering 3(2-1)
 SEE-614 Marine Pollution and Control 3(3-0)
 SEE-616 Environmental Modeling 3(3-0)
 ID-501 Open Channel Hydraulics 3(2-1)
 ID-504 Soil and Water Conservation Engineering 3(2-1)
 ID-505 Water Management Engineering 3(2-1)
 ID-605 Water Quality Management 3(2-1)
 SES-602 Land Reclamation 3(2-1)
 FE-504 Food Process Engineering 3(2-1)
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LIST OF MAJOR COURSES


For B. Sc. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
SEE-302 Engineering Mechanics 3(2-1)
SEE-306 Engineering Drawing, Graphics and CAD 3(1-2)
SEE-303 Introduction to Environmental Engineering 3(3-0)
SEE-308 Environment and Anthropology 2(2-0)
SEE-402 Mechanics of Materials 3(2-1)
SEE-404 Ecosystem Management 2(2-0)
SEE-501 Surveying and Leveling 4(2-2)
SEE-511 Waste Water Engineering 4(3-1)
SEE-509 Water Supply Engineering 4(3-1)
SEE-506 Meteorology & Climate Change 3(2-1)
SEE-508 Water Pollution Control 3(3-0)
SEE-510 Environmental Health & Safety 2(2-0)
SEE-605 Engineering Materials 3(2-1)
SEE-609 Environmental Impact Assessment 3(3-0)
SEE-610 Cleaner Production Technology 3(3-0)
SEE-611 Renewable Energy and Environment 3(3-0)
SEE-624 Solid Waste Management 3(3-0)
SEE-622 Air and Noise Pollution Control 3(2-1)
SEE-618 Agricultural Pollution and Control 3(3-0)
ID-301 Fluid Mechanics 3(2-1)
ID-302 Engineering Numerical Analysis 3(2-1)
ID-402 Fluid Flow System 3(2-1)
ID-503 Engineering Hydrology 3(2-1)
ID-608 Project Planning & Management 3(2-1)
FMP-401 Engineering Thermodynamics 3(2-1)
FMP-402 Instrumentation & Measurements 3(2-1)
FMP-506 Energy Resources and Management 3(2-1)
SEE-619 Senior Project Design – I 3(0-3)
SEE-620 Senior Project Design – II 3(0-3)
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SEE-302 ENGINEERING MECHANICS 3(2-1)

Objective:

• To learn the analysis of forces acting on different machine members and


structure/bodies.
• To learn laws and principles of mechanics governing on different machines and
structures.

Contents:
Concept of measurement of mass, force, time and space, Systems of units, Fundamentals &
Derived units, Conversion of units, required Accuracy of results, General Principles of Statics,
Vector addition, Subtraction and Products, Resultant of Distributed (Linear & Non-linear) force
Systems, General conditions of equilibrium of Co-planer forces, Laws of Triangle,
Parallelogram and Polygon of forces, Types of beams, Supports and Loads, Simple cases of
Axial forces, Shear forces and Bending Moment diagrams, Problem involving friction on Flat
surfaces, Geometrical Properties of Plane Areas, Work, Energy, Power, Impulse, Momentum,
Conservation of Momentum and Energy, Rectilinear and Curvilinear motions, Tangential and
Normal Components of Acceleration, Simple Harmonic motion.

Practicals:

To verify the law of polygon of forces, the law of parallelogram of forces, the principles of
moments, the co-efficient of friction between surfaces., Special numerical problems and
assignments, Moment of inertia of fly wheel mounted on wall and a wooden block by
suspension, Efficiency of various models of machines, Modulus of rigidity of metal bar by static
and dynamic methods, Special numerical problems and assignments.

Suggested Readings:

1. Bansal R.K., 2004 Engineering Mechanics and strength of materials,Mehar Offset press,
New Delhi, India.
2. Khurmi R.S. 2006. Strength of Materials, RajandarRavindra Printers (Pvt) Ltd., New
DelhiIndia.
3. Kumar, K. L., 2006. Engineering Mechanics Third addition, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Ltd. New DelhiIndia.
4. Meriam, J.L. and L.G. Kraige. 2005. Engineering Mechanics. Vol. I, Statics. John Willy
and Sons, Co., New York.
5. Mukherjee, S. and A.R. 2011. Elements of Engineering mechanics. PHI Learning Pvt.
Ltd., India.
6. Singal, S. 2009. Engineering Mechanics. I. K. International (Pvt) Ltd., India.
7. Singer, F.L. 2000. Engineering Mechanics. Harper and Row Publishers, New York,
USA.
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SEE-303 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING 3(3-0)

Objective:

• To introduce basic concepts and issues related to the environment


• To highlight the professional practices in environmental engineering

Contents:
Introduction to environment and factors affecting the environment, Environmental degradation
processes and environmental pollution, Effects of pollution on human health, soil, surface and
ground water environment, Direct and indirect environmental pollution. Point and non-point
sources. Air, water and noise borne diseases and their remedies. Sustainable development,
definition and inter-relationship between its components. Strategies for sustainable development.
Introduction to national environmental problems related to human animals, agricultural and
industrial waste solid and liquid wastes, water, air and radiological pollution. Global, regional
and national environmental issues. Acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion. Key elements of
Pakistan National Conservation Strategy. Environmental ethics, Review of national and
international codes and ethics in environmental engineering, Safety and environmental risk
assessment, Risk benefit analysis, reducing risk, collegiality and loyalty.

Suggested Readings:
1. Devis, M.L.and S. J. Masten. 2002 Principles of Environmental Engineering and
Sciences (2nded.) McGraw-Hill, ISBN; 0073122351.
2. Mackenzie Davis, and(2006). Introduction to Environmental Engineering, 4th ed.
McGraw-Hill, ISBN: 0073122351
3. Tom D. Reynolds and Paul A. Richards, 1995. Unit Operations and Processes in
Environmental Engineering, 2nd ed. CL-Engineering, ISBN: 0534948847

SEE-306 ENGINEERING DRAWING, GRAPHICS & CAD 3(1-2)

Objective:

• To enable the students to prepare agricultural and structural drawings manually as well
as using computer.

Contents:
Introduction to engineering drawing, various types of lines, basic geometrical constructions,
conic sections, theory of orthographic projection, dimensioning & lettering, Introduction to
tolerance, projections off points, projections of straight lines, Projections of planes and solids in
simple position, sectioning of solids, Isometric projections, development of surfaces. Drawing
Sketches. Working with drawing Aids. Basic Dimensioning and Tolerancing. Model Space view
ports, Paper space view ports and Layouts. Plotting Drawing. Hatching Drawing. Working with
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Blocks. Working with Advanced Drawing Options. Technical Drawing with AutoCAD.
Isometric Drawing. The User Coordinate System. Getting Started with 3D. Creating Solid
Models.

Practicals:

Introduction to drawing instruments and their use, various scales, practice of orthographic
projection missing lines in orthographic projection, Drawing three views of different objects,
Practice of Dimensioning and Lettering, Practice of Sectioning, Conversion of orthographic
projection into isometric view, Creating drawings of Engineering Fasteners like Rivets,
Cotters Joints, threads etc.Drawing and working problems on AutoCAD Mechanical Power
Pack Package.

Suggested Readings:

1. French, T.E. and Vierch, C.J. 2000. A Manual of Engineering Drawing, McGraw Hill
Book Co. New York.
2. Mikey P.G. and E.W. Zimmers. 2006. CAD/Cam computer Aided Design and
Manufacturing. Pearson Education. New Dehli.
3. Parkinson A.C. 1998. A First year Engineering Drawing, Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons Ltd.,
England.
4.McMahon and Browne, 2001, CADCAM: Principles, practice and manufacturing
management, Addison Wesley Longman (Singapore)Pte.Ltd.,India Branch
5. Jeyapoovan T., 2005. Engineering Drawing &Garaphics using AutoCAD, Vikas
Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.

SEE-308 ENVIRONMENT AND ANTHROPOLOGY 2(2-0)

Objectives:

• To introduce anthropological concepts and research techniques for promoting


participation of major groups in environmental management.
• To apprise potential engineers about social factors that contribute towards enhancing
their professional performance for the good of society and the country.
• To enhance understanding about the determinants of human behavior, which ultimately
will result in improved individual efficiency.

Contents:
Introduction to cultural anthropology and its relationship with other social sciences,
Participatory approaches to environment and development; Participation of major groups:
women, youth and others in the management of various types of ecosystems, Culture and
Related Concepts: Definition of Culture, Types of Culture, Elements of Culture, Role of Culture
in Organization, Socialization and Personality, Population Dynamics, World Population Growth
and Distribution, Population Dynamics in Pakistan, Causes and Consequences of Urbanization,
Population Policy in Pakistan, Population and Development, Population Forecasting.
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Suggested Readings:
1. Shepherd A., 1998.Sustainable Rural Development, St. Martin Press, Inc.
2. Dr. Khan M I, Tahir B A, Amir S, and Akhtar N, 2004. Toward Participatory
Management, Allama Iqbal Open University.36 Curriculum Division.
3. Hafeez, S., Changing Pakistan Society. Karachi, Royal Book Company.
4. Maser, C., 1997. Sustainable Community Development: Principles and Concepts. St.
Lucie Press,
5. Syed, S. H., 2003. The State of Migration and Multiculturalism in Pakistan: The
Need for Policy and Strategy. Islamabad, UNESCO Report.

Note:In the meeting held on 25.06.2013 in the Faculty of Agri. Engg. & Technology, it is
decided with the Chairman of Department of Rural Sociology that the expertise of said course
will be shared by the Department of Rural Sociology.
SEE-402 MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To analyze machine and structural members under various types of load.


• To study different laws and principles of structural mechanics

Contents:
Stress and strains: Stress at a point, components of stress, analysis of plane stress, principle
stresses, maximum shear stress, Mohr’s circle. Axial loading: Stress due to axial forces, strain,
properties of material under axial loading. Bending: Bending stress in beams, shear and bending
moment diagrams. Combined loading: Stresses due to axial, bending and tensional loading.
Deflection: Moment curvature relationship, deflection of beams by the method of double
integration. Deflection of beams: Double integration method with singularity function, area
moment method, torsion: shearing stress and angle of twist, hollow and circular shafts.
Buckling; pin ended column, eccentrically loaded column, initially curved column, critical loads
and critical stresses. Curved beans, stresses in curved bars, cylinder and spheres: stresses in thin
and thick walled cylinders, Fatigue loading analysis and design.

Practicals:
Practical exercises related to axial loaded, bending torsions and deflection of beams,
Buckling curved bars, strain gauges and fatigue loading, special numerical problems and
assignments.

Suggested Readings:
1. Gere, J.M. and B.J. Goodno. 2012. Mechanics of Materials. Cengage Learning.
2. James M. Gere, Barry J. Goodno. 2011. Mechanics of Materials. Cengage Learning.
3. Hannah J. and R. C. Stephens, 1999. Mechanics of Materials: Advance theory and
Examples, VinodVasishtha, India.
4. Muvdi, B.B. and J.W. Mcnabb. 2001. Engineering Mechanics of Materials. Macmillan
Publishing co. New York.
5. Sarkar B. K. 2006. Strength of Materials, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Pvt. Ltd. New,
Delhi.
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SEE-404 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT 2(2-0)

Objectives:

• To explain the biological and chemical principles of ecology.


• To know about management methods for sustainable ecosystem development.
• To describe the human impacts on environment.

Contents:
Learning fundamental concepts of ecosystem, its dynamics, ecosystem types and their
management. Energy flow in ecosystems, role of higher and lower categories of animals to gain
maximum energy from various sources of environment. Structure of food webs and food chains
in various ecosystems, constraints and management. Nutrient cycling in ecosystem. Sustainable
environment and balance in ecosystems. Environmental themes; environmental ethics, and their
use;types of environment pollution, their sources, hazards and sustainable management.
Biodiversity and its importance, threats and conservation. Speciation concept, stable and
sustainable species, their ecological significance. Population structure, their dynamics and
interactions, impact of anthropogenic factors on population communities and their sustainability.

Suggested Readings:
1. Odum, E.P. and G.W. Barnett. 2004. Fundamentals of Ecology. W.B. Saunders, Inc.,
New York.
2. Odum, E.P. 2005. Ecology, W.B. Saunders, Inc., New York.
3. Brower, N., I.N. Zar and V.E. End. 1997. Ecology. Freeman Press, New York.
4. Ingram, J.C., F. De Clerk and C.R. Del Rio. 2011. Integrative Ecology. John Wiley
and Sons.
5. Remans, R., J. Franzo and C.A. Palm. 2008. Ecology and Human Nutrition. Freeman
Press, New York.
Note:In the meeting held on 25.06.2013 in the Faculty of Agri. Engg. & Technology, it is
decided with the Chairman of Department of Zoology that the expertise of said course will be
shared by the Department of Zoology.

SEE-501 SURVEYING & LEVELING 4(2-2)

Objectives:

• To enable students to understand theory and practice of land surveying and leveling.
• To develop skills to use modern survey instruments for above objective.

Contents:
Introduction: Surveying instruments; Chains, Tapes, Steel Bands, their Types and Uses
Chain Surveying: Ranging and chaining of survey Lines. Fieldwork and plotting of chain
survey.
Compass Surveying :Prismatic Compass and Surveyor Compass, Uses, Bearing, Local
Attraction, Fieldwork and Plotting
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Plane Table Surveying: Parts and Accessories, Methods of Surveying, Two Point and Three
Point Problems
Leveling :General Principle, Types of Levels and their temporary and Permanent Adjustments,
Methods of Leveling, Reduction of Level, Precise Leveling and Trignometric Leveling
Theodolite: Types and uses of Theodolites, Temporary and Permanent Adjustments,
Measurement of Horizontal and Vertical angles
Tachometrical Surveying: Methods of Tachometric Surveying. Fieldwork and computations.
Traversing: Traversing with Prismatic Compass, Theodolite and Plane Table, Computations and
Adjustments of Traverse, Transformation of Co-ordinates
Omitted Measurements: Calculation of Areas and Volume, Earth work calculation, D.M.D
method, Simpson rule and Trapezoidal rule

Practicals:
Practice on measurement of distances and introduction to measuring instruments, Chain
Surveying and plotting, Compass Traversing, Plane Table by methods of radiations and
intersections, Two Points Problem, Three Points Problem, Level adjustments by Two-Peg
method, Profile and Cross-Sectioning, Theodolite Traversing

Suggested Readings:
1. Brinker, A.C. and Taylor, W.C. 2002. Elementary Surveying. International Text Book
Co. Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA.
2. Ramsay, J.P. Wilson. 2000. Land Surveying. Macdonald and Evans Ltd. Estover,
Plymouth PL 6 7PZ.
3. . Gpoi, Madhu and Sathikumar, 2007. Advanced Surveying, Dorling Kindersley (india)
Pvt.Ltd.
4. Alak D.E., 2000. Plane Surveying, RajendraRavindra Prints (Pvt).LTD. New Dehli.
5. Duggal S. K., 2006. Serveying volume 2, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing company Ltd.
New Delhi.

SEE-511 WASTE WATER ENGINEERING 4(3-


1)

Objectives:

• To introduce the students with the major components of wastewater collection system
i.e. (1) Sewer network; (2) appurtenances; and (3) sewage disposal stations.
• To design criteria and detailed design of the above components.

Contents:
Wastewater generation rates and characteristics of wastewater, Estimation of average and peak
wastewater flows for a community, Concept of self-cleansing velocity for sanitary and storm
sewers, Types of sewerage systems i.e. combined, separate and partially combined, Design
criteria for the sanitary and storm sewer network, Hydraulic design of sewer and development of
complete hydraulic statement for the sewer network for sanitary and storm sewer. Jointing of
sewer. Inflow and infiltration problems into the waste water systems. Various materials for the
sewer pipes and their characteristics, Loads coming on sewers. Different types of bedding to be
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provided under sewers, Various steps involved in the construction of sewers; especially how to
shift levels to maintain correct gradient of sewers to allow flow under gravity. Various
appurtenances in sewer system li9Y ke manholes; drop manholes, etc. Design criteria for the
sewage disposal station. Components of sewage disposal station including screens, wet well and
dry wells. Design of screen, wet well and dry well. Various pumps types used for the pumping
of wastewater, Concept and design of septic tank and soakage pits for individual houses.
Practicals:

Waste water analysis for BOP, COD and other chemicals, Visit of wastewater treatment
plants in urban areas and writing a report of the visit of plants.

Suggested Readings:
1. Metcalf and Eddy, 2002. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, 4th ed.
McGraw Hill, ISBN: McGraw-Hill
2. Terence J. McGhee and E. W. Steel, 1991. Water Supply and Sewerage, 6th ed.
McGraw-Hill, ISBN: 0070609381

SEE-509 WATER SUPPLY ENGINEERING 4 (3-1)

Objective:

• To provide the basic concepts of source selection, population estimation and limit
operations based upon source quality.
• To make students apply the concepts of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic in designing the
water supply networks/allied services.

Contents:

Brief history of the water supply system, Water consumption and factors affecting the
waterconsumption of a community.Various water uses. Population forecasting for the design of
water supply systems. Various methods of population forecasting i.e. linear method, geometric
growthmethod and curve fitting method. Concept of design period and factors on which the
design period of various water supply components depend. Design periods for various water
supply components. Selection of water source based on ground water or surface water.
Investigation to be carried out for the selection of source including electric resistivity surveys,
electric well logging and installation of test tube wells to ascertain safe yield of the aquifer and
safe inter tube well distance. Hydraulicdesign of water transmission lines from source to the
point of distribution. Discussion on designcriteria for water transmission lines. Various pipe
types suitable for use in water transmission linesand their characteristics and design life. Design
criteria for the design of water distribution systems and detailed design of water distribution
system using latest software like EPANET. Various pipe types available for the water
distribution systems; their hydraulic characteristics, C values, joint types and life. Various
specials used in the water supply systems like air relief values, altitude valve, sluice valves, tees,
bends. Over head reservoirs in the water distribution system, their capacity and placement within
the system. Concept of balancing reservoirs. Concept of water hammer in the big transmission
lines and methods to avoid water hammer.

Practicals:
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Assessment of water supply demand of a community, Design of a water supply project


Determination of physical, and chemical characteristics of drinking water, Determination of
Bacteriological characteristics (Coliform count) of water and waste water, Visit to a drinking
water treatment plant.

Suggested Readings:

1. Mark. J. Hammer, 2011.Water and Waste Water Technology, 7th ed. Prentice Hall,
ISBN: 0135114047
2. MWH, 2005. Water Treatment Principles and Design, 2nded. John Wiley & Sons,
ISBN: 0471110183
3. Terence J. McGhee and E. W. Steel, 1991. Water Supply and Sewerage, 6th ed.
McGraw-Hill, ISBN: 0070609381

SEE-506 METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To study dynamics of earth’s atmosphere, weather and climate


• To study dynamics of weather system and its impact on climate change
• To device climate change mitigation strategies

Contents:
The Principles, Aims and Scope, Elements of Climate and Weather. Dynamics of Earth’s
Atmosphere. Radiation and Heating of the Atmospheric System, Atmospheric Moisture. The
Dynamics of Pressure and Wind Systems, Condensation and the Precipitation Process, Seasonal
Variations in Temperature Daylight, Radiation, Seasonal Variation in Rainfall and
Evaporation.Equipment and Maintenance of a Standard Meteorological Station, Measurement of
Air Pressure, Wind Speed, Wind; Direction, Radiation and Sunshine Duration.
Measurement of Evaporation and Evapotranspiration and the Maintenance of a Standard
Meteorological Station, Climate and Agriculture in the Tropics.

Practicals:
Determination of Pressure, Temperature, Humidity, Sunshine hours, Precipitation, Wet and Dry
bulb thermometer and other weather parameters in a weather station.

Suggested Readings:
1. Ayoade, J.O. 2004.Introduction to Climatology for the Tropics. Ibadan: Spectrum Books
Limited.
2. Ayoade, J.O.2002.Introduction to Agro Climatology. Ibadan: Vantage Publishers.
3. Vinay K. 2009. Metrology and Measurement. Tata McGraw Hill Ltd. New Delhi
4. Ojo,O.et al 2001 .Fundamentals of Physical and Dynamic Climatology Lagos:SEDEC
Publishers.
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SEE-508 WATER POLLUTION CONTROL 3(3-0)


Objectives:

• To learn about water pollution and its impacts on the environment.


• To learn methods for water pollution control.

Contents:
Types of water pollutants: Organic and inorganic pollutants; nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals,
toxic chemicals, salt, silt, and thermal pollution. Sources and causes of water pollution: point
and non-point sources, contribution of domestic, industrial, agricultural, transport, and mining
effluents to water pollution. Impacts of water pollution: Water pollution and human and
ecological health, impacts through food chain.Water quality: Water quality criteria and
requirements, water quality standards for various uses including drinking water, irrigation,
recreation etc. Water qualitymanagement: Water quality management in rivers, lakes and
groundwater. Streeter-Phelps model tomanage river water quality model. Differences in water
quality from surface and subsurfacesources. Groundwater: groundwater contamination with
leaking underground reservoirs. Water pollution control: Source reduction versus end of pipe
treatment, water pollution preventionpractices and techniques, water treatment Legislation and
instruments for water pollution control: Legislation, regulation and instruments for water
pollution control with particular reference to Pakistan.

Suggested Readings:
1. Water pollution control: A guide to the use of water quality management principles,
edited by R. Helmer and I. Hespanhol, published on behalf of UNESCO, WHO and
UNEP by E&FN Spon2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK ISBN
0419229108.
2. Rhonda Lucas Donald, Water Pollution.
3. Vigil, K. M. Clean Water: An Introduction to Water Quality and Pollution Control.
4. Viessman Jr. W. and Hammer M. J. Water Supply and Pollution Control.
5. Desai B. Water Pollution in India: Law and Enforcement.
6. Krantz D. and Kifferson B., Water pollution and Society.
7. Theodore, L., Handbook of Environmental Technology, John Wiley Inc.
8. Government of Pakistan and IUCN. 1992. The Pakistan National Conservation
Strategy, Islamabad.
9. Government of Pakistan, Environmental Policy of Pakistan, Islamabad.

SEE-510 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND SAFETY 2 (2-0)

Objective:

• To have a better understanding of EHS related rules and regulation


• To enhance awareness about the principles of environmental health and safety

Contents:
18

Basic principles of public health;Communicable & non communicable water borne diseases,
food borne, air borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures.Introduction to safety,
health and environment relationship, safety management, human and equipment
safety,Industrial/nuclear hygiene and safety, Accident prevention and elimination plans, Fire
protection techniques, Occupational health and safety in Pakistan, Labor code of Pakistan
(1986), Industrial-nuclear and occupational rules and regulations in Pakistan. Agricultural
Pesticides Rules, 1973, Agricultural Pesticide Ordinance, 1971, OHSAS-18001, Pakistan
Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) Regulations Pak/904 “Regulation on Radiation
Protection-2004” Introduction to the principles of toxicology as applied to environmental
engineering. Health hazards and toxic effects of chemicals Radioactivity; transport, storage &
use of toxic chemicals-radio nuclides, occupational health programs

Suggested Readings:
1. Mark A. Friend and James P. Kohn, 2010. Fundamentals of Occupational Safety and
Health, 5th ed. Government Institutes, ISBN: 1605907065
2. Sandy Cairncross and Richard G. Feachem, 1993.Environmental Health Engineering
in the Tropics: An Introductory Text, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, ISBN:
0471938858.

SEE-605 ENGINEERING MATERIALS 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To study classification and characteristics of engineering materials.


• To learn tests and methods of material analysis
• To work for the development of new and improved building materials.

Contents:
Stones: Classification and characteristics of good building stones. Tests of stones. Quarrying and
dressing of stones. Artificial stones and its varieties, preservation of stone work.
Tiles and Bricks: Different kinds of tiles. Manufacture and uses of tiles. Coloring and glazing of
tiles. Fire tiles and bricks. Qualities of good bricks. Refractory bricks and ceramics.
Lime and Cement: Classification of lime. Properties and applications of lime. Types of cement.
Manufacturing process of cement. Determination of initial and final setting time. Normal
consistency.
Concrete and Mortars: Aggregates for concrete and mortars. Types of concrete. Water cement
ratio. Workability of concrete. Compaction and curing of concrete. Types and uses of mortars.
Tests for mortars.
Timber: Classification of trees, growth of timber trees. Methods of seasoning and sawing. Decay
and preservation of timber, Laminated materials.
Metals: Composition and properties of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Effect of various heat
treatments on the properties of steel and its alloys. Methods of corrosion control.
Paints, Plasters and Varnishes: Composition, preparation, properties, tests and uses of paints,
plasters, varnishes and distemper.
Miscellaneous Materials: Composition, varieties, properties and uses of glass, plastics,
Laminates and adhesive. Properties and uses of asphalt, rubber and asbestos.
19

Practicals:
Measurement of angle of twist by using torque measuring apparatus, Universal testing machine,
Torsion testing machine, Beam testing rig, Compression test by using hydraulic press, Cement
testing machine, Measurement of deflection by Helical spring apparatus, Measurement of
extension by Leaf spring apparatus, Charpay impact tester, Los angles abrasion testing machine,
7-Ton Hydraulic strut tester, To determine compressive strength of concrete, Brenile hardness
tester

Suggested Readings:
1. Kenneth G.B. and M. Budinski. 2006. Engineering materials. Pearson Education. New
Dehli.
2. Syed D.H. 2006. Civil Engineering Material and Their Testing. Noresa publishing
House. India.
3. Varghese P.C. 2006. Building Materials. Prentice Hall of India, New Dehli.
4. Rajpot R.K. 2005. Engineering Material. S. Chand and Company Ltd. New Dehli.

SEE-609 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESMENT 3(3-0)

Objectives:

• To equip students with tools of environmental impact assessment.


• To study guidelines and legal aspects EIS studies using different computer models and
softwares.

Contents:
Introduction: EIA as a Tool for Sustainable Development, Process and Framework for EIA,
Guidelines and Legal Aspects, Environmental Settings, Methodologies of EIA, Assessing
Regional and Sectoral Level Impacts, Computational Modeling, GIS Applications, Knowledge
Based Expert Systems and Soft computing Applications, Environmental Management Plan,
Challenges in Preparation of EIA Reports, Case Studies of Engineering Projects , Future of EIA
in Pakistan: Status, Problems and Remedial Actions

Suggested Readings:
1. Trivedi P.R. 2011 Environmental Impact Assessment. Viva Publication House, New
Dehli
2. Petts J. and W. Christopher. 2009. Environmental Impact Assessment: Impacts and
Limitations. Wiley Blackwell, UK
3. Morris and Peter. 1995. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment.
UniversityCollege Press, London.

SEE-610 CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES 3(3-0)

Objective:
20

• To impart know-how for resource optimization, pollution control and corporate


competitiveness

Contents:
Cleaner production and sustainable development; Cleaner production principles and phases;
Cleaner production plans and strategies for implementing cleaner production plans, Cleaner
production and eco-efficiencies; Environmental management systems – ISO 140001,
Environmental risk management, Environmental audit, Closed loop operations, Detailed
chemical/material flow analysis, Renewable energy resources, Corporate social responsibility by
Industry, Life cycle design and impact assessment, Waste minimization, reuse of waste
products, specific examples from industry where the methods of cleaner production have been
applied.

Suggested Readings:
1. Kenneth L. Mulholland, 2006. Identification of Cleaner Production Improvement
Opportunities, Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN: 0471794406
2. Promoting Cleaner Production in Developing Countries: 1995. The Role of
Development Co-operation, Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD), ISBN: 9264146318
3. Ruth Hillary, 1997. Environmental Management Systems and Cleaner Production,
Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN: 0471966622
4. Paul M. Randall, 1997. Engineer's Guide to Cleaner Production Technologies,
Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., ISBN: 1566764238

SEE-611 RENEWABLE ENERGY& ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0)

Objective:

• To enhance the knowledge of conventional and renewable energy resources and their
effective utilization through management principles

Contents:
Energy and Power: Sources of energy and Forms of energy; mechanical, electrical, chemical,
nuclear and thermal energy, Alternate and renewable energy resources (hydel, wind, geothermal,
tidal, solar, geomagnetic, etc.). Perspectives of world & local energy production and
consumption, availability of energy resources (renewable & non-renewable, conventional &
non-conventional) to masses, losses, cost, infrastructure required. Principles of efficient
utilization of resources, cost effective design and solution optimization for energy considerations
in environmental projects. Economic incentives of energy resources theory and application of
different energy resources (i.e. i)biomass, direct combustion of biomass, ii) solar energy, iii)
wind energy technology, iv) energy from hydropower, v) geothermal, tidal and other natural
sources, vi) fossil fuels). Environmental impacts of energy production and consumption.
Importance of energy conservation, energy conservation, principles and techniques, Electric
power conservation in buildings, Reducing heat losses-Thermal insulation (materials and
methods), energy audit.

Suggested Readings:
21

1. Robert A. Ristinen and Jack P Kraushaar, 2006. energy and Environment, 2nd ed.
Willey & Sons, ISBN: 0471739898.
2. Richard Wolfson and W. W. Norton, 2011. energy, Environment and Climate, 2nd ed.
W. W. Norton & Co., ISBN: 0393912744
3. John Twidell and Tony Weir, 2005. Renewable energy Resources, 2nd ed.Taylor&
Francis, ISBN: 0419253300

SEE-624 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 3(3-0)

Objectives:

• To enable to perform characterization of solid waste (biodegradable and non-


biodegradable) with a view to study its impacts on the environment
• To study the methods of solid waste management.

Contents:
Sources and type of solid wastes (integrated, municipal-residential, commercial, institutional
waste, etc.), Types, generation rate and composition, climatic and socioeconomic factors
affecting these parameters, properties: physical, chemical and biological. Regulatory
requirements for management and disposal of waste. Waste minimization (reduce, recover, reuse
and recycle). Waste storage, handling, collection, transfer, scavenging, transport and disposal.
Safe Disposal and Management Techniques: Composting/biodegradation and its types,
incineration and its impacts, immobilization, waste to energy, refuse derived fuel, pyrolysis.
Landfill types, methods, siting and design considerations, landfill as bioreactor, control of
landfill leachate & gases, environmental monitoring system for landfills. Landfill closure and
use. Sources and nature/characteristics of hazardous waste (industrial, hospital, nuclear)-impact
on environment, Biological waste; hospital, pathological, slaughter house,
animal/poultry/farmhouse waste. Chemical waste, Industrial, Nuclear, Radioactive,
Methods of Disposal of hazardous waste, underground storage tanks construction, installation
closure, sea burial, deep rock injection.

Suggested Readings:
1. Frank Kreith 2002. George Tchobanoglous, Handbook of Solid Waste Management,
Second Edition,. McGraw Hill, ISBN: 0071356231
2. Kanti L. Shah,1999. Basics of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Technology,
Is ted. Prentice Hall, ISBN: 0139603786.
3. Chang, H. Oh, 2001. 1Hazardous and Radioactive Waste Treatment Technologies
Handbook, Ist ed. CRC Press, ISBN: 0849395860
4. Shoukat Hayat and SajjadHyder, Solid Waste Management, Is ted. A-One Publishers

SEE-622 AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION CONTROL 3(2-1)


Objectives:

• To learn about air and noise pollutants and their impacts on the environment.
• To learn mitigation techniques for air and noise pollution.
22

Contents:
Stationary, mobile and other sources of air pollution, Important air pollutants and their impacts
on human health and the general environment, Air quality standards and legislation in Pakistan,
Vehicular exhaust emissions, test procedures, Control of air borne emissions of: gases, aerosols,
particulate matter and organic vapors, Elementary study of dispersion models: Haze, smog, fog
etc. Environmental impacts of EM Radiation, Sources, causes and control of radioactive
pollution, Stationary, mobile and other sources of noise pollution, Impact of noise pollution on
human health and the general environment, Noise standards and legislation in Pakistan,
Measurement and control of noise pollution.

Practicals:
Determination of PM10, Determination of PM2.5, Determination of oxides of carbon,
Determination of oxides of nitrogen, Determination of oxides of sulfur, Determination of
noise pollution, Determination of indoor pollution quality parameters and validation of
NEQS values, Determination of radiations (radon), Field visit

Suggested Readings:
1. Noel. D. Nevers, 1999. Air Pollution Control Engineering, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill,
ISBN: 0070393672
2. Debi Prasad Tripathy, 2011. Noise Pollution, APH Publishing Corporation, ISBN:
8131303403
3. C. David Cooper and F. C. Alley, 2010. Air Pollution Control: A Design Approach,
4th ed. . Waveland Pr Inc, ISBN: 157766678X

ID-301 FLUID MECHANICS 3(2-1)

Objective:

• To study the fundamentals of fluid mechanics including statics and kinematic, concept of
energy, momentum, forces and flow measurement.

Contents:
Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics: Definition and branches of fluid mechanics, distinction
between solid and fluids, Properties of fluids: density, viscosity, surface tension, specific weight,
specific gravity, etc., bulk modules of elasticity, compressibility of fluids. Fluid statics: Pressure
variations in a fluid, pressure measuring devices, gauges and manometers, buoyancy and
stability of submerged and floating bodies, forces on plane and curved surfaces, center of
pressure. Fluid kinematics: Types of flow, dimensions of flow, streamlines, path lines, flow
patterns for different references, continuity equation, source flow, sink flow, flow nets, uses and
limitations of flow net. Pipe flow: pipe flow equations, head losses in pipes flow; friction losses
due to ends, elbows, reducers, etc; pressure distribution along pipe line; laminar and turbulent
flow in pipes, major and minor energy losses in pipes, branching pipes, flow distribution in
pipes place in series and in parallel; pipe network analysis. energy Consideration in Steady flow:
General equations of steady flow, heads, Bernoulli’s equation and its Practical applications,
23

hydraulic and energy grade lines, power consideration in fluid flow, cavitations, head losses,
solution of flow problems. Momentum and forces in fluid flow: Impulse-momentum principle
and application, force exerted on a stationary and moving bodies (flat and curved), relation
between absolute and relative velocities, reaction of a jet, jet propulsion, torque in rotating
machines. Fluid Flow Measurements: Orifices, weirs, notches and venture meter, pitot tube,
coefficient of contraction, velocity and discharge, derivation of their discharge formulae and
their applications.

Practicals
Demonstration of various parts of hydraulic bench, Experimental study of laminar and turbulent
flow, Experimental study of tube gauges and dead weight pressure gauges, Calibration of
orifices by various methods, Calibration of Venturimeter, Calibration of rectangular and
triangular notch, Verification of Bernoulli’s theorem, Determination of meta-centric height,
Viscosity of a given fluid by viscometer, Drag on a small sphere.

Suggested Readings
1. Çengel, Y.A. 2010. Fluid Mechanics. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, India.
2. Daughterty, R.I., J.B., Franzini, and E.J. Finnemore. 1995. Fluid Mechanics with
Engineering Application, McGraw Hill Book Co. Singapore.
3. Franzini, J.B. and Finnemore, E.J. 2003. Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Application.
McGraw Hill Book Co., Singapore.
4. Jain, A.K. 1990. Fluid Mechanics: A Text Book for Engineering Students. Khana
Publishers, New Delhi, India.
5. Streeter, V.L. 1988. Fluid Mechanics. McGraw Hill Inc., New York. Potter, M.C., C.
David and B.H. Ramadan. 2011. Mechanics of Fluids. Si Version. Cengage Learning.

ID-302 ENGINEERING NUMERICAL ANALYSIS 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To trained the students in solving engineering problems numerical computational


techniques

Contents:
Finite difference, Forward, backward and central difference and its operators form, Interpolation
and extrapolation; Linear and higher order interpolating polynomials, Newton’s Gregory
forward and backward difference interpolation formulas and its utilization as extrapolation,
Lagrange interpolation and extrapolation, Numerical differentiation based on differences,
Numerical integration; Trapezoidal and Simpson’ approximations, Trapezoidal and Simpson’s
extrapolations by Romberg integration process, Numerical Solution of non-linear equations;
Bracketing and iteration methods and its applications as multiple root methods, Direct solution
of the system of linear equations; Gauss-elimination, Direct and indirect factorization,
symmetric factorization, tridiagonal factorization, Iterative methods like Jacob’s iteration and
Gauss-Seidel iteration, Numerical solution of initial value problems; Single-Step methods like
Euler’s method, Euler’s modified method, Runge-Kutta method and its comparison with
24

Taylor’s series expansion, Multi-steps methods like Adams Bashforth and Modulation two and
three step methods, Higher order differential equations, system of differential equations,
Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear boundary value problems.
Practicals
Numerical solution techniques will be elaborated and demonstrated.

Suggested Readings
1. Bhat, R.B. and S. Chakraverty. 2004. Numerical Analysis In Engineering. Alpha Science
International.
2. Moin, P. 2010. Fundamentals of Engineering Numerical Analysis. CambridgeUniversity
Press.
3. Sastry, S.S. 2005.Introductory Methods of Numerical Analysis. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ID-402 FLUID FLOW SYSTEM 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To make the students understandable regarding concepts of fluid flow and their pumping.

Contents:
Pumps: Purposes, pump components, pump classification centrifugal, jet, positive displacement,
turbine pumps, submersible pumps, propeller and mixed flow pumps and gas or air lift pumps;
types of impellers (open, semi-closed, closed), terminology in pumping systems-specific speed,
priming, pumping energy, total dynamic head pump problems and their remedies.
Characteristic curves: TDH-Q curve, cavitations; net positive suction head; umps location,
affinity laws, pump testing, maintenance of pumps, system head curves and its components for
pumps selection, pumps in parallel, pumps in series. Pumping system head and power
requirements; Suction lift, well draw down, friction head loss, operating head seasonal variation
in system head curve, pumps selection, prime mover electric, diesel and their selection,
feasibility of prime mover selection, determining pumping head, brake horsepower; water horse
power; input horse power; pumping plant efficiency.

Practicals
Study of components of various pumps; study of pump characteristics; determination of pumps
efficiency; determining operating conditions and input horse power for pumps installed in
parallel; determining operating condition and input horse power for pumps installed in series;
laboratory study of losses in pipe flow; visit to study the pumping system and pipe flow of a
selected industry.

Suggested Readings
1. Ahmad, N. 1995. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan, ShahzadNazir Publisher, Gulberg-
III, Lahore, Pakistan.
2. Ahmad, N. 1995. Tubwell Theory and Practices, ShahzadNazirPubishers, Gulberg-III,
Lahore, Pakistan.
3. Saleh, J. 2002. Fluid Flow Handbook. McGraw Hill Professional, USA.
25

4. Tranini, J. B. and E. J. Fennimove. 2003. Fluid Mechanics with Engineering


Applications, McGRaw Hill Book Co., Singapore.

ID-503 ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY 3(2-1)

Objective:

• To acquaint the students with the basic components hydrologic cycle and their analysis.
• Introduce a stream flow components, flood routing, and hydrology model.

Contents:
Hydrologic processes: Introduction, Hydrologic cycle and its components, importance of
hydrology, climatic factors, estimation of precipitable water, snow cover and snowfall, stream
flow, water stage, discharge, interpretation of stream flow data evaporation and transpiration,
Evapotranspiration and its estimate using different methods.
Hydrologic Analysis: Hydrograph and its characteristics, run off and its components, recessions,
hydrograph separation, rainfall-runoff relations, phenomenon of runoff estimating the volume of
storm runoff, estimating snow melt runoff, seasonal and annual runoff relations, hydrograph of
runoff unit hydrograph its derivation and application, overland flow.
Hydrologic routing: Introduction, river routing level pool routing, linear reservoir model,
Muskingam method.
Hydrologic Models: definition, classification of models, development, calibration, verification
and application of models.

Practicals:
Demonstration of weather recording instruments and practice in taking actual data from weather
stations including a visit to weather station, Measuring runoff in the field by different
techniques, Development of unit hydrograph and its use, Frequency analysis of rainfall data,
Measuring infiltration rate in the field.

Suggested Readings:
1. Awan, N.M. 1981. Surface Water Hydrology, National Book Foundation, Islamabad.
2. Linsely, R.K., Kohler, J.L.H. Paulhyus 1996. Hydrology for Engineers, SI. Edition,
McGraw Hill Kogakusha Ltd.
3. Ward, R.C., Robinson, M. 1990. Principles of Hydrology, McGraw Hill Book Co.,
London.
4. Wilson, E. M. 1990. Engineering Hydrology, Macmillan Civil engineering
hydraulics.N.Y.

ID-608 PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 3(2-1)

Objectives:
26

• To develop the understanding among the students regarding the planning, designing and
management of engineering projects.

Contents:
Project Planning, Scheduling and Controlling by Deterministic Models: project planning
activities, Rectangular bar chart, CPM, developing a critical path schedule, determining the
minimum total cost of a project, Manual versus computer analysis of critical path methods,
preparing a execution schedule, scheduling resources, delivering Materials, scheduling laborers,
Financing the project, Job layout, Project control during construction, keeping equipment
records, Project supervision. construction cost control, cost control records. Project Planning,
Scheduling and Controlling by Probabilistic Models: PERT project Evaluation & Review
Technique, Statistical tools as mean variance. Standard Deviation. Probability distribution, beta
courses, center limit, Use of computer software in project management and planning. claims and
arbitration: claims, escalation, indexation, arbitration and litigation. Factors Affecting the
Selection of Equipment and Tools: standard types of equipment, special equipment, the cost of
owning and operating equipment, depreciation cost, straight line depreciation, decline balance
method, sum of the year, digit method, Investment costs, operating costs, economical life of
construction equipment, cost of depreciation and replacement, Maintenance and repair costs,
down time costs, economical cost of equipment, sources of construction equipment, labor
problems, labor organization, prevention and settlement of disputes.

Practical
Preparing a PC-I project proposal for a small irrigation project

Suggested Readings:
1. Guidelines of the Planning Commission on Project Planning Execution and
monitoring.
2. Kerzner, H. (2009) Project Management: A system Approach to Planning,
Scheduling and Controlling, Wiley, ISBN-100470278706

FMP-401 ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To educate the students about various thermodynamics cycles of heat engines and
refrigeration systems.

Contents:
Heating and expansion of gases; Units of heat, gases and vapors, constant volume and constant
pressure, P-V diagram, specific heat of gases, internal energy of gas, law of conservation of
energy, methods of heating and expanding gases and vapors, work done by gas in expanding.
Laws of perfect gases: The two laws of thermodynamics, the heating of gases, equations for
different types of heating methods. Air cycles: Cycles of operation, air standard efficiency of a
cycle, reversible process, reversible cycles, reversibility and efficiency, Carnot cycle, Otto cycle,
27

diesel cycle, mean effective pressure. Entropy of gases: Entropy and heat, T-S diagrams, Carnot,
Otto, diesel and dual combustion cycles on T-S diagrams. Air compressors: functions,
compressor types, reciprocating and rotary compressors, single and multistage compressors,
cylinder clearance, work done, compressor efficiency. Compound expansion: advantages of
compound expansion, tandem type of two- cylinder compound engine, receiver type compound
engine; combined indicator diagram for compound engine. Fuels: Combustion of fuels,
properties of fuels – viscosity, pour point, flash point, calorific value, API gravity, conversion of
volumetric analysis, analysis by weight, weight of carbon in burnt gases, weight of air required
for complete combustion of fuel, weight of flue gases per pound of fuel burnt, weight of excess
air supplied, method of analyzing flue gases, heat carried away by flue gases, volumetric
analysis of a gas, air fuel ratio for I.C. Engine. Refrigeration: Co efficient of performance, units
of refrigeration, air compression refrigeration, vapor compression refrigeration, refrigeration
cycles, rating, quality of refrigerant and general considerations, components of refrigeration
system, heat pumps.

Practicals

Study of working principles of two stroke and four stroke engines using models, Demonstration
of Joule's law, Study of rotary and reciprocating air compressors and their characteristic curves,
Study of PV diagram of diesel/gasoline engines, Analysis of engine flue gases for CO, CO2,
NO2, etc., Determination of energy content of different fuels using calorimeter, Study of heat
transfer using refrigeration and air conditioning cycle, Measurement of fuel viscosity using
viscometer, Determination of flash point and fire point of different petroleum products.

Suggested Readings
1. Eastop, T. D. 2004. Applied thermodynamics for engineering and technologists (5thed.)
Pearson Education Singapore.
2. Jones, J.B. and Hawkais, G.A. 2002. Engineering Thermodynamics. John Willey and
Sons, Inc. N.Y., USA.
3. Lewitt E. H. 2002. Thermodynamics applied to heat engines, Issac Pitman and Sons,
London.
4. Sontagg, R. E. and G. J. Van Wylen. 2010. Fundamentals of thermodynamics (7th ed.),
John Willey and Sons, Inc. New York, USA.
5. Muthuraman, S. 2011. Engineering Thermodynamics: Study of Thermodynamic
Properties and Applications. VDM Publishing.
6. Mishra, D.P. 2012. Engineering Thermodynamics. CENGAGE Learning.
7. Chattopadhyay, P. 2011. Engineering Thermodynamics (Revised 1st ed.).
OxfordUniversityPress, UK.

FMP-402 INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENTS 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To train the students about the instrumentation techniques to monitor and control the
operation of machine/equipments.
28

Contents:
Basic terminology and concepts related to instruments, instrument behavior application of
instrumentation, functional elements of instruments, basic terms related to instrumentation, such as
threshold, resolution, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, response and error of instrument, uncertainty
analysis, and least square techniques, static and dynamic characteristics of instrumentation, signal
conditioning and recording devices. Principles and theory of electrical instruments: potentiometer,
wheat stone bridge, strain analysis; strain measurement; strain gauges, types and their applications.
Displacement, velocity and acceleration measurement: sensors and transducers, displacement
measurement sensors; potentiometer, LVDT, capacitance sensors, piezoelectric sensors, velocity
and acceleration sensors. Force and Torque Measurements: Force Measurements; Load cells.
Torque measurements; torque cells. Pressure Measurement: Gauge, vacuum and absolute pressure,
pressure measuring devices. Measurement of Temperature: Resistance thermometers,
thermocouples and radiation methods. Fundamentals of mechatronics: Introduction to electronics
and sensors used in agricultural machinery, interfacing the machine and computers for response,
controls and data logging, computer simulation of mechanical system.
Practicals
Measurement of Displacement by LVDT and Potentiometer; Measurement of wind velocity.
1. Measurement of Force by Strain Gauges; Calibration of pressure gauges with dead
weight tester; Measurement of Temperature by thermocouples; Computer inter-facing for
the depth and draft controls of tractors; Visit to Mechatronics labs. of different
institutions; Study of depth sensors in Agricultural Machinery

Suggested Readings

1. Bakshi, U.A. and A.V. Bakshi. 2009. Instrumentation Engineering. Technical


Publications.
2. Bakshi, U.A. and A.V. Bakshi. 2010. Measurements and Instrumentation. Technical
Publications.
3. Dally, J. W., W. F. Riley and K. G. McConnel. 2003. Instrumentation for engineering
measurements, 2nd ed. John Willey and Sons, Inc. Singapore
4. Figliola, R. S. and D. E. Beasley. 2004. Theory and design for mechanical
measurements. (3rded.). John Willey and Sons (Asia) Pvt., Inc. Singapore
5. Kishore. 2009. Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation. Pearson Education India.
6. Mahalik, N. P. 2003. Mechatronics, principles, concepts and applications. Tata McGraw
Hill, New Delhi, India
7. Shetty, D. and R. A. Kolk. 2001. Mechatronics System Design. Vikas Publishing House,
Pvt., Ltd. New Delhi, India.

FMP-506 ENERGY RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To enhance the knowledge of the students about the potential of energy resources to cop
the energy crises in the country.
29

Contents:

Introduction: Overview of various types of energy sources (renewable and Non-renewable)


and its use in the country. energy management/audit with reference to:
fertilizer (organic/inorganic), chemical controls, irrigation, mechanization, post
harvest system and food consumption. Technological alternative for efficient energy
management in agriculture.energy reclamation from agricultural crops/wastes: energy from
biomass production. Biogas, various types of biogas plants. Design, installation, operation
and management of biogas plants.
Solar energy:Solar system, solar radiation, basic earth-sun angles, time derived
solarangles, estimation of solar radiation, radiation measurements,
solar radiation collectors, various uses of solar energy in domestic/agriculture, solar energy
conservation
Wind energy: Wind energy potential in the country. Application of wind energy
(domestic / agriculture). Importance of vertical and horizontal axis for wind mills, wind operated
pumps for water lifting.

Practicals
Estimation of energy requirements for major crops, Performance/ evaluation of biogas plants,
Estimation of solar and wind energies, Study of different types of solar dryers,
Performance/evaluation of wind mills, Analysis of engine performance for energy conservation,
Measurement of energy contents in diesel, biomass, and vegetable oil with calorimeter.

Suggested Readings:
1. Sorensen, B. 2004. Renewable energy. 2004. Elsevier Academic Press, UK
2. Singh, M. P. 2005. International Encyclopedia of energy. DAYA Publishing House,
Dehli, India
3. Board, N. Handbook on biogas and its application. National Institute of Industrial
Research, Dehli, India
4. Pimental, D. 1993. Hand Book of energy Utilization in Agriculture. CRC Press Inc.
Florida, USA.
5. Rai. G. D. 2001. Solar energy utilization. Khanna Publishers, N. Dehli, India
6. Stout, B.A., 1990. Hand Book of energy for world agriculture. Elsevier Applied Science
Ltd.

SEE-619 Senior Design Project – I 3(0-3)


SEE-620 Senior Design Project – II 3(0-3)
30

LIST OF MINOR COURSES


For B.Sc. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

IS-202 or Islamic Studiesor


3(3-0)
SSH-402 Ethics (for Foreign Students)
ENG-101 English Composition and Communication Skills 3(3-0)
MATH-301 Linear Algebra & Calculus 3(3-0)
PHY-301 Applied Physics 3(2-1)
AGRON-319 Basic Agriculture for Engineers 3(2-1)
AEE-302 Communication & Presentation Skill 3(2-1)
CHEM-403 Environmental Chemistry 3(2-1)
CS-401 Computer Programming & Applications in Engineering 3(2-1)
MATH-401 Differential Equations, Power Series, Laplace Transform 3(3-0)
RS-401 Sociology for Engineers 2(2-0)
SSH-102 Pakistan Studies 2(2-0)
STAT-402 Statistics & Probability 3(2-1)
SES-308 Environmental Microbiology 3(2-1)
AE-602 Economics for Engineers 3(2-1)
MICRO-505 Environmental Microbiological Techniques 3(2-1)

IS-202 or SSH-402 Islamic Studies or Ethics for Non-Muslims 3(3-0)


(Attached at the end)

ENG-101 Composition and Communication Skill 3(3-0)

Objectives:

• Prescribed study of selected text books and exercises in reading, learning, and practicing
grammatical principles of English.
• Practice on topics related to social and scientific issues of essays writing, learning the art
of report writing, and job application letter.

Contents:

Reading Skills; effective reading habits, comprehension, (i) Bromides and sulphites (Gelett
Burgess) (ii) TV addiction (Marie Winn), Writing skills; personal writing, CV, report writing,
letter writing, descriptive writing; argumentative writing; narrative writing; expository writing;
precise writing; grammatical tools; knowledge about parts of speech and their analysis,
punctuation, dash, comma, semi colon, capitalization, presentation skills; Communication skills,
types of communication, 7 Cs of communication, preparing effective presentations.
31

Suggested Readings
1. Allen, W. Stanard. Living English Structure.
2. Krizner, Laurd. G. and Mendall, Stephen R. 2008. Patterns for College Writing. St. Martin’s
Press, New York
3. McLaren, S. 2011. Writing Essays and Reports. Pascal Press.
4. Murphy, Herta A. 2009. Effective Communication. The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc., New
York.
5. 5. Rehman, A. 2004. Effective Business Communication and Report Writing. Farrakh
Publishers, Lahore.
6. Shah, A. S. 2006. Exploring the World of English. IlmiKitanKhana, Lahore.
7. Shahid, Ghulam M. 2010. Business Communication and report Writing. Rizwan Publishers,
Faisalabad.
8. Thomson A. J. and Martinet. 1997. Practical English Grammar. Oxford University Press.

MATH-301 LINEAR ALGEBRA AND CALCULUS 3(3-0)

Objective:

• To learn fundamentals of algebra & calculus.

Contents:
Basic set theory: Complex numbers: Cartesian and polar form, De Moivre’s theorem, roots,
exponential, trigonometric, hyperbolic and logarithmic functions’, complex powers.
Matrices: square matrices, determinants, reduced echelon form, rank, eigen-values, eigen-
vectors, Markov processes, mass transient problem, forecasting of weather and develop the
solution of system of differential equations for mechanical systems/electrical
systems/agricultural/civil engineering especially in public health engineering problem, linear
transformation, modeling and solution of system of linear equations.
Vector spaces: group, subgroup, ring, field, vector space, subspace, linear independent and
linearly dependent set of vectors, spanning set, basis for a vector space and its applications in
engineering.
Differential calculus: limit, continuity, derivative, total differential, higher order
differentiation, tangent and normal, Taylor series, Maclaurin series, extreme values, 1st and 2nd
derivative test, point of inflection and its applications in business and engineering.
Integral calculus: limit of sum, Riemann integration, evaluating integrals, definite integrals, area
under a curve and other applications of integration.

Suggested Readings:
1. Kreyszig, E. 2000. Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Ed. 8th, John Wiley and Sons, New
York.
2. Yusuf, S.M. and M. Amin. 2002. Mathematical Methods, IlmiKitabKhana, Kabir Street
Urdu Bazar, Lahore
3. Thomas, G.B. and R. L. Finney. Calculus and Analytical Geometry, 2002, Ed.9th
Roohani Press, Islamabad.
32

PHY-301 APPLIED PHYSICS 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To study laws and principles of modern and classical physics especially related to
electronics and environmental engineering applications.

Contents:
Electricity and Magnetism: Voltage, current, resistance, power, single phase and 3- phase A.C.
supply. Series and parallel circuits. Vector addition and subtraction of A.C. voltages. A.C/D.C.
motors: Concept of rotating fields, polyphase induction motor, lap and wave winding of single
phase and three phase motors, torque and starting characteristics, measuring instruments,
transformers. A.Cpowerg generators. Electrical distribution and wiring for farm buildings.
Electric controls, motor controls, and protection. Selection of farm
motors, applications of electricity at farm. Electronics: Semi-conductors, PN-junction;
Transistor; its characteristics and uses; Amplifiers; Power supplies; Magnetism: Electro-
Megnetic induction and radiation; Radioactivity: Radio isotopes; Biological effects of radiation;
Laser: Introduction, generation and uses of Laser. Fiber optics–characteristics.

Practicals:
Construction of wiring systems, fuses, switches of various types insulators, Circuits design and
drawing of a typical farm electrical system, Selection of motor for various farm equipment such
as forage cutter, feed-grinders, and shop tools, Practice on repair and adjustment of electric
motors, switches, fuses, transmission wiring controls, Study of 3 phase induction motor, Study of
star and delta connections, Study of semi conductor, triode, diode valve and transistors, Use of
AVO meter, CRO, plani meter, Fabrication of full wave rectifier and inductance study of its
wave-shape,easurement of self inductance and mutual inductance.

Suggested Readings
1. Theraja, B.L. 2004. A Text Book of Electrical Technology. S. Chand & Co. Ltd. New
Delhi, India.
2. Fitzgeraid, A.E. 1994. Basic Electrical Engineering. McGraw Hill, New York.
3. Hammond, P. 1979. Electromagnetism of Engineers. Pergamon Press, New York,
USA.

AGRON-319 BASIC AGRICULTURE FOR ENGINEERS 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To study basics of Pakistani agricultural and cropping systems.

Contents:
Agriculture-history, importance and branches, allied sciences, impact of climate of Pakistan on
crop production. Land resources and their utilization in Pakistan. Principles of crop production,
SEEd, fertilizers, irrigation, plant protection measures. Tillage: its objectives and types.
33

Cropping systems and crop rotations, Irrigation systems. Production technology of major and
minor crops. Classification of field crops w.r.t. their food value. Techniques and practices for
enhancing crop productivity.

Practicals
Land measuring units (Conventional and metric systems), Identification of various soil types;
Demonstration of various irrigation methods; Identification of various crops and their eneds w.r.t
food value; Demonstration of improved sowing methods; Visits to grain storage facilities and
progressive farms; Raising nursery for transplanting enedlings of non-traditional / regional
crops; Study of medicinal crops and organic farming.

Suggested Readings
1. Arnon, I. 1992. Agriculture in Dry Lands-Principles and Practices. Elsevier Sci. Pub.,
London.
2. Chaudhri, D.P. and K.A. Dasgupta. 1985. Agriculture and the Development Process: A
study of Punjab, Cromm Helm Ltd., London.
3. Cheema, Z.A. and M. Farooq. 2007. Agriculture in Pakistan. Allied Book Centre, Urdu
Bazar Lahore, Pakistan.
4. Cooper, E.L. 1990. Agriscience: Fundamentals and Applications, Delmar Publisher, New
York.
5. Khan, S. R. A. 2001. Crop Management in Pakistan with Focus on Soil and Water.
Directorate of Agri. Information, Punjab, Lahore.
6. Martin, J.H., R.P. Waldren and D.L. Stamp. 2006. Principles of Field Crop Production,
4thed. MacMillan Co., New York. USA.
7. Nazir, M.S. 1994. Crop Production. Ed. E. Bashir & R. Bantel, National Book
Foundation, Islamabad.
8. Somani, L.L. 1993. Recent Advances in Dry Land Agriculture. Part-2, Scientific
Publishers, Jodhpur.

AEE-302 COMMUNICATION AND PRESENTATION SKILLS3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To develop high quality communication and presentation skills in students.

Contents:
Definition, types and functions of communication; effective communication and its barriers;
verbal communication skills; speaking, speech making, listening, reading and writing. Preparing
and delivering a speech, development of effective reading skills, art of effective writing, writing
scientific and popular articles. Listening: the process, types, barriers and strategies for effective
listening; non-verbal communications; characteristics, functions and types; leadership; concept,
techniques, functions and characteristics; development of effective leadership skills.

Practicals
Communication & Presentation Skills labs related to speaking, speech making, listening, reading
and writing.
Suggested Readings
34

1. Calvert, P. (Ed.). 1990. The communication’s Hand Book: Techniques and Technology.
Maupin House, USA.
2. Devito, J.A. 1997. Human Communication: The Basic Course. Addison Wesley
Longman, Inc., New York, USA.
3. Gronbeck, B.E., R.E. McKerrow, D. Ehninger and A.H.Monroe. 1974. Principles and
Types of Speech Communication. HarperCollinsCollege Publishers, New York.
4. Kossen, S. 1994. The Human Side of Organizations.HarperCollinsCollege Publishers,
New York, USA.
5. Roy, E. and S. Roy. 1993. Guide to Basic Writing. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs. New
York, USA.

CHEM-403 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTERY 3(2-1)

Objective:

• To develop understanding of chemistry and its applications in environmental


engineering.
• To enable students to deal with chemical principles operation in natural and altered
environment. .
Contents:
Introduction to environmental chemistry, Acids and bases. pH diagrams, pH buffer, Types of
chemical reactions, Carbonate chemistry. Carbonate system. Hardness and removal of hardness.
Precipitation and dissolution, Solubility product, factors affecting solubility, Effect of
temperature on chemical reactions, Ion association and dissociation reactions, Redox reactions,
Greenhouse gases, Transfer and fate of pollutants in soil, air and water. Soil chemistry and
environmental contaminants. Pesticides and herbicides. PCBs. PAHs and dioxins, heavy metals
and other chemical pollutants. Primary and secondary pollutants. Applications of chemistry in
resolving environmental problems.
Practicals:

Principles of titration, filtration, distillation, paper chromatography, spectroscopy, atomic


absorption, determination of pH, DO. Eh. EC, Water hardness, furbidity, BOD and COD.
Suggested Readings:

• Clair N. Sawyer, Perry L, McCarly&Geve F Partern, Chemistry for Environmental


Engineering. McGraw-Hill, Inc.
• Harrison R M, De Mora S J, Introductory Chemistry for the Environmental Sciences,
Cambridge Environmental Series No. 17, Macmillan Press Ltd.
• Brimblecombe, P, Jickells T.D, Liss, P. S, An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry.
• Stumm, W. and. Morgan, J. Aquatic Chemistry, Chemical Equilibria and Rates in
Natural Waters, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, ISBN 0-471-51185-4.

CS-401 COMPUTER PEOGRAMMING AND APPLICATIONS 3(2-1)


35

IN ENGINEERING

Objectives:

• To enable students for high level programming as per requirement to solve the
engineering problems and simulations.
Contents:
Introduction: Computer components, operating system, software & applications, Programming:
Introduction, programming languages, flowchart, programming structure, introduction to C++,
application of C++ to solve engineering problems, modeling and simulation.

Practicals
Demonstration of computer components and Windows installation, Exercise on the use of word
processing, spreadsheet and engineering graphics, Programming of engineering problems with
C++.

Suggested Readings
++
1. Perry, G. and M. Johnsons. 1992. Turbo C by Examples. Prentice Hall Computer
Publishing, New York, USA.
2. Shelly and Cashman. 1996. Using Computer, a Gateway to Information. Boyd and Fraser
Publishing Company, USA.

MATH-401DIFFERENTAIL EQUATION, POWER SERIES, 3(3-0)


LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION

Objectives:

• To develop and enhance the knowledge related to differential equations, power


series and laplace transformation.

Contents:
Ordinary Differential Equation: Basic concepts of ordinary differential equation, General and
particular solution, Initial and boundary condition, Linear and nonlinear differential equations,
Solution of first order differential equation by separable variables and its application in our daily
life situations, Techniques like change in variables homogeneous, non-homogeneous, exact,
non-exact, linear and non-linear Bernoulli could be used in case of complications. Solution of
second order differential equations by theory of operators and its application as forced and free
oscillations, the extension of second order solution criteria to high order differential equations,
solution of the system of differential equations by theory of operators and its application in daily
life situations. Partial Differential Equations: Basic Concepts, linear and non-linear P.D
equations, Quasi linear and Quasi non-linear P.D equations, homogenous and non-homogenous
P.D equations, solutions of P.D equations, boundary and initial conditions as dirichlet
conditions, Neumann’ s condition, Robbin’s/mixed condition, classification of P.D equations as
Elliptic conditions, Parabolic and hyperbolic. Analytic Solution by separation of Variables of the
36

Steady State, two dimensional heat equation/Laplace equation and un-steady one dimensional
heat equation/Diffusion equation with homogenous and non-homogenous boundary conditions.
Fourier Series: Periodic waveforms and their Fourier representations, calculating a Fourier
series, Fourier series of odd and even functions, Half range Fourier series, Fourier series solution
for the above P.D equations.

Suggested Readings
1. Kreyszig, E. 1999. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. John Wiley and Sons, New
York, USA.
2. Yousaf, S.M. 1998. Mathematical Methods, IlmiKitabKhanaKabir Street, Urdu Bazar,
Lahore, Pakistan.
3. Sharma, G.S., K.L. Auhuja and I.J.S. Sarna.1988. Advanced Mathematics for Engineers
and Scientists. Tata McGraw Hill Co., India.

RS-401 SOCIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS 2(2-0)

Objectives:
• To provide knowledge and skills to the students to deal with social issues and
different cultural scenarios in doing field studies.

Contents:
Studying the Group Dynamics; Types of Social Groups, Primary and Secondary groups, In-groups
and Out-groups, Reference Group; Group Dynamics; Group Size, Leadership, Social Loafing,
Social Dilemmas, Groupthink, Conformity. Types of Disputes: Dispute Resolution Techniques;
Participatory Irrigation Management; Organizational Techniques for Sustainable Social
Organizations: A Case Study; Community Development: A Case Study of AKRSP.

Suggested Readings
1. Bhatti, M.A., M.A. Cheema and G.V. Skogerboe. 1999. Maintenance and Operational
Activities in the Command Area of Shahpur and Mirwal Small Dam. Pakistan National
Program International Irrigation Management Institute Lahore. Report No. R-78.
2. James, W. and V. Zanden. 1988. The Social Experience: An Introduction to Sociology.
Random House, New York.
3. Starkloff, R., D.J. Bandaragoda, M.A. Cheema and M.A. Bhatti. 1999. Social Organization
for Improved System Management and Sustainable Irrigation Agriculture in Mirwal and
Shahpur Small Dams. Pakistan National Program International Irrigation Management
Lahore. Report No. R-80.
4. Charles D Fledderman, Engineering Ethics, Prentice Hall, New Mexico, 1999.

SSH-102 PAKISTAN STUDIES 2(2-0)

Objectives:

• To study about history of Pakistan

Contents:
37

Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Allama Iqbal and Quaid –
i-Azam, factors leading to Muslim Separatism, location and geo-physical features of Pakistan,
constitutional development in Pakistan, 1935 Act introduced by British government, problems in
constitution making after partition, Objectives Resolution, Basic Principle Committee reports,
22 points of ulmas, one unit formula, salient features of 1956, 1962, 1973 constitutions and
amendments, objectives and principles of Pakistan’s foreign policy, different phases of
Pakistan’s foreign policy, social issues of Pakistan; poverty, illiteracy, population.

Suggested Readings
1. Amin, S., 2012, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy, Oxford University Press, Karachi.
2. Hussain, A, Z., 2012, Encyclopedia of Pakistan, Jahangir Book Depot, Lahore, Pakistan.
3. Khan, H. 2012. Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan. OxfordUniversity Press,
Karachi, Pakistan.
4. Mehmood, S., 2011, International Affairs, Jhangir Book Depot, Lahore,Pakistan.
5. Rabbani, I., 2012, Pakistan Affairs, Carvan Book House, Lahore.
6. Sattar, A., 2009, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy 1947-2005, Oxford University Press, Karachi,
Pakistan.
7. Ziring, L., 2009, Pakistan in the Twentieth Century, Oxford University Press, Karachi,
Pakistan.

STAT-402 STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To provide knowledge and skills required to statistically analyze and justify


engineering research projects
• To study economic and technical feasibilities using statistical design.

Contents:
Statistics: Mean value, Measures of central tendency, Measures of variation, Standard deviation,
Expected value of a random variable, Standard deviation of a random variable, The Poisson
distribution, The uniform distribution, The exponential distribution, The normal distribution,
The standard normal, The standard normal distribution. Probability: Sets, Application of Venn
Diagrams, Introducing probability, Mutually exclusive events, The addition law of probability,
Complementary events, Concepts from communication theory, Problems related to engineering,
Conditional probability, The multiplication law, Independent events, Baye’s formula,
Permutations and combinations, Multiplication principle, Problems related to engineering,
science and management, Applications of counting, Bernoulli trials, Binomial probability,
Markov chains, Probability distribution, Expected value, Decision making, Problems related to
engineering and management.

Practicals
Simple, Multiple and Component bar diagram, Historigram, Frequency polygon, Frequency
curve, c.f. curve, cumulative percentage curve and locate Quantiles, Problem assignments
relating probability,Fitting a Binomial distribution,Fitting a Poison distribution, Fitting a Normal
distribution, Sampling distribution of difference between two means, Application/use of t-test
38

2
for Null hypothesis, Test of significance of association of attributes by x -test (chi-square
test),Testing goodness of fit, Calculating a simple, partial and a multiple correlation and their
tests of significance. Fitting a simple linear regression equation and its test of significance by
Analysis of Variance (F-test) and t-test, Analysis of variance of data from C.R.D., R.C.B.D. and
L.S. design.

Suggested Readings
1. Choudhry, S.M. and S. Kamal. 1998. Introduction to Statistical Theory Part I & II;
IlmiKitabKhana, Kabir Street, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Pakistan.
2. Erwin Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics 8th Edition, John Wiley & Sons
Publication.
3. Lind, D., W. Marchal, and S. Wathen. 2011. Basic Statistics for Business and Economics
with Formula Card 7th ed.. The Mcgraw-Hill/Irwin Series Operations and Decision
Sciences, McGraw Hill Co., India.
4. Miller I. and J.E. Freund. 1985. Probability and Statistics for Engineers. Prentice Hall,
Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.
5. Muhammad, F. 1999. Statistical Methods and data analysis; KitabMarkaz, Bhowana
Bazar, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
6. Ronald E. Walpole. 1982. Introduction to Statistics; McMillan publishing Co., Inc. New
York. USA.
7. Taylor, L.D. 1974. Probability and Mathematical Statistics. Harper & Row, Publishers
New York, USA.
8. Walpole R.E. 1982. Introduction to Statistics, McMillan publishing Co, Inc. New York.

SES-308 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 3(2-1)

Objective

• This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of
microorganisms in the environment. After completion of this course, students will be
able to understand the significance, role and application of microorganisms in the
environment.

Theory
Introduction and history; Review of basic microbiological concepts; Microbial environments:
Earth environments, aero-microbiology, aquatic microbiology, extreme environments;
Consequences of biogeochemical cycles for environment; Remediation of organic and metal
pollutants; Water and food born pathogens; Disinfection; Domestic and indoor microbiology;
Risk assessment.

Practical
Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection, isolation, purification and
preservation; Dilution plate technique; Mean plate count; Enumeration of coliform bacteria from
drinking water.

Suggested Readings
1. Maier, R.M., I.L. Pepper and C.P. Gerba. 2009. Environmental Microbiology. 2nd ed.
Academic Press, London, UK.
39

2. Pepper, I.L., C.P. Gerba and J.W. Brendecke. 1995. Environmental Microbiology: A
Laboratory Manual. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
3. Prescott, L.M., J.P . Harley and D.A. Klein. 2007. Microbiology. McGraw Hill Inc .,
NY, USA.
4. Sylvia, D.M., J.J. Fuhrmann, P.G. Hartel and D.A. Zuberer. 2005. Principles and
Applications of Soil Microbiology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

AE-602 ECONOMICS FOR ENGINEERS 3(3-0)

Objectives:

• To learn economic and break even analysis of engineering research projects.

Contents:
Definition and scope of economics, significance of economics for engineers, basic concepts;
theorey of production; supply and demand; determination of price, output revenue, costs and
profit under perfect and imperfect competition. Cost comparisons of the use of conventional and
modern method/technologies in agriculture; replacement analysis, estimation of breakeven point
of farm machinery, estimation of depression and cost analysis. Project identification, appraisal
and feasibility(technical vs. economics); various aspects of project preparation, analysis and
evaluation, identification of cost and benefits (tangible, non-tangible, private, social) of projects
and their pricing. Discounting/compounding procedure, benefit/cost analysis, net present worth
of the project and its practical implifications, accounting techniques and their application in
project evaluation.

Suggested Readings:
1. Samuelson, P.A. W.D. Nordhause 2005. Economics 19th edition. Mcgraw hill, New
York.
2. Casavant, K.L., C.L. Infangeradd.E. Bridges 2006. Agricultural economics and
management. Pintice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
3. Gittinger, J.P. 2008. Economics Analysis of Agricultural Projects.
JohnHopkinsUniversity press, New York.
4. Frances, P. 2001. Practical Benefits-Cost Analysis; basic Concepts and Application,
MacMillan, Melbourne.

Micro-505 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES 3(2-1)


Objectives:
• To provide the basic concepts of microbiological techniques.
• To make students apply the concepts of different techniques used in the field.

Contents:
Important Microorganisms (bacteria, molds, yeast and virus) in air, water, soil etc.
Environmental factors; effects on microbes. Interaction of environmental pollutants with
microorganisms. Role of microorganisms for the production of food and feed products from
40

agriculture and forest wastes. Importance of microbiological and chemical quality of drinking
water.
Basic principles of public health, Microbiological Water quality monitoring and surveillance.
Infections and intoxication associated with environmental microorganisms (water, soil,
vegetables, fruits, air etc). Microbiological techniques for eating drinking water. Water pollution
of domestic, industrial and agriculture water. Different types of environmental wastes, Disposal
of infectious, biological and radioactive wastes. Diseases transmitted through various wastes.
Microbial degradation of natural and man made compounds. Bioremediation of environment
contaminated with wood preservatives, petroleum products, hydrocarbons, fuels and industrial
wastes etc. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals and phyto-remediation. Applications of
recombinant microorganisms in reducing environmental pollution. Recent advances in
agricultural and environmental biotechnology.
Practicals:

Isolation and identification of important pathogenic organisms from environment. Qualitative


and quantitative methods; most probable number (MPN) and Total plate count for faecal
coliform, E. coli and other pathogens from drinking water. Determination of pH, total suspended
solids, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD etc. Study on effects of environmental factors on
biodegradation of fungicides/insecticides.Detoxification of metals.Micro-organisms interaction
with different pollutants.Use of bioremediation techniques. Visit to drinking water treatment
plant.

Suggested Readings:

1. Maier,R.M.,I. L. Pepper and C.P. Gerba, 2000.Environmental Microbiology. 1st Ed.,


Academic Press, Orlando, USA.
2. Spencer, J.F.T., A. L. Ragout De Spencer, 2004. Environmental Microbiology: methods
and protocols (Methods in Biotechnology). Humana Press, New Jersey, USA.
3. Gaudy, A and E. Gaudy. 1981. Microbiology for Environmental Scientists and
Engineers.McGraw Hill International Book Co., New York, USA.
4. Alan, H. and M.G. Evans, 2000.Environmental Microbiology. 1stEd., American Society
for Microbiology Washington D. C. USA.
5. Mitchere, R., 1992.Environmental Microbiology. John Willey and Sons. Inc.New York,
USA.
6. Mark. J. Hammer, 2011. Water and Waste water Technology.7th Edition. Prentice Hall.
ISBN: 0135114047.
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42
43
44
45
46
47

List of Elective Courses


FOR B.Sc. ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERING

SEE-504 Water Supply and Sewerage 3(2-1)


SEE-601 Landscape Engineering 3(2-1)
SEE-612 Ground Water Pollution & Control 3(3-0)
SEE-614 Marine Pollution and Control 3(3-0)
SEE-616 Environmental Modeling 3(3-0)
ID-501 Open Channel Hydraulics 3(2-1)
ID-504 Soil and Water Conservation Engineering 3(2-1)
ID-505 Water Management Engineering 3(2-1)
ID-602 Irrigation Engineering 3(2-1)
ID-605 Water Quality Management 3(2-1)
SES-302 Salt-Affected Soils & Water Quality 4(3-1)
FE-504 Food Process Engineering 3(2-1)

SEE-504 WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE 3(2-1)


Objectives:

• To educate the students about the importance, development and management


issues of water supply and sewerage

Contents:
Introduction: overview of water supply and sanitation in Pakistan; Health Aspects of Water
Supply and Sanitation; Water availability standards. Water Supply: sources of water, Choices of
water sources (spring, wells etc) and their protection. Design and construction of Tubewells,
Dug wells and handpumps.
Forecasting population, Consumption for various purposes, Factor effecting consumption,
Analysis Impurities in water, Physical tests, chemical tests, Bacteriological tests. Economics of
community water supply, Planning and design of low cost water supply schemes. Water
Treatment and Distribution : sedimentation tank, Coagulation, Flocculation, Usual coagulants,
Mixing devices, Filtration, Filter sand, Classification of filters, disinfections, Chlorination.
Sanitation: purpose of sanitation, Site for sewage treatment work, Water borne and
48

helminthdiseases and their control, Health and water chemistry, Planning and design of low cost
sanitation. Composting and biogas, sanitation and irrigation, Agriculture and aqua cultural reuse.

Practicals:
Assessment of water supply demand of a community, Design of a water supply project
Determination of physical, and chemical characteristics of drinking water, Determination of
Bacteriological characteristics (Coliform count) of water and waste water, Visit to a drinking
water treatment plant.

Suggested Readings:
1. Prescott, A. 2010 Sewerage: The Designing, Construction and Maintenance of Sewerage
Systems. New York, John Wiley and Sons
2. Stephens. 2009. Sewage Treatment Uses, Process and Impact. Nova Sciences Publishers,
UK
3. Steel, W. Ernest. 1999. Water supply and Sewerage. McGraw Hill Book Co. USA.

SEE-601 LANDSCAPE ENGINEERING 3(2-1)


Objectives:

• Enabling students to design and develop landscape architecture in different


climatologically zones.
Contents:
Introduction, importance of landscaping, gardening and its design, principles and elements of
landscape design, landscape design materials, types of designs; formal and informal garden
designs, Chinese and Japanese gardening, rockeries, terrace, roof and water gardens, plants
suitable for various designs, landscape designs for public and private buildings, parks and
playgrounds etc., highway and roadside plantations, developmental cost estimates for
landscape.
Practicals:
Visits to different parks and gardens, landscape designs for private and community houses,
schools, colleges, universities, municipal and national parks, industrial areas and roadsides;
establishing various types of gardens.
Suggested Readings:
1. Preece R.A. 2000. Design on the landscape. CBS Publisher, New Dehli.
2. William M.M. 2010. Landscape Planning Environmental Applications Wiley publisher,
USA
3. Arora, J.S. 1992. Introductory Ornamental Horticulture. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi.
4. Khan, M.A. and T.A. Bader. 1992. Landscape Designs, Student Manual. University
Printing Press, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. .
5. Raj, D. 2002. Floriculture and Landscaping. Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi.

ID-501 OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS 3(2-1)


Objective:
49

• To study the basic concepts of fluid flow, principles of energy and momentum,
and characteristics of different hydraulic structures used in open channel.
Contents:
Basic Concepts of Fluid Flow: Types, state and regimes of flow, channel flow types, channel
geometry, measurement of velocity in channel, velocity distribution in channel and its
coefficients, pressure distribution in channel, effect of slope on pre4ssure distribution.
energy and Momentum Principle: Basic equations, specific energy, specific energy and alternate
depths, E-Y relationship, criteria for a critical state of flow, computation of critical flow, control
of flow, application of flow control in rectangular channel, momentum in open channel flow,
specific momentum, hydraulic jump, M-Y relationship.
Uniform Flow: Establishment of uniform flow. The Chezy’s and Manning’s equations,
resistance coefficient estimation, normal depth and velocity, normal and critical slopes, free
board, best hydraulic section, determination of section dimensions.

Rapidly Varied Flow: Characteristics of varied flow, sharp crested weir, aeration of the nappe
crest shape and discharge over spillway, type and characteristics of the hydraulic jump, jump as
energy dissipater, flow through sudden transitions.

Practicals:

Determination of discharging in open channel through different methods, Development of stage-


discharge curve (Y-Q Relationship), Development of hydraulic jump, Flow through/over
different hydraulic structures, Determination of critical flow, critical depth, alternative depth,
Determination of Chezy and Manning n for a rectangular prismatic channel, Plotting flow
profile of an open channel

Suggested Readings:
1. Chow, V.T. 1990. Open Channel Hydraulics. McGraw Hill International Book
Company.
2. French, R. H. 1996. Open Channel Hydraulics, McGraw Hill International Book
Company.
3. Henderson, F.M.1990. Open Channel Flow. McMillan Publishing Co.

ID-504 SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION 3(2-1)


ENGINEERING

Objective:
• Understanding the process of soil degradation and its protection affectivity soil
moisture and agriculture productivity.
Contents:
Water Erosion: Erosion agents. Geologic and accelerated erosion. Damages caused by soil
erosion. Water erosion and its types. Factors affecting water erosion. Sedimentation and
pollution in relation to water erosion. Water erosion prediction equation. Erosion control
practices.
50

Wind Erosion: Factors affecting wind erosion. Types of soil movement. Mechanics of wind
erosion. Wind erosion control principles. Wind erosion prediction equation.
Rainfall and Runoff: Rainfall intensity and duration. Infiltration, Factors affecting runoff.
Damages caused by floods. Water harvesting.
Cropping System and Agronomic Measures for Erosion Control: Watershed management, Plant
cover, Crop rotation, Strip-cropping, Conservation tillage, Contour cultivation, Land capability
classification.
Terracing: Field terrace. Classification of terraces. Broad base terraces. Bench terraces. Terrace
design. Planning the terrace system. Terrace construction and maintenance.
Vegetated Outlets: Use of vegetated outlets and water courses in the control of erosion. Design
of vegetated outlets. Water-way construction and maintenance.
Conservation Structures: Drops Spillways, Chutes and Pipes Spillways; their requirements,
components and limitations.
Water Conservation: Definition of drought, Effects of drought. Water stored in soil. Decreasing
runoff. Reducing evaporation. Reducing deep percolation. Preventing losses from storage.
Practicals:
Measurements of soil loss from splash erosion by rainfall simulator, Measurements of soil loss
using universal soil loss equation, Demonstration of moisture conservation techniques, Field
visit to areas with water and wind erosion prevailing.

Suggested Readings:
1. Suresh, R. 2000. Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. Standard publishers
Distributors, 1705-B NaiSarak, Delhi, India.
2. Kirkby, M.J. 1980. Soil Erosion. John Willey&Sons, New York.
3. Linsely, R.K. and Franzini, Joseph. 1996. Water Resources Engineering. McGraw Hill.
FAO.
4. Frederick, R.T. and J. A. Hobbs. 1991. Soil and Water Conservation. Prentice Hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.
5. Schwab G. O., D.D Fangmeier, W. J. Elliot and R. K. Frevert. (2002). Soil and Water
Conservation Engineering, 4th edition. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.
6. Frederick, R.T. and J. A. Hobbs. (1991). Soil and Water Conservation. Prentice hall,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (USA)

ID-505 WATER MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING 3 (2-1)

Objectives:

• To train the students about techniques for managing water on farm efficiently.

Contents:
Water Course Design and Improvement: Introduction, Planning for watercourse improvement.
Design criteria. Hydraulics of watercourse design, Different cross sections of watercourse,
Water course design. Materials and procedures, Moghas, Construction of unlined and lined
watercourses, OFWM structures (conveyance, control).
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PrecisionLand Leveling: Precision land leveling, Objective, Advantages and disadvantages of


land leveling, Farm assessment and layout, Traditional survey layout procedure. Adjustment of
borrow and fill, procedure for sloping fields, Land leveling maintenance.
Water Storage Tanks: Sizing a water storage tanks, Considerations in sizing water storage tanks,
GSEEral criteria, Design of storage tanks, construction of water storage tank, Preparatory works,
Materials and procedures, Concrete base, Brick or stone walls, Concrete walls, Back filling.
Stone pitching, Quantities.
Water Harvesting: Introduction, Goals and objectives, Site selection, Area appraisals,
Topographical surveys, Land use plane and work plane, Land development and conservation
structures, Leveling, terracing, improved bunds, improved tillage, field spillways, water ways,
diversion ditches, Storage structures, Water balance, Site investigation, Water retention
dams/ponds.
Agronomy Practices for Water Management: Development of Crops and Cropping Systems,
Principles of Crop Management, Management of land and Soil, ened and Sowing, Fertilizers and
Nutrients, Crop protection, Harvest and Post-harvestTechnologyCenters, Objectives, Selection,
and conduction of Farm Demonstration Centers, Extension Methods.
Conjunctive Use of Water: Conjunctive use of saline groundwater. Effects of sediment and
salinity on conjunctive use of water.

Practicals:
Flow measurements, water course survey, water course design,

Suggested Readings:
1. On Farm Water Management Field Manuals, (Revised 1996-97)
a. Vol. IV Watercourse Design and Improvement.
b. Vol.V: LandDevelopmentPrecisionLand Leveling and level Border Design.
c. Vol.VI Irrigation Agronomy.
d. Vol.VII Water Storage Tanks.
e. Vol. X Water Harvesting and Spate Irrigation
Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock (Federal Water Management cell)
Government of Pakistan, Islamabad.
2. Hoffman, G. J, T.A. Howell and K.H. Solomon, (1992). Management of Farm
Irrigation Systems. ASAE.

ID-605 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• To teach the students about water quality parameters and various measure for
mitigation

Contents:
Introduction: Definition and concepts, irrigation and drainage water quality, water quality
terminology, water quality objectives, quality criteria and standards for irrigation water
carcinogenic/non carcinogenic substances, water quality status in Pakistan.
52

Water treatment: Water pollution and their sources, water treatment techniques i.e. coagulation,
softening, mixing and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration etc.
Drainage Effluents and Management Techniques: Sources of drainage water, characteristics,
quality of drainage water, alternates for disposal of drainage water drainage water reuse
techniques, crop management, soil management techniques, chemical management
techniques, drainage and leaching fractions, concepts of preferential flow.
Agricultural chemicals and Groundwater Contamination: Agricultural chemical, their uses,
trends and properties concept of nitrate nitrogen and pesticides transport; through the soils,
behavior of agricultural chemicals in flooded/water logged soils, management practices to avoid
groundwater contamination.

Practicals:
Analysis of drainage water for irrigation purposes, Waste water analysis for BOP, COD and
other chemicals, Visit to waste water treatment plants, drainage system and drainage reuse
sites, Use of computer software to assess non-point source pollution.

Suggested Readings:
1. Mckenzie L. David A. Cornwell 2006. Introduction to Environmental Engineering.
2. Ruth F. W. 2007. Environmental Engineering, Elsevier, New Delhi
3. Tyagi, O.D. and M. Mehar, 1990. Environmental Chemistry, Report No.103.
Agriculture and groundwater quality. Form Council for Agricultural Science and
Technology.

SEE-614 MARINE POLLUTION AND CONTROL 3 (3-0)


Objectives:
• To learn about Marine pollution,
• To learn methods for its prevention and control.
Contents:
Effects of pollutant discharges, Oil spills, Coastal zone management, Beach erosion, Channel
dredging and changing sea-level on marine environment and control measures, Modeling for
pollution dispersion, Study of marine biology (organism, fisheries and mangroves), Coastal
geology and estuarine ecology, Marine resources management, Sea water intrusion.

Suggested Reading:
1. Introduction to Earth Systems Science and Global Environmental Change, Fred
Mackenzie, Printice-Hall 1998.
2. Case Studies in Oceanography and Marine, 1991 Affairs George Brows and
EngelaOpen University, UK..
3. Ocean Chemistry and DeepSea Sediments, 1995.Open University, UK.
4. Sea Water and ts Composition Properties and Behavior, 1995. Evelyn Brown,
EngelaCollings.

SEE-616 ENVIRONMETAL MODELING 3 (3-0)

Objectives:
53

• To introduce the basic concepts of water quality modeling in river, lakes and
estuaries

Contents:
Introduction: Understanding of surface water, modeling of surface water, Hydrodynamics.
Water quality and eutrophication: Overview, Algae, Organic carbon, Phosphorus, Nitrogen,
Dissolved oxygen. Mathematical modeling and analysis: Mathematical models, Model selection,
Spatial and temporal resolution, Statistical analysis, Model calibration and validation. Water
quality modeling of rivers: Characteristics of rivers, Hydrodynamics processes in river,
Sediments and water quality processes in river, River modeling. Water quality modeling of lakes
and reservoirs: Characteristics of lakes, Hydrodynamics processes in lakes, Sediments and water
quality processes in lakes, Lake modeling. Water quality modeling of estuaries and coastal
waters: Tidal processes, Hydrodynamics processes in estuaries, Sediments and water quality
processes in estuaries, Estuarine and coastal modeling.

Suggested Reading:
1. Hydrodynamics and Water Quality: ModelingRiver, Lakes, and Estuaries by Zhen-
Gang Ji.

SES-302 Salt-Affected Soils & Water Quality 4(3-1)


Objectives:

• To understanding the soils degradation and its protection to enhance the


agricultural production.

Contents:
Salt Affected Soils: types, extent and causes, origin of salt in soils, origin and nature of saline
and sodic, alkali and waterlogged soils, exchangeable bases and cation exchange in soil, soil
reaction, solute movement of water in soil, pH value of soil and its significance. Soil
Reclamation: reclamation techniques, saline soils leaching requirements, amendments for sodic
soils, gypsum requirements. Management of Salt Affected Soils: provision of surface,
subsurface or vertical drainage, salt tolerance crops, agronomic practices, manures, irrigation
practices. Management of Waterlogged Soils: causes, extent and remedial measures, effect of
waterlogging on plant growth, management of waterlogged soils, irrigation water quality effects
on soil environment.

Practical
Measurement of infiltration rate of saline, sodic and waterlogged soils, movement of solutes,
preparation of soil paste and soil saturation extract, chemical analysis for pH, EC, SAR, ESP,
and cations and anions, quality of irrigation water, water table depth measurements.

Suggested Readings:
1. Abrol, I.., J.S.S.P Yadav and F.I. Masood, 1988. Salt affected soils and their
management. Soil Bull. 390. FAO. RomeItaly.
2. Bresler, E., B.L. McNeal and D.L. Carter. 1982. Saline and Sodic Soils,
Principles,Dynamics,Modeling. Springer,Verlag, New York.
54

3. Tanji, K.K. 1990. Agricultural salinity assessment and management. ASCE No.71, New
York, USA.
4. Gupta, I.C. 1990. Use of saline water in Agriculture. Oxford and IBH Pub. Co., New
Delhi, India.

FE-504 FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING 3(2-1)

Objectives:

• Skill will be in the graduating engineers for different type of food process
engineering.

Contents:
Principles of operations for the equipment used in processing industry and the response of
biological materials to these operations. Non-linear curve fitting, energy associated with food
freezing accounting for non-frozen water below the freezing point, flash evaporation, evaporated
cooling, pumps, high pressure system applications, effective temperature measurements to
account for radiation, simultaneous conduction, convection, heat transfer freezing time
predictions, reaction kinetics including acquisition and analysis of reaction rate data and use in
process optimization.

Practicals
Activities for sterilization of fluids containing particulates; Training in vapor induced puffing for
producing crispy dried or baked food products; Training in application of supercritical fluids and
extrusion to generate unique food ingredients; Food industrial visits.

Suggested Readings
1. Bellinghouse, V.C. 2009. Food Processing: Methods, Techniques and Trends, Nova
Science Pub Inc.
2. Doona, C.J. and F. E. Feeherry. 2007. High Pressure Processing of Foods. Blackwell
Publishing and the Institute of Food Technologists, Blackwell Publishing Professional,
2121 State Avenue, Ames, Iowa 50014, USA.
3. Gaonkar, A.G. 1995. Food Processing, Recent developments. Elsevier Science B.V.,
Amsterdam - Lausanne - New York, USA.
4. J. Scott Smith, Y. H. Hui, 2008. Food Processing: Principles and Applications, John
WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.