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Petrel Manual for FDP

PETREL

DYNAMIC MODELING
PETREL MANUAL FOR FIELD DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

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Petrel Manual for FDP

Contents
1. WELL ENGINEERING ............................................................................................................................. 3

1.1 WELLS - MAKE VERTICAL WELLS ................................................................................................................... 3


1.2 WELLS - WELL PATH DESIGN ........................................................................................................................ 4
1.3 DIGITIZE ON A FILTERED PROPERTY ................................................................................................................ 5

2. WELL COMPLETION DESIGN ................................................................................................................. 8

2.1 DEFINE EQUIPMENT ................................................................................................................................... 8


2.1.1 Insert Casing ................................................................................................................................. 9
2.1.2 Completions - Insert perforation ................................................................................................. 12

3. AQUIFER............................................................................................................................................. 14

3.1 ADDING AN AQUIFER ............................................................................................................................... 15


3.2 RUN A CASE WITH AQUIFER........................................................................................................................ 19

4. OBSERVED DATA ................................................................................................................................ 20

4.1 CREATE OBSERVED DATA FILE.................................................................................................................... 20


4.2 IMPORT OBSERVED DATA ......................................................................................................................... 21
4.3 VISUALIZE THE OBSERVED DATA .................................................................................................................. 21

5. HISTORY MATCHING .......................................................................................................................... 22

5.1 MAKE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY ................................................................................................................. 22


5.2 RUN HISTORY MATCHING .......................................................................................................................... 23
5.3 VIEW HISTORY MATCHING SIMULATION RESULTS ............................................................................................ 24
6. PREDICTION STRATEGIES……………………………………………………………………………………………...... 25

6.1 MAKE A STRATEGY ................................................................................................................................... 25


6.2 PREDICTION STRATEGIES............................................................................................................................ 26

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1. Well Engineering
1.1 Wells - Make vertical wells
1. This is to decide where you want to locate the new well in your 3D model.

2. Click the location in a window using the Select/pick mode. The status bar
(bottom right) will display the X and Y surface coordinates.

3. Go to Input pane, and right-click the Wells folder. Choose New well from the
drop-down menu.

4. In the Create new well dialog box, enter a name for the well, select a symbol and
enter the X and Y coordinates. You can also enter a top measured depth and a
bottom measured depth to specify the depth interval of the well.

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1.2 Wells - Well path design


There are several ways of digitizing the well path, depending on the available data.

A) Digitize all the data on a General Intersection

 You can create a General Intersection and position it in the place where you
want to digitize the new a path.

Display all the data of interest:

• Property

• Horizons

• Faults

• Seismic etc.

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1.3 Digitize on a filtered property


 You can use the value filter in the property filter to filter on, for example,
high porosity values, and use the zone filter to view the different zone(s) you
want.

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Well Digitizing Steps – General Intersection

1) Activate the Well path design process found in the Well engineering folder on
the Processes pane by clicking it once. This enables the well path design function
toolbar we will be using.

2) Using the Add new points button in the well path design function
toolbar and start to digitize (click) on the general intersection plane.

3) To move a well point interactively in the 3D window, use the Select/pick mode

and click on the well point. The well point turns into a widget that can be
moved around. Petrel will observe the dog leg severity constraints at all times
and give you a warning if it is exceeded.

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4) The new well will automatically be named Proposed with number and will be
saved under the Wells folder in Input pane. Right-click on the well and open its
settings. Now, you can define if the well should be a simple well, a standalone
well, or a side track well that tie into one of the existing wells in the project.

5) Change the symbol for the well, and rename the well into something in
accordance with the other wells. The well will be stored in the Proposed wells
folder.

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2. Well completion design


2.1 Define equipment
1. Open the Completions manager dialog. You can access the Completion manager
by right-clicking on the Global completions folder and selecting it from the drop-
down menu.
2. In the dialog that opens, go to the Equipment tab.
3. Click the Add a new row button, then select Casing and enter 1 as the number of
equipment to be created.
4. Give the casing the name New equipment. Then, specify an outer diameter (OD)
of and an inner diameter (ID).

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2.1.1 Insert casing


1. Insert a new well section window with the Window > New well section window
command.
2. Accept to create the new Well section template 2.
3. Now you see an empty well section window. Select the check box in front of well
(eg: A10) in the Input pane, to display it in the window.
4. At the top of the well section window, select to show the depth track in
measured depth (MD) and not in sub-sea true vertical depth (SSTVD).
5. Go to the Input pane and then expand the Global completions sub-folder
located under the Wells folder. Select to view Casing and Perforation.

6. Activate the Well completion design process in the Well engineering folder on
the Processes pane by clicking it once. The function toolbar appears with icons
(tools) relevant to the completion design process.

7. Click the Add/edit casing icon and click inside the Completions track of
the well, Petrel will prompt you for a start date. Enter the date you require to.

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8. You can now edit the casing which you have just made. Hover the mouse pointer
over the casing shoe and see that it changes shape into a double arrow when
you cross the base of the casing.

9. Click and try to drag the casing base up and down in the Well section window to
your desire MD.

11. Access the Completions manager and filter by your well name.

12. Add additional attribute Columns > Equipment ID.

13. Use the drop-down menu to assign the New equipment to the well; the casing
which previously created.

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14. Still editing the casing, enter the desire MD for Bottom off (m). Click Refresh and
observe how the casing is extended all the way to the bottom of the well.

15. Close the Completions manager.

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2.1.2 Insert perforation

1. From the function toolbar, click the Add/edit a perforation icon . Now
insert a perforation that runs from the top of the reservoir to the bottom of the
well.

2. Petrel will ask for the start date for the perforation – type in the date – and click
OK.

3. Display the porosity and permeability from the grid properties along with the
completion track. Drag the perforation to a depth with good porosity (or
permeability). You can also extend the perforation using the up-and-down cursor
when hovering over the perforation at the very edge (top or bottom)

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4. You may also change the Top MD and Bottom MD of the perforation by double-
click on the perforation to open the settings and open the Depth/date tab.

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3. Simulation Fault
3.1 Make a simulation fault
1. Open a 2D window.
2. Display the project boundary (edge around surface) and view the top horizon of
your 3D grid model.
3. Digitize a line that will be used to define the fault plane by first selecting the
Make/edit polygons process in the Utilities folder in the Processes pane. Then:

a. Activate the Make/edit polygons tool in the function bar. Select the

Add new points tool .


b. Digitize a line by pointing in the display and left-clicking. Add a point in the
grid cell closed to the project boundary to make sure the fault is extended all
the way to the boundary.
4. The polygon is stored at the bottom of the Input pane. Rename it to “Fault
polygon” by opening the Settings for it and changing the name in the Info tab.
5. Make sure the 3D Grid is selected on the Models pane.
6. Right-click on the polygon you just made, and select Create simulation (grid)
fault from the drop-down menu. The new fault is stored in the Faults folder
under the simple grid on the Models pane.

3.2 Transmissibility multiplier


1. Open a 3D window and select to view your new fault.
2. Open the Fault analysis process that is located in the Property modeling folder.
3. Enter a constant transmissibility multiplier.
4. Click OK.
5. Save the project.

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4. Aquifer

4.1 Adding an Aquifer (Optional Exercise)


1. Open a 2D window and display one of the horizons along with the faults of your
upscaled grid from the Models pane.

2. Activate the Make/edit polygons process from the Utilities folder in the
Processes pane.

3. Activate the Make/edit polygon tool , Start new set of polygons

(deactivate old) tool and the Add new points tool in the function bar.

4. Draw a polygon which encloses the eastern part of the model. Use the Close

selected polygon tool to close the polygon.

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5. The new polygon is stored on the Input pane. Rename it to Aquifer boundary.

6. Make sure the Upscaled grid is active on the Models pane.

7. Go to processes pane, and open the Make aquifer process located under
Simulation.

8. Select Create new; Select an Aquifer model. Name it Fet1.

9. In the Connections tab, select the Aquifer boundary polygon on the Input pane,

and drop it into the Area of interest field by clicking the blue arrow .

10. For exercise, select Grid edges as Drive direction. Make the compass connect to
the cell faces from all directions except from South.

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11. Under Vertical extent, select a Top limit of the oil-water contact.

12. Go to the Properties tab, type in a datum. Leave the other settings defaulted.

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13. Click Apply to save the aquifer model, leave the dialog box open.

14. Display the grid in a 3D window.

15. Go to the Models pane, you will find the newly created aquifer under the
Upscaled grid > Aquifer folder. Toggle on the new aquifer. The cell faces
connected to the aquifer are displayed in the 3D window.

16. Make a second aquifer using the same procedure as in steps 8 through 12. Name
the aquifer Fet2. The only difference between the two should be external radius.
Increase the radius 100 times. We want to check the effect of the size of the
water reservoir on the water production from well P07.

17. Click OK. Save the project.

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4.2 Run a case with aquifer


1. Open the Define simulation case process. Create a new case and type in the
name. Inspect the Grid tab. Drop in aquifer Fet1 from the Models pane.

2. Click Apply and run the case.

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5. Observed Data
5.1 Create Observed Data File
1. Use the data from well build-up and drawdown history.
2. Open a new notepad and copy the following format:

3. Now insert the well build-up and drawdown history data using the arrangement
based on the sixth line. (Ensure the unit system is correct)
4. The history data is in field unit. Take note that we will use the metric unit in
Petrel. Do a data conversion before you insert into the notepad.
5. Save the file as VOL File.

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5.2 Import Observed Data


1. Right-click the Global observed data folder under the Wells folder in the Input
pane and select Import (on selection).

2. In the dialog that opens, select the observed data file and click Open.

3. In the Import observed data dialog box that opens, make sure the well names in
the file matches the correct well in your project.

4. Go to the Data tab.

5. Check that the Column number is correct for the data you are importing and that
an appropriate Property identifier is selected.

6. After you have selected a Property identifier for all the vectors you are
importing, make sure that you select Create new in the Global observed data
column to add a subject to the Global observed data folder.

7. Click OK to import the observed the well build-up and drawdown history data.

5.3 Visualize the observed data


1. Open a Function window.

2. Go to the Results pane, expand the Dynamic Data folder and then the Source
type folder.

3. Expand the Identifier folder and select the check box in the well A10.

4. Select the boxes in front of Observed data, Oil production rate in the Rates
folder and Bottom hole pressure in the Pressures folder.

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6. History matching
6.1 Make history development strategy
1. To create a history strategy, you will use the Make development strategy
process.
2. Expand the Simulation folder in the Process pane and open the Make
development strategy process.
3. Select Create new development strategy.
4. Click the Use presets button, and select History strategy from the drop-down
menu.
5. Name the new strategy.
6. Observe on the Strategy tree; note that the observed data set and the wells
have been inserted automatically; the start date and the end date for
simulation were extracted from observed data set.
7. Remove all the wells except for A10, A15 and A16 in the wells folder.
8. Find the Rules folder in the Strategy tree (the left pane of the Make
development strategy process dialog) and click the History rate control
(Wells folder) rule.
9. Check all the parameters for the history rate control and click OK to save the
history development strategy.
10. The new Development strategies folder is at the bottom of the input pane.

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6.2 Run history matching


1. Open define simulation case.
2. Select Initialization case in Edit existing.
3. Now select Create new case and name it as History.
4. Open the Strategy tab.
5. Append a new item into the Development Strategy.
6. Drop in the History strategy from the input pane into the Development Strategy
by clicking the blue arrow.

7. Click Apply and Export.


8. After the Export has finish, click Run the case.

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6.3 View history matching simulation results


1. Open a new function window.
2. Select the History case in the cases pane.
3. Go to the Results pane.
4. Expand the Dynamic Data folder and then the Source type folder.
5. Expand the Identifier and select the check box of the well A10 as preference.
6. Select to view the Observed data, Oil production rate in the Rates folder and
Bottom hole pressure in the Pressures folder.
7. View and analyze the history strategy data and observed data.

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7. Prediction Strategies
 Used to predict future behavior
 Gives the rates or pressures that the wells should be operated at forward in time

7.1 Make a strategy


Default strategies

The Use presets drop-down menu offers four templates strategies.

 History strategy: As done in previous history matching, the history strategy


utilizes the first observed data set that is listed in the Global observed data
folder.
 Empty prediction strategy: This will give you a blank strategy, the same as when
the process is opened for the first time.
 Prediction depletion strategy: This sets up a field for production with no
injection. All wells are added to the strategy and placed under production group
control. You must set field group prediction target, and start and end dates. It is
recommended to set the minimum bottom hole pressure, and optionally, the
maximum rate limits.
 Prediction water flood strategy: This sets up a field for production with water
injection. Group and wells rules are setup for group production control and full
voidage replacement. You must drag the well producers into a Production folder
and well injectors to an Injector folder. In addition, you must set the field group
prediction target and start and end dates. It is recommended to set bottom hole
pressure limits, and optionally, maximum rate limits on both producers and
injectors.

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7.2 Prediction strategies


 Before make the prediction strategies, make sure you have create your new
wells for injectors and producers. Refer to notes 1.1 and 1.2 to make vertical
wells and well path design. The numbers of wells and their location are on your
own adjustment.

7.2.1 Prediction depletion strategy (base case)


1. The base case strategy sets up field producers with no injection.
2. Open the Make development strategy process.
3. Select Create new development strategy.
4. Click Use presets button, and select Prediction depletion strategy.
5. Give the new strategy a name, for instance “Prediction depletion”.
6. All the wells will automatically insert into the wells folder in the development
strategy.
7. Double-click on the start date and change it to 2013-07-19.
8. Double-click on the end-date and change it to 2018-07-19.
9. Click on the Report frequency rule, and select a Report frequency of 6 months or
1 year.
10. Click on Group rate production control rule, enter the oil rate of 120,000sm3/d
and set the oil action as Target.
11. Click on Well rate production control rule, drop in your producer wells folder
into Wells. Select group control mode, and enter oil rate of 5000sm3/d.
12. Click on the Well pressure production control rule. Again, drop the producer
wells folder into Wells. Using the Group control as control mode, set the bottom
hole pressure to 100 bar.
13. Click Apply and OK.

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7.2.2 Define a prediction case


1. Go to the cases tab. Right-click the History case (history match), and select Insert
restart case.
2. Open the Define simulation case process from the process pane.
3. Select Edit existing case, and then select your restart case from the drop-down
menu. Note that the settings under the Grid, Functions, Strategies tabs were
preserved and that these settings are not editable.
4. Go to the Strategies tab.
5. Add a row to the table by clicking the Append item in the table button.
6. Select the Prediction depletion strategy on the Input pane, and drop it into the
table by pressing the blue arrow.
7. Click Apply to save your case, then click Run to run the simulation.

7.2.3 Prediction water flood strategy


1. Open the Make development strategy process.
2. Select Create new development strategy.
3. Click the Use presets button, and select Prediction water flood strategy.
4. In the strategy type of the process window, drag the producers into the PROD
folder and the injectors into the INJ folder.
5. Double-click on the start date and change it to 2013-07-19.
6. Double-click on the end-date and change it to 2018-07-19.
7. Click on the Group rate production control item in the Rules folder. Enter a
Reservoir volume rate of 120000m3/d, then use the drop-down menu to specify
this rate as a target.
8. Click on the Group voidage replacement injection rule, and enter a Voidage
replacement fraction of 1.

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9. Next, click on the Well rate production control rule. Make sure that the PROD
folder is dropped in as Wells, and that the control mode is Group control. Leave
the remaining fields blank.
10. Click on the Well pressure production control. Again, the PROD folder should be
dropped in at the Wells field. Select Limits as Control mode from the drop-down
menu. Specify a Bottom hole pressure limit of 100 bar. Leave the remaining
fields blank.
11. Click on the Well water injection control rule. Check that the INJ folder is
dropped into the Wells field and that Control mode is set to Group control. Also,
enter a Bottom hole pressure limit of 400 bar.
12. Finally, click on the Reporting frequency rule and select to report every sixth
month.
13. Click Apply to save the development strategy.

7.2.3 Add a new rule to an existing strategy


1. Open the Make development strategy process, and select Edit existing.
2. Select the water flood strategy you made in the previous exercise from the drop-
down list.
3. Click the Open ‘Add rules’ dialog button.
4. In the dialog that opens, left-click on the Well water cut rule located in the Wells
folder. Click the Add rule button. Click Close.
5. In the new water cut rule, drop the PROD folder into the Wells field.

6. Type in a Water cut limit 0f 0.9.


7. Select Close well as Water cut action by using the drop-down menu.
8. Click the Validate active rule button to check the validity of the new rule.
9. Click OK to save your development strategy and to close down the process
dialog.

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