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Index

ActivMedia, 137 Adams, James, 136 Adelaide Institute, 221 Afghan Media Center, 312 Africa, culture, 216 Internet use in, 217–218, 322 Africa Online, 319, 323 African National Congress (ANC), 225–226 Al Ahram, 172 Alexander, Lamar, 105 Al-Jazeera, 313 Alves, Rosental Calmon, 175 American Psychologist, 34, 40 America Online, 318 Anonymity, in cyberspace, 106 Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 220 Apartheid, 225–227 Apocalypse Now, 264 Apple Computer, 11 Architecture, as symbolic communication, 250 Aristotle, 41 ARPANET, 103, 191 Artificial intelligence, 346 Asia Pacific Broadcasting Union, 328 Aspen Institute, The, 143 AT&T, 185 Australian Ballot, 52–53 Babe, R. E., 353, 355 Baldwin, James, 340

Barlow, John Perry, 6 Being Digital, 182 Bell, Daniel, 22, 355 Benetton, 208 Beniger, 356 Benton Foundation, 338 Berelson, Bernard, 23 Bigelow, B., 215 Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, 74 “Bill for the More General Diffusion of Knowledge, A,” 51 Bill Moyers’ Journal, 23 Bill of Rights, 21 Bloomberg, 253, 319 B’nai Brith, 220 Bosnia, 331 Boston Globe, 315 Boulding, Kenneth, 354 Boyle, J. 357 Boyte, Harry, 39 Bradley, Bill, 1 Brazil, Internet use in, 316 Breslow, Harris, 212 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 171, 227 British Independent Television News (ITN), 247 Broadcasting and bandwidth, 118 contrasted with Internet, 118 limitations of, 28–29 models of, 117–119

378

Index

Brown v. Board of Education, 54 Bush, George W., 1 Business Week, 218 California Voter Foundation, 150 Camden Conference on Telecommunications, 72 Caribbean Broadcasting Union, 328 Carpentier, Alejo, 179 Casablanca, 264 Cato Institute, 338 CD-ROM, 214 Center for Automated Interchange of Information (CENIAI), 191, 193 Center for Responsive Politics, 338 Central Institute for Digital Research (Cuba), 185 Charlotte Observer, 334 Chat rooms, 95, 124 Chayevsky, Paddy, 140 Chicago Tribune, 275–279 Children’s Television Network, 120 China, and the Internet, 210–211, 317, 321 Christian Coalition, 120 Church, and printed texts, 367–370 Churchill, Winston, 141 Citizen initiatives, 26–27 Citizen Kane, 264 Citizenship historical models of, 49–59 and the Internet, 55–59 and journalism, 257–259 CIVICUS, 46 Civitas, 46 Clarissa, 261 Classified advertising, 279 Clinton, Bill, 109, 183, 271 Clinton, Hillary, 4 Clueless, 26 CNN, 171, 207–208, 253, 311, 335 Cohiba Hotel, 179 Colas, Dominique, 61

Cold War, and Cuban technology, 184–186 Common Cause, 338 Common Sense, 133, 140 Commons, John, 62–66 Communications Decency Act, 134 Communications Research Centre (Canada), 176 Communications technologies, 24–26, 135–136 Community and cyberspace, 63–64 defined, 85–86 and government, 80–82 virtual, 86–89, 95 Community technology centers (CTCs), 58 Computer communications, 26 and democracy, 101 and publishing, 57 sciences, 350–352 and television, 118, 150 Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), 235 “Constituents for a Theory of the Media,” 11 Consumer choices, 130–131 Consumerism, 130–131 Convergence, of media, 118 Cookies (software), 148 Coro, Arnaldo, 185 Costner, Kevin, 214 Coughlin, Charles, 25 Creole Petroleum Corporation, 184 C-SPAN, 160, 337 Cuba, 179–198 Cuban Democracy Act of 1992, 183 Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act of 1996, 180 Cyberia, 203–204 Cybernetics, 186, 49, 348–349 Cyberspace. See also Internet and anonymity, 106 and China, 210–212

Index

379

as contested space, 101–105 control of, 5 and cultural conflict, 213 cultural politics of, 203–222 and democracy, 101–110 metaphors for, 103 political attitudes toward, 9–12 race in, 203–222 and social diversity, 210–222 as threat to expertise, 365–371 utopian views of, 72 Cybertexts, 212 Cyber Yugoslavia, 222 Darwin, Charles, 255 Davila, Carlos Lage, 181 Davis, J. 359 Declaration of Independence, 144 Deer Hunter, The, 264 Degas, Edgar, 367 Democracy defined, 36–37, 49–51, 70–72, 104–109, 116–119, 134 digital, 2–5, 44–45 and digital commerce, 113–126 and the Internet, 69–83, 101–110 and new media, 33–47, 57–59, 72–79, 105–108 and technology, 21–47, 259–263, 334–336 Department of Commerce (U.S.), 218 Department of Land Affairs (S. Africa), 236 Der Standard, 316 Des Moines Register, 172 Descartes, René, 347, 350–351, 360 Dibbel, Julian, 8–9 Digital divide, 8, 72, 122–123, 149–154, 209, 218–219, 309–310 Digital Freedom Network, 317 Digital revolution, 9–10 Discovery Channel, 335–336 Dole, Robert, 46, 107, 128

Douglass, Frederick, 83 Drudge, Matt, 3, 172, 271, 368 Drudge Report, The, 368 Durkheim, Emile, 85 Elections in future, 143–61 of 2000 in U.S., 1–4 voter turnout, 145 Electronic commerce, 103–104, 114–126 democracy, 69–83 mail, 26, 138, 192, 195, 273 town halls, 26 voting, 94 Electronic Frontier Foundation, 11, 129 Entertainment and journalism, 331–334 Enzensberger, Hans Magnus, 11 Erbring, Lutz, 89–90 European Internet Network (EIN), 319 Excite (search engine), 88 Expert paradigm, 365–367 Explorer (Internet browser), 205 Fairness doctrine, 146 Falun Gong, 210 Fanning, David, 335 Featherstone, Mike, 311 Federal Communications Commission, 146, 370 Federal Election Commission, 105 Federalist Papers, 30 Federal Register, 125 Federal Trade Commission, 121 Fiber-optics, 150, 194 Finley, M., 349 Firestone, Charles, 143 First Amendment, 21–22 First Casualty, The, 255 Follow the Money (PBS), 338–339 Forbes, Steve, 1, 107

380

Index

Fowler, Mark, 146 Fox Television Network, 151 Frankfurt School, 9 Fred Friendly’s Media and Society, 23 Fredin, E., 283 Freedom Forum, 176 FreeNet, 104 Frontline (PBS), 335, 339 Gandy, O., 356 Gardner, H., 350 Gatekeepers, 42–43, 272–274 in online journalism, 274–275 Gates, Bill, 370 General Electric, 114 Gentry, Leah, 276 GeoCities, 86 Ghana, 176–177 Giddens, Anthony, 310, 350 Gilder, George, 9, 72 Gillespie, Dizzy, 177 Gingrich, Newt, 9, 138 Globalization, 119, 204, 221–222, 261, 309–312, 326–327 Global journalism, 309–328 Goebbels, Joseph, 25, 40 Gonzalez-Manet, Enrique, 184–187, 190–191 Gore, Al, 1, 10, 108 Gore2000, 108 Granma, 186, 194 Green Party, 4, 151 Guardian, 171 Gunpowder, 33 Gutenberg, 259, 282, 370 Guzman, Debra, 219 Habermas, Jürgen, 7–8 Hand, Learned, 21 Hanekon, Derek, 238 Harden, Mark, 369

Harper, Christopher, 33 Hatefilter, 220 Hate groups (online), 219–220 Hate speech, 332 Hatewatch, 219 Havel, Vaclav, 331 Hayek, Frederick, 61–62, 355 Hegemony, 234 Helms-Burton (law), 180, 198 Henderson, Stephen, 277 Henry, Patrick, 50 Heron, Gil Scott, 12 High-definition television (HDTV), 149–150, 154 Hitler, Adolph, 25 H-net, 88 Hobbes, Thomas, 110 Human Genome Project, 115 Human Rights Commission (S. Africa), 225 Human Rights Information Network, 219 Hutchins, Robert, 135 Hypertext in Cuba, 179 defined, 281–284 design of, 296 and journalism, 281–304 and readers, 289–302 IBM, 188 Independent Television (ITV), 247 Independent Television Commission (ITC), 247 Individualism, and democracy, 134 Industrial Revolution, 113, 116 Indymedia.org, 4 Informatics conferences, 194 Information, 93–94, 343–364 as commodity, 356–361 defined, 346–348 economics, 353–356 as expertise, 365–71 vs. knowledge, 42–43

Index

381

sharing, 93–94 society, 343–344 superhighway, 10 technologies (promise of ), 343 theory, 352–353 Information Telegraphy Agency of Russia (ITAR), 316 Inside China Today, 319 Intellectual property, 370 International Telecommunications Union, 126, 323 Internet. See also Cyberspace access to, 26, 91–93, 113, 123, 153, 209, 309, 315– 317 cafes, 78, 173–176 global impact of, 171–173, 176–177 governance of, 114–116, 126–131 investment, 114–115 and journalism, 171–173 kiosks, 173 and knowledge hegemony, 368 as market-driven, 117–118, 158–159 and political campaigns, 1, 3, 139, 143–161 and political gossip, 123–125 regulation, 320–321 as social space, 63–65 structure of, 101 taxation, 119 as text-based, 35 voting, 94 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), 314 Internet use in Africa, 322 in Cuba, 180 in Mexico, 316 in Peru, 173 in South Africa, 323 Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE), 286 Isikoff, Michael, 368

Jefferson, Thomas, 50–51 Jensen, M., 322 Johnson, Samuel, 266 Jones, Paula, 335 Journalism and deadlines, 335 education, 284–285 and entertainment, 331–334 global, 309–328 and hypertext, 281–287 and knowledge hegemony, 368–369 and new media, 334–340 online, 171, 251–253, 272–279, 324–328 as public writing, 249–254 scandals, and news content, 332–333 and violence, 262 Jupiter Communications, 273 Kaiser Family Foundation, 91 Kennedy, John F., 186 Kennedy-Nixon debates, 2 Ketterer, S., 286 Khrushchev, Nikita, 186 Kim, Y. M., 220 Kinney, Jay, 206 Kneeland, Carole, 333 Knightly, Philip, 255 Knowledge hegemony, 366, 369–370 Kolowich, Michael, 273 Krippendorf, K., 356 Kuala Lumpur, 206 Kuhn, Thomas, 367 Kurtz, Howard, 368 Lamberton, D. M., 355 Land Reform Act (S. Africa), 238 Langlois, R., 349 Latin American Laboratory for the Protection Against Information Viruses, 195 “Laws of Cyberspace, The,” 5

382

Index

Lazarus, Neil, 226 Lazio, Rick, 4 League of Women Voters, New Jersey, 96 Lehrer, Jim, 339 Lessig, Lawrence, 5–6, 63 Levin, Richard, 235–236 Levy, Pierre, 6 Lewinsky, Monica, 251, 271, 335, 368 Libertarian, attitude to civil society, 61–62, 72 Limbaugh, Rush, 177 Little, Darnell, 276 Los Angeles Times, 281–290 Luther, Martin, 133, 142, 367 Machlup, F., 345, 351 MacMillan, Harold, 367 MacNeil, Robert, 336 Macpherson Report, 253 Macrostudio (Lima), 173–176 Magaziner, Ira, 45–47, 70, 126–131 Making Multicultural Australia, 216 Malaysia, 206 Mandela, Nelson, 229–230 Mansfield, U., 351 Marais, Hein, 236 Markle Foundation, 1 Martí, José, 180 Marx, Karl, 22, 61, 354 Mattelart, Armand, 184 McCarthy, Joseph, 25 McCombs, Max, 271 McDonald, Country Joe, 80 McLaren, P., 208 McLuhan, Marshall, 22 Media in developing nations, 171–177 differences among, 23–24 participatory m., 11–12 power of, 22–23 privatization of, 45–47, 103–104

Media literacy, 160 MediaMOO, 88 Mein Kampf, 142 Microsoft, 205, 344 Mill, J. S., 39 Mindshare Internet Campaigns, 2 Minitel, 94 Minow, Newton, 24 Modernity, 258 Morris-Suzuki, T., 357 Morton, Andrew, 255 MSNBC, 335 Multiculturalism, 203–208 Multimedia design, 204 Murrow, Edward R., 271 Mussolini, Benito, 65 Myanmar, 210 Myrland, Susan, 58 Nader, Ralph, 4, 151 National Association of Broadcasters, 79 National Center for Teaching and Self-Advancement of Informatics, 188 Nationalist, The, 220 National Science Foundation, 205 National Television Standards Committee (NTSC), 149 Natives Land Act of 1913 (South Africa), 233 Negri, A., 360 Negroponte, Nicholas, 113, 182 Nelson, Ted, 282 Netherlands, The, 325 Netizen, 3, 101, 105 Netsizer, 315 Network Information Center (Cuba), 192 New Deal, 62, 134 News and the concept of time, 247–249 sources of, 272–273 Newspaper readership, 136–137

Index

383

Newspaper Web sites, 171–172 Newsweek, 271, 368 New York Times, 40, 124, 171, 315, 335, 368 Nie, Norman H., 89–90 Nightline, 23 Nkrumah, Gamal, 172 Nordlund, Peter, 212 Occidental Petroleum, 184 Online. See also Internet activism, 12–13, 73–80 communities, 8–13, 85–98 journalism, 171, 272–279, 324–328 usage, types of, 87–89 Ordinary People (South African TV series), 227–232, 237–242 Oregon Trail, The, 215 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 121 On the Origin of Species, 255 Oxford English Dictionary, 266 Paine, Thomas, 77, 140–142 Party politics, 51–52, 58 Patrick, Andrew, 176 PBS’s Democracy Project, 337, 340 PC Week, 135 PC World, 135 Perlmutter, D., 215 Perot, Ross, 25–27, 95 Pew Center for the People and the Press, 87 Pew Internet and America Life Project, 92 Pew Research Center, 2 Playboy, 120 Plebiscites, 27 PLO-TV, 312 Pool, Ithiel de Sola, 7, 12, 22 Pornography, 129, 182, 262, 332 Postmodern media, 263 Press, Larry, 185

Printing press, 8, 23–24 Privacy, 120 Privatization, 130–131 of media, 45–47, 103–104 Progressive Era, 49, 51–53 Progressivism, 56–57 Propaganda, 27 Protestant Reformation, 367 Public Access Computing Project, 74 Public Agenda Foundation, 29 Public Broadcasting System (PBS), 312 Purdum, Todd, 368 Push technologies, 130 Putin, Vladimir, 320 Pylyshyn, Z. W., 348 Quattrone, Michael, 336 Race, in cyberspace, 203–221 Racial Fordism, in South Africa, 234 Radio Marti, 181 Rand Corporation, 10 Reading hypertext, 289–302 Reconstruction and Development Program (South Africa), 235 Reed, John, 255 Reform Party, 3 Regulation, of online content, 119–120, 211, 221 Representative democracy, 95–97 Republic.com, 69 Resource journalism, 337–340 Reuters, 316, 319 Reuters Financial Television, 253 Rheingold, Howard, 8–9, 88 Robert, Henry, 72 Romeo and Juliet (film), 263 Roosevelt, Franklin, 142 Roper Starch Worldwide, 272 Roszak, T., 349, 353 Rothstein, Edward, 40

384

Index

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 42 Russia Today, 319 Salinger, Pierre, 271 Saving Private Ryan, 40 Scandal, as news content, 332–333 Schiller, Herbert, 310 Schlessinger, Laura, 336 Schudson, Michael, 36 Seattle Community Network (SCN), 74–76 Seattle Independent Media Center, 78 Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 78 Seattle Public Library, 76 Seattle Times, 78 Segmentation, as feature of digital media, 44 Seiger, Jonah, 2 Shannon, Claude, 352 Shaw, Donald, 271 Sina.com, 319 Slate, 35, 43 Slevin, James, 310 Smithsonian Institution, 216 Somalia, 321 Sorthvit (Black and White), 212 South Africa broadcasting, 227–229 and new media, 225–242 South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), 225, 228–232 South Africa Now, 312 Spice Girls, 265 Speakeasy Café, 78 Spears, Britney, 264 Spielberg, Steven, 40 Springer, Jerry, 335 Stacks, M., 359 Stapleton, Walter Merino, 174–175 Starr, Kenneth, 140 Starr, Paul, 5 Starr Report, 3, 251–253

Stencel, Mark, 171 Stephenson, Neil, 89 Stone, Oliver, 41 Stonehenge, 250 Stonler, T. 352–353 Strong Democracy, 38 Suarez, Ray, 338 Sunstein, C., 69 Sustainable Seattle, 77 Systems Theory, 349–350 Talk of the Nation, 338 Talk radio, 332 Technological determinism, 5–8, 33 Technologies of Freedom, 7 Technology, and democracy, 33, 44, 334–336, 259–260 Technology magazines, 135 Telecommunications and Information Infrastructure Assistance Program, 73 Television, 34, 45–47, 118, 130, 137, 260, 332–340 high definition (HDTV), 149–150, 154 Television: Technology and Cultural Form, 5 Ten Days That Shook the World, 255 Third World, 206 Thomas (Web server), 3 Thompson, Fred, 338 Tiananmen Square, 154 Times of India, 317 TINORED (network), 188 Tönnies, Ferdinand, 85 Transnational corporations, 210 Tripp, Linda, 335 Turner, Frederick, 10 TV Marti, 180–181 UNESCO-TV, 312 Union of Radio and Television of African Nations, 328 United Democratic Front (UDF), 235

Index

385

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 191–193 United Press International, 136 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), 310 Unix-to-Unix copy program, 193 Urs, Krishna, 175 U.S. News and World Report, 129 Ventura, Jesse, 3 Virtual communities, 8, 46, 86–89 Vital Issues: Reshaping and Industrializing the Nation, 215 Voice of America, 171, 177, 181 Waddington, C. H., 348 Wall Street Journal, 277, 321 Washington, George, 50–51 Washington Post, 124, 150, 171–172, 368 Washington Post Magazine, 123 Washingtonpost.com, 171–172 Weaver, Warren, 352 Webcasting, 176–177 Web sites, and journalism, 171–172, 338–340 Webster, R., 353 Web, White and Blue (online debate), 1 Weiner, Daniel, 235–236 Well, The, 11 Welles, Orson, 264 Whine, Michael, 220 White, David Manning, 274 White, Rick, 138 Whitman Center, 128–129 Wiener, Norbert, 348 Willey, Kathleen, 335 Williams, Raymond, 5 “Will the Revolution Be Televised?,” 12 Wired, 3, 10, 135 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), 309 Witheford, N., 360

World Bank, 123 World Report, 311–312 World Trade Organization (WTO), 4, 78, 119 World Wide Web. See Internet WoYaa (Internet portal), 319 Yahoo, 88, 318–319 Yeltsin, Boris, 142 Youngman, Owen, 278–279 Youth Computing Clubs, 194 Yugoslavia, 222 Zablocki, Benjamin, 85 Zapatistas, 102 Zee-TV, 312