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Traffic signals are the most convenient method of controlling traffic in a busy junction.

But, we can
see that these signalsfail to control the traffic effectively when a particular lane has got more traffic
than the other lanes. This situation makes that particular lane more crowdie than the other lanes. If
the traffic signals can allot different lanes to different vehicles based on their weight, like buses,
trucks etc. in one lane, cars in one lane and like this the traffic congestion can be solved by diverging

the traffic accordingly. In this method, intend to measure the traffic density by counting the number
of vehicles in each lane and their weight, then park in automated parking or diverge them
accordingly. It is also difficult for a traffic police to monitor the whole scenario round the clock. So,
this system can be implemented on highways and city traffic.

The main aim of designing AI traffic controllers is that the traffic controllers have the ability to adapt
to the real time data from detectors to perform constant optimizations on the signal timing plan for
intersections in a network in order to reduce traffic congestions, which is the main concern in traffic
flows control nowadays, at traffic intersections.

A traffic light group is defined as a set of traffic lights which are controlled by the same regulator,
which acts as a master or coordinator. The regulator operates under a intelligent system that allows
for controlling the lights status depending on time, traffic conditions,etc. Urban traffic control
strategies are based on lights controllers. An intersection is managed by a controller in charge of
several red lights. The management is based on phases, cycles, split vectors and coordination
between the controllers of the different intersections on the road network .

In order to implement the applications indicated, a certain level of intelligence is required in both the
traffic light and the regulator. Traditional traffic control systems are unidirectional, from regulator to
traffic lights, without any response from the status of the traffic lights .

One strategy for optimum control and traffic management is the coordination of traffic lights to
create green waves.Currently, there exist different strategies to calculate green waves. The main
purpose of these techniques is to reduce the number of stops and minimize the travel times in trips .

Here we intend to use weight sensors and counters to control the traffic with ease.

Programmable logic controllers provide dependable, high speed control and
monitoring demanded by a wide variety of automated applications. Before the
automotive industry discovered the advantages of PLC, the process of modifying relay
circuitry was a difficult. In the past, annual car model changes forced plant engineers to
constantly modify production equipment managed by relay circuitry. In some cases, the
engineers had to scrap entire relay controlled panels and replace them with completely
redesigned systems. Now, PLC’s allow engineers to implement numerous manufacturing
changes with relative ease, which reduces changeover costs and downtime.

Basically, it's a solid-state, programmable electrical/electronic interface that can

manipulate, execute, and/or monitor, at a very fast rate, the state of a process or
communication system. It operates on the basis of programmable data contained in an
integral microprocessor based system. A PLC is able to receive (input) and transmit
(output) various types of electrical and electronic signals and can control and monitor
practically any kind of mechanical and/or electrical system. Therefore, it has enormous
flexibility in interfacing with computers, machines, and many other peripheral systems
or devices. It's usually programmed in relay ladder logic and is designed to operate in an
industrial environment.

To know how the PLC works, it is essential that we have an understanding of its
central processing unit's (CPU's) scan sequence. The methodology basically is the same
for all PLC’s. However, as special hardware modules are added into the system,
additional scanning cycles are required.

The objective of this project is to:

1. Understand PLC’s terminology, configuration, I/O modules addressing and types

of PLC memory devices,
2. Program instructions that perform logical operations and ladder logic programs,
3. Program the control of outputs using the timer instruction control bits,
4. Apply the PLC counter function and associated circuitry to control systems,
5. Install hardware components used in PLC systems.

6. Understand, design and develop PLC program.

7. Assemble and test run the correct components, circuits and program in PLC
8. Safety practices in PLC laboratory; PLC components and functions;
Programming language; Step displacement diagrams; Circuit assembly for
pneumatics and electric for single and sequence actuation; Timer and counter.


In the end of this experiment we found that:

 Student able to draw a basic electro-pneumatic circuit with PLC, install and test
run it to move an actuator.
 Student able to design, construct, and troubleshoot of this PLC circuits.

 Student able to identify and operate a few types of electro pneumatic

components including relay and its contactors.

1. Never disconnect electro pneumatic lines or disassemble electro pneumatic
equipment when the pneumatic system power motor is running.
2. Make sure I/O and extension connector are installed correctly.
3. Use the PLC in an environment that meets the general specification contained in
this manual.
4. Make sure all external load connected to output does NOT exceed the rating of
output module.
5. Install a safety circuit external to the PLC that keeps the entire system safe even
when there are problems with the external power supply or PLC module.
Otherwise, serious trouble could result from erroneous output or erroneous
6. Never manually actuate switches, solenoids, relays, or valves on pneumatic
systems under pressure unless you are competent and qualified to perform these
7. All personnel taking part in and observing operation of power equipment must
remain alert, keep clear of moving parts, and be thoroughly familiar with the
safety precautions applicable to that equipment. At no time should skylarking be
allowed in the vicinity of operating power equipment.
8. Never use electrical or electronic equipment known to be in poor condition.
9. Use the right voltage. Most pneumatic devices are powered by air and
controlled with an electronic control valve.
10. Check and secure all of the mountings, fittings, piping, tubing, connectors and
connections before connecting any electro pneumatic components or systems to a
power supply.


Task: Operating a Charge and Discharge Process

Charge and discharge of a reservoir is a common process in industry as well as a
need for mixing two or more substances. By using automated valves, this process can be
completely automated. Let us say that fluid used in the example is water, and that a
reservoir has to be filled up and emptied four times.

When you push T1 on the operating panel, valve V1 opens and a reservoir starts
filling up with water. At the same time, motor M of the mixer starts working. When the
reservoir fills up, water level goes up and reaches the level set by a sensor S1. V1 valve
closes and motor of the mixer stops. Valve V2 opens then and a reservoir start emptying.
When water level falls below the level set by a sensor S2, valve V2 closes. By repeating
the same cycle four times, lamp that indicates end of a cycle is activated. Pressing T1
key will start a new cycle.

Both types of differentiators are used in this example. You can get an idea of
what their role is from picture below. Level S1 and S2 sensors provide information on
whether fluid level goes beyond a specified value. This type of information is not
important when you wish to know whether fluid level goes up or down in a certain
sequence. Mainly, event of approaching the upper level, or a moment when fluid that
fills up a reservoir goes beyond upper level and activates sensor S1 is detected in
segment 3 of a ladder diagram. Brief activation of IR200.02 output has a consequence a
turn off of an output V1 (valve for water, prevents further flow of water but also motor
operation in the mixer). Moment prior to this (segment 5) valve V2 turns on which
marks a beginning of fluid outflow. Other two differentiators (in segments 6 and 7) have
a task of registering events such as closing a valve MV2 and drop in fluid level below
allowed minimum.
1.1 input/output assignment


Push button PB1 000001
Push button PB2 000002
Push button PB3 000003


LED LED1 000101
LED LED2 000102
LED LED3 000103

 Ladder diagram
1-1IC1 1-1OC1

IN0 %I1/0

IN1 %I1/1
 electrical circuit IN2 %I1/2
PB2 IN3 %I1/3
m otor
IN4 %I1/4

IN5 %I1/5

IN6 %I1/6

IN7 %I1/7

 Input component: Push Button 1 (PB 1) and Push Button (PB 2)
 Output component: Motor, LED 1, LED 2

 First, PLC circuit was created according to the task given and was installed into
the PLC trainer by double acting cylinder.
 Second, all the input such as push button (PB1 and PB2) was connecting to 24V
and the output (negative) all input device was connecting to 0V (COMM)
 Third, all output device such as motor and LED 2 and LED 2 was connecting 0V
(positive) and 24V (negative).

 Device installation
Sensor 1&2


The diagram above showed a PLC circuit. This circuit install in PLC trainer according to
the task given. For build this diagram, we used four two button (PB), one motor and two
The diagram above shown about, when we pressed push button PB1 the internal relay
(IR1) was activated and it will energize all contact IR1. Valve V1 will activate by
contact IR1 and a reservoir starts filling up water. The motor also activate by contact
IR1. After the water level reach level set by sensor 1, so the valve V1 will close and
valve V2 open then and a reservoir start emptying. The counter also activate by contact
IR2, so the counter will count 4 times to finish this process.

After finish this cycle by repeating four times, the LED 2 will activated and the four
times cycle fulfill ready. Then we can press PB2 as a key to start new cycle.

Every system or machine has a controller. Depending on the type of technology

used, controllers can be divided into pneumatic, hydraulic, electrical and electronic
controllers. Frequently, a combination of different technologies is used. Furthermore,
differentiation is made between hard-wired programmable (e.g. wiring of electro-
mechanical or electronic components) and programmable logic controllers. The first
is used primarily in cases, where any reprogramming by the user is out of the
question and the job size warrants the development of a special controller. Typical
applications for such controllers can be found in automatic washing machines, video
cameras, and cars. However, if the job size does not warrant the development of a
special controller or if the user is to have the facility of making simple or
independent program changes, or of setting timers and counters, then the use of a
universal controller, where the program is written to an electronic memory, is the
preferred option? The PLC represents such a universal controller. It can be used for
different applications and, via the program installed in its memory, provides the user
with a simple means of changing, extending and optimizing control processes.

Finally we success in develop PLC programming and able to solve the problems.
With commitment among group members and the lecture the work done easily. We
understand PLC terminology, configuration, I/O modules addressing and types of PLC
memory devices, and program instructions that perform logical operations and ladder
logic programs. We able apply the PLC counter function and associated circuitry to
control systems and Install hardware components used in PLC systems. In the project
assemble and test run the correct components, circuits and program in PLC system.


[1] Azura Che Soh/Lai Guan Rhung “MATLAB Simulation of Fuzzy Traffic Controller
for Multilane Isolated Intersection”
[2] Monica Voinescu, Andreea Udrea, Simona Caramihal “On Urban Traffic Modelling
and Control”
[3] C. M. Mwangi, S. M. Kang’ethe and G. N. Nyakoe “Design and simulation of a
fuzzy logic traffic signal controller for a signalized intersection”
[4] Ovidiu TOMESCU, Ilona Madalina MOISE, Alina Elena STANCIU, Iulian
BĂŢROŞ “Adaptive Traffic Light Control System using AD HOC
Vehicular Communications Network”