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luxus{Irotn "to flow") is an art movement noted for the blending of different artistic disciplines, primmily visual mt but
also music and literature. Fluxus was founded in 1962 by George Maciunas (1931-78), an American artist of Lithuanian
-;xih ... h t.-. nFiï.t'Âii'i t.-. hi 0;: Â ?1 l1Î J
·Yoko Ono who explored media ranging from pelfOlmance aIt to
poetIy to experimental music. They took the stance of opposition to the ideas of tradition and professionalism in the arts of
their time, the Fluxus group shifted the emphasis {rom what an artist makes to the artist's ersonali ,actions, and 0 inions.
Throup;hollt the 19h08 (lnd '70s (their most (l ëtive perio ,t ey 8t(lge (lchon" events, eng(lged in po ItlCS (ln pll . IC
Speal<Ing, ana pro<luceà sculpturai worKS ieatunng unconventlOnal materials. 1 neir ra<llCaüy untraàltlOnal orJ:Œ mciuded,
for exanlple, the video art of Nam June Paik and the performance art of Beuys. The often playful style ofFl xus artists led
to them being considered by some little more than a group ofpranksters in their early years. Fluxus has also been compared
to Dada lInd is seen as the stmting point of mail art.
... 1- .. v7 ; ...
happenings". Wh"'reas Happenings were meant to blm the lines between performer and audience, performan e and reality,
Fluxus performances were one-liners and sight gags, The performances sought to elevate the banal and disse ble the high
music. .. ... V
Many artists have associated tl':temselves with Fluxus over the years, inc1uding: "\
Ay-O
Joseph Beuys
(ff'Ol'/}f' Rt' f'(',ht
- - - -0- -- - - - --
Philip ComerPhilip (Lionel) Corner ( A,prillO, 1933-) is a composer as weil as trombonist, vocalist, and pianist. He has
been active in events with the name Fluxù1S since 1961, was a resident composer and musician with the Judson Dance
Theatre from 1962- 1964 and late
Henry FlyntHenry Flynt (born 1940) is a visullÙ artist, philosopher, violinist, and composer. Like La Monte Young he
st . ed with Pandit Pran Nath, Ile 1S especially c\011cerned .vith 10gîcal paradox and contradi ction. Externallinks February
26:-1004 (3 hours) http://ww
Robert Filliou
1 en riatiïi Ken Friedman is a seminal figme in Fluxus, aIl' international experimental art, literature, and music
movement. He has a1so been involved with . . . He has , .. miten extensive1y about Fluxus and
Intermedia, and has edited several Fluxus pu
Al HansenAl Hansen ( 1927, New York City June 22 1995. Cologne, Crermany) was an American artist. He was the father
of Andy Warhol protege Bibbe Hansen and the grandfather and artistic memtor ofrock musician Beck. He was amember of
the FhlXl18 art movement and f.ri
Geoffrey Hendricks
Dick HigginsDick Higgins (born Cambridge, England 1938, died Quebec, Canada was a poet and early Fluxus artist.
His most notable contributions include "Danger Music" scores and the use of the term to de scribe the ineffable
inter-disci linary activiti
nua J l<.uuà Janssen 1..0. JUiy L'J, l'J''J) is a 1'1UXUS anà maii artÏst trom liîourg in the Netherianàs, K'JlUà Janssen
studied Physics and Mathematics. He became active with mail art in 1980 and did several international
From 1994 till 2001 he has c
Ray JohnsonRay Johnson ( 1927 1995) was an important post- Surrealism, pre- Pop artist. Johnson was also the
fOllndeï of the ' (oïk Correspondance School, and theïefore the originatoï OC "_
di, ·plinary art form that uses the po
Ahson Knowles
Jackson Mac LowJackson Mac Low (born September 12, 1922) is an American poet. Mac Low is also a playwright,
musidan, painter, and performance artist, oftenjoined in performance by his wife, A!l.ne Tardo8. Mac LOW'8 work was
heavil ex erimental and he was an advocate of
George Maciunas
Gustav Metzger
Larry Miller
Dider ROt
Litsa Spathi
Daniel Spoeni
Wim T. Schippers
1 LarûlCC ::Sctmccma:a....
Yoko Ono
Genesis P-Orridge
", Nam June Paik
Ben PaHerson
Yasunao T one
Ben Vautier
Wolf Vostell
La Monte Young
Q**>
T
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ecf i ;i i i :i ni ;-.;e:ti anf ,,!r;i i -f cnnfei tt.i t;-.rai i r i té.' l aac l e< ar.;éc< 1gf.fl nr:i tni i rta i ti ' i i tci i -.;l e;-nanf
visuels mais aussi la musique et la littérature.
À U en des années cinquante, de
jeunes
artistes, influencés par Dada, par I'enseignement de John Cage et par la p
Zen, effectuèrent un
ryinutieux
travail de sape des catégories de I'art par uû reje,t systerratique des institaM '
notion
qre
cÎ'"*rt
(T,e mot
"fuxr,s" signifie en lafin le fr.tx, le eor.trant),
La personnatlte de Lreorge Macrunagse degage brentot de ce groupe : c'est lul qul cholslt le nom tluxus en IvÔl
rédige le Manifeste Fluxus. Il crée une galerie en 1961 et organise des concerts de musique contemporaine, ainsi
expositions de ses amis (John Cage, Dick Higgins ou La Monte Young) avant de s'installer en Allemagne. En se1
t962,1lorganise le premier concert Fluxus, le Fluxus Internationale Festspiele neuester Musik, q'ui marque les r
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gl ! @! r vJ s ûùt ùt wJ s99 uI r Y Wl t ur l v[ Ùù I
J
ooùvvr vuÙ vt uvuvvuÙ uol ù vwl l v
l Jl cui
joyeuse
et iconoclaste, l*espace dElïb€rté qu'ils recherchaient.
Durant vingt ans, malgré les scissions et les exclusions, Fluxus restera fidèle à son utopie de départ : par un hum$
dévastateur et provocant, faire liuéralement exploser les limites de la pratique artistique, abolir les frontières enfre r
i.ni'icfn;i:'e :in liet; *é rttifif *r:fne f+rtr *+ lr r,-ie
Si ftu"us compta par*i s"s *"*br." des personnalités aussi prestigieuses et variées que Joseph Beuys, Nam June Pa.,
Robert Filliou, Yoko Ono, Dick Higgins, Wolf Vostell, Charlotte Moormann, Bazou Brock, Henry Flynt, George Brecirt
[[Marcel
Alocco], Serge Gldenbourg (dit Serge III), Ben Vautieq Ben Patterson, Jean Dupuy, Daniel Spoerri, Vytautas
L.andsbergis
(ex-président
de la R-épublique de I-.itr:anie de 1990 à 1992)) il ne s'est
pas
contenté de li:niter son eristence
alr)( lrwes d'hrstolres et sa pfatrque, nolune d'une reflexron prolonde et touJours d'acnnllte, mrt preuve d'une energre sans
cesse renouvelée. Fluxus réécrit à chaque concert sa propre histoire et a certainement marqué de son influence 1es pratiques
contemporaines.
Fluxus à Allemagne dans les années soixante
[modifier]
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mùdvement Fluxus étatt d'avoir sur le public un effet de compréhension de la vie et de compénétration avec cette dernière.
La complexité des actions et des concerts Fluxus, la collaboration de nombreux artistes comme Nam June Paik, Joseph
Beuys, Wolf Vostell et Charlotte Moorman, permettait de créer des interprétations présentant une harmonie entre elles et
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ir, .orrr.ar nf" ur o, ,ooi pur rio, ,"prrssion auditive en rapport avec des technologies sonores élaborées et parfaitement
accordées. Il n'existe aucun son grave précis, aucun son intermédiaire naturel ou aigu comme le cristal pour créer un
équilibre acoustique. L'authenticité incomparable de toutes les actions du mouvement Fluxus et la passion et la force
d'innovation de ses arhstes sr:pposère.nt une transfbrmaliçn c;ui révolr:tionna l'apparence de 1'art.
uette evolutlon provoquee par le present et onentee vers le nrnrr a cree la conscrence que tout rndrvrdu est, en sol-meme,
une euvre d'art, et que I'ensemble de la vie peut être appréhendé comme une æuvre d'art globale. Les caractéristiques
spécifiques des concerts Fluxus sont une preuve que le principe de cause à effet n'est plus valable et que le chaos marque la
réalité de son smpreinte.
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élément de communication. L'atra d'excentricité des artistes Fluxus et des happenings était très éloignée de toute
influsnss
de l'expression de la personnalité propre au monde de la mode.
De manière libre et autonome, Beuys, Vostell et Paik ont accédé à la condition de mythes en Rhénanie, également grâce au
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"
t t . t t . . . . , - ,
or r p",rt igoo..r I'influence sous toutls ses formes du mouvement Fluxus, des happenings et Vidéo-art. La structure et les
mfens d'expression de nombreuses Gurres d'art aujourd'hui exposées dans les galeries sont souvent un hommage
involontaire rendu aux pionniers qui, dans les années soixante, tavaillaient dans cette région de la Rhénanie avec le
mor-rve,me.ût Flr:xus, les happeaings et les a,rtistes
4r-li
se consac.raient arl v. idéo-art.
tstaro Launus ouvrrt une garene d'art a uoiogne en ryô l, le Jtadtrscne Museum oe wresbaden, qlu presenta ta prenuere
manifestation officielle du mouvement Fluxus : FLUXUS, le Festival International de Nouvelles Musiques du ler au 23
septernbre 1962.En septembre 1963, Rolf J?ihrling inaugura à V/uppertal la Galerie Parnass. Vatdis Abolins ouwit la
Galerie Aachen à Aix-La-Chapelle en 1966. E,n1969, Helmut Rywelski et Angar Nierhoft avec leur Galerie Art
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Baecker ouwit sa Galerie Baecker à Bochum et la Galerie René Block à Berlin. Tous ont soutenu les artistes de happening
et du mouvement Fluxus, ont contribué à leur renommée et leur permirent de faire réalité cette évolution de l'art dont
I'influence se fait encore sentir aujourd'hui.
k
k"t Muntadas
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<ni -,-*ri e-.;!i -; ni i e È.{;;i tf*;l ;c é!al -.nr-e <.ri î i i îtêi r*.' l e i r;i ;<aae i -né' 4i a#nrra Êîîi îFi îi .êî!âi îf ;:--e.' .ri fi i i i i e
il,-"o*'-ai;
;"**
fi",ffi
;; îr"ï'n"i àe";L.;ir"'"pe.,i*
puriJo;"e
dars des vidéos conçnes à partir dumontage/coltage d'émissions de telévision,it
(fustnrit
tant f infumsion -Between
the Lines (lg7g),Watchingthe Press, Readingthe Television (l9S?lque les slogans publicitaires oupolitiqu€s, Media
Ëcolog;t A(h (t982), Political Arlventisem.enr (lç84).
A partir des années quatre-vingt, il poursuit son enffeprise de démantèlement des
jeux
de pouvoirs à travers des projets et
installations vidéo plus métaphoriques.
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d'administration dont les murs Sont couverts des portraits photographiques de leaders religieux influents. A I'emplacement
de leur bouche, h{untadas a inseré dcs mini-téléviseurs diffrrsant des images d'actualité" mettant ainsi en relief la relation
ambigùe qu'enfretiennent ces leaders avec les sphères politiques et économiques.
Le théme àrr stade, rléveloppé dans les différentes
versions de Stadium,
qr.ti s'éeheJonnent enfre 1989 et 1992, h,li offre
i'occasion d'insister sur ie caractère doubie que peut adopter, depuis ses origines, ce rèceptacle cies foules, a Ia iois iieu de
distraction et de propagande.
Avec Between the Frames (1983-1994), Muntadas passe au crible le monde de l'art contemporain. Cette bande vidéo de
plus de quatre heures, divisée en huit chapitres à visionner en continu, ou intégrée dans une installation intitulée Forum, est
' *1qa- 1*; ^' - e*-
+' + *e' t "*' - : L
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vuùùL8u!ù u urv rvrrv u wuuvltvliJ r rulv o r CÛ €C5:eÛËfro lr! ÏEi ip-rrËr-i, Er-uÈ-trqu-, E
-tta
va ruo
6flwarùtv5,
wrrûtluvJt
collectionneurs, conservateurs,
guides, enseignants... C'est ici " I'appareil " de I'art contemporain qui est interrogé en tant
qu'intennédiaire entre l'artiste et le public mais aussi en tant qu'instigatew de la valeur marchande, symbolique et
esthétique de l'art.
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Pri ?înri .i îé<êl féei ti ,::,-.!a Ri atl a!;.' !ef s;nn a ani ani à el l p i tni ;i "+hètne1e i :en<l :i ' e à 1' +ncn;i fi "e Ae' !' ;tl
Dùé une pièce sont empilés des casiers métalliques entre lesquels s'intercalent des moniteurs vidéo reliés à des banques de
données Intemet. La communication ainsi établie permettra au visiteur de prendre connaissance de l'inventaire des cas de
censure et aussi de I'alimenter
r t m, #
EÉ.
ih
X}r*=#mUtimédia
et des réseaux, il fut un des pionniers de I'Art vidéo(1967) puis du Net.art (1996) on lui doit aussi la
q
I
patenrité des "expériences de presse "
(Interventions sur les massmédias: Presse écrite, radio, TV, 1972).
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Qni -hnnnc i .ri ^.fÊs.êi i r ,.n Q..i en,^es Jc l ri nfnm' :*ti ni i ef ,' l e !a ...-.m;-,:i ni .' afi ni : i ! rrée ei t l l i ' ;i :.^c ,;l ès 1A4R
Uf.r ot"*i.r, àtiroooements'iiteractifs otitisat I'informatique et la vidéo, mais aussi il a su intégrer dans sa démarche
ff
uttirtiq" tous les supports de communication : presse écrite, téléphone, fax, radio, télévision, films vidéo, câble,
journaux
I
lumineux et électroniques, robotique, réseaux télématiques et bien sûr toutes les possibilités du web. Fred Forest est co-
[!
fondaterrr de eler.rx mor-ryements a,rrisfiques
importants : tr.rart soçiologique
(1974)
et I'Esfhéfique de la çommrmieafi-rrn
S
lrvrs,l
L'ensemDte de son Guwe, touJours en cours oe ceveioppement, a reJomt le patnmome natronal au nre du depot
'
légal en
juillet
2005, sous forme de convention signée avec I'INA (Institut National de I'Audiovisuel) I1 est le seul artiste
français vivant d'art contemporain, à ce
jour,
à bénéficier d'un tel statut.
Le parcours de Fred Forest est pour le moins atypique puisqu'il est d'abord contrôleur des Postes et télécommunications (de
D'abord peinfte, puis dessinateur satirique pour les
journaaxC.ombat et Les Echos, dès le milieu des années 1960, Fred
Forest oriente sa pratique artistique vers le champ des nouveaux médias et des technologies de la communication. Pionnier
de I'art vidéo en France, il conçoit dès 1968 des environnements
participatifs et interactifs en utitsant des dispositifs
acrnci ;nf i i tfni -i -n*fi ,.:i i e .=t i ;i ,4én Tnri r à fn;i i ' i l i nfècre à <ec ,ei i ---i ' ;< eî e,' #.^.n< !r r,i ' escp ér' i .+e 7; ra.;l i n l e f;v te mi ni +el !e
æ.|i;;., i
"ra""rJrt,
rm i"ritrrr'élecroniquer, iu ,ofotiqur, t., À"u,r* tàetoutlques, et aujour<l trui tnteÂet
En 1973 il réalise plusieurs actions spectaculaires dans le cadre de la Biennale de Sao-Paulo qui lui valent le Prix de la
communication et son a:restation par le régime militaire.
En octobre 1974, ilfonde avec. Jean-Paul Thénct et He.wé Fischer le Collectif d' Art sociolofrque
(197a-!98Û), mouvement
ralsant l obJet c'un mamreste pub[e oans ielournar Le Monrte
lrv
/4-rv tt). L'Art soclologlque se veut etre une pranque
qui emploie certaines rnéthodes de la sociologie (enquêtes, documentair€s, etc.) afu de questionner de façon critique les
rapports complexes €ntre ârt$.at sûciétés. I1 s'agissait pour ce collectif de détourner les modes de communication et de
diffirsion de I'infonnation selon une méthode de la perturbation : renvoyer au speotateur une image de son conditionnemenf
rv
.
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PVrrVr
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Ei*983, à Salerne (Italie) il crée en collaboration avec Mario Costa le Groupe Internstional de Recherche de l'Esthétique
de la Communication. Fred Forest publie le Manifeste de l'Esthétique de la Communication et réalise un travail de thèse sur
I'Art sociologique et I'Esthétique de la communication, dont la soutenance, en 1985, se voit transformée en performance
ri dén T .?nl ti ec#f ;l es i te:.fni .rnan.^.ec / *,.ti ni i i .' l e l ïr' cd T?nrpsf <a;' i f ;l e i -nnmi re:' e:t ni i ni l ec n.^.r:r;el l ec te,' hnnl nai et i l a
,orÀ*i*ioo ,t t *r*irrioo a'ir,formation modifient oot r rufport au réel, àia réalite, au temps et a f'trpu.., faisant
appel à des notions telles que : I'ubiquité, I'immédiateté, le temps réel, les réseaux, I'action à distance.
Il est le fondateur du webnetmuseum.org .Prix de la communication de la Biennale de Sâo Paulo (1973), il a représenté la
France à la Bienna-le de Venise et à la Documenta de Kassel
(198?).
I1 s'est v,: déce.rner le "
T.ase,r
d'or " au Festival des
Arts btectronlques de Locafno, puls le Urand pnx de ia vttte de Locamo pour une æuvÏe mul.tlme(lla dfifusee par K I Sl, la
Télévision Naticnate Suisse ltalienne. En octobre 1996, il met en vente, en première mondiale, une Guvre numérique
Parcelle/Réseau àl'Hôtel Drouot. En septembre 1998, il crée une installation spectaculaire, le Centre du Monde, qw
fonctionne en relation avec Internet, à l'Espace Pieffe Cardin de Paris. En mars 1999,1I se marie sur lnternet avec I'afriste,
r vl J' r uv l cysçu
f
: . J, v! o vw! ! v vvvoor vt t l t ù vr wvut ! ! ur vt ùv{r v$ wuvr v ul
l , r vËr ur uuv
uv r vul l ! Yul uwuv r vr f wl l v| l I Èt ! ol vv
une série de capteurs. En octobre 2000, il réalise à Paris la vente aux enchères sous forme d'un site lnternet une série de
monochromes numériques. En décembre 2005, il réalise avec le Bass Museum de Miami dans le cadre d'Art Basel Miami
Beach le premier happening planétaire sur Intemet. De mai à
juillet 2006 le Paço das Artes de Sao Paulo consacre une
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é' :ïi îê
r)ri ? n;:fnhrc a:; !5 ,' l éreml ' ,re ?O$6 i l nroeni ce ta Ri ennrl e ,' Ie l tAtr ?OOO r:re l ' i ennal e ;l ternefi --' e
et..itique dela2To Biennale officielle de Sao Paulo, implantée eans te MAC (Musée d'Art Contemporain de Sao Paulo).
Ui*8iennale numerique, planétaire, participative et démocratique, qui a pour support I'espace virtuel d'Internet et des
milliers d'internautes comme participants.Du 3 février at 17 mars 2007 la Slought Foundation de Philadelphie lui consacre
une exnosition rétrospeetive el la New Yor&- I-Iniversily, 1a- Penn
l*Iniversitv
e.t I'I-Inive.rsité dr-r Coonectieut, I'invitent à
donner une sene de coruerences sur son nouveau concept c'
'
Lbuvle-systeme rnvrslDle
'.
t a pratique artisuque ce
détournement que Fred Forest mène depuis toqiours constitue une réflexion critique sur I'art, la communication, leurs
eodesn lerns fondements idéologiques, symboliqlres et esthétiques'
,
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Fred Forest est également connu pour sa lutte cûntr-eJes dysfonctionnements du systèmes institntionnetr et du système
marchand de I'art contemporain, notamment par les poursuites
judiciaires pour manque de transparence quant alrx
acquisitions contre le Centre Georges Pompidou à Paris, poursuites entreprises dans les années 1990. Professeur émérite en
s. ^: - - . ^=. . . 1- 1t : - ç. ^*- ç- -
^.
J- ! ^. ^^. : : ' =- i . - : at i n;
à t ' I I ni r ; pr "ci t ér l el | Ti ce
-
Snnhi a A; t i r . nl i < l l : ' e. ' l Fr r i ' ecf r as<; : : ' é ai : mi ! i ei :
des années 1990 t'n€ série de séminaires à propos des liens entre arts et technologies.
Bibliographie
[modifi
er]
Forest, Fred "Art Sociologique-vidéo", 10/18, UGE, Paris 1977
Ti n;ecf TreA' Pni i i , i t;;i .ai ' t,t,-l t;çt |
' nz' i ,\
!' ho;i i .c r!' l ntpt' i i et éA 1' Ifanrzaff;n Pqns IQQR
Forest, Fred: Fonctionnements et dysfanctionnements de l'art conternporain : un procès pour I'exemple, éd. l'Harmattan,
2000
Forest, Fred: Repenser l'art et son enseignement àl'Hatmattan
EJ4qeai "
Art: Reverse Authenti fi catl on 29l OI l 09 16: oG
r îffi
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Fl ori an Schnei der
Pôint of Entry, Part of BorderXing Guide. Photgraph @ Heath Bunting 2002
A coyote looks like a medium-sized dog with a long, tapering muzzle, and erect
pointed ears. lts thick coat is greyish, with reddish tinges to the legs and ears, and a
lighter-coloured belly and neck. Among humans, coyotes have an ambiguous
reputation, being considered on the one hand crafty, sly and cowardly, and on the other
tireless and highly adaptive.
To some the coyote epitomises perfidy, to other$ it symbolises imagination,
independence and a powefful will to survive. Native Americans revere the coyote as a
godhead; settlers only see their livestock in danger, and denounce the coyote as evil.
In the border area between the United States and Mexico the term coyote also refers
to a very special type of human being: the traffickers in migrants, who for a fee offer
their knowledge oFhow to 6ioss a state border without the usual paperwork.
In his project
,
EorderXing Guide, Heath Bunting plays the role of a coyote, or rather, a
virtual coyote, committed to the principle of open source. Bunting collects border
experiences, literally so: for several months he has been walking across borders
between European countries in many kinds of location, including forests, rivers,
mountai ns and tunnel s. He pai nstaki ngl y documents the routes he fol l ows, and makes
ht t p: / / www. t at e. or g. u k/ i nt er med i aar t / ent r y1 5468. sht m
BorderXing Guide
This work by Heath Bunting
comments on the way in which
movement between borders is
restricted by governments and
associated bureaucracies. View
documentation cf his 12 month
journey
across Europe.
Page I sur 3
Tat e l nt er medi a Ar t : Rever se Aut hent i f i cat i on
a detailed record of all his movements.
BorderXing Gulde is thus a manual written on foot. The work's web interface promises
to provide full information about Bunting's unofficial border crossings. But in this case
' provi di ng"
has a very parti cul ar meani ng. l t goes far beyond maki ng i nformati on
available by
just putting it online and waiting to see what happens.
A coyote wouldn't be a coyote and Bunting wouldn't be Bunting, if he were not always
a half-step ahead. ln BorderXing Guide, as in most of his works over the last few years
he treats his material in an entirely personal way. For very practical reasons the
presentation o1 BorderXing Guide is based on a carefully calculated politics of public
relations.
zgrclbrÇÇ
',"iiiî!fi,
,, ,,ll, l. ii
l:"
i . i
Anti Climb Fence, Part of BorderXing Guide. Photograph O Heath Bunting 2002
Anyone trying to access the website o1 lhe BorderXing Guide project is initially doomed
to disappointment, since there is no access for unauthorised visitors. Instead they are
given a fist of names and postal addresses of contacts worldwide. The BorderXing
Guide can be visited only from this growing but exclusive list of 'social clients" who
have a static lP (lnternet Protocol) address and who, most notably, have gained the
artist's confidence.
Bunting takes these things very seriously, and demands considerable patience and
understanding from the potential users of lhe BorderXing Guide, both for the fact that
they are being refused at the entrance and because they require a certain appreciation
of how to preserve, develop and mutually share a precarious knowledge without
compromising the projecl as a whole.
In the western world today the more easily ton"y and goods flow between nations,
lhe more those nations close their doors to border crossers, whether they are fleeing
persecution or seeking,,a chahge in their luck. Bunting's BorderXing Guide
acknowledges this paradox, evoking the everyday experience of illegal border crossers
in a process of reverse authentification.
Suddenly, those visfting a gallery or museum website out of interest or curiosity find
they have to prove their credentials. But this tactical recreation of a political reality is
absolutely reasonable in the circumstances: the knowledge of how to cross borders
has to remain a secret until and unless there is a high degree of trust.
For some time awareness of the issue of borders has been gaining currency among
ht t p: / / www. t at e. o r g. u k/ i nt er med i aar t / e nt r y 15 46 8. sht m
Page 2 sur 3
Tret€;l n
"*._red
i a Art: Reverse Authe nti fi cati on
artists, curators and art institutions. There is a long tradition of US and Mexican artists
dealing with the 2000-mile long border between the two nations. Dating from the early
1980s there is a whole history of border art that has addressed the power relations that
structure intercultural exchange. More recently, the border has become a metaphor in
debates, encompassing a variety of political, cultural and artistic approaches, on how
societies_are changing under the pressures of informalisation and globalisation.
On the face of it, BorderXing Guide systematically ignores the current metaphoric
dimension of borders. ln this extended
personal experiment he downgrades their
blinding omnipresence to the banality of
just
crossing a line. Bunting in fact reverse
engineers the metaphorical overload of all the festivals and exhibitions which are
nowadays flirting with the ambiguity of borders, towards a very concrete and singular
practice. Although BorderXing Gurde obviously deals with the repeatability of each
crossing, no border crossing is like the one before and no crossing is the same as it
has been for somebody else.
Borders are there to be crossed. Their significance becomes obvious only when they
are violated - and it says quite a lot about a society's political and social climate when
one sees what kind of border crossing a government tries to prevent. Up to now
Bunting has concentrated on Europe's internal borders. In the next phase of the project
he plans to extend lhe Borderfing Guide to its outer borders, where presumably he will
find much tighter controls.
Today, the nature of borders is shifting; what might be called borderland is emerging.
.ders
are not
just
demarcation lines anymore, but are being reassigned to so-caltèd
'tR-rrd', 'secure' or'transit' countries. Borders reach out along high-traffic lines such as
interregional highways and other lransport links, and deep into inner cities. Entire
countries have become border areas.
As is the case in most political, social, and cultural areas, network technologies have
replaced traditional forms of asserting authority on national borders. Checks now take
place practically every-r,vhere in real time. Chip cards, biometric systems, and electronic
collars, regulate access to proprietary, privileged, or othenrise restricted areas, and
collate images of human movement in gigantic databases. The surveillance of the
electronically equipped border by means of heat, infrared; radar and satellite
technology has undergone a dramatic change in significance. Today's borders are not
so much about racisl permission and refusal of entry as about user profiling. The
ultimate aim of postmodern border managemenl is above all the filtering of presumably
useful from non-useful border crossers.
But the borderland is also a place where tactics triumph over any strategy. In this
context Bunting's BorderXing Gurde has the potential to become a very helpful tool for
an increasing number of people: an electronic antidote against any virtual or real border
,,___,ffie, but gLlgjeclg a real coyote
lfiorian Schneide) is a filmmaker, writer and media activist, member of the collective
ecfidîn€fuffi'/No One r's lllegal and co-organisor of the Cross the Border campaign

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29l OLl O9 L6: OG
ht t p: / / www. t at e. or g. u k/ i nt er med i aar t / e nt r y15 468. sht m Page 3 sur 3
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Dôfi iÀê oooi, scËèn
srào
uy vouNë-Hne cnÂr.ro nËÀWrrvousiniÈS o 2000 the artists .
One night in the spring of 2000, afier a long day of studio visits at an art school, I
opened my laptop and found a mysterious email in my in box" I clicked on a link, a
browser window opened, and giganlic black numbers flashed on screen, counting down
from ten, as an explosive percussion track began to play. \Mat followed was
fu{
Down the Doors!
,
a 55-second text movie telling the story of a late-night domestic raid
l"'an unnamed authoritarian force. I was stunned-never before had I experienced such
| /ynamic,
emotionally powerful work of art on a computer screen, let alone one that
had reached me in a hotel room via a 56.6K modem.
Since then, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries-a collaboration between Young-Hae
Chang, a Korean woman, and Marc Voge, an American man, who live and work in
Seoul-have produced some 35 works, all in more-or-less the same vein: iext--usually
bfack, sometimes red or blue--flashes on screen, synched to the rhythm of a
iazz
soundtrack. The technology is Flash,..a tool for, gmong other things, creating and
delivering images and anintations via the web. Using some fancy math (known as
vectors), Flash enables artists and designers to pack a lot of graphic punch into tiny
packages that can be delivered quickly over slow lnternet connections. Although Flash
can be used io do some very complex things (see, for example, the work of Joshua ra e
Davis), Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries barely scratch the surface of the
application's capabêities. lrstead of exploiting Flash extensiuely, Young-Hae Chang
Heavy Industries defve intensively into a small set of the application's features. Much
as Barnett Newman explored the virtually limitless formal and expressive possibilities of
vertical stripes of color on canvas, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries play with the
narrative possibilities of animated text accompanied by instrumental music.
ln 2001, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries won a Webby award in the art category.
ht t p: / / www. t at e. or g. u k/ i nt er medi aar t / ent r y1 5 274. sht m
t l
F Tate Intermedi a Art: An Orni thol ogy of Net Art
4+
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ZgltLlas ls:54
.Ur4t
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The Art of Sleep
Net Art commission by Young-Hae
Chang Heavy lndustries
Empl oyi ng thei r usual mi x of
animaled black and white
iypography,
jazzy music and humor,
the work explores the international
contemporary art market from the
artists' perspective.
l nl r;i l n*Ci a Art
t{ew Media. Sound and Performance
View âll Net Art fvents 3road."-r" tnte*l*s ,.**
An Ornithology of Net Art 2006
Mark ïribe
Ëusï n*ïïhf
THI N&&R I
Page I sur 3
Tat e I nt er medi a Ar t : An Or ni t hol ogy of Net Ar t
On the
j ury, some argued that sel ecti ng Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industri es woul d
send the wrong message to the art world, since their work does not exemplify such
distinctive features of the net art medium as interactivity or a
is arqument derives frorh Clement Green view essence
in the use of characteristic methods of a lo criticize the discipline itself,
order to subvert it but in order lo entrench it more firmly in its area of
Young-Hae Chang
ifies of the historical and relational dynamics of new
Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries found their working method and signature style
almost by accident at a net art residency in Brisbane where they had an opportunity to
learn and experiment with Flash. Although their work has been installed in museum
gaf leries, such as lhe Ameican Effecf show at the Whitney Museum of American Art in
2003, their primary venue is a web site, Younq-Hae Chanq Heaw lndustries Presents.
Both artists have worked as translators, and many of their projects are available in
multiple languages. In addition to English, there is Chinese, French, German, Korean,
Spani sh and Swedi sh. Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industri es' work i s gl obal art for an
international audience.
Since 2000, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries have been embraced by the art world
in a way that few new media artisls have. Indeed, the duo's work may be appreciated
more in the mainstream art world than among new media aficionados. Perhaps this is
because their work resembles older art forms, such as concrete poetry and
experimental cinema, and because its emotionally expressive voices and dynamic
visual qualities communicate across disciplinary boundaries. But Young-Hae Chang
Heavy Industries' mainstream success may also have to do with something far more
pragmatic. Unlike most net art, their work is user-friendly, even for those who find
computers alien and discomfiting: no small, hard-to-read text, no hunting and clicking,
no decisions to make, no forms to complete or files to upload. Works like Bust Down
the Doors! and The Aft of Sleep capture one's attention, hold it for a short time, and
then come to a decisive conclusion. They don't leave one wondering if one has
explored enough, or discovered every hidden link. To a time-starved, attention-
challenged audience, Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries offer conciseness and
captivating clarity.
The mainstream art world is, in fact, the subject of The Art of Sleep. Commissioned to
coincide with Frieze, the hottest art fair at a particularly market-driven moment, The Aft
of S/eep features an insomniac narralor who ridicules the art world as "fancy-pants,
smart-aleck, self-anointed so-and-sos" and compares art to "the business of religion:
it's pretty persuasion. lt's hocus-pocus. lt's a conspiracy." Our narrator reaches this
conclusion via a circuitous route, a literal shaggy dog story in the form of a bedside
journal
entry in which the sound of a barking dog at night leads down a rabbit hole of
logical (and illogical) leaps: from the futility of the dog's barking to the futility of
everything, the futility of art, art as the most futile of things, art as futility itself, the
"gold standard of futility". At this point, the narrative shifts "from metaphor to materiality"
and, in the process, comes unhinged. In our narrator's words, it "leaves the bakery."
Art no longer resembles the dog, "it is the dog... art is everything. Nof, art can be
anything. A fart is art! | kid you notl lt's Marcel Duchamp all over again! lt's Airde
Pansl See?" What are we.to make.of this?
i*
The Duchampian answer to the question "What is art?" is that art is that which one
chooses to call art. Artness is.not a quality that things (pictures, stories, performances)
possess in and of themselves; it is a status fhat can be conferred upon absolutely
anything, even ân ampoule- of Parisian air. Art, in this sense, is a matter not of beauty,
or profundity, or crhsmanir,ip, but of context.
To call something art is, conversely, to recontextualize it, to relate it to olher works of
art, both contemporary and historical. When the British artist Richard Long created a
visible path by repeatedly relracing his steps through the wilderness and said, "this is
an art work," he brought his action and its traces into dialogue with, to name just two
examples, the work of Tehching (Sam) Hsieh and Robert Smithson. He said, in effect,
ht t p: / / www. t at e. or g. uk/ i nt er medi aar t / ent r y1 52 7 4. snt m
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, without art-world intermediaries; collaborative production; and
Page 2 sur 3
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Lev Manovich
New Media,from Borges to HTMI-
Introduction to The New Media Reader, edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Nick
Montfort. The MIT Press. 2003.
New Media Field: a Short Institutional History
The appearance of New Media Reader is a milestone in the history a new field that,
just
a few years ago, was somewhat of a cultural underground. Before taking up the
theoretical challenge of defining what new media actually is, as well as discussing
the particular contributions this reader makes to answering this question, I would
like very briefly to sketch the history of the field for the benefit of whose who are
newcomers to it.
If we are to look at any modern cultural field sociologically, measuring its standing
by the number and the importance of cultural institutions devoted to it such as
museum exhibitions, festivals, publications, conferences, and so on, we can say
that in the case of new media
(understood as computer-based artistic activities) it
took about ten years for it to move from cultural periphery to the mainstream.
Although SIGGRAPH in the U.S. and Ars Electronica in Austria have already
acted as annual gathering places of artists working with computers since the late
1970s, the new media field begin to take real shape only in the end of the 1980s. At
the end of the 1990s new institutions devoted to the production and support for
new mediaart are founded in Europe: ZKM in Karlsruhe (1989), New Media
Institute in Frankfurt (1990) and ISEA (Inter-Society for the Electronic Arts) in the
Netherlands (1990). (Jeffrey Shaw was appointed to be director of the part of
ZK\[ focused on visual media while Frankfurt Institute was headed by Peter
Weibel). In 1990 as well, Intercommunication Center in Tokyo begins its activities
k-
innew media art (it moves into its own building in 1997). Throughout the 1990s,
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tuJi"b
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wi th new
"cool "
spaces of bars, hotel s, museums, and so on. Medi eval meets mul ti -
nati onal , Gaudy meets Dol ce and Gabana, Medi terranean ti me meets l nternet ti me.
The resul t i s the i ncredi bl e sense of energy whi ch one feel s physi cal l y j ust
wal ki ng
along the street. lt is this hybrid energy, which characterizes in my view the most
successful cultural
phenomena today. This book then is a systematic investigation
of a particular slice of contemporary culture driven by this hybrid aesthetics: the
',,"be-l-J"
slice where the logic of digital networked computer intersects the numerous logics of
already established cultural forms.
A.ir*r,
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t.h.t,tt
ullttc f
In conclusion let me offer
you a different metaphor to think with about this cultural .-,
sl i ce whi ch we al so cal l
"new medi a." Thi s metaphor i s that of
"remi x." I often l ook at
contemporary culture in terms of three key processes - three diffirent kinds of
remixes. The first remix is what already for a few decades we refened to as
"post-
moderni sm"- the remi xi ng of previ ous cul tural contents and forms wi thi n a gi ven
medi a or cul tural form (most vi si bl e today i n musi c, archi tecture, and fashi on). The
second type of remixing is that of national cultural traditions, characters, and
sensibilities intermingling both between themselves and also interacting with a new
"gl obal
i nternati ohal " styl e. In short, thi s i s the remi x of
"gl obal i zati on." "New medi a"
then can be thought alongside these two types of remixes as the third type. lt is the
remix between the interfaces of various cultural forms and the new software
\_,
techniques - in short, the remix between culture and computers. lts cultural logic is
new not because this is
"modernist new" which tried to erase the past - on the
contrary, it is new because of the scale of the remix process at work, its speed, and
the components themselves involved. Some of the results, which are being
genei ated, are tri vi al , some are OK, and some are bri l l i ant. Whi l e computer i s a very
powerful remix instrument, what comes out from it is ultimately up to the creative
i ndi vi dual s who are at the control s of the computers - you.
tol28
computer multimedia, computer games, CD-ROMs and DVD, Virtual Reality, and
, æ
- -
coTpyter-generate s all fall under new media. Other cultural objects
which use computing for production and storage but not for final distribution --
television programs, feature films, magazines, books and other paper-based
publications, etc. - are not new media.
The problems with
tbis
defin@ are three-fold. Firstly, it has to be revised
every few years, as yet another part of culture comes to rely on computing
technology for distribution
(for instance; the shift from analog to digital television;
the shift from film-based to digital projection of feature films in movie theatres; e-
books, and so on) Secondly, we may suspect that eventually most forms of culture
will use computer distribution, and therefore the term "new media" defined in this
way will lose any specificity. Thirdly, this definition does not tell us anything about
the possible effects of computer-based distribution on the aesthetics of what is
being distributed. In other words, do Web sites, computer multimedia, computer
games, CD-ROMs and Virtual Reality all have something in common because they
are delivered to the user via a computer? Only if the answer is at least partial yes, it
makes sense to think about new media as a useful theoretical category.
ry\rfi^eri\&Ê
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a^rFor^al' ,
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3. New Media as Digital Data Controlled by Software.
K
The Language of New Media is based on the assumption that, in fact, all cultural
objects that rely on digital reprgsentation and computer-based delivery do share a
\tx,^!#
number of common qualities.f ln t I aniculate a number of principles of ne
media: numerical representation, modularity, automation, variability and
codi ng. IHo not computer-based cultural object will
necessary be structured according to these principles today. Rather, these are
tenlen4gs of a"cultureundergoing computerization that gradually will manifest
themselves more and more. For instance, the principle of variability states that a
new media cultural object may'exist in potentially infinite different states. Today
tS exa$ples of variability are commercial Web sites programmed to customize
( tnrtnscoÀ"g.
Wèb pages for every user as she is accessing the site particular user, or DJs remixes
l ,l ;
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tu28
of already existing recordings; tomorrow the principle of variability may also
structure a digital film which will similarly exist in multiple versions.
I deduce these principles, or tendencies, from the basic fact of digital
representation of media. New media is reduced to digital data that can be
manipulated by software as any other data.This allows automating many media
operations, to generate multiple versions of the same object, etc. For instance, once
an image is represented as a matrix of numbers, it can be manipulated or even
gegerated automatically by running various algorithms, such as sharpen, blue,
colorize, change contrast, etc.
/
More generally, extending what I proposed in my book, I could say that two
I
basic ways in which computers models reality - through data structures and
l -
I
alsorithms - can also be applied to media once it is represented digitally. In other
\
words, given that new media is digital data controlled by particular "cultural"
\ \
\\oftware,
it make sense to think of any new media object in terms of particular data
\
ètructures and/or particular algorithms it embodies.a Here are the examples of data
structures: an image can be thought of as a two-dimensional array (x. y), while a
movie can be thought of as a three-dimensional arcay (x, y, t). Thinking about
digital media in terms of algorithms, we discover that many of these algorithms
can be applied to any media (such as copy, cut, paste, compress, find, match) while
some still retain media specificity. For instance, one can easily search for a
particular text string in a text but not for a particular object in an image.
Conversely, one can composite a number of still or moving images together but not
different texts. These differences have to do with different semiotic logics of
different media in our culture: for example, we are ready to read practically any
image or a composite of images as being meaningful, while for a text string to be
meaningful we require that it obeys the laws of grammar. On the other hand,
language has a,,priori discrete structure
(a sentence consists from words which
û,
I
4I
don't meant here the actual data structures and algorithms which may be
used by particular software - rather, I am thinking of them in more'abstract
rfay: what is the'structure of a cultural objects and what kind of operations it
enàbles for the user.
r4128
case, both metaphorically and literally, as a designer places hot spots over an
existing image) over an older representational convention. Another wjtyjg thin.k
about this is to t
management is mixed with a technique of fictional representation and fictional
jarrationJ
will use another example to illustrate the opposite process: how a
cultural convention normally used for fictional representation and narration is
"superimposed" over software techniques of data management and presentation.
The cultural convention in this example is the mobile camera model borrowed
from cinema. In The Language of New Media I analyze how it became a generic
interface used to access any type of data:
Originally developed as part of 3D computer graphics technology for such
applications as computer-aided design, flight simulators and computer movie
making, during the 1980's and 1990's the camera model became as much of an
interface convention as scrollable windows or cut and paste operations. It became
an accepted way for interacting with any data which is represented in three
dimensi,ons - which, in a computer culture, means literally anything and
everything: the results of a physical simulation, an architectural site, design of a
new molecule, statistical data, the structure of a computer network and so on. As
computer culture is gradually spatiaÉzing all representations and experiences, they
become subjected to the camera's particular grammar of data access. Zoom,t\lt,
pan and track: we now use these operations to interact with data spaces, models,
objects and bodies.s
sum up: new media today can be understood as the mix between older cultural (
\
rventions for data representation, access and manipulation and newer \
representation, access and manipulation. The "old" data are
representations of visual reality and human experience, i.e., i-ug.t, tt^t-buttd ald
audio-visual narratives - what we nonnally understand by "culture."
T-s
"ney"
data\is numerical daTa.
As a restrlt of th.i.s mix, we get such strange hybrids as clickable "image-
maps," navigable landscapes of financial data,
QuickTime
(which was def,ned as
the formât to represent any time-based data but which in practice is used
e4clusively for digital video), ar-rimated icons - a kind of micro-movies. of
s
ùanovich, The Language of New Media, 80.
15t28
computer culture
- and so on.
As can be seen, this particular approach to new media assumes the existence
of histori icular aesthetics that characterizes new media, or "early new
media," today. (We may also call iiàe
"aesthetics
of early information culture.")
This aesthetics results from the convergence of historically particular cultural
forces: already existing cultural conventions and the conventions of HCI.
Therefore, it could not have existed in the past and it unlikely to stay without
changes for a long time. But we can also define new media in the opposite way: as
specific aesthetic features which keep re-appearing at an early stage of deployment
of every new modern media and telecommunication technologies.
5. New Media as the Aesthetics that Accompanies the Early Stage of Every New
Modern Media and Communication Technoloey.
Rather than reserving the term new media to refer to the cultural uses of current
computer and computer-based network technologies, some authors have suggested
that every modern media and telecommunication technology passes through its
"new media stage." In other words, at some point photography, telephone, cinema,
television each were "new media." This perspective redirects our research efforts:
rather than trying to identity what is unique about digital computers functioning as
media creation, media distribution and telecommunication devices,
rwe
may instead
look for certain aesthetic techniques and ideological tropes which accompany every
new modern media and telecommunication technology at the initial stage of its
introduction and dissemination. Here are afew examples of such ideological tropes:
new technology will allow for "better democracy; it will give us a better access to
the "real" (by offering "more immediacy" and/or the possibility "to represent what
before could not be reptresented"); it will contribute to "the erosion of moral
values"; it will destroy the "natural relationship between humans and the world" by
"eliminating the distance" between the observer and the observed.
And here are two examples of aesthetic strategies that seem to often
k-
accompany the appearance of a new media and telecommunication technology
(not
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OVTRSIST' IN?TRNITTTT
t{âYD:TIITET
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r*a$* *YilÂà{t
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-
lliTrR$g?Trï
TE?IEEgTlIt
#10 LiY,Krop og Teknologi
#9 Nye Offentligheder
#8 Kapitâlisme og Humanisme
#7 Tyrkiët
#6 Kritik
#5 tnternettet
#4 De intellektuella
#3 ArbejûiiY
#2 Terrorisme
#1 Dannelse
l t FÊ*r1r- | | | **Ëxi J I I I Ft r ' I EL€T I I l l gnï gt {î |
Nettet som foresti llingsrum
Kunsten og de nye medier
For en lss subjektivitet er alle
medier lige gyldige
Nettet som alternâtive space
\$d*ffiL# wrm# wilm *s *ilF,ë l3Â*ësg$1
K*N$r5fl ffi rçH t Ëç5*3**5
Af ekst€rn lektor og anmetder Àndreas Brogger
Den folgende tekrt er et uddrâg af en artikel om nett€Ës rotte og betydning i
danske kunstsammenheenge fra mi dt i 1990erne og frem ti l i dag. Den
endelige ârtikel vit optræde i en antologien Yi elsker din computer, der er
under udgivelse pâ Det kgl. dan:ke Kunstakademi (red, Jacob Lillemose) med
tekstÊr af danske og int€rnationale kunstnere og teoretikere om netkunst.
Netkunsten er ligesom det medium, den er udsprunget af, et internationalt
fænomen. Dens udsvende kunstnere og de mange kritikere og teoretikere, der
er vokset {rem sammen med netkunsten, kommer fra vidt forskellige steder:
Slovenien, Sydkorea, Hottand, ililexico, England, Rustand, USA, Brasitien,
Tyskland, Austratien, osv. Ja, rnan kan i princippet hævde, at begreber sôm
nationâtitet og kulturette tilhorsforhold er mindre relevante i forhold tiFen
kunst, der skabes til, distribueres og modtages via det gtobâle netværl#Àlen
naturtigvis er dette i sidste ende en abstraktion, idet bàde netkunstens
afsendere og modtâgerÈ befinder sig pâ bestemte (eventuelt skiftende)
lokatiteter, er underlagt forskellige tekndtogiske begrænsninger og er vokset op
i kulturer, der har sat deres præg pà derr-ogsâ for nettets udbredetse.
lvlen hvordan kan man gribe en korttægning af netop den DANSKE netkunst an, hvis man onsker - pâ god kunsthistorisk vis
- ât medtænke den ku[turelte kontekt, kunsten er udsprunget af? Giver det mening at afgreense en særtig DANSK
netkunst, nâr denne form for kunst i princippet attid alterede optraeder pà en gtobal scene? Endelig er det hôjst relevant
ât spsrge, om det overhovedet giver mening at tate om "netkunst" som et mediespecifikt fænomen i dansk
sammenhæng? Fà danske kuilstnere (om nogen) kunne vel finde pâ'at beskrive sig selv som "netkunstnere" i den
forstand, som internationale netpionerer har gjort det under betggnelsen net.art - det er simpelthen for snæver en
sti l ti ngsbetegnel se i dansk sammenhæng.
lMit
indtryk er, at nettet i reglen blev inddrâget i kunstneriske sammenhænge i den udstrækiling det nu gav mening i
forhotd
tit alterede ekisterende diskurser og praksisser pà den danske kunstscen€. Kunsten pà nettet udviklêde sig netop
lkke
i isotation fra denne scene, som titfældet har været for dele af den internationale net.art. Det gor ikke den danske
fnetbaserede
kunst mlndr€ interessânt, snarere wærtimod!
L
En anatyse af den danske netbaserede kunst med et parattelt kunstkritisk btik pà den internationale nef.drf (og
efterfotgende opblsdning til "netkunst" etter "webkunst") kan tydetiggore, at man herhjemme har vaeret ganske tidligt
ude med kunstneriske eksperimenter pà nettet. Her tænker jeg for eksempet pà Artsp@ce
{senere
Arhode}, der kom
frem næsten sâmtidig med det amerikanske adoweb
{grundtagt
af Benjamin Weil og John Borthwick i efteràret 1994. Pà
Artnode og et site som afsnitp.dk finder man projekter, der tiltige holder et hajt niveau màlt med den netbaserede
kunsts globale màlestok,
Nettet fungerer langt hen ad vejen som den danske 1990er-kunsts forlængede virtuelle arm, der rækker ud i nye
'-'ntekster,
herunder internationale, men det er samtidig en gestus, der er præget af kunstscenens formetle og
---ndholdsmæssige
tendenser.
Denne art'iket betyser gennem en række nedstag i værker, udstiltingssteder og tekster, hvordan nettet btev inddraget i
forskellige sammenhænge pà den danske kunstscene i 1990erne. Artiklen, der bestemt ikke dækker fettet
fyldestgorende, placerer:ig sâtedes - imeltem to yderpoter. Pâ den ene side har vi fænomenet "kunst
pà nettet", der
opstâr nâr museerne scanner deres kunstsamling og taegger den ud pâ nettet som var der tale om et virtuelt katalog, og
pà den anden side er der den mediespecifikke "netkunsti', kunst der forholder sig formelt elter indholdsmæssigt til
mediet, og ofte kun kan eksistere her (og netop ikke i en traditionel museal samling). Mettem disse to poter finder man
pâ 1990ernes danske kunstscene en række initiativer, hvor nettet optræder i museâte sammenhaenge (Ârtnodes t0Û
tegninget pâ Kobberstikamlingen og tJser's Glub pâ stateTb À,tuseum for Kunst) og hvor nett€ts specifikke teknologiske,
æstetiske og bredere kutturetle omstændigheder afsoges, men ikke nodvendigvis ud fra en tilgang elter overbevisning,
der adskitler sig væsentligt fra den sâmtidige ikke-netbaserede kunst.
Iil
i l TI r ?gr I
b NrrrrT sûM roR[sTttt!i {ûga*s
I f
"l think new technolffis creatJl new structurà of thinking. As a matterbf fact, this new structure of thinking does not
I
I
manOatory express itself through these technotogies. Internet does not give rise to ârtists who use Internet. lnternet
r
I
creates new possibilities iri our consciousness. New technologies penetrate art. This is an ilstrument which gives
I
opportuni ty to do somethi ng di fferent"
I Ni cot a: Bour r i audf i i l
l-r
Da nettet for alvor var brudt igennem midt i 1990erne fik det hurtigt en praktisk funktion pà den danske kunstscene som
en ny mutti medi al kanat for formi dl i ng a{ kunst cg kunstrel ateret materi al e. Nettet bl ev ogsà genstand for en
ht t p: i / www. t u r bu l e ns. net / t e mae r / i nt e r n et t et / dun st e nf r aku nst en/ wo r l dwi d ewe bogde nd ans keku nst sce ne/ Page I sur 4
Tu r bu l ens
Yb
6r r X- medi especi f i kudf or skr i ng( : ef . eks.
At t sp@ce- yol ekt er nef r al gg5ogf r empâA{t nadeswebsi t e, desener epr oi ekt er pà
v'
websitet Afsnitp.dk elter afsogningen af mediet pâ Stedet3.dk, et site stottet âf Statens Kunstfond). iiiil Disse to
grundtæggende dimensioner kan kun i teorien adskilles, de fieste værker og projekter indeholder begge. Her skat det
primært belyses, hvordan nettet (og forestillingerne om det) pà forskettige planer interagerede med den selvforstâetse
ag de udviklingsretninger, der kendetegnede særtigt den fremspirende, unge kunstscene i Kobenhavn midt i 1990errie.
Her taenker jeg pà de mange undergrundsgatlerier og nye konsteltationer af unge kunstnere, hvis tidstypiske idegrundlag
syntes hsjst kornpàiibett med det ligetedes fremvokende warld wide web. ldegrundlaget var pâ ingen màde en direkte
fotge af riettet eller âf datidens cyberd'iskurser
{ftere
af gallerierne og konstetlatioterne opstod for sidstnaevnte blev
udbredt), rneil nettet spillede uden tvivl en rolle som inspirationskilde cg som ideotogisk
rygststte
for nogle af de
initiativer' der btev sasat midt i 1990erne. Nettet forstærkede farnemmelsen af, at noget nyt var ved at bryde frem, at
man var pâ rette spor, og det nye medium blev uden tvivl betragtet som er form for attieretl Nettet var el
frirum,
et
territorium der endnu ikke var korttagt, hvor hvem som helst kunne fà sig et slykke land og opbygge en hjemmeside.
Nettet var rhizomatisk og var sâleder et immaterielt og dog reelt eksempe[ pà, at en pluratistisk og ikke - hierarkisk
verden kunne etâbteres sôm al ternati v ti l de eksi sterende mâgtforhol d. Man kunne tave si n egen paral l el l escene,
riojagtigt som de unge kunstnere og kuratorer gjorde det i begyndelsen og midten af 1990e199,,!
Denne tendens kan spores titbage til koilstetlationer og udstiltingssteder som Baghu:et {startet i 1987 af Peter Rôssel og
Peter Holst Hencket), gruppen Koncern
{Jan
3âcktund, Jorgen Michaelsen, Soren Andreâsen og Jakob Jakcbsen] og
Galleri Campbelts Occasionty, der blev startet op af Jakob Kolding og Nicolai Waltneli begyndelsen af l990erne. Onsket
. om at €tablere steder, der ikke var undertagt de normale kriterier for at opnâ synlighed pâ kunstscenen, og hetter ikke
yngre kunstnere, udstillingsrækken Black 8ox arrangeret af Globe i sommeren 1993, etableringen af Galleri Nicotai
Watlner i 5t. Kongensgâde i efterâfet 1993. Samme âr àbnede det kunstnerdrevne Max Mundus og i àrene umiddelbart
efter futgte bt.a. Saga Basement og "Udstillingsstedet" i Nsrre Farimagsgade (senere N55). Her kunne kunltneret der
endnu ikke var færdiguddannet pà Kunstakademiet
irfobenhavn,
udstitle sammen med medstuderende og
ândsbestægtede daûske og internationale kunstnereuer vâr tate om netværker, der gerne forstod sig selv som
selvorganiserende og uafhængige a{ de ekisterende magtstrukturer, uden dog nodvendigvis at vaere i direkte opposition
hertil (at âgere traditionet avantgarde var for attmod'isch). Scenen eksisterede i egen setvforstâelse - og pâ
netværkagtig vis - parallelt med den "gamle kunstscene" bestâende af kunstnersgnmenslutninger, gallerier og museer,
der ikke uden videre var tit sinds at give h€lt unge kunstnere en ptads i rarnpetysef lsær den elektroniske musikscene og
dj-figuren udgjorde et forbillede tor kunstens undergrund, og fænomenerne smeltlede da ogsâ i ftere tilfætde sâmmen,
nàr fredag aften bod pà ftere og flere vernisseringer, der blev mere og rnere cluô-agtige. Kulmination pà denne
subkulturelle konvergens var uden tvivl den storstitede, Cartsberg- og Kutturby96-ststtede {men selverktærede
undergrundsevent) update i Turbinehallerne i 1996. Det fsrer tor vidt hef ât komme ind pâ dette projekt. der lsb i mere
z{Ù end en màned, Utoi?âffit med seertigt aje for nettet nævûes, at updats ogsâ bod pâ netadgang, webprojekter og et
bibtiotek, hvis formâl ifotge arrangarerne var "at stille spargsmàt
yed
de eksisterende bibtioteksm$tter, og ât prave at
udforme en alternâtiv struktur der stemmer bedre overens med nutidige medier og tanker". fivl
I
..
lt rlt rsr l
x.uilsïâr.i *û *{ NYs ÀÂ;*tËR
Det er fristende at sige, ât fra midten af 199ûerne skulle enhver starre udstilling etler kulturet event med r€spekt for sig
selv have mindst en pc stâende et sted med netâdgâûg og/etler titbyde et kata[og med tilhorende materiale pâ video,
ftoppydisk etler CD-ROM.
{vl
De nye medier var et plus} setvom de endnu kun var i færd med at blive udforsket
kunstnerisk, endsige havde vundet accept pà den etablerede kunstscene som kunst i sig selv.
,i4entalitetshistarisk begyndte nettet for alvor at tone frem atlerede med diskussionerne omkring "virtual reality" og
"cyberspace" i begyndetsen af 1990erne, altsâ for "cyberspace" blev tit "world wide web". Kunstkritikeren AÊders
$lichetsen skrev
jævntigt herom i Weekend-avîsen, hvcr han rapporterede fra mediekunstfestivaller rundt omkring i
verden og lavede interviews med teoretikere og kunstnere som Roy Ascott, Norbert Botz og Saskia Sassen. Michelsens
brede perspektiv pâ den fagre nye digitale verden, hvor kommercialisering, kaosteori, krops- og konsproblematikker,
samt postkotoniate perspektiver optràdte side om side med cyberutopjsrne rg teknokritik, var et godt tegn pà, at nettet
ikke kGîæèe-hR€'ETEa-d?en danske kunstscene uden en vis kritisk stil{ingtagen.
Selvom nettet fremstod som et afgorende nyt og spændende medium i overgangsperioden 1993-1994, hvor BB5'er bl.ev
til hjemmesider og tekstinput blev tit multimediebaseret browsing, skal man ikke gtemme, at det var i slutnjngen af
l980erne og i begyndelsen af'1990erne, at den pe$ontige romputer for alvor blev udbredt i danske hjem. Fsr hypertinks
pà nettet kom sàledes hyperlinks i muttimediesoftware pâ PCen. Computerkunst og CD-ROM-kunst (sôm man akkurat
nâede at betragte som et nyt kunstnerisk medium inden nettet kom til) optrâdte fôr netkunst, og de tidlige
eksperimenter pâ nettet bsr derfor ogsâ ses i retation ti1 den digitate mediekunst, som et ti[e antal danske kunstnere
hâvde udtsrt i begyndelsen af'1990erne, | 1993 viste Niels Bonde for eksempet sine "Recovered Files" - afbildninger af
filer som Bonde havde he*tet op af folks virtuelte skraldespande - pâ en udstitting hos Galerie Nicotai Wallner, som blev
nysgerrigt anmeldt i de fleste danske dagbtade under overskrifter som "Hacking som billedkunst", "Computerens
underbevidsthed" og "Skærmbilleder" trnan
diskuterede pâ det tidspunK gerne forsketten mellem computerbitledets
æstetik og de svrige bittedmedier). Inden det mest markante site for netbaseret kunst og kunstformidting, nemlig
Artnode, gik i luften i 1995, hâvde tre af sitets grundtæggere - Niels Bonde, Mogens Jacobsen og Kim Borreby - ârbejdet
med lignende problemstit(inger under overskriften Hrgh Dersify, mens andre âf sitets medlemmer - Christian fleide,
Nikotaj Recke og Martin Pingel - etâblerede udstillingsstedet Arfsp@ce p:r nettet i sommeren 1995. Det er værd at
huske, at CD-ROM-medi et var i futdt vi gor pâ kunstscenen for og ogsâ parattel t med nettet (der endnu var hæmmet af
lângsomme tetefonforbindetser og endnu var uden Flûsh), og skal man beskaeftige sig med datidens eksperimenter med
interaktive fortættefôher, sà g-ver det ikke mehf ng at begrænse sig tit enten CD-ROM etler netbaserede værker. selvom
de naturtigvis i flere heRseender er forskellige medier.
I I TT! Tl F I
$*q
g*
t*s sr.J*JË9{T}v:Ti l T xR ÂtL{ sË*t[* t-:*r *YL*tûg
5elvom der vâr meget hype omkring nettet som nyt medium, sâ stred en udpræget fokusering pà det nye medium i sig
setv mod €n fremherekende tendens pà kunstscenen til at betragte alte medier som lige gytdige. Man forsogte kort sâgt
ikke at q6re karriere som enten "mater, "fotograf" eller "bitledhugger", men benyttede sig gÊrne af flere forske[ige
ht t p: / / www. t u r bu l e ns. net / t em ae r / i nt er net t et / du nst e nf r aku nst en / wor l dwi dewe
bogde ndanskeku nst scen e/
2elÊr4l
u,r,! rù É
"JeF
i
frir*o-*
%n-
Jùwlu
nlT,.lt"'(
<XPO
Page 2 sur 4
Tu;bçlens
medi er.
Den pluralistiske indstjtling til de enkelte kunstneriske medier var selvsagt ikke kompatibet med den overdrevne
fokusering pà nettet som specrtkf medium, der kunne iâgttâges internationâlt med den snævre, samtidige îet.art-
bevægetse hos btandt andre Vuk Cosic, Atexei Shutgin og Otia Lialina. Selv.Arfnode, der kan siges at figge tættest pâ
dette internationale fænomen i kraft af især medlemmernes indsigt og interesse i netlgts-gæ-lgBlglggi:8ggg
kultureltefâcefter, opererede ud fra tidens pt{i4!!:!!:!g.j@!Sgi. Som man kunne læse i en pressetekst fra mârts 1996 i
--<.'
anlêdîiË-g 5f en df gruppens forste aktiviteter, en præsentation af video og netbaserede værker af skandinaviske
kunstnere oâ Smartshow i Stockholm:
"Artnode.dk has chosen to present a ùdeo show wi th Dani sh and forei gn arti sts wi th whom artnode.dk col taborates.
From the start artnode.dk has found it important to cotlâborate with ârtists who have the capacity to work in several
different set-ups, therefore the presentation format in stockhûlm is not computerbased, but video. The many different
set-up5 that pictoriat ârt has to its disposal now each hold their own characteristic expressive range, white none of them
can presume pri mary status."
Dette er kârakteristisk midt-1990er-retorik fra en kunstscene, hvor man i stedet for àfgrænsning og speciatisering tagde
vægt pâ udveksling, processer og ftydende grænser. I kraft af sin immaterialitet og flygtighed var nettet kompatibett
med disse præferencer- Nikotaj Recke og Martin Pinget gik begge pà Kunstakademiet i Ksb€nhavn og frekventerede som
sâ mange arldre studerende i lobet af deres studietid bâde en materskole etter billedhuggerskole og sà den nye
medieskole, der forsogvis var blev€t oprettet i 1989, og i 1994 btev permanent etableret med sin fËrste professor,
kunstneren Torben Christensen. Her havde man i modsætning til de andre skoter tidtigt netadgang og udforskede
mulighederne i det nye medium, men netop i relation tit den eksisterende praksis, hvor videokunst jo i sig selv endnu var
et nyt up-and-and- coming medjum. Pà mediekunstskolen og flere af de nye udst'illingssteder etablerede rnan videoarkiver
og âfhotdt fo.evisningsrækker med videoværker af kunstnere fra pericden, ekempelvis den fire dogn lange Sociat ùdeo i
sommeren 1994 arrangeret af Udstitlingstedet i gatleriets vindue ud til Nsrre Farimagsgade etter (for nu ât tage et
eksempet i den anden ende af den institutionelle skala) Elektroniske understrsmme arrangeret af Torben Christensen og
Lars Movin pà Statens Museum for Xunst i 1996.
Ogsâ pà andre niveauer var der en vis overlapning metlem brugen af nettet og andre medier. Muligheden for setv at
prpducere og distribuere indhold pâ nettei gik sâtedes i princ'ipp€t tint i hak med optagetheden af den persontige
aring og det subjektive vidnesbyrd herom, der var sà udbredt pâ den unge kunstscene midt i 1990erne bâde i
Ynmark og internat'ionatt. De fleste kunstnere var naturligvis bevidste om, at tysten tit at pâtage sig identiteter og
anbringe jeget i forsketlige sociale sammenhænge kunne fâ frie tojler i cyberspace, hvor afsendere og modtagere kunne
operere under anynomitet og pâtagede identiteter. Men hvor mange kunstnere benyttede sig af personlige, umiddelbare
og simple udtryksmidter, sâsom hàndskrevne tekststykker, snâpshots, hàndhotdt video og hverdagsgenstande - en trqsi-
og ekspressiv hverdagsæstetik var fremherskende pâ datidens udstillinger - vatgte de fteste dog at lade professionetle
webarbejdere (sàsom fotkene bag /rtnode) stà for produktion og distribution af deres bidrag pà nettet.
f i ?t n TgF I
NrTTfi sûÀ,! .4i TË'ÊÀrA rJvg SPécr
Nettet repræsenterede ogsâ en mulighed for at distribuere kunst og ikke mindst formidle viden herom uden at skulle
bekymre sig om trykkeomkostninger og optâg, avanceret redigedngsudstyr eller distribution ùa ekisterende medier. Det
var et af udgangspunkterne bag Ârfsp@ce (der som nævnt blev tia Artnodel, hvor man (mêdlproducerede og hostede
projekter som <inserrs> - 67 kvindelige kunstnere i Danmark i 1997 (red. Sanne Kofod Otsen, Susan Hinnum og Malene
Landgreen). ldee
*inserti>, der egentlig skulle have vaeret udgivêt i bogform, var at gsre opmærksom pà
ulighedsforhold i dansk kunst, nemiig underrepræsentationen af kvindelige kunstnere. I Artnode fandt projektet €t
"udstillingssted" etter "digitalt tidsskrift", der ifotge redaktsrerne var ideelt i forhotd til projektets idegrundlag. I tràd
med den unge kunstscenes just-do-it-yoursef tankegang pàbegyndte man med
"ifferts'
en egen dokumentation af
kvindelige kunstneres aktiviteter, og nærede et hâb om at projektet til stadighed kunne udvides og ændre karakter, helt
i tràd med datidens kontekstuelte bevidsthed og mediets rnulighed for lsbende opdatering.
.Denne ide om nettet som forum for alternativ oe fri udveklins af information hotdt i hvert fald àrtiet ud, og en ênden
t, Annette Etgaard, Hanne-Loui se
v,rannesen,
Stinne Bo Schm'idt og Utrikke Vind). Omsfif{fng var et udstillingsprojekt med deltagetse af skandinaviske
kunstnere, der havde fàet til opgave at bidrage med stedsspecifikke cg variable værker, dêr skulle rejse til fire
forskellige udstitlingssteder i Norden. Pâ hvert sted skutle kunstnerne i princippet nytænke og pâny titrettelægge deres
bidrag. Med kuratorernes egne ord: "Omstitting er et kunstprojekT, et koncept og en prakis; en bevægelse og en
udviktingshistorie; et spejl, en diatog, et netværk og et atternativ." Det virkede derfor optagt at kobte
udstittingsprojektet tit det variabte og ftygtige medium par excellence, nemlig nettet, og der blev sat en sàkatdt net-
stàfet i gâng parattett med udstiltingsrækken. Her bidrog en række skribenter efter tur med indlæg af forskellig art:
"NET-sTAFETTIN
er et dynamisk forum, der hele tiden producerer ôg f6jer nye tekter og dermed betydninger til
OMSTILLING. OMSTILLING tematiserer'det onstittelige vætk' og tidens generelle oplevetse af ftygtighed; den relativering
af grænser og sandheder som vi àlte tit dagtig ôplever og pàvirkes af. Da synsvink[en pà omstillings-temâet selvfstgetig
ogsà skat være omskiftelig og ftekibet, har vi inviteret skribenter med forskellig titgang til sàvel omstiltingssituationen
som kunstbegrebet. NfT-STAFETTEN er pga. sin fleksibititet og rilgængelighed et perfekt katalog tit OMSTILLING. Under
OMSTILLINGs rejse kan der hele tiden inviteres nye skribenter sà den pàgaetdende udstitting het€ tiden êfspejtes'i Net-
Kataloget".
(f ra http: / l www.omff*i ng - netstâfet.dk)
"Without âny euforic Utopiânism we regard the Internet simply as â medium for communjcation. lts orrly real potential is
a: a space for ârt to avoid being objects & to b€ a p.actice tnstead. The art work has to be a commodity of commerce to
http: / /www.tu rbu l e ns. net/temae r/ i nte rnettet/ du n ste nfraku nste n /worl dwi dewe
bogde ndans keku nstscene/
29l 0l l O9 L5: L7
,U*,li,hL
iÀ*-tth'
l u
€r
S*colroolc
çl.L'l'
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Tu r bul ens
be distinctively ân
gbject.
ls art not à commodity it cannot be fetichized, can art not be fetichized it cannot
distinctively be art {in other worets, it becomes a procegs}.
[...]But
tike any other information piece here the art work is
not the corr,nodity in the cyberspace of telecommunication technotogy. To enter cyberspace you have to buy yourself
access."
(fra http: I /www.artnode.dk/text/text-dk/kornum-m1.htmt)
Ensretnirig i form af censur og kommercialisedng 1â som truende understromme parallelt med ât nettet muliggjorde
1og
I
il
q \
mutiggeri fri udveksting med relativt tâve produkt;ons- og distributionsomkostninger. Supeflex'
Proiekt
SupercÀanne!
-t
r'
btev etableret med kulturministeriel stgtte og sendte for forste gang fra udstillingsstedet 1.v. i 1999. ldeen var at
demokratisere adgangen til tv-med;et bl.a. ved distribution vja nettet, at eliminere forskelten mellem producent ag
bruger, og at bringe mediet ud i en række atternative sociale kontekster. Superchannet bestàr i 2005 af 33 kanater
forde{t pâ forsketlige lande og Superftex kan i nærværende sammenhæng fremhæves som endnu et eksempel pà, at
nettet blev brugt som en btandïTlffiirenge, som kunsten i 199ûerne spittede pâ (jf. gruppels vidt forskellige, men
ideologisk bestasgtede proiekter on- og offline).
I et projekt fra 2000 tog Niets ûonde putsen pà denne udvikting, hvor nettet ikke kun havde karakter af et frirum, men
ogsà tenderede mod forsketlige [ukninger:
More and more peopte go to f€wer and fewer websites. The tendency on the WWW cf more and more concentration of
vaffic has become clear. The top 10 websites are estimated to be getting between 2't,and 32 percent of the surfers
âttention, august 1999. lt is cruciat to get the attention ûf the user,and ke€p it. Sû here we are, fighting for attention,
trying to infuse the media with content, and expand the possibilities"
(fra Niels Bonde: Hrgfi Density -
flowcharts
& diagramsl
To be conti nued,..
Iil
I stedet for en specifik mediepraksis, der tager udgangspunkt i modsætninger mellem nettet og andre medief, tigger
der ekempetvis i Artnodes formàlserklæring en intention om at bruge mÊdiet i flere forsketlige henseender: "The aim of
Artnode is to suppty contemporâry aft with a digitai outlet and thus support international contacts. Artnode ptans,
creates and distributes contemporary art projects in currÊnt and upcoming digital media. The foundation aims at
devetoping and silpporting proiects, using these new media as artistic pfatforms - not
just
âs distribution channé1s."
-
{
t i ! l Frai nt erYi ewmedNi col asBourri audpâht t p: / / www. boi 1er. odessa' net / engt i sh/ raz1i n, u, o, ' n. f f i .
inierview lra Artforum
iAprit
2001, ved Bennett Simpson )
retter Bourriaud en kritik af netkunsten for at være
"overakademisk" i sin direkte fokusering pâ de teknologiske aspekter: " Today, the way that the lnternet changes our
frâme of mind is not only fett on the Web. Most Internet ârt is superâcademic at this po;nt. Àt the same time, indirectly,
this new technology is what has auowed a
t[L]ilæ$:u
to think the way he does".
4,
Iiiil Nærværende uddrag omhândter kun en litte det af de projekter, der er blevet reatiseret pâ nettet i dansk
sammenhæng. Min têÊngere oversjgtsâ*ikel beskæftiger sig med bt.a. Àfsnitp.dk, Webmuseum.dk, Stedet3.dk, for ikke
\
at tale om de storstitede cyberprojekter, der blev realiseret i forbindelse med Kulturby 1996, sàsom Capenhagen
\
Cyberport, Bitleder
lra
det
fjerne
og llpdate. Het var chancen for at eksperimentere i stor skala med de nye
I
'
teknologier, og en kunsthistorisk vurdering af disse statsstgttede projekter er bestemt tiltrængt; Da f6rst luften var gâet
/
'
ud af kulturbyballonen stod man titbage med oplevelsen af en række hsjt profilerede stunts, der i farten mer€ fik
,/
karakter af nediebegivÊnheder end kunsthistoriske milepæte. Man lærer setvsagt meget lidt rent kulturpotitisk,
kunstkritisk og kunsthistorisk af denne form for glemsel...
ElJ
Citeret fra materiale publiceret i forbindelse med Updote. For undertegnedes anmeldelse af Update, se "Asketernes
mareridt" i lnformation, 3,|. mârts 1996.
Iyl
Kâtatoget tit udstiltingen Rlôt pà Portalen i Hundige i 1995 indeholdt bl.a. en diskette med Superflex' SUPERGAME,
Nikotaj Udstitlingsbygning udgav kataloger med videokassetter, Update i 1996 titbcd internetadgang) osv.
TI TI T TCF I
: i
ÈE
o.
S"?'-TLX
29/C.1,t09 1y"-1.7
ht t p: / / www. t u r bu l ens. net / t emae r / i nt er net t et l du nst enf r aku nst en/ wor l dwi dewe bogde ndanskeku nst scene /
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