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BUILDING TECHNOLOGY I

CONTENT
1.0 Introduction
2.0 Drawings

Architecture Drawings
Floor plan
Roof plan
Elevations
Sections

Structural drawings
Structural Foundation Layout Plan
Structural Column Layout Plan
Structural Beam Layout Plan
Structural Precast Floor Layout Plan
Structural Steel Roof Layout Plan
Sectional Perspective
Axonometric drawing
Sequence of Construction

3.0 Schedule of IBS components


Precast Beam and Foundation Schedule
Precast Beam Schedule
Precast Column and Slab Schedule
Door Schedule
Window Schedule
Detail drawings

i. Precast Blockwork with Column Detailing


ii. Precast Blockwork with Floor Slab Detailing
iii. Precast Steel Staircase Detailing
iv. Precast Floor Slab Detailing
v. Precast Column and Beam Detailing
vi. Prefabricated Steel Truss Roof Connection Detailing

4.0 Tabulation of IBS components data


5.0 IBS Score calculation
6.0 Conclusion
7.0 Model Making Process
8.0 References
1.0 Introduction
IBS SYSTEMS

Industrialised Building System (IBS) is the term originate by the industry and government in Malaysia to represent the adoption of construction industrialisation and the use of prefabrication
of components in building construction. Industrialised Building System (IBS) Modular System (MS) is a construction delivery method where buildings are manufactured 60% to 90% off-site in
a factory-controlled environment and transported, assembled and fixed at the final building site. Industrialised Building System (IBS) in Malaysia depicts a construction technique which
the manufacturing of the structural components happen in a factory. The concept of IBS is based on buildability, economy and standardization of components. Advantages of IBS system
based on the planning of used resources able to reduce the overall cost, optimize the supplies and diminish wastage of materials. IBS depicts high flexibility and wide range in
architectural designs. It provides high quality finishes compared to labour-intensive work where quality might be different from the proposed design.

There are 6 main IBS Systems used in Malaysia which are precast system, formwork system, steel framing system, block work system, prefabricated timber framing and innovative system.
Our designed 3-storey apartment block are precast concrete components and prefabricated steel trusses. Current systems in Malaysia which supports the usage of Industrialised Building
Sytems (IBS) are mainly a close system, where each component manufacturers have their own priority building systems to be adopted in the project.

Precast concrete construction system

Precast concrete construction provides faster and more efficient construction process. Concrete has been around for centuries
made popular for its durability and aesthetic versatility. Adding to the many widely known benefits of concrete, precast
concrete has its own unique set of strengths. Not only is it durable and versatile, it’s easy on the environment and can
significantly reduce construction time. Completed precast structure has the same monolithic concept as a cast-in-situ
structures.

Advantages of using precast concrete include:

● Manufactured in a controlled environment where greater accuracy and better quality control are possible.
● Reusable factory moulds are economical to produce repetitive units.
● Less wastage of resources.
● Assemble fast on-site construction and site delays can be avoided.
● Precast concrete is known for its high-quality and durability. It can easily withstand the elements and go through years
and years of wear and tear while still being just as strong and resilient as it was the day it was cured.
● Precast concrete is very dense and sturdy, making it a fantastic material choice for buildings where soundproofing is a
top priority. Commercial buildings in large metropolitan areas often use precast concrete for this very reason.
Multi-family residential and student dormitories also benefit from precast as it limits noise transfer from floor to floor.
● One of the precast concrete advantages lies in its fireproof attributes. Precast concrete will not catch fire, and it will
prevent the spreading of fire from room to room. It is a fantastic material to have a home or building made from for this
very reason. In the event of a fire, the precast concrete will not get so hot as to drip molten particles and light other
materials on fire.
● With a variety of aggregates, shapes, colors and finishes, precast provides you with a multitude of options. Other
materials such as brick, stone, and granite can be cast-in at the plant reducing the time, staging and cost of on-site
installation. With a little creativity, you can achieve the look you desire for the cost and strength of precast concrete.
Elements that are generally constructed in precast concrete building construction are precast concrete frame, precast concrete wall, precast concrete floor.

Precast Concrete Frame Construction

Precast concrete frames involve entire structure being fabricated off-site. Besides that, structural components can be incorporation into a structure on-site. Frames able to attain structural
and decorative design requirements. The construction process for precast concrete frames are cast in the same way as precast concrete cladding, but as they are designed as structural
elements have heavier reinforcement than is required for non-structural cladding. Elegant connections are required between columns and beams to transfer considerable forces without
adversely affecting the visual appearance of the frame.

Precast Concrete Wall Construction

Precast concrete walls are used for internal & external walls, lift shafts, central cores etc. Precast wall system are mostly used in domestic construction, both for individual housing & for
apartments. The solution can be considered as the industrialized form of cast in-situ walls or classical brick or block masonry walls. The precast walls can be load bearing or only partition
walls. The surface of the elements is smooth on both sides & ready for painting or wallpapering. Precast walls offer the advantage of speed of construction, smooth surface finishing,
acoustic insulation & fire resistance.

Precast Concrete Floors

Types of precast concrete floors:

● Hollow core floors


● Ribbed floors
● Concrete roof elements
● Massive slab floors

The advantages of precast floors are speed of construction, absence of scaffolding, large variety of types, large span capacity, & economy. Precast floors can also be classified according
to their manufacture into totally & partially precast floors. Totally precast concrete floors are composed of units, which are totally cast at the plant. After erection, the units are connected to
the structure & the longitudinal joints are grouted.In some cases a cast in-situ structural topping screed is added. Partially precast concrete floors are composed of a precast part & a cast
in-situ part. Both parts are working together at the final stage to achieve the composite structural capacity. The main totally precast floor & roof types are described hereafter.

Steel framing system


(steel roof trusses)

Commonly used with precast concrete slabs, steel columns and beams, steel framing systems have always been the popular choice and used extensively in the fast-track construction.
Recent developments in this type of IBS include the increased usage of light steel trusses consisting of cost-effective profiled cold-formed channels and steel portal frame systems as
alternatives to the heavier traditional hot rolled sections.
Case Study
Project: CitizenM Hotel

Location:189 Bowery, New York

Architect: Kuhn Riddles Architects

CitizenM Hotel is the world’s tallest modular constructed hotel standing 20-Stories and located at 189 Bowery, New York, NY. Hotel consist of 210-pods or modular units totaling
300-Guestrooms along with common spaces, including rooftop, lobby, and plaza amenities. Hotel construction consist of a 4-Story cast-in-place concrete pedestal together with 14-Stories
hybrid concrete superstructure building core and shear wall with a 210-modular unit surround and top 2-Stories consisting of structural steel superstructure framing housing a top-of-house
bar and amenIties lounge.

Project: Leopold Stonnington

Location: Glen Iris, Victoria

Architect: Ewert Leaf

SBS Group design evaluated the project scope, identifying savings across the top level wall and roof trusses, balustrades and feature boxes. Framing was shop detailed, 3D modelled,
engineered and manufactured using BHP Truecore light gauge steel for on site time, labour and cost savings. Framing was then delivered direct to site for installation. Besides that, replacing
traditional structural steel and timber, SBS Smart Frames were fabricated straight and true for a rust, termite and rot resistant solution. With a high strength to weight ratio, the use of cold
formed steel framing also contributed towards reducing the overall floor load. Use of IBS Building system are smarter alternatives to conventional construction methods, it is time-saving,
labour-saving and cost-saving construction method.
Case Study
Project: SERI KASTURI APARTMENT

Location: Setia Alam

4 block of 10-storey medium cost apartments located within Setia Alam Township in Shah Alam. Industrial Building System (IBS) and precast concrete panels were adopted as the structural
system. Raft and piled foundation were adopted on the cut and fill platforms. Due to the proximity of the existing neighborhood buildings, jacked-in concrete piles were used as piling
system and reinforced concrete shear walls were adopted as the vertical structural systems with transfer beams above car parking podium.

Project: Brickfield 1 Primary school

Location: Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur.

Sekolah Kebangsaan Brickfields (1) is a national school located at Jalan Sultan Abdul Sahmad, Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur. It is an institutional place that has been around 50 years which is
completed in 1954 and was demolished in 2003 to cater newer 4 storey school building. The compact design houses two school with a total site area of 4,488m2. Majority precast
components are used such as precast columns, beams, staircases, hollow core floor slabs. The construction period completed within 8 months.
2.0 DRAWINGS
STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS
SECTIONAL PERSPECTIVE
AXONOMETRIC DRAWING
SEQUENCE OF CONSTRUCTION
3.0 SCHEDULE OF IBS COMPONENTS
CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS
AND DETAIL DRAWINGS
Precast Blockwork
Blockwork is construction with cement blocks that are larger than a standard clay and concrete brick. To make them lighter and easier to work with they have a hollow core that also
improves their insulation capacity. They are available in a variety of densities to suit different applications. Their convenience and cost effectiveness have made them a popular
alternative to clay bricks although they require an additional finish for reasons of aesthetics and water resistance.

They are often used to build internal partition walls and retaining walls. Thin layer mortar is a pre-mixed cement-based product that only requires the addition of water to make an
easily-applied mortar. It differs from general use mortar in that it sets more rapidly, thus giving early stability to the construction. It provides an alternative to traditional sand/cement
mortar and allows the depth of the mortar to be reduced from at least 10mm to 3mm or less. Thin joint blockwork (thin joint masonry) is a fast, clean, accurate system for construction
using autoclaved aerated concrete blocks of close dimensional tolerance with 2mm-3mm mortar joints.

Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is used to make a special kind of concrete blockwork much lighter than normal concrete and with significantly higher thermal resistance.

Advantage
● thin layer mortars are provided by a system with many of the characteristics of traditional blockwork construction.
● The increasing demands : greater productivity, improved thermal performance, airtightness and waste reduction.
● the build process and flexibility are also inherent in the system.
● Faster build speed :Thin layer mortar is applied to autoclaved aerated concrete blocks by the use of a serrated scoop, which allows mortar to be applied quickly and accurately
to the bed joints and perpends. The benefits are fully realised on long runs of walling.
● Excellent airtightness can be achieved using thin joint technology, thereby improving the overall performance of the wall in terms of heat loss.
● Reduced site wastage , a key benefit of autoclaved aerated concrete blocks is that they can be easily and accurately cut, sawn and worked on site. The precision cutting of
blocks for use with thin layer mortar allows greater utilisation of the blocks, which can substantially reduce site wastage. Mortar wastage can also be minimised with the batch
mixing of small quantities of thin layer mortar.
● Improved construction quality, The combination of high tolerance blocks and thin layer mortar allows greater accuracy to be achieved in the internal face of a completed wall,
which can provide a suitable substrate for the application of thin coat spray plaster. This has the added advantage of fast application and quick drying time, resulting in further
productivity gains.

Installation

First layer of blocks to be solid blocks and it should be fully Masonry units will be wetted before laying in order to Block shall be properly laid on a full bed of
set with proper alignment. prevent quick drying and shrinkage of cement based mortar.mortar joint thickness for the general purpose
on mortars. Pre-laid into base of the wall along mortar will be 8mm to 12mm.
alignment of the block wall.
Hollow core wall panel
Hollow core wall panel is known as a voided wall and these voids add structural stability , reduce weight
and therefore, reduce cost. The result is sound proof, fire rated and low maintenance system. It is a precast
wall of prestressed concrete typically used in the construction of walls in multi-storey apartment buildings.
The precast concrete wall had tubular voids extending the full length of the wall. The reinforcement steel
wire rope provides resistance to bending moment from loads.
Factory production decreases dependency on weather conditions and increases programmed planning
reliability.

Precast concrete wall panels have become a standard building component in Malaysia.

Advantages

● Compartmentation – controls/limits fire from spreading


● Reduced insurance costs Low maintenance – not affected by rot, termites, bugs, water, sun damage
● Low noise – quieter for tenants, occupants, and owners

Installation

Cutting to size in factory before delivery to the Positioning the precast wall panel.Moves to the Mortar apply top and bottom of the
site position align them with baseline, use crowbar to wall panel to ensure the wall panel are
ensure the wall panel are tightly fitted another on.
tightly fixed.
Precast Staircase
Produced off-site, they can be delivered and installed as required by the site programme to create instant access as the structure goes up. Additionally, as with most precast concrete, they
can be manufactured with high-quality finishes, not requiring further cosmetic work. A steel structure is much safer and easier to clad as responsibility of design and installation remains with
the staircase specialist who provide CAD data to the stone supplier. The stone supplier will CNC cut all components accurately off site to reduce installation time and significantly improve the
quality of installation. As data is transferred from program to program, the incidence of human error is greatly reduced.

Precast stairs are particularly suitable to the construction of high traffic stairwells such as commercial and industrial developments. The high quality finish gives a durable concrete staircase for
long maintenance free life. Concrete stairs are ideal for the construction of high quality private and residential stairways. The dense precast concrete gives excellent acoustic properties
addressing sound transfer issues associated with steel and wooden staircases. Precast concrete stairs are the obvious choice for fire escape stairs. Maintenance free service and excellent
durability are the inherent benefits of precast concrete stair construction. Precast concrete stairs offer significant benefits during the construction phase of a project providing rapid
installation and early safe access to subsequent floors for trades and materials.
Every precast concrete stair flight is designed in accordance. Precast concrete landings can be designed as individual units or can be manufactured as complete precast stair flight and
attached landing. Precast landings can be attached to the top or bottom of the precast stair flight, or supplied with both top and bottom landings.

Advantages
A visually lightweight design, then a slim steel structure will be suitable as well as the option of choosing open treads to increase flow of light.

● Easy to assemble construction


● Simple nut and bolt connections
● Strength and stability
● Flexibility for custom applications

Installation

1. Hollow steel stringer connect 2. Installed timber tread on steel 3. Repeat the same installation step
to ground beam,precast stringer using steel plate. for the continuous floors. Railings
beam, and column. are installed after the flight of steps
are completed.
Hollow core slab
Prestressed hollowcore floors have longitudinal cores of which the primary purpose is to reduce the weight of the floor. The elements are available at different depths to satisfy the various
performance needs for span and loading.
Prestressed hollowcore floor units are commonly 1,200mm wide and up to 20m long. Builders use hollowcore floors in buildings with larger spans or loadings, such as office buildings,
hospitals, schools, retail developments, hotels, student accommodation, industrial buildings and sports arenas.
Prestressed hollowcore units provide optimum floor construction in multi-occupancy apartment buildings and social housing. Hollowcore is also the favoured form of floor construction in
individual houses, both at the ground and intermediate levels. Because of their favourable cost-rate and fast erection time, hollowcore floors offer significant benefits to specifiers and
contractors.

Advantages

Prestressed hollowcore floor units offer many advantages, including :


● Speed of erection
● Immediate unpropped working platform
● Minimum site in-situ concrete
● Long spans
● Diaphragm action
● Flexibility of design
● Preformed site services
● Structural efficiency
● Factory-produced to rigorous quality standards

Installation

Precast hollow slab transport from factory to the site. The floor slab is lifted and positioned into the building. Grout cement covers the gap of hollow precast slab.
Precast Columns and Beams
Columns

Precast concrete columns may be single or double storey height. The method of connection to the foundation and to the column above will vary with manufacturer. Foundation
connection may be via a base plate connected to the column or by reinforcing bars projecting from the end of the column passing into sleeves that are subsequently filled with grout.
Alternatively, a column may be set into a preformed hole in a foundation block and grouted into position.

Column-column connections may be by threaded rods joined with an appropriate connector; with concrete subsequently cast round to the dimensions of the cross-section of the column.
Alternatively, bars in grouted sleeves, as described above, may be used. This results in a thin stitch between columns while the previous approach requires a deeper stitch. Connections may
be located between floors, at a point of contraflexure, or at floor level.

Columns are provided with necessary supports for the ends of the precast beams(corbels or cast-in steel sections). There will also be some form of connection to provide beam-column
moment connection and continuity. For interior columns this may be by holes through which reinforcing bars pass from one beam to another. For edge columns, some form of bracket or
socket is required.

During erection columns must be braced until stability is achieved by making the necessary connections to the beams and slabs.

Beams

The cross-sections of a precast concrete beam will depend on its location within a structure, its purpose and how it is connected to other members. The simplest will be rectangular, probably
with reinforcement links projecting out of the top around which in-situ concrete can be cast.

Alternatively, beams may have projections, on one or both sides to support secondary members, such as floor slabs or staircases, or to carry brickwork or cladding. The beams will be
provided with recesses at the ends, that fit over corbels or steel sections projecting from the columns.

For interior beam-column connections, continuity and moment transfer is provided by reinforcement laced through the projecting links and passing through the column. An in-situ stitch is
then cast. For edge and exterior columns connection of the reinforcement has to be via a cast-in socket or some form of welded connection.

Advantages

● Precast is manufactured in a controlled casting environment it is easier to control the mix, placement, and curing.
● Quality can be controlled and monitored much more easily.
● A precaster can buy materials for multiple projects, quantity discounts can lower costs.
● Weather is eliminated as a factor- can cast in any weather and get the same results, which allows to perfect mixes and methods.
● Less labor is required, labor can be less skilled.
● On site, precast can be installed immediately, there is no waiting for it to gain strength and the modularity of precast products makes installation go quickly.
● Repeatability; easy to produce multiple precast product; by maximizing repetition, you can get plenty of value from a mold and a set-up.
● Accelerated curing, by heating the precast parts, greatly increases strength gain, reducing the time between casting the part and putting it into service.

Installation

1. Metal bearing plates and embedded anchor bolts are


cast into the ends of the columns.
2. After the columns are joined, the connection is grouted
to provide full bearing between elements and protect
the metal components from fire and corrosion
Precast Roof Truss
Precast steel roofs can be framed light gauge steel trusses which are manufactured from hollow metal studs. Precast steel trusses offer a high-strength, light-weight roof system that can
be installed quickly. In residential construction, wood trusses still dominate the industry, however light gauge steel roof systems are gaining ground in markets where additional strength is
needed, or where greater free spans are required.
A standard truss is a series of triangles - a stable geometric shape that is difficult to distort under load. Regardless of its overall size and shape, all the chords and webs of a truss form
triangles. These triangles combine to distribute the load across each of the other members, resulting in a light structure that is stronger than the sum of the strength of its individual
components.

Advantages

● Fabricated and welded in factory, fast on-site installation.


● Steel trusses allow for longer roof spans,Largest range of section profiles ensuring most economical design solutions.
● Non-combustible
● Overhead Cranes can be engineered without columns eliminating obstructions and allowing for more usable work space.

Installation

3 Used L plate to fixed the steel roof stress on the beam.


1 Steel roof trusses are typically assembled on large metal or wood tables. The
tables are fitted with pins and clamp fixtures that hold the truss pieces in
place. Chords and webs are placed in the jig, and then drilled using
self-tapping hexagonal screws. After the jig has been completed, it typically
takes two experienced workers a short time to lay out the material attach
them with screws. Ideally, the truss is loaded directly on the delivery truck.

2 Using crane to move precast steel roof from the truck and located it on roof bram.
Precast Toilet Pod
Advantages

● strong and durable due to the wall panel is make by concrete with reinforcement
● good moisture resistance, excellent resistance in wet condition
● simple and easy to handle, quick install with panel, workability like wood.
● superb factory finish quality, dry panel, no curing required at site.

Installation

1. cut out pocket and hole for air vent pipe between 2 panel as per dimension of ceramic toilet pan.
2. mark out the center line of different wall and door of toilet in reference with toilet pan.
3. move the panels into position for installation with help of pipe ad trolley. Prior to surface grouting out the joints the surface receiving the grout is washed thoroughly, the grout is mixed
and applied properly . apply surface grout on the bottom and top of panel wall
4. drill , plug and screw at various point of panels to hold them to each other in right-angle position
5. for further locking and holding of panels to each other make use of cavity anchors U shape to be fitted in the cores on the top of panel and L at the corner of wall at top and bottom
6. after installation of walls , services like electrical wiring, plumbing and other services can be concealed within the core and the hollow core wall panel
7. fill cement mortar in the gaps at top and bottom of each panel
8. ventilation can be provide by cutting or sitting required size pocket on the wall of the toilet block
4.0 TABULATION OF IBS Part IV: Other Simplified Construction Solutions

COMPONENTS DATA Numbers of:


Percentage of components
compliances with the preferred sizes

Columns:
Part I: Construction Area
250mm x 250mm 60
1 Construction area for one apartment unit 96.85 sqm 84/84 x 100% = 100%
350mm x 350mm 24
2 Construction area for one floor of the unit (staircase lobby included) 236.02 sqm
Beams

3 Construction area for roof 210.42 sqm


300mm x 400mm 30

Total Construction Area 918.48 sqm 400mm x 450mm 66 30/120 x 100% = 25%

55mm x 450mm 24

Slabs

150mm x 1200mm 132


Part II: Structural System
144/144 x 100% = 100%
150mm x 900mm 12
Components IBS System
Walls
Beams Precast Concrete Beams
150mm x 4000mm 114
Columns Precast Concrete Columns 138/138 x 100% = 100%
80mm x 4000mm 24
Floor Slab Precast Hollow Core Slab
Doors

Roof Truss Prefabricated Steel Roof Truss 750mm x 2100mm 12

900mm x 2100mm 18
18/42 x 100% = 42.9%
2500mm x 2100mm 6

Part III: Wall System 1500mm x 2100mm 6

Windows
External wall Precast Concrete Block Work

1200mm x 1800mm 36
Internal wall Precast Concrete Wall Panel 72/72 x 100% = 100%
600mm x 600mm 36
Wall length for one floor of unit 70.05 m
Others
Wall length for one floor of apartment 140.1 m
Repetition of Floor Height
4000mm for all floors 100%
Total Wall Length 420.3 m
Repetition of Vertical Structural Floor Layout
Units duplicated for all floors 100%

Repetition of Horizontal Structural Floor Layout 1 mirrored unit 100%


5.0 IBS Score calculation
Part I: Structural Elements
ELEMENTS AREA IBS FACTOR COVERAGE IBS SCORE

Precast Column and Beam with Precast Slab 708.06 1.0 708.06/918.48 = 0.771 50 x 1.0 x 0.771 = 38.55

Prefabricated Steel Roof Truss 210.42 1.0 210.42/918.48 = 0.229 50 x 1.0 x 0.229 = 11.45

Total Part I: 918.48 50

Part II: Wall Elements


ELEMENTS PERIMETER IBS FACTOR COVERAGE IBS SCORE

Blockwork System 322.8 1.0 322.8/420.3 = 0.768 20 x 1.0 x 0.768 = 15.36

Precast Hollow Core Wall Panel 97.5 1.0 97.5/420.3 = 23.2 20 x 1.0 x 0.232 = 4.64

Total Part II: 420.3 1.0 20

Part III: Other Simplified Components


ELEMENTS COVERAGE IBS SCORE

Column Sizes Based on MS1064 PART 10: 2001 100% 4

Beam Sizes Based on MS1064 PART 10: 2001 25% 0

Slab Sizes Based on MS1064 PART 10: 2001 100% 4

Wall Sizes Based on MS1064 PART 10: 2001 100% 4

Door Sizes Based on MS1064 PART 10: 2001 42.9% 0

Window Sizes Based on MS1064 PART 10: 2001 100% 4

Repetition of Floor Height 100% 2

Repetition of Vertical Structural Layout 100% 2

Repetition of Horizontal Structural Layout 100% 2

Total Part III: 22

IBS Score of Project: Part I + Part II + Part III 92


6.0 Conclusion
The end of calculation on the IBS Score, we have concluded that our apartment has totaled a score of 92%, which reflects the use of IBS building components. Higher score of IBS
construction components reflect the use of IBS concept is effective in this design. Industrialized Building System (IBS) is an innovative technique adopted to increase the efficiency, quality
and productivity of projects. However, these advantages are proven mainly for projects located in urban areas only. IBS is not a common practice for projects located in rural areas.

Precast building system or commonly known as IBS (Industrialized Building Systems) in Malaysia has many advantages if it is compared to the traditional cast in situ system. Production of
precast components such as beams, columns and slabs were done in the factory thus ensuring high quality control for each component. Structures of precast building can be quickly
erected on site and the delays due to concrete curing and concrete formwork removal can be reduced resulting in shorter completion time of construction. Besides that, precast system
requires lesser amount of labour force.

The advantages of using precast concrete is the increased quality of the material, when formed in controlled conditions, and the reduced cost of constructing large forms used with
concrete poured on site. It is used mainly in the construction of buildings with repetitive design and elements, such as schools and apartments.

Architectural precast concrete provides architects with an exciting medium when designing facades for a wide range of buildings, from healthcare facilities to shopping malls,
commercial office buildings to sports stadiums.
7.0 MODEL MAKING PROCESS
8.0 References
Concrete Toilet Block - Concrete Toilet Block Manufacturer & Concrete Toilet Block Exporter from India. (2018). Indiaprecast.com. Retrieved 25 April 2018, from
http://indiaprecast.com/wall-panel/toilet-block.html

Prefabricated Toilet Block - Prefab Toilet Block Manufacturer & Prefab Toilet Block Exporter from India. (2018). Indiaprecast.com. Retrieved 27 April 2018, from
http://indiaprecast.com/wall-panel/installation-of-toilet-block.html

Brickwork and blockwork | YourHome. (2018). Yourhome.gov.au. Retrieved 27 April 2018, from http://www.yourhome.gov.au/materials/brickwork-and-blockwork

Thin joint blockwork. (2018). Concretecentre.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018, from https://www.concretecentre.com/Building-Elements/Walls/Thin-joint-blockwork.aspx

Pre-engineered Steel Stairs from A-Mezz Industrial Structures. (2018). Amezz.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018, from https://www.amezz.com/metal-stairs.html

A-Mezz Industrial Structures, Inc. (2018, April 23). OSHA and IBC Industrial Stairs & Metal Staircases. Retrieved from https://www.amezz.com/metal-stairs.html

DeSimone, B. (2018). Prefabricated Stair Landings. Fsindustries.com. Retrieved 28 April 2018, from http://www.fsindustries.com/more_info/stair_landing/stair_landing.shtml