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FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

MINNA, NIGER STATE

SCHOOL:
SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY (SET)

DEPARTMENT:
SURVEYING AND GEO – INFORMATICS

REPORT ON THE

TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY
OF
ATM STAND, GIDAN KWANO CAMPUS.

BY
IBRAHIM SANI AHMAD
MATRIC NO.: 2014/1/50509VL

SUPERVISED BY: SURV. ABDULLAHHI .A. KUTA.

APRIL, 2016.

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ABSTRACT

This report focused on various methods used in execution of topographical survey


of the new bus park area, gidan kwano campus. The practical was carried out using
the basic survey principles and methods. The major field survey operation includes
reconnaissance which involves field and office reconnaissance, followed by data
acquisition which involves third order theodolite traversing, perimeter leveling to
determine height of points, tacheometry for detailing and spot heightening and
Azimuth observation to determine the swing of the traverse line. All the Data
acquired from the field were deduced, computed and adjusted according to
specification and results were analyzed and found to be within the expected
accuracy. Finally, computed data were presented in graphical form both in digital
using AutoCAD software and the analogue and a comprehensive report on how the
whole operation was carried out.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………… 1
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………... 3

CHAPTER ONE
1.0INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………… 6
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY …………………………………………… 6
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES ………………………………………………… 8
1.2.1 AIM ……………………………………………………………………... 8
1.2.2 OBJECTIVES …………………………………………………………... 8
1.3 SCOPE OF THE PRACTICAL …………………………………………… 8
1.4 STUDY AREA ……………………………………………………………. 8
1.5 PERSONNEL ……………………………………………………………... 9

CHAPTER TWO
2.0METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………... 10
2.1 RECONNAISSANCE ……………………………………………………. 10
2.1.1 OFFICE RECONNAISSANCE ………………………………………. 10
2.1.2 FIELD RECONNAISSANCE …………………………………………. 10
2.1.3 SELECTION OF STATIONS …………………………………………. 11
2.1.4 MONUMENTATION …………………………………………………. 11
2.2.1 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS USED ………………………………………. 12
2.2.2 TEST OF INSTRUMENTS ……………………………………………. 12
2.2.3 THEODOLITE TEST …………………………………………………. 12

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2.2.4 LEVEL INSTRUMENT TEST ………………………………………. 13
2.3 DATA ACQUISITION ………………………………………………… 13
2.3.1 CONTROL CHECKS ………………………………………………… 13
2.3.2 FIELD OPERATION …………………………………………………. 14
2.3.3 THEODOLITE TRAVERSING ……………………………………… 14
2.3.4 ANGULAR OBSERVATION ………………………………………... 15
2.3.5 LINEAR MEASUREMENT …………………………………………. 15
2.3.6 LEVELLING …………………………………………………………. 16
2.3.7 TACHEOMETRY ……………………………………………………. 16
2.3.8 SPOT HEIHTING ……………………………………………………. 16
2.3.9 DETAILING …………………………………………………………. 17

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 DATA PROCESSING …………………………………………………. 18
3.1 FIELD BOOK REDUCTION …………………………………………. 18
3.1.1 TRAVERSE FIELD BOOK REDUCTION ………………………… 18
3.1.2 HORIZONTAL ANGLE REDUCTION ……………………………. 18
3.1.3 VERTICAL ANGLE ………………………………………………… 19
3.1.4 LINEAR MEASUREMENT ………………………………………… 19
3.2 TRAVERSE COMPUTATION ………………………………………… 19
3.2.1 REDUCTION OF BEARING ………………………………………… 20
3.2.2 ANGULAR MISCLOSURE …………………………………………. 20
3.2.3 FORWARD BEARING ………………………………………………. 20
3.2.4 COMPUTATION OF COORDINATES OF TRAVERS POINTS …… 21
3.2.5 BACK COMPUTATION ……………………………………………… 21

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3.2.6 LINEAR ACCURACY ………………………………………………… 22
3.2.7 AREA COMPUTATION ………………………………………………. 23
3.3 LEVEL COMPUTATION ………………………………………………...24
3.3.1 ACCURACY OF LEVELLING …………………………………………25
3.4 TACHEOMETRIC COMPUTATION …………………………………….25
3.5 PLAN PRODUCTION …………………………………………………….26
3.5.1 DIGITAL PLAN PRODUCTION ……………………………………….26

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 SUMMARY, PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED AND CONCLUSION ……. 27
4.1 SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………. 27
4.2 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED …………………………………………….27
4.3 CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………… 27

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CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY


Brief history of surveying – the first people that analyzed the earthware the greeks (the greek
geometry) the first people that brought about boundaries.

Early civilizations assumed the earth to be flat surface, but it was deduced that the planet actually
curved in all directions because the earth’s circular shadow on the moon during the lunar eclipse
thus, introducing the notion of an earth disc encircled oceanus. The founder of the scientific
geodesy is Eratosthenes (276-195 BC) of Alexandria who under the assumption of a spherical
earth deduced from measurements a radius for the earth. Early greek thinkers developed the
science geometry been the term in greek (earth measurement) showing the relationship between
mathematics and survey.

Surveying is a profession with many definitions as applied to it over the years, changing
even as the duties of the surveyor had been dynamic over the years. Some years back surveying
was defined as the science and art of making reliable measurements of the relief position of features
above, on or beneath the earth surface and plotting of these measurements to some suitable scale
to form a map, plan or chart (Brinker, 1977).

Surveying is the art and science of determining a position or point in three dimensions with natural
or man – made features beneath the earth surface which can be represented in analogue form as a
contoured map, plan or chart.

CLASSES OF SURVEY

i. Plane survey – this is a class survey which assumes that the earth is flat and it is most
commonly practiced form of surveying because it is a survey with the reference base
of fieldwork and computations. Plane survey covers smaller areas of the earth surface
and any survey of area less than 100km square will have negligible effect of curvature
hence, the level surface can be regarded as horizontal.

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ii. Geodetic survey – this is the survey of a large area of land in which corrections are
made to account for the curvature of the earth. It is the most accurate of all forms of
survey and its main objective is to provide accurately fixed points called controls,
whose positions cannot be questioned. These points are used as reference points in
lesser surveys using the most refined instruments and methods of observations are
employed.

PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING

I. Working from whole to part – it is the most fundamental principle of survey. This
means for any particular survey operation, whether it is for an entire country or area of
a small extent, it must be connected to the main frame work of higher accuracy that
could be made once the work has been established.
II. Choosing the method of surveying – this is adopted in other to meet up the desired
and required accuracy which the more refined technique and instrument employed, the
greater the accuracy that will be obtained.
III. Provision of adequate check – it is an important aspect of surveying exercise as it will
show the possibility of deflecting error and how to handle it. Therefore, survey as well
involves stages such as planning data, acquisition, processing and information
presentation.

Topographical surveying was the focus of this project among the other branches of
Surveying. Topography means the shape or configuration of the earth’s surface.

It is subdivided into three aspects. Namely:

(i) Hypsography – i.e relief features


(ii) Hydrography – i.e the water and drainage features.
(iii) Culture – i.e the man - made features.
Topographical surveying is the branch of surveying that determines the position of natural
or artificial features of a locality, both in plane and elevation to represent them by means of
conventional sign on a map known as topography. A typical topographical map is useful for the
planning and designing of construction project like roads, bridges, building etc. It is also essential
for professionals like military personnel, miners, engineers and agricultural practitioner’s e.t.c.

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1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

1.2.1 AIM
The aim of the survey is borne out necessity and its aimed at carrying out the topographic
survey,levelling and tacheometry of the new bus park Gidan kwano Federal University of
Technology Minna

1.2.2 OBJECTIVES

The following objectives were pursued for the achievement of the aim of demarcation of
the boundary of the land of this practical work:

Reconnaissance: - It involves planning and visiting the site in so as to have a general view
of the project site.

Traversing: - This is a sequence of connected straight lines whose directions and distances
have been precisely measured.

Perimeter Leveling: - This is the process of determining difference in height between points
on the earth’s surface.

Detailing: - This is an act of fixing details such as buildings, roads, electric poles etc.

Spot heighting: - This is used to give heights, values of different points within the project
site.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PRACTICAL

The project covered delineation of boundaries, perimeter traverse, perimeter leveling,


detailing, spot heighting, computations and plan production as well as report writing.

1.4 STUDY AREA: new Bus Park, gidan kwano campus. Federal university of technology,
minna. Niger state.

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1.5 PERSONNEL

The following student who were members of Group (10) participated in this project work.

NAMES MATRIC NUMBER


1. WELL YAKUBU 2014/1/50558VL
2. EMEJE JOY 2014/1/50557VL
3. JULIUS JAMES 2014/1/50556VL
4. NJOKU DANIEL ONYX 2015/2/57558VL
5. BABLOLA JOSEPH AYODEJI 2014/1/50559VL
6. SANI IBRAHIM AHMAD 2014/1/50509VL

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CHAPTER TWO
2.0 METHODOLOGY

Methodology is a guideline system for solving problem, with specific components such as
tasks, methods, techniques and tools.

2.1 RECONNAISSANCE

Reconnaissance is a pre-requisite of any survey project to be carried out. It is the study of


the subject matter as regard to a particular survey of an area of land. During reconnaissance, the
purpose, specification and required accuracy of the survey will be closely examined as these will
effects the choice of instruments and method of survey to be employed. The reconnaissance carried
out comprises of office planning and field planning.

2.1.1 OFFICE RECONNAISSANCE

This involves the planning carried out before visiting the project site. It involves acquiring
various information related to area of interest ,i.e the longitude and latitude of the place, the type
of instrument required to yield the expected accuracy, the acquisition of coordinate of available
control for orientation, consultation of previous executed project which covers the area of interest,
specification given and The purpose of the survey. This serves as the basis for our planning.

Table 2.1: Co-ordinates of control pillars available for the project sourced from SIWES.

STATIONS NORTHINGS (m) EASTINGS (m) HEIGHT


GPS 10 1055018.7497 220211.8090 232.237
GPS 09 1055127.0843 220423.7878 232.521
GPS 01 1055093.62 220563.65 234.138

2.1.2 FIELD RECONNAISSANCE

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This involved a visit to the project site and to locate the controls to be used. The members
of the group (6) took a walk to the site to take a visible picture of the project site and the location
of the exact route along which the work is to be done. Necessary equipment’s like cutlass and tape
were used in selecting the stations and lines were cut thoroughly to permit intervisibility. Pegs
were finally used to mark the actual traverse points. And Recce diagram fig 3.1 was produced.

2.1.3 SELECTION OF STATIONS

The boundaries as shown in the recce diagram were laid down by marking points on the
ground (station).

The factors considered in selecting these stations include:

i. Intervisibility between two points.


ii. Firmness of the ground at the selected point.
iii. Working convenience over the station.
iv. Points were passerby cannot disturb.

2.1.4 MONUMENTATION
Monumentation could be described as the art of defining any selected points on
the perimeter of the ground at each station point the iron rod was driven into the ground
at each station point with a length of 16cm, leaving 2cm on the surface of the ground.

2cm

Earth’s Surface

16cm

2.2.1 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS USED


i. One (1) Theodolite and its tripod ET – 05 (South T68543)

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ii. One (1) Level instrument and its tripod
iii. One (1) Leveling staff
iv. Two (2) Ranging pole
v. One (1) Plumb bobs and string
vi. One (1) Cutlass
vii. One (1) Field book
viii. One (1) Linear tape (50m)

2.2.2 TEST OF INSTRUMENTS


Having collected the instruments to be used from the department, the following tests were
carried out on theodolite and level instrument so as ascertain the stability of the instrument.

2.2.3 THEODOLITE TEST


This test was carried out after collection of the instrument in order to test for plate bubble
stability, horizontal and vertical collimation error. The theodolite was set on a point while all
necessary temporary adjustments were made (i.e. centering leveling and focusing). The
instrument was rotated clock-wisely through 360° several times. Then it was noticed that the
instrument was still leveled, which means that the plate bubble of the instrument was in good
condition. Thereafter, target set at another point was bisected on both faces and the horizontal
and vertical readings were observed, booked and computed.

The result of collimation test on the theodolite


STN SIGHT FACE H.C.R V.C.R DIFF. SUM OF
READING READING H.C.R V.C.R
A B L 19° 07’ 06’’ 88° 25’ 54’’
B R 199° 07’ 18’’ 271°34’ 18’’ 180° 00’ 12’’ 360° 00’ 12’’

i. Horizontal collimation error = 180 00 00 – 180 00 12


= 00 00’ 12’’ / 2

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= 00 00’ 06’’
ii. Vertical collimation error = 360 00’ 00’’ – 360 00’ 12’’
= 00 00’ 12’’ / 2
= 00 00’ 06’’
From the result obtained for both horizontal and vertical circle readings, it indicated
that the instrument was free of any collimation error.

2.2.4 LEVEL INSTRUMENT TEST

The test known as two peg test was carried out to check the horizontal collimation of the
level instrument. The following were procedure involved. Two staves were held vertically at both
ends of 30m distances measured on the ground and the level instrument was set up at two different
points from the staves. Then, observations were made to the staves at both instrument set up. The
data obtained from the two observations were deduced and the result obtained was subtracted from
each other in order to know the discrepancy.

2.3 DATA ACQUISITION


2.3.1 CONTROL CHECKS
The control check was carried out in order to ascertain if the control pillars were
still in their proper position. The theodolite was set on control GPS 09 and targets were set on GPS
10 and GPS 01 respectively. Then all temporary adjustment was performed on the instrument.
Thereafter, back sight and fore sight were made to control pillars GPS 10 and GPS 01 respectively.
Horizontal and vertical readings on both faces, left and right were observed and recorded into the
field book together with the measured distance from GPS 09 to GPS 01.

The data obtained was computed to get included angle, which was compared with the computed
angle obtained from back computation of the control values. The result is shown below.

Table 2.2: The readings and result obtained from control check observation

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STN SIGHT FACE H.C.R REDUCED MEAN
ANGLE ANGLE
GPS 10 L1 16° 08’ 40’’
GPS 09 GPS 01 L2 236° 40’ 12’’ 220° 31’ 32’’
GPS 01 R2 56° 40’ 12’’ 220° 31’ 32’’
GPS 10 R1 196° 08’39’’ 220° 31’ 32.5’’
Check Angle = 220° 31’ 32.5’’

Table 2.3: Back computation from coordinates of the controls used

From Stn Bearing Distance ∆N ∆E Northing(m) Easting(m) From

Stn

1055018.749 220211.809 GPS 10

GPS10 62° 55’ 47.69’’ 238.057 108.335 211.978 1055127.084 220423.787 GPS 09

GPS 09 103° 27’ 21.1’ 143.809 -33.464 139.862 1055093.620 220563.650 GPS 01
2.3.2 FIELD OPERATION
These include the set of operations performed on the field in order to obtain the necessary data
required for the production of Topographical map of the project site. Listed below were the
operations involved.

2.3.3 THEODOLITE TRAVERSING

This entails determining the bearing and distance of series of connected traverse lines from
known coordinated points to another known coordinated points so as to obtain the coordinates of
the newly established stations. The theodolite instrument was used to obtain the angular and
distance measurements respectively. This was carried out by running the traverse from control to
the boundary stations and closing back on the same control. This involves the measurement of
distance and angles. Angular observations were taken between the instrument stations and our
boundary peg, i.e the instrument was set on GPS 01, back sight GPS 09 and fore sight to Peg 1.
The angular measurement was observed and recorded at both face left and face right after then the

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instrument was moved to the next station i.e Peg (1), back sight to GPS 01 and fore sight to Peg 2
both face left and face right observation were taken and recorded. This procedure was made at
every station and closing back to GPS 09.

2.3.4 ANGULAR OBSERVATION

Angular observations are based on two types namely; the horizontal and the vertical
angular observations. In the telescope, the vertical and horizontal graduation circle had been
graduated from 000 00’ 00” to 3600 00’ 000, whereby angular observations were taken on both
faces (left and right), and the angles were simply deduced and checked. To deduce the angles,
observed horizontal circle reading to the first station ‘A’ was subtracted from the observed
readings from the second station ‘B’; that is: LB-LA or RB-RA (where L and R indicated as
horizontal graduation circle readings on face left and face right respectively). Finally, the deduced
angles were meant to give the final angles measured. As for vertical angle determinations, these
were necessary to correct the measured linear distances for slope error. The observations and
readings were taken at the same time as the horizontal angular observations were done. They were
also deduced as explained below.

L2-900 or 900-L2 and 2700-R2 or R2-2700 (where L and R indicate angle on face left and
face right respectively).

2.3.5 LINEAR MEASUREMENT

As for this measurement, it could be carried out by various methods depending on the
accuracy expected and purpose of the job. These methods are:

(i) Tachometric method

(ii) Direct linear measurement method (taping on ground or by catenary)

(iii) Use of Electronic Distance Measurement method.

But as for this project, Electronic Distance Measurement (Leica TC 600 total
station) was used to measure distances.

All measurements were recorded directly into the field book in ink so as to avoid
any gross error in booking.

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2.3.6 LEVELLING

Level is the process by which variation in height between points on the surface of the earth
is determined.

Control pillar GPS 01 was chosen as the datum for the leveling exercise. The operation
started by taking back sight to GPS 09 whose height was known and fore sight to the first change
point. Whenever the instrument was shifted, back sight was taken to the last change point by
turning the staff before fore sight would be taken to the next point. This exercise continues until it
was closed back on control pillar GPS 01. All readings were recorded directly into the field book
at the end the height of every station was determined which was later used for tacheometry in
determining the spot height of the carved out area.

2.3.7 TACHEOMETRY

Tacheometry is a branch of surveying in which difference height and distance between


ground points are determined optically. It operates on the geometry of an isosceles triangle. It can
also be defined as the swift optical distance measurement process where theodolite and graduated
staff were used for obtaining distance, height and fixing of detail

U
Theodolite M
L Leveling staff

Earth’s surface

Where U = upper
M = middle
L = lower

2.3.8 SPOT HEIGHTING


The theodolite was used in conjunction with the leveling staff to execute this task

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i. The theodolite was set up on point A with a known coordinate (x, y, z), all the
necessary temporary adjustment was made. The height of the instrument was
measured using steel tape (50m) and recorded.

ii. The telescope was directed to the target and bisected on point B for orientation.

iii. The telescope was turned clockwise to the leveling staff which have been placed at
the various points on the terrain.

iv. The upper, middle, and lower cross hair readings as well as horizontal vertical circle
reading were taken and booked accordingly and perfectly.

2.3.9 DETAILING

This stage involved fixing of the natural and artificial features that exist on ground into
record. Examples of such features include existing buildings, trees, well etc. The detailing
operation was executed by means of tacheometry method of observation. The instrument was set
up on a nearby station along the boundary lines. The staff was set to bisect the staff at the edge of
details, then the horizontal and vertical readings were taken as well as upper, middle, and lower
cross hair reading at the edge of each detail were also taken and recorded.

Reference station Instrument station

B3
B2

B1
Where B1 = First point of building
B2 = Second point of building
B3 = Third point of building

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 DATA PROCESSING

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This is the process of preparing data acquired from the field by the way of reduction and
adjustment, which yields the final numerical value of the boundary point, direction, height, and
spot height.

The result obtained are useful for the preparation of maps, plans (Topographical plan) by
means of plotting. The processing of field data was done under the following

1. Angle deduction
2. Traverse computation
3. Area computation
4. Leveling computation
5. Tacheometry computation
6. Data presentation
3.1 FIELD BOOK REDUCTION
Every field book was reduced to generate the final data set to be used in the final
computations.

3.1.1 TRAVERSE FIELD BOOK REDUCTION


Deducted from the face left reading to the reading of the fore station to obtain the
angle between the lines on face right. The mean of those angles will be the angle at that
station for the horizontal circle reading while for the vertical circle reading, the sum of the
two reading on face left and face right will give reduced vertical circle reading at that
station. But if it is more than 360º you subtract it.

3.1.2 HORIZONTAL ANGLE REDUCTION


The first angular value was done by subtracting the first face left from the second face left
reading likewise for the face right. The result were mean in order to derive the horizontal angle at
each station

L2 – L1 = L
R2 – R1 = R
L+R
2
= H.C.R

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3.1.3 VERTICAL ANGLE REDUCTION
The vertical angle of face left observation was subtracted from 90º and that of the face right
observation was subtracted from 270º. The result were mean in order to derive vertical angle.

90º – L = L
270º – R = R
L + R = V.C.R
2
The vertical angle is the slope angle and is applied to slope distance to obtain true horizontal
distance.

3.1.4 LINEAR MEASUREMENT REDUCTION


The measured distances were slope distances, which required to be corrected. The
slope correction was applied to each of the measurement to obtain corrected measurements.
The formula used for slope correction was:

S= -L (1-cos)
Where S= slope correction
L= measured distance
= mean slope angle

3.2 TRAVERSE COMPUTATION


The computation involved is in two aspects, namely the Forward computation and
the backward computation. The adjusted bearing and horizontal distance were used to
compute the horizontal position of points. Final computed co-ordinates of back
computation were used to compute the final bearing and distance of traverse lines. As
Shown in appendix

3.2.1 REDUCTION OF BEARING


Back computation was carried out to obtain the initial bearing of the controls (GPS 10,
GPS09, and GPS 01). The back bearing of GPS 09 to GPS 01 was added to observe external angle
of the first station the forward bearing. The bearing of the next line was obtained by subtracting /
adding 180 from forward bearing obtained above in order to derive the back bearing of the line.

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The result was added to observed angle of the next line to obtain the forward bearing of that line.
The formulae for bearing reduction are:

Back Bearing + Observed Angle = Forward Bearing


Forward Bearing + 180 = Back Bearing
As shown in appendix

3.2.2 ANGULAR MISCLOSURE


Since the angular measurement commenced from a known set of controls, the initial
bearing of the line and these two bearing must be the same but a minimal discrepancy is allowed
and the mis-closure was distributed cumulatively to the other observed bearing to obtain the final
corrected bearing.

Formula = Misclosure x individual number of station

Total number of station

Misclosure = 0° 0’ 17.6’’

Total number of station = 7

= 0° 0’ 17.6’’

= 0° 0’ 2.51’’

3.2.3 FORWARD BEARING


The initial bearing (I.B) used for the reduction of the bearing was solved for from the
coordinates of the controls while the uncorrected forward bearing for each line was obtained from
the addition of observed angle and back bearing of closing controls gotten from their coordinates.
An angular misclosure was obtained and distributed cumulatively to the uncorrected forward
bearings to get the final corrected forward bearing. As shown in appendix.

3.2.4 COMPUTATION OF CO-ORDINATES OF TRAVERSE POINTS


To obtain the corrected co-ordinates of the traverse point, the partial northings, (N) and
partial Eastings (E) were computed first using the corrected horizontal distance and the corrected
forward bearing thus:
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N = L cos 
E = L cos 
Where L = corrected horizontally distance
 = corrected bearing
E = Eastings
N = Northings
 = Difference in N1 and N2 or E1 and E2
The latitude and departure were applied to the co-ordinates of the initial control in
order to derive the provisional co-ordinates of the northing and easting.

The computed co-ordinates of the closing control was then compared with the
compared with the known co-ordinates of the control to obtain the linear misclosure.

This misclosure was distributed to all the provisional co-ordinates using the
formular below.

CORRECTION TO NORHINGS CO-ORDINATES


Total Northings misclosure x arithmetic sum of latitude of line
Total Arithmetic sum of latitude
CORRECTION TO EASTINGS CO-ORDINATES
Total Eastings misclosure x arithmetic sum of departure of line
Total Arithmetic sum of departure
Final co-ordinate = provisional co-ordinate + correction
3.2.5 BACK COMPUTATION
The corrected co-ordinates were used to generate data covering final latitude, departure,
distances and bearings. Latitude and departure = next co-ordinate preceding co-ordinate.

The sign (+,-) was taken note of

Bearing = tan-1 E

N

The sign of the latitude and departure of each line determine the quadrant and the
actual bearing of the line i.e

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If N is + and E is +, then bearing is 
If  N is – and E is +, then bearing is 180 – 
If N is – and E is -, then bearing is  + 180
If N is + and E is - , then bearing is 360 – 

Distance = (N)2 + (E)2

Table 3.2: Back computation

FROM BEARING DIST ∆N ∆E NORTHINGS EASTINGS TO


STN (m) (m) (m) STN
1055081.426 220586.707 PEG 1
PEG 1 64° 35’ 33.84’’ 200.391 85.978 181.01 1055167.404 220767.717 PEG 2
PEG 2 140° 05’ 12’’ 149.611 -144.754 95.994 1055052.650 220863.711 PEG 3
PEG 3 245° 41’ 9.55’’ 208.954 -86.034 -190.470 1054960.617 220673.291 PEG 4
PEG 4 255° 24’ 19.5’’ 135.600 -34.168 -131.224 1054932.449 220542.067 PEG 5
PEG 5 16° 40’ 49.2 155.521 48.979 44.640 1055081.426 220586.707 PEG 1

3.2.6 LINEAR ACCURACY


Accuracy = 1

N2 + E2

D
Where N = Total co-ordinate misclosure in Northing
E = Total co-ordinate misclosure in Easting
L = Total distance covered on the traverse
N = 0.124
E = -0.041
Total distance = 850.077

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1

(0.124)2 + (-0.041)2

850.077

0.015376 + (-0.001681)

850.077

0.017057

850.077

= 6508.890137
≈ 6000
= 1:6000

3.2.7 AREA COMPUTATION


The area computation was done using cross – coordinate method.

Table 3.3: Area computation

NORTHINGS (m) EASTINGS (m) PRODUCT L.H.S PRODUCT R.H.S


1055081.426 220586.707 3031752.099
1055167.404 220767.717 3901097.124 3879005.300
1055052.650 220863.711 4463143.676 4289720.872

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1054966.617 220673.291 3401903.771 3320973.520
1054932.449 220542.067 2692239.117 2754473.348
1055081.426 220586.707 2893902.355
Summation = 17352286.100 17275925.140

2A = 17352286.100 – 17275925.140
2A= 17360.96146
A = 17360.96146
2
A = 38180.48073 » 38180.48073 / 10,000
A = 3.818 hectares.

3.3 LEVEL COMPUTATION


This was done so as to provide the height of all the boundary station, in this project
height of instrument was used

The formula used are as shown below


H.I = R/L + B/S
R.L = H.I – F/S
R/L = H.I ̶ I/S
Where
R/L = Reduced
H.I =Height of instrument
F/S = Fore sight
I/S = Intermediate sight
B/S = Back sight
The misclosure was checked using the formula I.R.L ̶ F.R.L
Where
I.R.L = Initial reduced level
F.R.L = Final reduced level

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The difference in misclosure was distributed to all the stations

3.3.1 ACCURACY OF LEVELING


The formula, 24mm √ K is adopted to check the accuracy of all leveling operations where k is
the total distance in kilometer. This is the allowable misclosure for third order tilting leveling. A
quick check is usually done on the field by summing all the back sights and all the fore sight; the
sums must be the same or have a difference, which must be in decimals.

24mm √ K

Where K = Total distance in kilometer (km)

K = 850.077m = 0.850km

0.024 0.850

= 0.022m

3.4 TACHEOMETRIC COMPUTATIONS


The formulae below were used to compute for spot heights and their relative distance from
the occupied station.

S=U–L
Do = KScos^2
V = ½ KS sin 2
(Where K is constant = 100)
HN = Hp + H.I  V-M

Where,
Do= slope of distance measured
U = Upper stadia reading
M = middle stadia reading
L = Lower stadia intercept
S = staff intercept
H = Horizontal distance

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 = slope angle/vertical angle
V = Vertical compound
Hp = Reduced level of instrument station
H.I = Height of instrument
Hn = Height of new point

3.5 PLAN PRODUCTION

3.5.1 DIGITAL PLAN PRODUCTION


The final coordinates of the boundary pegs were used to plot the perimeter
graphically. The details and spot heights were also plotted using auto AutoCAD and the
contours were plotted with surfer. The plan showing the contour, details and also showing
the spot heights was produced.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 SUMMARY, PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED, AND CONCLUSION

4.1 SUMMARY
This practical report contains the procedure by which the topographical survey of
part of NEW BUS PARK, GIDAN KWANO CAMPUS. FUTMINNA was carried out with
an area 3.818 Hectares of land was executed. Firstly, the reconnaissance was done i.e both

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office and field reconnaissance which provide necessary basis for the executions of the
project. Traversing operation was carried out in order to determine the direction of the line
and distance was measured with the aid of Theodolite (ET - 05) instrument. The dumpy
leveling method was used for the perimeter level to determine the height of boundary
points. While the tacheometry observation was made in order to provide spot height for
contour generation and detailing. Finally, the plotting of the plan was done on a suitable
scale.

4.2 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED


During the execution of the practical the problem encountered was Unfavorable weather
condition for tacheometric observation contributed to the delay in the completion of the fieldwork.

4.3 CONCLUSION
The result obtained, had obviously shown that the purpose and significance had been
achieved subjected to human and instrumental limitations. The result obtained from the
computation and analysis of data when compared with expectable accuracies, had also shown that
the practical was successfully executive according to the laid down rules and regulations.

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