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Unit 8: Structured Qn 1

TYS Unit 8 (Science Biology)
September Holiday Homework

a) Lactic acid; b) Glucose  Lactic acid + Small amount of Energy;

Unit 8: Structured Qn 2
a) Aerobic respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen with the release of a large amount of energy whereas Anaerobic respiration releases a small amount of energy in the absence of oxygen;

Unit 8: Structured Qn 2
b) Anaerobic respiration results in the incomplete/partial breakdown of glucose due to the absence of oxygen.

Unit 8: Structured Qn 3
a) i) x axis: time/hours y axis: temperature / 0C ii) Best fit line should be a curve

Unit 8: Structured Qn 3
•  3bi) As time passes, the rate of reaction increases, producing more heat. Heat was given out during respiration/germination. The vacuum flask can retain this heat. •  3bii) Respiration or germination •  3biii) Glucose + Oxygen => Carbon dioxide + water + large amount of energy

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Unit 8: Structured Qn 3
3ci) The experiment can be repeated with boiled peas. •  (Dry peas is not a control. Still alive. Will germinate and respire if water gets in) •  3cii) The temperature would not rise in the control experiment. Boiling denatures the enzymes in the peas, preventing respiration/germination from taking place. *Note that germination is not in the syllabus any longer, hence reference to respiration will do.

Unit 8: Structured 4
i)  Mitochondria; ii)  Glucose + Oxygen  Carbon dioxide +Water + Large amount of Energy;

Unit 8 Essay Qn 1
The alveoli are adapted for gaseous exchange in the following ways: •  Alveoli walls are 1 cell thick  decrease diffusion distance increase diffusion rate •  Alveoli walls are moistoxygen can easily dissolve in the layer and diffuse across walls faster.

Unit 8 Essay Qn 1
•  Alveoli are well supplied with large number of blood capillaries speed up the rate of exchange of gases by maintaining concentration/diffusion gradient. •  Thousands of alveoli (highly branched) are found in the lungs large surface area for gaseous exchange.

Unit 8 Essay Qn
Aerobic respiration in humans: Glucose + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide +Water + Large amount of Energy; Anaerobic respiration in humans: Glucose  Lactic Acid + small amount of Energy;

Unit 8 Essay Qn
•  Both anaerobic and aerobic respiration involve:
• Breakdown of food • Release of energy • Loss of some energy as heat • Production of ATP;;

NOTE: When not specified, assume anaerobic respiration occurring in humans (Respiration in yeast only covered for experiments)

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Unit 8 Essay Qn
   

Unit 8 Essay Qn
•  Aerobic respiration occurs in living cells in general where oxygen is available; •  Anaerobic respiration occurs in human skeletal muscle during vigorous exercise where oxygen supply does not meet the demand by the muscles;

Aerobic Respiration; Uses oxygen   No lactic acid   produced CO2 & water   produced Large amount of   energy released

Anaerobic Respiration; Does not use oxygen Lactic acid produced CO2 & water not produced Small amount of energy released

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