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CONCEPT OF ACIDS & BASES

Solution to Subjective Problems


LEVEL – I

1. To form a conjugate base means removal of a proton


So answer is
(i) NH2– (ii) CH3COO–
(iii) H2O (iv) H2NCONH2

2. Assume that each has lost a proton. So we get,


-
Ol, -OlO, - OlO2, -OlO3

The species which have more is than one oxygen atoms show resonance.
That is:
O

O I O I O O I O O I O

O O

It can be clearly seen that more the no. of oxygen atoms, more the resonance and
more is the volume available for the negative charge.

Therefore -OI, -OIO, - OIO2, -OIO3


1. Volume available for the negative charge is increasing from left to right
2. Charge density is decreasing from left to right.
3. Basicity of the anion is decreasing from left to right.
4. Acidity of the conjugate acid is increasing from left to right.
Therefore, the order of acidic strength is :
HOI < HOIO < HOIO2 < HOIO3

3. The order in this case is the reverse of that for BX3. -conjugation from the halogen p-
orbital to the Si-d orbital is not as intense as in the case of BX3 and the order of acidity
follows the increase in electron withdrawing power of the halogen from I to F. Hence the
order is
SiI4 < SiBr4 < SiCl4 < SiF4

4. NH4+ is slightly stronger acid (Ka for NH4+ = 5.6  10-10).


[Larger the value of ionization constant, stronger the acid will be.]

5. Ag+ is stronger Lewis acid due to pseudo inert gas configuration.

6. HF  H2O  NH3  CH4  BeH2  LiH

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7. It can be seen that hydrogens in these molecules are not all bonded to oxygens. It is
clear from their structures,
O O O
|| || ||
H  O  P  O H H  O  P  O H H  P  O H
| | |
O H H
|
H
that the number of terminal oxygen atoms is 1 in all three acids. The electronegativities
of P and H are almost the same. Thus no much difference in acidity is expected.

8. The pH will shift down below 7. It is clear from the following equation.
CuSO4 + H2O Cu(OH)2 + SO42– + 2H+

9. IO4- is more stable than I- and I+ is unstable. Hence HIO4 will be strongest acid.
HIO4  HI> ICI

10. The highly branched tertiary butyl group involve appreciable back – strain (B-strain)
when the boron atom changes to pyramidal environment on adduct formation. This
destabilizes the adduct. Hence the order is
B(t–Bu)3 < B(n–Bu)3

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LEVEL - II

1. I  II  IV  III

2. CH3 – CH2 – CHBr –COOH  CH3 – CHBr – CH2 – COOH  CH2Br – CH2 – CH2 –
COOH  CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – COOH

3. Pyrole uses lone pair of electron on nitrogen atom in delocalisation hence less
electron are available for protonation, hence less basic than pyridine.

4. CH3CONH2  (iso-C3H7)3N, C2H5NH2, CH3ONH–Na+

5. Reaction SOCl2 + Na2SO3  2NaCl + 2SO2


Cation SO++
Anion SO32–

6. NH3  NH2 NH2  NH2OH

7. IV  III  I  II

8. Diphenyl amine is less basic than aniline because lone pair of electron on N-atom is
used by two benzene rings in case of diphenyl amine.

9 o-nitrophenol  phenol  cresol

10. Conjugate base of phenol in resonance stabilized while that of alcohol is not.

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