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oblique shock

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Gas

Dynamics

1

Oblique shock and expansion waves

• Mach waves can be either compression waves (p2 > p1) or expansion

waves (p2 < p1), but in either case their strength is by definition very

small (|p2 − p1| ≪ p1).

• A body of finite thickness, however, will generate oblique waves of

finite strength, and now we must distinguish between compression and

expansion types.

• The simplest body shape for generating such waves is

– a concave corner, which generates an oblique shock (compression), or

– a convex corner, which generates an expansion fan.

Gas

Dynamics

2

Oblique shock and expansion waves

the same direction as across a normal shock, and across an

expansion fan they are in the opposite direction.

• One important difference is that po decreases across the

shock, while the fan is isentropic, so that it has no loss of

total pressure, and hence po2 = po1 .

Gas

Dynamics

3

Oblique Shock Waves

• The figure shows an oblique shock wave produced when a supersonic flow is

deflected by an angle. We can think of the deflection as caused by a planar

ramp at this angle although it could be generated by the blockage produced by

a solid body placed some distance away in the flow.

normal shock relations can be

converted to oblique shock

relations with the substitution

Gas

Dynamics

4

Governing Equations

Gas

Dynamics

5

FLOW DEFLECTION VERSUS SHOCK ANGLE

Gas

Dynamics

6

Flow deflection versus shock angle for

oblique shocks

shock wave and the properties of the flow are

governed by the normal shock relations. In

moving from point (a) to (b) the shock

weakens and the deflection of the flow

behind the shock increases until a point of

maximum flow deflection is reached at (b).

The Mach number behind the shock is

subsonic up to point (c) where the Mach

number just downstream of the shock is one.

Mach angle

Gas

Dynamics

7

An Example

to compute the conditions following the shock.

Gas

Dynamics

8

Solution

Gas

Dynamics

9

Solution (cont.)

this Example, compute

the stagnation pressures

and temperatures.

Gas

Dynamics

10

Solution (cont.)

Gas

Dynamics

11

Oblique Shock Chart

Gas

Dynamics

12

Reflection of Oblique Shock

a body that turns the flow through an angle δ

as shown in the figure.

• The entire flow on passing through this wave is

then turned “downwards” through an angle δ .

• However, the flow adjacent to the lower flat

wall must be parallel to the wall. This is only

possible if a “reflected” wave is generated, as

shown in the following figure, that turns the

flow back “up” through δ .

Gas

Dynamics

13

Gas

Dynamics

14

• Since the flow downstream of the “reflected” wave must again be

parallel to the wall, both waves must produce the same change in

flow direction. Thus, in order to determine the

• properties of this reflected wave, the following procedure is used:

1. For the given M1 and δ determine M2 and p2 / p1.

2. For this value of M2 and since the turning angle of the second wave is also δ

determine M and p3 / p2.

3. The overall pressure ratio is then found from:

• 4. The angle that the reflected wave makes with the wall is β2 + δ and since β2 was

found in step 2, this angle can be determined.

Gas

Dynamics

15

An Example

Solution

Gas

Dynamics

16

Solution (Cont.)

Gas

Dynamics

17

Solution (Cont.)

Gas

Dynamics

18

INTERACTION OF OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES

• It will be noted from the results and discussion given about the

properties of oblique shock waves that:

1. An oblique shock wave always decreases the Mach number,

2. The shock angle, β , (considering only the non-strong shock solution) for a

given turning angle, δ, increases with decreasing Mach number.

Gas

Dynamics

19

• The flows in regions 4 and 5 shown in the figure must, of course, be parallel to each

other. Therefore, conservation of momentum applied in a direction normal to the

flows in these two regions indicates that the pressures in regions 4 and 5 must be the

same.

• The initial waves separating regions 1 and 2 and regions 1 and 3 are, of course,

determined by the Mach number in region 1 and the turning angles, θ and ϕ.

• The properties of the "transmitted" waves are then determined from the condition

that the pressures and flow directions in regions 4 and 5 must be the same.

• The density, velocity and entropy will then be different in these two regions and the

slipstream shown must, therefore, exist.

• Of course, when θ = ϕ the initial waves are both of the same strength as are the

transmitted waves. No slipstream then exists.

Gas

Dynamics

20

An Example

Gas

Dynamics

21

Gas

Dynamics

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Gas

Dynamics

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Gas

Dynamics

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Gas

Dynamics

25

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