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Oblique Shocks

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Dynamics

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Oblique shock and expansion waves

•  Mach waves can be either compression waves (p2 > p1) or expansion
waves (p2 < p1), but in either case their strength is by definition very
small (|p2 − p1| ≪ p1).

•  A body of finite thickness, however, will generate oblique waves of
finite strength, and now we must distinguish between compression and
expansion types.

•  The simplest body shape for generating such waves is

–  a concave corner, which generates an oblique shock (compression), or

–  a convex corner, which generates an expansion fan.

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Oblique shock and expansion waves

•  The flow quantity changes across an oblique shock are in


the same direction as across a normal shock, and across an
expansion fan they are in the opposite direction.

•  One important difference is that po decreases across the
shock, while the fan is isentropic, so that it has no loss of
total pressure, and hence po2 = po1 .

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Dynamics

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Oblique Shock Waves

•  The figure shows an oblique shock wave produced when a supersonic flow is
deflected by an angle. We can think of the deflection as caused by a planar
ramp at this angle although it could be generated by the blockage produced by
a solid body placed some distance away in the flow.

Therefore almost all of the


normal shock relations can be
converted to oblique shock
relations with the substitution

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Governing Equations

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FLOW DEFLECTION VERSUS SHOCK ANGLE

From the velocity triangles :


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Dynamics

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Flow deflection versus shock angle for
oblique shocks

At point (a) the flow is perpendicular to the


shock wave and the properties of the flow are
governed by the normal shock relations. In
moving from point (a) to (b) the shock
weakens and the deflection of the flow
behind the shock increases until a point of
maximum flow deflection is reached at (b).
The Mach number behind the shock is
subsonic up to point (c) where the Mach
number just downstream of the shock is one.
Mach angle


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Dynamics

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An Example

•  With the information shown in Figure, we proceed


to compute the conditions following the shock.

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Solution

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Solution (cont.)

For the conditions in


this Example, compute
the stagnation pressures
and temperatures.


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Dynamics

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Solution (cont.)

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Dynamics

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Oblique Shock Chart

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Dynamics

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Reflection of Oblique Shock

•  An oblique shock is assumed to generated from


a body that turns the flow through an angle δ
as shown in the figure.

•  The entire flow on passing through this wave is
then turned “downwards” through an angle δ .

•  However, the flow adjacent to the lower flat
wall must be parallel to the wall. This is only
possible if a “reflected” wave is generated, as
shown in the following figure, that turns the

flow back “up” through δ .

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Dynamics

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•  Since the flow downstream of the “reflected” wave must again be
parallel to the wall, both waves must produce the same change in
flow direction. Thus, in order to determine the

•  properties of this reflected wave, the following procedure is used:

1. For the given M1 and δ determine M2 and p2 / p1.

2. For this value of M2 and since the turning angle of the second wave is also δ
determine M and p3 / p2.

3. The overall pressure ratio is then found from:




•  4. The angle that the reflected wave makes with the wall is β2 + δ and since β2 was
found in step 2, this angle can be determined.


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Dynamics

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An Example

Solution

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Solution (Cont.)

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Solution (Cont.)

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INTERACTION OF OBLIQUE SHOCK WAVES

•  It will be noted from the results and discussion given about the
properties of oblique shock waves that:

1. An oblique shock wave always decreases the Mach number,

2. The shock angle, β , (considering only the non-strong shock solution) for a
given turning angle, δ, increases with decreasing Mach number.

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Dynamics

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•  The flows in regions 4 and 5 shown in the figure must, of course, be parallel to each
other. Therefore, conservation of momentum applied in a direction normal to the
flows in these two regions indicates that the pressures in regions 4 and 5 must be the
same.

•  The initial waves separating regions 1 and 2 and regions 1 and 3 are, of course,
determined by the Mach number in region 1 and the turning angles, θ and ϕ.

•  The properties of the "transmitted" waves are then determined from the condition
that the pressures and flow directions in regions 4 and 5 must be the same.

•  The density, velocity and entropy will then be different in these two regions and the
slipstream shown must, therefore, exist.

•  Of course, when θ = ϕ the initial waves are both of the same strength as are the
transmitted waves. No slipstream then exists.


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An Example

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