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Question Bank

Course & Branch :B.E., Aerospace Engineering Semester:VI

Subject :Space Engineering Subject Code: AST-354

No. of Students: 95 Regular/ Reappear: Regular

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Short Answer Type Questions

Question
Sr. No Question
Type

1 Unit -1 State Kepler’s law of Planetary motion

2 Unit -1 State Newton’s law of gravity

3 Unit -1 Prove Kepler’s 2ndlaw of planetary motion


For a satellite having (µ= 4×1014 m3 /s2), perigee is at 6575km and apogee is
4 Unit -1
14256km, find the perigee and apogee velocity

5 Unit -1 What is time of flight?

6 Unit -1 What is mean anomaly?

7 Unit -1
What is true anomaly?
A satellite is revolving around an ellipse with apogee at 14256km and perigee at
8 Unit -1 8000km to a planet at a focal point. The maximum velocity seems to 8km/s. Then
what is the mass of the planet?

9 Unit -1
Define General Newton’s law of gravitation.
10 Unit -1 A planet revolves around the sun with eccentricity of 0.02. What will be error in
estimating maximum speed of the planet, if it assumed as circular orbit?
11 Unit -2
What are the types of trajectories for satellite launch vehicles?
12 Unit -2 What is a transfer trajectory? Hence define Hohmann transfer trajectory?

13 Unit -2 What are the two injection parameters to launch satellite?

14 Unit -2
Define a parking orbit?
15 Unit -2
Give the formula for Combined Hohmann and Plane Inclination Change?
16 Unit -2
Satellite injection at nominal perigee position of the orbit have less errors, justify!
17 Unit -2
What is perturbed Keplerian orbits?
18 Unit -2
What are the two methods for analyzing the perturbed Keplerian orbit?
19 Unit -2
Define the terms i) Flyby mission ii) Orbiter mission iii) Lander mission
20 Unit -2
Define mission characteristic velocity.
21 Unit-3 Define Lambert’s theorem

22 Unit-3
Explain the concept of sphere of influence.
23 Unit-3 What are various types of deep Space of missions?

24 Unit-3
What do you mean by the slingshot maneuvers?
25 Unit-3 Define sphere of influence.

26 Unit-3 What are the parameter influencing the launch date of a mission?
27 Unit-3
Define Synodic period.
28 Unit-3 What four types of interplanetary trajectories?

29 Unit-3 What is meant by Launch window?

30 Unit-3 What is meant by capture radius?

Long Answer Type Questions

Sr. Question
Question
No Type

Unit -1
1 Derive an equation for mean and true anomaly for an elliptical orbit.
Average

Unit -1
2 4𝜋2 3
Average Prove that 𝑇 2 = 𝜇
𝑎 where µ=G(M+m) and a-major axis

Unit -1
3
Average Prove Kepler’s 3rd law of planetary motion

Unit -1
4 Prove that the equation of two body motion is same as the equation of equivalent
Average single body motion about a central gravitation field
Unit -1
5
Average Derive the equation for the Kepler planetary motion.

Unit -1
6
Average Explain the planetary motions with reference frames and coordinate systems.

Unit -1
7
Average Derive the equation for two body problem of gravitational field

Unit -1
8
Average Derive the general equation for gravitational field for multi-body problem.

Unit -1
9
Average Establish the relationship between the time and position of the satellite in an orbit.

Unit -1 Equation for total torque around a given orbit can be used for estimating the time
10
Average taken around the orbit. – Prove.
Unit -1 Given perigee at 600km, e = 0.9, µE= 4×1014 m3 /s2; RE = 6400 km, calculate the time
11
Difficult of flight to a point A on the trajectory which is at θ = 135 o; also find time of flight
from point ‘A’ to ‘B’ which is at θ = 225o.
Unit -1
12 A Satellite injected at 9 km/s at 5ο to horizontal, at height of 500 km. Find equation
Difficult of satellite orbit.

Unit -1 A satellite is tracked from ground station on Earth and observed to have following
13 inertial reference orbital properties at one point: altitude 665km, radial velocity
Difficult 3.72km/s and tangential velocity 7 km/s. Determine orbital velocity, eccentricity and
value of true anomaly at this point.
Unit -1 A satellite is tracked from ground station on Earth and observed to have following
14 inertial reference orbital properties at one point: altitude 800km, radial velocity
Difficult 1.72km/s and tangential velocity 4 km/s. Determine orbital velocity, eccentricity and
value of true anomaly at this point.
Unit -1 A Satellite injected at 9 km/s at a given angle to horizontal, at height of 500 km. Find
15
Difficult out the angle at which the satellite follows parabolic trajectory or hyperbolic
trajectory.
Unit -1
16 Prove that the solution of Kepler equation of planetary motion gives an elliptical
Difficult orbit.
Unit -1
17 Prove that the angular momentum of the elliptical orbit motion is conserved while
Difficult radial momentum is varying.

Unit -1 A satellite is tracked from ground station on Moon and observed to have following
18 inertial reference orbital properties at one point: altitude 100km, radial velocity
Difficult 15.72km/s and tangential velocity 8 km/s. Determine orbital velocity, eccentricity
and value of true anomaly at this point.
Unit -1 A Satellite injected at 2 km/s at an angle 7.5o to horizontal, at height of 500 km.
19
Difficult Prove that the elliptical orbit traced by the satellite will intersect with Earth’s
surface.
Unit -1 A Satellite injected at 9 km/s at an angle 10o to horizontal, at height of 500 km.
20
Difficult Prove that the elliptical orbit traced by the satellite will intersect with Earth’s
surface.
Unit -1 A geostationary satellite orbits the earth at a height of nearly 36000km from the
21
Difficult surface of the Earth. What is the potential due to earth’s gravity at the site of this
satellite? Mass of the earth = 6.0x1024 kg , radius=6400 km.
Unit -1 A star 2.5times the mass of the sun and collapsed to a size of 12km rotates with a
22
Difficult speed of 1.2 rev. per second. Will an object placed on its equator remain stuck to its
surface due to gravity? (Mass of the sun = 2x1030kg)
Unit -1 A rocket is fired “Vertically” from the surface of mars with a speed of 2kms -1. If
23 20% of its initial energy is lost due to Martian atmospheric resistance, how far will
Difficult the rocket go from the surface of mars before returning to it? Mass of mars =
6.4x1023kg; radius of Mars = 3395km
Unit -1 Two stars each of one solar mass (=2x1030 kg) are approaching each other for a head
24 on collision. When they are at a distance 109km, their speeds are negligible. What is
Difficult the speed with which they collide? The radius of each star is 104km. Assume the
stars to remain undistorted until they collide. (Use the known value of G).
Unit -1 A satellite orbits the earth at a height of 400km above the surface. How much energy
25 must be expended to rocket the satellite out of the earth’s gravitational influence?
Difficult Mass of the satellite=200kg; mass of the earth=6.0x1024kg; radius of the
earth=6.4x103km; G=6.67x10-11Nm2kg-2
Unit -1 A rocket is fired vertically with a speed of 5kms-1 from the earth’s surface. How far
26
Difficult from the earth does the rocket go before returning to the earth? ; mass of the
earth=6.0x1024kg; radius of the earth=6.4x103km; G=6.67x10-11Nm2kg-2
Unit -1 A body weighs 650N on the surface of the earth. What is the gravitational force on it
27
Difficult due to the earth at a height equal to half the radius of the earth? How much would a
body weigh half way down to the centre of the earth?
Unit -1
28 An unknown planet year is 50 times the earth year. How far is that planet from the
Difficult sun if the earth is 1.50x108 km away from the sun?

Unit -1 A rocket is fired from the earth towards the sun. At what distance from the earth’s
29 centre is the gravitational force on the rocket zero? Mass of the sun = 2x1030kg. Mass
Difficult of the earth=6x1024kg. Neglect the effect of other planets etc., (Orbital radius of the
earth = 1.5x108km)
Unit -1 Two planets ‘E1’ and ‘E2’ each of mass 6x1024 kg and radius 6400 km are placed at
30 a distance of 3x108 km. What is the gravitational force and potential at the midpoint
Difficult of the line joining the centers of the planets? Is an object place at that point in
equilibrium? If so, is the equilibrium stable or unstable?
Unit -2
31
Average Discuss general aspects of satellite injection.

Unit -2
32
Average Derive an equation for the velocity requirements for Hohmann satellite orbit transfer.

Unit -2
33 Derive an equation for the velocity requirements for Hohmann interplanetary orbital
Average transfer.
Unit -2
34
Average Discuss various forms of planetary equations with their merits and demerits

Unit -2
35
Average Derive an equation for perturbed Keplerian orbit using Cowell’s method

Unit -2
36
Average Derive an equation for perturbed Keplerian orbit using Encke’s method

Unit -2
37
Average Discuss merits and demerits of Cowell’s and Encke’s method

Unit -2
38
Average Discuss in depth how Keplerian orbits are perturbed?
Unit -2
39
Average Derive Lagrange’s planetary equations

Unit -2
40 Estimate the time of flight in Hohmann transfer orbit from the point of injection to
Average the mars orbit.
Unit -2 Calculate ‘∆V’ required for performing Hohmann transfer between circular orbit at
41
Difficult an altitude of 150km above earth to geostationary orbit, with an inclination change
requirement of 20o
Unit -2 Calculate ‘∆V’ required for performing Hohmann transfer between circular orbits
42
Difficult around earth to mars elliptical orbit. Given µsun = 1.3266 ×1020 m3/s2,µEarth=4×1014
m3/s2, eEarth=0.0167, emars=0.0934, aearth=149.5×106 km and amars=2273×106 km.
Unit -2 Calculate ‘∆V’ required for performing Hohmann transfer with oberths scheme
43 between earth-circular-parking to elliptical-mars orbits. Given µsun = 1.3266×1020
Difficult m3/s2, µEarth = 4×1014 m3 /s2, eEarth = 0.0167, emars = 0.0934, aearth = 149.5×106 km and
amars = 2273×106 km.
Unit -2 A geostationary launch vehicle placed a satellite first in a 500km altitude circular
44
Difficult parking orbit. Design a Hohmann transfer to lift it to a 36200km radius circular orbit.
Define each velocity change, and find the time required for the transfer.
Unit -2 Calculate ‘∆V’ required for performing Hohmann transfer between circular orbit at
45
Difficult an altitude of 200 km (parking orbit) above earth to geostationary orbit, with an
inclination change requirement of 23.5o
Unit -2 Calculate ‘∆V’ required for performing Hohmann transfer with oberths scheme
46 between earth-circular-parking to elliptical-astroid orbits. Given µsun = 1.3266 ×1020
Difficult m3/s2, µEarth=4×1014 m3 /s2, eEarth=0.0167, eastroid=0.9, aearth=149.5×106 km and
aastroid=5273×106 km.
For a satellite cruising in a circular orbit at an altitude of 800 km, determine the
Unit -2 period of revolution, the flight speed, and the energy expended to bring a unit mass
47
Difficult into this orbit. Compute the altitude and missile velocity at the time of power plant
cutoff, neglecting the drag of the atmosphere and assuming a simple vertical
trajectory.
A satellite is launched from a circular equatorial parking orbit at an altitude of 160
Unit -2 km into a coplanar circular synchronous orbit by using a Hohmann transfer ellipse.
48
Difficult Assume a homogeneous spherical earth with a radius of 6371 km. Determine the
velocity increments for entering the transfer ellipse and for achieving the
synchronous orbit at 42,200 km altitude.
For a satellite cruising in a circular orbit at an altitude of 500 km, determine the
Unit -2 period of revolution, the flight speed, and the energy expended to bring a unit mass
49
Difficult into this orbit. Compute the altitude and missile velocity at the time of power plant
cutoff, neglecting the drag of the atmosphere and assuming a simple vertical
trajectory.
An earth satellite is in an elliptical orbit with the perigee at 600 km altitude and an
Unit -2 eccentricity of e = 0.866. Determine the parameters of the new satellite trajectory, if
50
Difficult a rocket propulsion system is fired in the direction of flight giving an incremental
velocity of 200 m/sec when (a) fired at apogee, (b) fired at perigee, and (c) fired at
perigee, but in the opposite direction, reducing the velocity.
Unit -2 An astronaut is exploring an asteroid of 3km diameter and an average density of
51 5000kg/m3. His mass along with his space suit is 90kg and he can jump on earth as
Difficult well as on the surface of asteroid to a height of 0.65m. If there a possibility of he
may accidentally escape in space while exploring this asteroid?
It has been observed that the escape velocity from planet X is 5.6 km/s. Density of
Unit -2 this planet is 4.75 times density of water. Probe which has sent takes 165 minutes to
52
Difficult circle around the planet with eccentricity of 0.009. Determine the gravitational
acceleration on the planet surface, the closest and farthest points in the orbit and the
velocities at these points.
Unit -2
53 An international sky lab is in an elliptical orbit with the perigee at 550 km altitude
Difficult and an eccentricity of e = 0.8. Determine the parameters of this lab trajectory.
It has been observed that the escape velocity from planet X is 11.2 km/s. Density of
Unit -2 this planet is 2.5 times density of water. Probe which has sent takes 120 minutes to
54
Difficult circle around the planet with eccentricity of 0.0009. Determine the gravitational
acceleration on the planet surface, the closest and farthest points in the orbit and the
velocities at these points.
For a satellite cruising in an elliptical orbit with perigee of 500 km and e=0.08,
Unit -2 determine the period of revolution, the flight speed, and the energy expended to
55
Difficult bring a unit mass into this orbit. Compute the altitude and missile velocity at the time
of power plant cutoff, neglecting the drag of the atmosphere and assuming a simple
vertical trajectory.
Unit -2
56
Difficult Determine perturbation potential equation for the orbiting satellite.

Unit -2
57
Difficult Determine Lagrange points in an orbit.

Unit -2
58
Difficult Discuss in detail Canonical form of planetary equations.

Unit -2
59 Discuss the method of successive approximations to solve Lagrange’s planetary
Difficult equations.
Unit -2
60 Discuss in your own words the first order effects of the asphericity of the Earth.
Difficult

Unit -3 Derive an expression for Synodic period.


61
Average

Unit -3 Derive an expression for optimum interplanetary trajectory.


62
Average

Unit -3 Having specified a launch date and a flight time from Earth to the target planet,
63 explain how an accurate tracking of the space craft during its interplanetary flight
Average
can be carried out.
Unit -3 Explain the concept of Two – dimensional Interplanetary Mission Trajectory with
64 inclination correction.
Average

Unit -3 Briefly explain the procedure for the mission characteristics velocity requirements
69 for interplanetary missions.
Average

Unit -3 Describe the technique of interplanetary transfer carried out by Pioneer 11 to Jupiter
70 and Saturn.
Average

Unit -3 Discuss the orbit of Pioneer 10 to get such a huge kick of energy, passing by Jupiter.
71
Difficult

Unit -3 Estimate the minimum time required to transfer between two planetary orbits whose
72 radius are given as 1.5E08 and 2.28E08 while departing and reaching points at an
Difficult
angle of 30 degrees at their synodic period.
Unit -3 Design a trajectory of mission to mars and its return using the minimum time period
73 concept.
Difficult

Unit -3 Derive an equation for the minimum time required for interplanetary transfer and
74 drive the period for launch window session.
Difficult

Unit -3 Discuss in detail the case studies of Voyager I and Voyager II from the orbital
75 mechanics point of view.
Difficult

Unit -3 Discuss various missions to Jupiter, as on date.


76
Difficult

Unit -3 Design a satellite which orbits along the solar system in an orbital motion with the
77 sun as one of the foci. Mercury minimum radius = 45E9 m and Neptune Maximum
Difficult
radius = 4545E9 m
Unit -3 Compare the Hohmann orbit of transfer with the minimum time period orbital
78 transfer.
Difficult

Unit -3 Prove that the Hohmann orbital transfer requires minimum power while the
79 minimum time period orbit requires more power.
Difficult

Unit -3 Hayley’s comet which orbits sun as one its foci has 76.4 years synodic period with
80 the earth. Estimate its trajectory. Eccentricity 0.967, Semi-major axis: 2.668E+9km.
Difficult

Unit -3 Discuss various case studies on interplanetary missions to planet Saturn.


81
Difficult

Unit -3 Elliptical orbit transfer is time-consuming but less fuel consuming. Hyperbolic orbit
82 transfer is fast and more fuel consuming. Discuss above statements with reference to
Difficult
the interplanetary missions.
Unit -3 Gravity assisted manoeuvres of the satellite may end up with energy reducing or
83 energy increasing. Discuss above statement with reference to the beyond solar
Difficult
system manoeuvres.
Unit -3 Estimate the time period of a satellite moving in an orbit from initial orbit of radius
84 1.5E8 to final orbit 7.8E8. The angle between an initial departing-point to the final
Difficult arrival point is 45 degrees. Also estimate the minimum time required to reach initial
orbit to the final orbit.
Unit -3 If India wants to send a satellite to the Mars orbit with only 90 days travelling, is it
85 possible. Discuss the solution with the suitable equations and concepts.
Difficult

Unit -3 Orbital period of Earth, Mars and Jupiter are 365.26, 686.96, 4335.36 days. Estimate
86 the best time to launch a satellite to analyse these planets. Give reasons for your
Difficult
results.
Estimate the sphere of influence of the following planets using sun’s  = GM of the
sun = 1.33x1020kg, where G is the universal gravitation constant and Mass.

Planet  Semimajor axis


1 Earth 3.99E+014 1.50E+08
Unit -3 2 Mar 4.28E+013 2.28E+08
87 3 Jupiter 1.27E+017 7.78E+08
Difficult
4 Saturn 3.79E+016 1.43E+08

Discuss the effect of this sphere of influence on the elliptical orbits, parabolic orbits
and hyperbolic orbits.

Unit -3 A satellite moves in an orbit from initial departing orbit of radius of 1.5E8 to final
88 arriving orbit of radius of 7.8E8. The angle between an initial departing-point to the
Difficult final arrival point is 20 degrees. Find the eccentricity of the transfer orbit; thereby
identify the nature of the orbit.
Unit -3 Using Lambart’s theorem, identify the nature of the orbit which departs from the
89 radius of 1.50E+08 at angle to the 20 degrees to the foci and reaches to the radius of
Difficult
4.5E+09 at angle of 50 degrees.
Unit -3 The telecommunication distance plays a vital role while the satellite is about reach its
90 orbit. Discuss in detail.
Difficult