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Design Simulation and Comparison of Co 2016 Case Studies in Mechanical Syst

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Processing

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/csmssp

redundant robot

Claudio Urrea* , John Kern

Grupo de Automática, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: The simulation tools are the foundation for the design of robot systems, for the application

Received 15 September 2015 of robots in complex environments and for the development of new control strategies and

Received in revised form 18 November 2015 algorithms. Because of this, the design, simulation and comparison of the performance of

Accepted 9 December 2015

controllers applied to a redundant robot with ﬁve degrees of freedom (DOF) are presented

Available online 22 December 2015

in this paper. Through homogeneous transformation matrices the inverse kinematic model

of the redundant robot is obtained. Six controllers are prepared to test the robot’s dynamic

Keywords:

model: hyperbolic sine–cosine; computed torque; sliding hyperbolic mode; control with

Controllers

Robots

learning; and adaptive. A simulation environment is developed by means of the MatLab/

Redundant manipulators Simulink software, which allows analyzing the dynamic performance of the robot and of

Dynamic model the designed controllers. This simulation environment is used to carry out different tests of

Simulation the redundant manipulator model together with each controller as they are made to follow

a trajectory in space. The results, obtained through a simulation environment, are

represented by comparative curves and RMS indices of the joint and Cartesian errors, and

they show that the redundant manipulator model follows the test trajectory with less

pronounced maximum errors using the adaptive controller than the other controllers, with

more homogeneous motions of the manipulator. The largest joint and Cartesian errors

generated when testing the robot model, both in terms of maximum and RMS values,

occurred when the computed torque controller is used. The results with that controller are

obtained by executing three iterations for learning, because with more iterations the

variations were not important.

ã 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC

BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

1. Introduction

The use of industrial robots, since its beginnings more than 60 years ago, has made it possible to increase productivity and

improve the quality of manufactured products, becoming massiﬁed and extending rapidly to various ﬁelds of application

such as the automotive, plastics, food, lumber, agricultural, aeronautics, railways, energy industries, and the aerospace

industry (National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Curiosity in 2012), among others [1,2]. This extensive range of

applications has therefore required ﬂexibilizing the work space of the robots, a characteristic that can be achieved by

increasing their degrees of freedom, i.e., providing them with redundancy. However, all these activities would not be possible

without an adequate design of the robot and of its technical control. Fulﬁlling this requires the knowledge and study of a

mathematical model and of a certain class of “intelligence” that can direct the manipulator to perform the assigned tasks.

* Corresponding author at: Departamento de Ingeniería, Eléctrica Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Ecuador, 3519, Estación Central Santiago, Chile.

E-mail address: claudio.urrea@usach.cl (C. Urrea).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csmssp.2015.12.001

2351-9886/ ã 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/

licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

10 C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21

Using the basic laws of physics that govern the robot’s dynamics, it is possible to derive a mathematical model that

represents its behavior, and through appropriate programming tools, develop an environmental simulation to subject it to

different tests such as, for example, following trajectories [3–7]. Because the simulation tools are the foundation for the

design of robot systems, for the application of robots in complex environments and for the development of new control

strategies and algorithms, this paper takes up the modeling and control of a redundant robot with ﬁve DOF that is tested by

making it follow a test trajectory composed of a spiral in Cartesian space. Six controllers are made to test the model:

hyperbolic sine–cosine; computed torque; sliding hyperbolic mode; control with learning; and adaptive. A simulator is

developed by means of MatLab/Simulink software on which the redundant robot model is executed together with each

controller. This analysis also includes the dynamics of the actuators. The results are shown by means of comparative curves

and RMS indices of the joint and Cartesian errors.

2. Redundant robots

Redundant robots are those that have more degrees of freedom than those required to perform a given task [8–11]. In

recent years special attention has been given to the study of redundant manipulators, and this redundancy has been

considered as an important characteristic in the performance of tasks that require dexterity comparable to that of the human

arm, such as, for example, in the space mission called Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), better known as Curiosity. Although

most redundant manipulators do not have a sufﬁcient number of degrees of freedom to carry out their main tasks, e.g.,

following the position and/or the orientation, it is known that its restricted manipulability results in a reduction of the work

space1 due to the mechanical limitations of the joints and to the presence of obstacles in that space. This has led researchers

to study the performance of the manipulators when more degrees of freedom are added (kinematic redundancy), allowing

them to fulﬁll additional tasks deﬁned by the user. Those tasks can be represented as kinematic functions, including not only

the functions of kinematics that reﬂect some desirable properties of the manipulator’s performance such as the

characteristics of the joints and the evasion of obstacles, but can also be expanded to include measurements of the dynamic

1

Region of space where the manipulator can position its terminal effector (end of its wrist), that is determined by the robot’s geometric conﬁguration.

C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21 11

performance through the deﬁnition of functions in the robot’s dynamic model, e.g., impact strength, control of inertia, etc.

[12–15]. The robotized manipulator studied incorporates two additional degrees of freedom, giving it redundancy in its

rotational motion, in its motion on the x–y plane, as well as in its prismatic motion along the z axis, as shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of the SCARA-type redundant manipulator showing its redundancy in its rotational motion,

its motion on the x–y plane, as well as its prismatic motion along the z axis, as well as the distribution of the coordinate axes

systems and the location of the centroids.

where q1,q2, q3, q4, q5 and l1, l2, l3, l4, l5, represent the generalized coordinates and the lengths of the links: ﬁrst, second,

third, fourth and ﬁfth, respectively, and lc2, lc3 and lc4 are the lengths from the origins to the centroids of the corresponding

second, third and fourth links. Now we make the corresponding calculations for the design of a kinematic model of the

manipulator.

3.1. Kinematics

To get the kinematic model the standard method of Denavit–Hartenberg has been considered, whose parameters are

indicated in Table 1. Then, using the homogeneous transformations given we get the direct kinematic model indicated by

matrix Eq. (1):

2 3

c234 s234 0 l2 c2 þ l3 c23 þ l4 c234

6 s234 c234 0 l2 s2 þ l3 s23 þ l4 s234 7

T¼6 4 0

7 ð1Þ

0 1 l1 þ d1 l5 d5 5

0 0 0 1

where s2 = sinu2, s23 = sin(u 2 + u3), s234 = sin(u2 + u 3 + u4), c2 = cosu 2, c23 = cos(u2 + u3), and c234 = cos(u 2 + u3 + u4). Getting the

inverse kinematics of a redundant robot requires looking at different methods and selecting the most adequate one

according to the considerations of the model. In his case, the three rotary degrees of freedom that govern the motion of the

robot on the x–y plane, we would get multiple solutions. That is why, for simplicity, the condition u4 = u3 is set. In accordance

with this, and after the adequate simpliﬁcations, we get the inverse kinematic model expressed by Eqs. (2) and (3), where z

and d1 are known.

u3 ¼ p arccos l3 ðl2 þ l4 Þ=4l2 l4 ðð4l2 l4 l3 2 Þð2l2 l4 l2 2 l4 2 Þ þ 4l2 l4 ðx2 þ y2 ÞÞ2 =4l2 l4

1

ð2Þ

12 C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21

Table 1

Assignment of Denavit–Hartenberg parameters.

Joint i ui di ai ai

1 0 l1 + d1 0 0

2 u2 0 l2 0

3 u3 0 l3 0

4 u4 0 l4 180

5 0 l5 + d5 0 0

12

u2 ¼ 2arctan 2

x x2 þ y2 s23 4l4 c3 ðl4 c3 þ l3 Þ þ l3 =ðy þ l3 s3 þ l4 s2:3 Þ and d5 ¼ l1 þ d1 l5 z ð3Þ

3.2. Dynamics

Keeping in mind the characteristics of the manipulator presented so far, we get its dynamic model. For that purpose it is

possible to make approximations through second order systems [16] or to develop a complete model, as achieved in [17]. In

this work the Lagrange–Euler formulation that is based on the principle of the conservation of energy [18–20] is used; for

which it is necessary to determine the kinetic and potential energy of the manipulator, the Lagrangian2 and then substitute

in the Lagrange–Euler equation [21–25]. We get the dynamic model of the redundant robotized manipulator, which can be

expressed by means of Eqs. (4) through (10), M is the inertia matrix (with dimension n n), C is the centrifugal and Coriolis

forces vector (with dimension n 1), G is the gravitational force vector (with dimension n 1), and F ([F11 F12 F13 F14 F15]T) is

the friction forces vector (with dimension n 1).

2 3

M11 . . . M15

6 . .. 7

M ¼ 4 .. }

T

. 5; C ¼ ½0 C 12 C 13 C 14 0 and G ¼ ½ðm1 þ m2 þ m3 þ m4 þ m5 Þgz 0 0 0 m5 gz

T

ð4Þ

M51 . . . M55

M11 ¼ m1 þ m2 þ m3 þ m4 þ m5 ; M15 ¼ M51 ¼ M55 ¼ m5 and M12 ¼ M21 ¼ M13 ¼ M31 ¼ M14 ¼ M41 ¼ M25

¼ M52 ¼ M35 ¼ M53 ¼ M45 ¼ M54 ¼ 0 ð5Þ

2 2 2 2 2 2

M22 ¼ lc2 m2 þ l2 þ lc3 þ 2l2 lc3 c3 m3 þ l2 þ l3 þ lc4 þ 2l2 l3 c3 þ 2ðl3 lc4 c4 þ l2 lc4 þ c34 Þ m4

2 2 2 2 2

þ . . . l2 þ l3 þ l4 þ 2l2 l3 c3 þ 2ðl3 l4 c4 þ l2 l4 c34 Þ m5 þ I2zz þ I3zz þ I4zz and M44 ¼ lc4 m4 þ l4 m5 ¼ I4zz ð6Þ

2 2 2

M23 ¼ M32 ¼ lc3 þ l2 lc3 c3 m3 þ l3 þ lc4 þ l2 l3 c3 þ 2l3 lc4 c4 þ l2 lc4 þ c34 m4

2 2 2 2

þI3zz þ I4zz . . . l2 l4 c34 þ l3 þ l4 þ l2 l3 c3 þ 2l3 l4 c4 m5 þ and M34 ¼ M43 ¼ lc4 þ l3 lc4 c4 m4 þ l4 þ l3 l4 c4 m5 þ I4zz

ð7Þ

2 2

M24 ¼ M42 ¼ lc4 þ l3 lc4 c4 þ l2 lc4 c34 m4 þ l4 þ l3 l4 c4 þ l2 l4 c34 m5 þ I4zz and

2 2 2 2 2

M33 ¼ lc3 m3 þ l3 þ lc4 þ 2l3 lc4 c4 m4 þ l3 þ l4 þ 2l3 l4 c4 m5 þ I3zz þ I4zz ð8Þ

C 12 ¼ l2 s3 u_ 3 þ 2l2 s3 u_ 2 u_ 3 ðlc3 m3 þ l3 m4 þ l3 m5 Þ þ l2 s34 u_ 3 2ðl3 s4 þ l2 s34 Þu_ 3 u_ 4 ðlc4 m4 þ l4 m5 Þ

2 2

þ . . . l2 s34 u_ 2 u_ 3 u_ 4 2 þ 2u_ 2 u_ 4 Þðl2 s34 þ l3 s4 Þ ðlc4 m4 þ l4 m5 Þ ð9Þ

2

Scalar function that is deﬁned as the difference between the kinetic energy and the potential energy of a mechanical system.

C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21 13

Fig. 3. Schematic of a servo motor coupled with a robotized manipulator as the load.

C 31 ¼ ðlc3 m3 þ l3 m4 þ l3 m5 Þl2 s3 u_ 2 þ l2 s34 u_ 2 2 u_ 2 þ u_ 3 Þ þ u_ 4 l3 s4 u_ 4 ðlc4 m4 þ l4 m5 Þ and

2 2

C 41 ¼ ðlc4 m4 þ l4 m5 Þðl3 s4 þ l2 s34 Þu_ 2 þ l3 s4 u_ 3 þ 2l3 s4 u_ 2 u_ 3 ðlc4 m4 þ l4 m5 Þ

2 2

ð10Þ

where s3 = sin u 3, s4 = sin u4, c3 = cos u 3 c4 = cos u4, s34 = sin (u3 + u4), c34 = cos (u3 + u 4); m1, m2, m3, m4 and m5 represent the

masses of the ﬁrst, second, third, fourth and ﬁfth links, respectively; l2zz, l3zz and l4zz indicate the moments of inertia of the

second, third and fourth links with respect to the ﬁrst z axis of its joint, respectively.

4. Actuator dynamics

The actuators considered in this study correspond to analogic servo motors. Fig. 3 shows a schematic of a servo motor

coupled with a robotized manipulator as the load [26]. These systems are constituted by a dc motor, a set of gears to reduce

the rotational speed and increase the torque on its drive shaft, a potentiometer connected to that output shaft, which is used

to know the position, and a feedback control circuit that converts an input signal of the PWM (Pulse-Width Modulation) type

to voltage, comparing it with the fed back position and then amplifying it and activating an H bridge to cause a turn at a given

speed [5]. Fig. 4 shows a block diagram of an analogic servo motor connected with a load consisting of a robot.

The dynamic model of the servo motors considered has been developed by the authors in Ref. [26] and is given by Eqs. (11)

and (12):

t L ¼ ðka =Ra ÞAks kp vi Jmq=n =n ððka kb =Ra þ Bm Þq=n _

_ þ ka =Ra Aks pq þ f ec ðq=nÞÞ=n ð11Þ

_ ¼ F ec1 tanhðkqÞ

f ec ðqÞ _ ð1 þ sgnðqÞ

_ Þ=2 þ F ec2 tanhðkqÞ

_ ð1 sgnðqÞ

_ Þ=2 ð12Þ

Fig. 4. Block diagram of a servo motor coupled with a robotized manipulator as the load.

14 C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21

where n represents the gear ratio (n1/n2), ka is the motor’s torque constant, Ra is the armature resistance, A is the current

ampliﬁer gain (H bridge), ks is the sensitivity of the comparator, kp is the total gain of the PWM conversion (kp1 kp2), vi is the

input voltage to the servo motor, Jm is the moment of inertia of the motor, kb is the inverse electromotive force constant, Bm is

the viscous friction of the motor, p is the gain of the position potentiometer, and k is the gain of the slope of the tan h function

used to increase or reduce the slope of the curve as it crosses zero.

5. Controllers

Below we present a summary of the controllers considered for the evaluation of the robot model together with its

actuators and their corresponding performance.

This controller, which was presented in Ref. [27], is composed of a proportional part based on hyperbolic sine and cosine

functions, a derivative part based on a hyperbolic sine, and a gravity compensation, as shown in Eq. (13):

t ¼ K p sinhðeÞcoshðeÞ K v sinhðqÞ

_ þ GðqÞ ð13Þ

where Kp = diag(Kp1, Kp2, ..., Kpn) and Kv = diag(Kv1, Kv2, ..., Kvn) are proportional and derivative, diagonal and positive deﬁnite

(with dimension n n) gain matrices, respectively.

Sliding mode control (SMC) systems correspond to a particular type of variable structure control (VSC) systems that have

the characteristic of changing structure, by means of some law, in order to satisfy desired characteristics [28]. The SMC

consists in deﬁning a control law that, commuting at high frequency, succeeds in taking the state of a system to a surface

called a sliding surface, and once there, keep it in the face of possible external perturbations [30]. The control law

corresponds to:

t ¼ K sgnðsÞ ð14Þ

where K = diag(K1, K2, ..., Kn) is a deﬁnite positive diagonal matrix (with dimension n n). The sliding surface is given by:

s ¼ W ðq qd Þ þ q_ q_ d Þ ð15Þ

where W = diag(W1, W2, ..., Wn) corresponds a deﬁnite positive diagonal matrix (with dimension n n)

The following algorithm uses the computed torque control, which consists in applying a torque with the purpose of

compensating for the centrifugal and Coriolis; gravitational; and frictional effects, as shown in Eq. (16) [36]:

t¼M ^ q; qÞ

^ ðqÞ q þ K v e_ þ K p eÞ þ C _ þG ^ ðqÞ þ F

^ ðqÞ

_ ð16Þ

d

where M ^ expresses the estimation of the inertia matrix (with dimension n n), C ^ is the estimation of the centrifugal and

^ ^ is

Coriolis forces vector (with dimension n 1), G is the estimation of the gravitational force vector (with dimension n 1), F

the estimation of the frictional force vector (with dimension n 1), qd is the desired acceleration vector of the joints (with

dimension n 1) and e_ represents the velocity vector.

One of the advantages of the sliding mode control is its invariance when facing parametric uncertainties and external

perturbations. However, the high commutation frequencies that characterize this control cannot be implemented [28], and it

also incorporates the “chattering” vibration phenomenon in the actuators, which must be avoided in many physical systems

such as servo control systems, structure vibration control systems, and robotized systems [29–33]. For that reason a

modiﬁcation of the classical SMC is introduced through the hyperbolic tangent function, with the purpose of reducing its

characteristic abrupt commutation, as indicated in Eq. (17):

t ¼ K tanhða sÞ ð17Þ

where a = diag(a1, a2, ..., an) corresponds to a deﬁnite positive diagonal matrix (with dimension n n).

C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21 15

Table 2

Parameters considered in the manipulator.

l 0.524 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.14 [m]

lc – 0.0229 0.0229 0.0229 – [m]

m 1.228 1.023 1.023 1.023 0.5114 [kg]

Izz – 0.0058 0.0058 0.0058 – [kg m2]

Fv 0.03 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.02 [N m s/rad]

Feca 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 [N m]

Fecb 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.03 [N m]

Table 3

Parameters considered in the servo motors.

Ra 1.6 1.6 1.6 [V]

La 0.0048 0.0048 0.0048 [H]

Jm 0.007 0.007 0.007 [kg m2]

Bm 0.01413 0.01313 0.01208 [N m s/rad]

ka 0.35 0.35 0.35 [N m/A]

kb 0.04 0.04 0.04 [V s/rad]

Feca 0.05 0.05 0.03 [N m]

Fecb 0.05 0.05 0.03 [N m]

n 1/600 1/561.6 1/561.6 [Times]

A 15 15 15 [Times]

ks 10 10 10 [Times]

kp 1 1 1 [Times]

p 1 1 1 [Times]

Table 4

Gains considered in the controllers (part 1).

Controller Constants

1.2, 1.8, 1.8, 8, 10, 10, 200, 200, 180, 160, 300

1.8, 1.56 10, 10

200, 120, 160, 120, 60 60, 80, 80, 1, 1, 1,

80, 40 1, 1

20, 26, 24, 10, 20, 18, 0.4, 1.2, 1,

22, 20 18, 8 1, 0.6

Table 5

Gains considered in the controllers (part 2).

Controller Constants

400, 300, 200, 100, 100 5, 4, 3, 2, 2

0.74, 1.45, 1.4, 1.35, 1.54 10, 10, 10, 10, 10

torque 400, 600, 700, 800, 100 120, 100, 60, 50, 40

16 C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21

Control with learning is based on the correction of the control system through successive repetitions of the operations in

order to compensate for the model’s uncertainties. In this way, a ﬁrst control torque is generated, estimating that one part of

the model is known, and a second control torque is generated from a model that is adjusted by means of a learning law, in

successive repetitions of the same operation. A control scheme that considers Proportional and Derivative (PD) terms, and

terms dependent on the known model, are shown in Eq. (18) [34]:

^

t ¼ MðqÞðq ^ ^

d þ K v e þ K p eÞ þ C ðq; qÞ þ GðqÞ þ g k

_ _ ^ ð18Þ

C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21 17

Fig. 7. Joint trajectory error using the sliding mode hyperbolic controller.

where g

^ k expresses the torque obtained by successive learning repetitions of the motion (k = 1, 2, . . . ).

Adaptive control has the purpose of getting the correct performance of the robotized system in spite of the many

uncertainties related to different aspects of the manipulator, e.g., the ﬂexibility of the links and joints, external perturbations,

the dynamics of the actuators, friction at the joints, the noise of sensors, and in other not modeled dynamic behaviors. In that

control the parameters are variables that are estimated online and are adjusted through a mechanism based on the system’s

measurements [30]. The adaptive control considered is based on a law of control presented in Refs. [18,35,36], for which it is

necessary to deﬁne an auxiliary error signal r ¼ Le þ e_ and its derivative r_ ¼ Le_ þ e with respect to time, where L = diag(l1,

l 2, ..., ln) corresponds to a deﬁnite positive diagonal matrix (with dimension n n). When r and r_ are combined properly, we

get:

_ ð19Þ

Fig. 8. Error of the joint trajectory using the computed torque controller.

18 C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21

where Y() represents a regression matrix (with dimension n n), f is a parameter vector (with dimension n 1) and Vm is

the centrifugal and Coriolis forces matrix.

6. Simulation environment

The six control laws mentioned above, together with the dynamic model of the SCARA type redundant manipulator and

the actuator dynamics, are executed in a simulation structure carried out using MatLab/Simulink programming tools. The

values of the parameters considered in the manipulator are shown in Table 2. Table 3 shows the set of values of the

parameters used for each actuator. Tables 4 and 5 show the set of values of the gains used for each type of controller.

7. Results

After developing the manipulator model and the simulation environment, incorporating the actuator dynamics, and

establishing the control laws to be used, a test trajectory in space was determined to make the manipulator model follow it,

Fig. 10. Error of the joint trajectory using the adaptive controller.

C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21 19

and then study the results as a function of the performance of each controller. The test trajectory in Cartesian space

corresponds to a spiral.

Figs. 5 and 6 show the graphs of the joint trajectory (e1, . . . , e5) errors using the sinh–cosh controller and the sliding

mode controller, respectively. Figs. 7 and 8 show the curves of the errors obtained from the desired and real joint trajectories

using the hyperbolic sliding mode controller and the computed torque controller, respectively.

Figs. 9 and 10 show the curves of the errors obtained from the desired and real joint trajectories using the controller with

learning and the adaptive controller, respectively.

20 C. Urrea, J. Kern / Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 3 (2016) 9–21

Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 show the Cartesian and joint RMS errors, respectively, according to Eq. (20), where ei represents the

joint as well as the Cartesian errors of the trajectory, and n is the number of data.

vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

u n

u1 X

RMS ¼ t e2 ð20Þ

n i¼1 i

8. Conclusion

The use of a robotics simulator for development of a robotics control program is highly recommended regardless of

whether an actual robot is available or not. Because of this, a kinematic and dynamic model of a redundant robot with ﬁve

degrees of freedom using the methods of Denavit–Hartenberg and Lagrange–Euler, respectively, was developed. Six

controllers were made hyperbolic sine–cosine; computed torque; sliding hyperbolic mode; control with learning; and

adaptive. A simulator was made using the MatLab/Simulink software. The tests of the manipulator model were presented,

including the dynamics of the actuators and together with each controller, by following a test trajectory composed of a spiral

in the Cartesian space.

The results, obtained through a simulation environment, were represented by comparative curves and RMS indices of the

joint and Cartesian errors, and they showed that the redundant manipulator model followed the test trajectory with less

pronounced maximum errors using the adaptive controller than the other controllers, with more homogeneous motions of

the manipulator.

It was seen that the largest joint and Cartesian errors generated when testing the robot model, both in terms of maximum

and RMS values, occurred when the computed torque controller was used. It should be mentioned that the results with that

controller were obtained by executing three iterations for learning, because with more iterations the variations were not

important. Therefore the best performance results of the robotized manipulator model were achieved using the adaptive

controller, as shown in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12.

It is important to point out that the hyperbolic sliding mode controller presents a lower simulation complexity due to the

simplicity of its control law and because it does not require the second derivative of the joint position, and this situation can

be determining if high performance processors are not available.

9. Future work

From the performance achieved through the simulation tests, the redundant robot model together with its actuators, and

the different control laws discussed, a new stage begins in the study and analysis of redundant robotized manipulators

consisting in the practical implementation of real industrial type robots, their actuators and their controllers by means of the

development of the necessary hardware.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Proyectos Basales y Vicerrectoría de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación of the

Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile.

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