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THE SIXTH INDUSTRY ELEMENTS TOWARDS FARM

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
Chaewon HAN1 and Jung-Pyo HONG2
1
Dept. of Manufacturing & Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea
2
Dept. of Industrial Design, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea

ABSTRACT

In the rapid city-centered development, the income differential between cities and rural areas has been worsened, and the
economy over agricultural regions is in the moment of crisis. As means to address such income problems, there have been a
number of policies and supporting measures developed one after another in various areas, and one of them is the research on „the
sixth industry.‟ Accordingly, this study aims to help understand the sixth industry and farm design and to suggest ways for
successful farm design based on investigation and analysis of elements of the sixth industry. First of all, some representative
exemplary cases were selected among those introduced by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs, and key
elements were extracted based on case studies on the sixth industry. As a result of the analysis, it turned out that exemplary cases
in the sixth industry focused on businesses related to 'experience,' especially in connection with visual images of the local
community.

Keywords: The Sixth Industry, Farm Design, Element

1. Introduction

1.1. Background & Purpose
During the recent 20 years, the general population of agricultural regions has decreased as much as 60%
with the pauperization and polarization in such areas deteriorating. In addition to the substantial decrease
of the general farmhouse population, the aging of the farming society where about a half of the farmers
are aged 60 or older is even causing qualitative deterioration of agricultural labor force (Gyeong-ho Jang,
2016). As means to address such income problems, there have been a number of policies and supporting
measures developed one after another in various areas, and one of them is the research on „the sixth
industry.‟ Particularly with attempts to introduce and converge the second manufacturing industry and
the third service industry and with creativity added to agriculture, actual cases of creating more
significant added values are increasing. Most of the existing studies in this area, however, focus on
production, sales, and marketing (Shin-hye Kim, 2015) while an approach to the area of design has yet to
be attempted. For this reason, the present study aims to present the comprehensive concept of 'farm
design' for better understanding. To this end, the present study examines the sixth industry and farm
design with actual cases of exemplary villages analyzed. This study then examines related elements
based on the understanding of the sixth industry and farm design as well as actual cases of the sixth
industry, aiming to utilize the findings in the future study on farm design.

1.2 Scope and Method
In the sixth industry, there have been various attempts to create more added values for the economic
activity over agricultural regions. Accordingly, elements that could be combined with various types of
design have been created. Hence, this study includes a research on exemplary cases in the sixth industry.

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As for the study method, exemplary cases in the sixth industry were investigated with the focus on their
elements, and the data was analyzed to present ways to develop farm design in the future.

Table.1 Study Process
Case Study
Definitions and Classification of the 6th Industry and Farm Design
Actual Cases of the 6th Industry Home and Abroad
Analysis of Elements
Investigation on Elements in Exemplary Cases of the 6th Industry
Analysis of the Semantic Network of Elements
Conclusion
Ways for Farm Design Development

2.0 Theoretical Investigation

2.1 Understanding and Types of the 6th Industry
'The sixth industry' means an activity of creating new added values by combining various farming
methods, foods, special products, manufacturing and processing methods (2nd industry), distribution and
sales, cultures, experience, tourism, and service (3rd industry) based on every type of resources, tangible
or intangible, in agricultural regions. This is one of the major systems that represent the creative economy
of agriculture and rural communities where various types of processed products and
tourism/experiencing services can be developed with creativity and imagination added to farm products.
As a result, new job opportunities are created, productive welfare is realized, and various attractions and
enjoyments are created as well with the local economy promoted (Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and
Rural Affairs, 2014).

Added value

RegionalEconomic Activation Communityrecovery &Productive welfare
The Sixth
Industry

ㆍFarm produce production ㆍProcessed food manufacturing ㆍDistribution, sale
ㆍExperience, Tourism, Festival
ㆍSpecial product production ㆍPreparation of specialty products
ㆍDining, Room, Convention
ㆍOther applicability resources ㆍIndustrial manufacture
ㆍHealing, Education

Figure 1. The Sixth Industry

2.2. Actual Cases of the 6th Industry
To facilitate the sixth industry of agriculture, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs has
conducted the annual sixth industry competitions since 2013, through which exemplary cases of the sixth
industry have been found. One of the examples is „Euna Farm‟ in Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, which
well illustrates a farmhouse-led 6th industry where people can enjoy farm stay and farmland-
experiencing at the same time. Another case is Jeonbuk Province Wanju Local Food Cooperative, which

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is a good example in the scale of metropolitan area such as city and county. Wanju Local Food
Cooperative sells farm products in the multi-tem small-lot production system on the basis of a producer
community that consists of the underprivileged such as aged farmers, small farmers, female farmers, etc.
in Wanju region. With the specialized operation team appointed, residents are entrusted with various
community businesses such as local food restaurant. As a result, the gap between consumers and
producers has been filled, trust in farm products has been improved, and sales and job opportunities have
been increased with the local community developing significantly.

One major overseas example of the 6th industry is Yokoyama Farm in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. In
Yokoyama Farm, tomatoes and melons are grown by the representative, Yokoyama Kenichi, and his
sons. In the 1st industry, ripened tomato (first tomato) is sold. In the 2nd industry, the processed goods
such as tomato juice, jam, ketchup, and basil sauce are sold. In the 3rd industry, which is service industry,
a restaurant is run directly by the farmland with farm products that are trustworthy among consumers and
create incomes.

2.3. Concept and Definition of Farm Design
To define 'Farm Design,' it is necessary to understand the exact meanings of farm and agriculture.
Among researchers on farm design, Yong-gu Kim (2015) defined it as “a type of sustainable design that
involves convergence and interaction among style, service, and system in utilization of farming resources
and based on the understanding of agriculture-oriented demands (consumer needs) in various areas. It
even includes above-mentioned interactions followed by other interactions that occur subsequently.” As
such, farm design is classified as "an activity of service-oriented convergence that enhances mutual
benefits of both producers and consumers as well as values of agriculture in utilization of farming
resources. It is closely related to every type of design that is involved throughout the production process.

3.0 Investigation and Analysis of 6th Industry Elements
Currently, domestic researches on the sixth industry are conducted with the focus on successful cases,
ways of promotion, etc. However, few studies present a definition of the elements, and thus there is no
clear standard for evaluation. Hence, the present study examines and classifies, first of all, elements of
which successful cases in the sixth industry consist.
3.1. Study Subject and Analysis Method

To analyze elements of the sixth industry, top 20 were selected among 47 exemplary cases selected by
the Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs, and classified to groups such as individual
farmhouses and corporations and administrative units such as village, city, county, and metropolitan area,
As for survey items, a survey with Delphi method was conducted among 5 agricultural experts on the
basis of sixth industry definitions by Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs and the
reorganized summary of major sixth industry businesses stated in the "Ways to Facilitate the Sixth
Industry of Agriculture" of Seok-min Seon (2015). After this process, 14 items were chosen for the final
analysis. With the items investigated, a relation matrix was structured based on the frequency and then
the relation among items was analyzed by means of GephiTM, a network visualization program.

3.2. Analysis Results

As a result of examining the exemplary cases of the 6th industry, it turned out that they involved such
major elements as website, CI, BI, product design, experience, promotion, and sales.

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Table 2. Elements Analysis

6th Industry Elements
Exemp Produ
lary Distri Acco
Exper Touri Prom Webs Festiv ct Eatin Conv Heali Educa
Case butio Sales CI,BI mmo
ience sm otion ite al Desig g-out ention ng tion
n dation
n

A ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
B ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
C ● ● ● ● ●
D ● ● ● ● ● ●
E ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
F ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
G ● ● ● ● ● ●
H ● ● ● ● ● ●
I ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
J ● ● ● ● ●
K ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
L ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
M ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
N ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
O ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
P ● ● ● ●
Q ● ● ● ● ●
R ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
S ● ● ● ● ●
T ● ● ● ● ●

Table 3. Amenity Design Elements
Amenity Design Elements 6th Industry Elements
Tourism, experience, product design,
Amenity design related to local industry
accommodation, eating-out, healing, sales,
promotion
distribution
Amenity design related to the local community's
CI, BI, website, promotion
visual images
Amenity design related to the local community Convention, education, festival

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cultures

The research results show that exemplary cases of the 6th industry focus mainly on amenity design
related to the local community's visual images. While amenity design elements related to local industry
promotion were outstanding in general since they were directly linked to incomes, some items were
inadequate. As amenity design elements related to visual images were examined, it turned out that
attention was paid to the website and the image of the village or organization with the aim to attract
people to the rural community. Amenity design elements related to the local culture were less than other
elements and needed to be facilitated in the future.

3.3. Analysis of the Semantic Network

In order to examine the relation among items that had been examined, the semantic network analysis
method was adopted. The semantic network analysis is a type of network analysis that represents
connections among related nodes visually. This is to examine semantic relations shared within a group
(Grebitus & Bruhn, 2008; Wasserman & Faust, 1998). For network analysis, it is necessary to set up an
edge that connects input data to the node of each item. As for nodes in this study, 14 items that had been
examined were given a node number in order, and the node-connecting edge was set up by entering the
numbers into the 14-by-14 size matrix. Since there was no connection between self-nodes, 0 was entered
for a diagonal matrix that was for itself, and the number of connections at a position where one node is
connected to another was entered. After being set up, the matrix was visualized by means of GephiTM.
GephiTM is a commercial program developed for network analysis, but it is available free of charge. The
results of analysis by means of GephiTM are presented in Figure 4 below.

Figure 2. Research item semantic network analysis

It turned out that the word, 'experience' appeared most frequently, and that it was connected to such
elements as website, sales, product design, CI·BI, promotion, and distribution. The most frequently
appearing words next to experience were tourism, accommodation, and eating-out in order. The rest
elements were healing, convention, and education. In other words, words relevant to the sixth industry
included, most of all, experience, and then product design, website, sales, and CI·BI in the order of
frequency. To facilitate the sixth industry, therefore, it is necessary to support businesses related to
experience in the industry.

Most of the exemplary cases in the sixth industry took good advantage of elements (website, sales,
product design, CI·BI, promotion, and distribution) that could maximize "experience."

4. Conclusion
Recently, it aims to stimulate and develop farming villages through convergence with the 6th largest

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industry in diverse fields. If the past competition is a price, the present competition is quality, and
competition in the future is design. ‘Robert Hayes’ is also an important part of the design. This study
aims to help understand the sixth industry and farm design and to suggest ways for successful farm
design based on investigation and analysis of elements of the sixth industry. In summary, farm design is
"an act related to various production activities such as growing and production of crops useful for
humans (grain, vegetable, fruit, flower, etc.), production and quality management of livestock. This is a
service-oriented activity of convergence that enhances mutual benefits of both producers and consumers
as well as values of agriculture by making use of farming resources." In addition, "farm design presents
style, service, and system elements in connection with industrial designs related to agriculture, in other
words, items of farming resource systematization (place, object, human, and time)." Since every subject
of farm design is "user"-centered, it is necessary to grasp exact needs (insight) when design is to be
created to users' satisfaction.

Reference

Kim shin hye(2015), Measures for Invigoration of 6 Primary Convergence Industry with the
UX Design Method - Through the Case Study on Representative 6 Primary Industry Web site,
Korea Digital Design Council, 15(3), 248-258.

Jang kyung Ho(2016), Be in the sustainability of agriculture, in terms of ' rice ' and ' income ',
Agricultural Agricultural Policy Research Institute.

Kim young Gu & Cho Kwang Soo(2015), A Study on the Application and the Classification
of Agriculture Design, Asia Digital Art and Design Conference. 2015(10), 382-383.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs. (2014). 6th Industrial Industrialization
Manual (11-1543000-000363-01

Son Joo Uk. (2011). Big Data Analysis by Bioinformatics (KT).

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