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Índice

1. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 2
2. Malaria ..................................................................................................................... 3
3. Types of Malaria ..................................................................................................... 3
4. Symptoms ............................................................................................................... 4
5. Uncomplicated malaria ........................................................................................... 4
6. Severe malaria ........................................................................................................ 4
7. Causes of malaria.................................................................................................... 5
8. How Is Malaria Transmitted .................................................................................. 6
9. Diagnosis of malaria .............................................................................................. 6
10. Treatment of malaria ............................................................................................. 7
11. Life-threatening complications of malaria ............................................................ 7
12. Long-term outlook for people with malaria .......................................................... 8
13. Remedies for malaria ............................................................................................. 8
14. Prevention of malaria............................................................................................. 9
15. Vaccination of malaria........................................................................................... 9
16. Prevention (Advice for travelers) .......................................................................... 9
17. Conclusion ........................................................................................................... 10
18. Bibliography ........................................................................................................ 11
1. Introduction

In this brief and modest work I will address Malaria - related issues. Malaria is a life
threatening disease. It’s typically transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles
mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When this mosquito bites
you, the parasite is released into your bloodstream.
2. Malaria

Malaria is a life-threatening disease. It’s typically transmitted through the bite of an


infected Anopheles mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When
this mosquito bites you, the parasite is released into your bloodstream.

Once the parasites are inside your body, they travel to the liver, where they mature. After
several days, the mature parasites enter the bloodstream and begin to infect red blood
cells. Within 48 to 72 hours, the parasites inside the red blood cells multiply, causing the
infected cells to burst open. Learn more about mosquitoes and treating mosquito bites.

The parasites continue to infect red blood cells, resulting in symptoms that occur in cycles
that last two to three days at a time. Malaria is typically found in tropical and subtropical
climates where the parasites can live.

3. Types of Malaria

There are five species of Plasmodium parasites that affect humans. Two of them are
considered the most dangerous:

P. falciparum - this is the most common malaria parasite in Africa, and it causes the
most malaria-related deaths in the world. P. falciparum multiplies very quickly,
causing severe blood loss and clogged blood vessels.

P. vivax - this is the malaria parasite most commonly found outside of sub-Saharan
Africa, especially in Asia and Latin America. This species can lie dormant, then rise
up to infect your blood months or years after the mosquito bite.

P. malariae - it is found worldwide but is less common than the other forms. This
form of malaria is hard to diagnose because there are usually very few parasites in the
blood. If untreated, the infection can last many years.

P. knowlesi - found predominantly in Malaysia, the Philippines, and Southeast Asia,


this species can also cause high levels of parasites in the blood, leading to organ failure
or death.

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P. ovale - this species is rarely found outside Africa or the western Pacific islands.
Symptoms are similar to those of P. vivax. Like P. vivax, P. ovale can hide in the liver
for years before bursting out again and causing symptoms.

4. Symptoms

Malaria symptoms can be classified into two categories: uncomplicated and severe
malaria.

5. Uncomplicated malaria

This is diagnosed when symptoms are present, but there are no signs to indicate severe
infection or dysfunction of the vital organs. This form can become severe malaria if left
untreated, or if the host has poor or no immunity.

Symptoms of uncomplicated malaria typically last 6 to 10 hours and recur every second
day. Some strains of the parasite can have a longer cycle or cause mixed symptoms. As
symptoms resemble those of flu, they may be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed in areas
where malaria is less common.

In uncomplicated malaria, symptoms progress as follows, through cold, hot, and sweating
stages:

 A sensation of cold with shivering;

 Fever, headaches, and vomiting;

 Seizures sometimes occur in younger people with the disease;

 Sweats, followed by a return to normal temperature, with tiredness.

6. Severe malaria

In severe malaria, clinical or laboratory evidence shows signs of vital organ dysfunction.

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Symptoms of severe malaria include

 High fever and chills;

 Impaired consciousness;

 Prostration, or adopting a prone position;

 Multiple convulsions;

 Deep breathing and respiratory distress;

 Abnormal bleeding and signs of anemia;

 Clinical jaundice and evidence of vital organ dysfunction;

 shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe;

 Profuse sweating;

 Headache;

 Nausea;

 Vomiting;

 Abdominal pain;

 Diarrhea;

 Muscle pain.

7. Causes of malaria

Malaria happens when a bite from the female Anopheles mosquito infects the body with
Plasmodium. Only the Anopheles mosquito can transmit malaria. The successful
development of the parasite within the mosquito depends on several factors, the most
important being humidity and ambient temperatures.

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When an infected mosquito bites a human host, the parasite enters the bloodstream and
lays dormant within the liver. The host will have no symptoms for an average of 10 days,
but the malaria parasite will begin multiplying during this time.

The new malaria parasites are then released back into the bloodstream, where they infect
red blood cells and multiply further. Some malaria parasites remain in the liver and are
not released until later, resulting in recurrence. An unaffected mosquito becomes infected
once it feeds on an infected individual. This restarts the cycle.

8. How Is Malaria Transmitted

Fortunately, malaria is not contagious except in rare situations; it is not spread directly
from person to person with the following exceptions. A few cases have occurred in other
countries through blood transfusion, intravenous drug abuse with shared needles, or organ
transplantation. An infected mother can spread malaria through the placenta to her unborn
child. Except for these rare situations, transmission only occurs when a person is bitten
by an infected mosquito.

The infected person is not contagious to other individuals, and there is no need to isolate
or quarantine the person to protect others from direct transmission. However, depending
on the local public-health situation, an infected traveler returning home may be asked to
stay indoors until well. Some areas may have mosquitoes that are able to transmit malaria,
and transmission of malaria from a returning traveler by local mosquitoes has been
reported. Public-health authorities may increase mosquito-control measures in the area,
as well, to reduce this risk.

9. Diagnosis of malaria

Your doctor will be able to diagnose malaria. During your appointment, your doctor will
review your health history, including any recent travel to tropical climates. A physical
exam will also be performed. Your doctor will be able to determine if you have
an enlarged spleen or liver. If you have symptoms of malaria, your doctor may order
additional blood tests to confirm your diagnosis.

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These tests will show:

 Whether you have malaria;


 What type of malaria you have;
 If your infection is caused by a parasite that’s resistant to certain types of drugs;
 If the disease has caused anemia;
 If the disease has affected your vital organs.

10. Treatment of malaria

Treatment aims to eliminate the Plasmodium parasite from the patient's bloodstream.
Those without symptoms may be treated for infection to reduce the risk of disease
transmission in the surrounding population. Artemisinin-based combination therapy
(ACT) is recommended by the WHO to treat uncomplicated malaria.

Artemisinin is derived from the plant Artemisia annua, better known as sweet
wormwood. It is known for its ability to rapidly reduce the concentration of Plasmodium
parasites in the bloodstream.

ACT is artemisinin combined with a partner drug. The role of artemisinin is to reduce the
number of parasites within the first 3 days of infection, while the partner drugs eliminate
the rest. Expanding access to ACT treatment worldwide has helped reduce the impact of
malaria, but the disease is becoming increasingly resistant to the effects of ACT. In places
where malaria is resistant to ACT, treatment must contain an effective partner drug.

11. Life-threatening complications of malaria

Malaria can cause a number of life-threatening complications.

 The following may occur:


 Swelling of the blood vessels of the brain, or cerebral malaria;
 An accumulation of fluid in the lungs that causes breathing problems,
or pulmonary edema;
 Organ failure of the kidneys, liver, or spleen;
 Anemia due to the destruction of red blood cells.

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12. Long-term outlook for people with malaria

People with malaria who receive treatment typically have a good long-term outlook. If
complications arise as a result of malaria, the outlook may not be as good. Cerebral
malaria, which causes swelling of the blood vessels of the brain, can result in brain
damage. The long-term outlook for patients with drug-resistant parasites may also be
poor. In these patients, malaria may recur. This may cause other complications.

13. Remedies for malaria

Malaria requires prescription medications and can be fatal if left untreated. Any traveler
to areas where malaria is endemic who develops a fever up to one year after leaving the
area should seek urgent evaluation for malaria, regardless of preventive treatment. There
are no effective home remedies for malaria, and individuals must seek urgent medical
care and follow all medical instructions carefully.

Milder cases of malaria may be treated at home with oral medications and fluids. Severe
infections require IV drug therapy. People who have malaria should drink lots of fluids.
Hydration will not treat or cure malaria, but it will reduce side effects associated
with dehydration.

The choice of drug depends on the species of Plasmodium and if the parasite is drug-
resistant. The risk of drug resistance depends on the area where the malaria was acquired.
Most medications are available only as tablets or pills. Intravenous treatment with
quinidine may be needed in severe malaria or when the patient cannot take oral
medications.

Malaria during pregnancy is very serious even in the best of hands and requires treatment
by someone who is an expert in this area. Complications of malaria in pregnancy can
include premature birth, miscarriage, and stillbirth, as well as severe complications in the
mother. Patients with P. vivax or P. ovale may not be completely cured by the above
medications, even though the symptoms resolve. This is because the parasites can hide in
the liver. A medication called primaquine is used to eradicate the liver form, but this
drug cannot be given to people who are deficient in an enzyme called G6PD.

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14. Prevention of malaria

There are several ways to keep malaria at bay.

15. Vaccination of malaria

Research to develop safe and effective global vaccines for malaria is ongoing, with one
vaccine already licensed for use. It is essential to seek medical attention for suspected
symptoms of malaria as early as possible.

16. Prevention (Advice for travelers)

Travelers to places where malaria is prevalent should take precautions, for example, using
mosquito nets.

While malaria is not endemic to the U.S., travel to many countries around the world
entails a risk.

Travelers are advised to:

 find out what the risk of malaria is in the country and city or region they are
visiting;

 ask their doctor what medications they should use to prevent infection in that
region;

 obtain antimalarial drugs before leaving home, to avoid the risk of buying
counterfeit drugs when away;

 consider the risk for individual travelers, including children, older people,
pregnant women, and the existing medical conditions of any travelers;

 Ensure they will have access to preventative tools, many of which are available to
purchase online. These include insect repellants, insecticides, pre-treated bed
nets, and appropriate clothing.

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17. Conclusion

After researching on Malaria I could understand that Malaria is a life-threatening


mosquito-borne blood disease caused by a Plasmodium parasite. It is transmitted to
humans through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito. Once an infected mosquito bites a
human, the parasites multiply in the host's liver before infecting and destroying red blood
cells. In some places, malaria can be treated and controlled with early diagnosis.
However, some countries lack the resources to do this effectively.

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18. Bibliography

Medically reviewed by Robert Cox, MD. American Board of Internal Medicine with
subspecialty in Infectious Disease.

Brunette, G.W., ed. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012: The Yellow
Book. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

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