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Fundamentals

of Technical
Graphics
Fundamentals
of Technical
Graphics
Volume I

Edward E. Osakue

MOMENTUM PRESS, LLC, NEW YORK


Fundamentals of Technical Graphics, Volume I

Copyright © Momentum Press®, LLC, 2018.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored


in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—­
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brief quotations, not to exceed 400 words, without the prior permission
of the publisher.

First published by Momentum Press®, LLC


222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017
www.momentumpress.net

ISBN-13: 978-1-94708-342-4 (print)


ISBN-13: 978-1-94708-343-1 (e-book)

Momentum Press General Engineering and K-12 Engineering Education


Collection

Cover and interior design by Exeter Premedia Services Private Ltd.,


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Printed in the United States of America


Abstract

Fundamentals of Technical Graphics concentrates on the main concepts


and principles of technical graphics and provides users with the informa-
tion they need most in an easy and straightforward manner. The book is
divided into two volumes: Volume I contains Chapters 1 to 5, w ­ here as
Volume II comprises of Chapters 6 to 10. The chapters and topics are orga-
nized in a sequence that makes learning a gradual transition from one level
to another. However, each chapter is presented in a self-­contained manner
and may be studied separately. In each chapter, techniques are ­presented
for implementing the topics treated. Chapter 1 gives the basic informa-
tion a beginner needs to get started with drafting. ­Chapter 2 focuses on
basic sketching tools and techniques. Chapter 3 ­discusses computer design
drafting (CDD) systems and provides relevant information to make the
student an informed user of the systems. Chapter 4 covers shape con-
struction, the foundation of creating drawing views. Chapter 5 presents
the principles and techniques for creating standard multiview drawings.
Chapter 6 discusses auxiliary view creation, whereas Chapter 7 focuses
on section view creation. Basic dimensioning is covered in ­Chapter 8.
Isometric pictorials are presented in Chapter 9. Working drawings are
covered in Chapter 10, the heart of drafting, and practical information
is provided for creating them. The Appendix provides i­ntroductory dis-
cussions about screw fasteners, general and geometric tolerancing, and
surface quality and symbols.

Keywords

auxiliary views, computer design and drafting (CDD), design, ­dimensioning,


graphics, isometric views, multiview drawings, orthographic projection,
section views, shape construction, technical, working drawings
Contents

List of Figures ix
List of Tables xiii
Preface xv
1  Guidelines for Drafting 1
1.1  Introduction 1
1.2   Conventions and Standards 2
1.3   Drawing Units 4
1.4   Drawing Media 5
1.5   Sheet Layout 7
1.6  Annotations 10
1.7   Linestyles 14
1.8   Precedence of Linestyles 17
1.9   Applying Linestyles 17
1.10  Chapter Review Questions 18
1.11  Chapter Exercises 19
2  Basic Technical Sketching 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2  Sketching Tools 22
2.3  Basic Sketching Techniques 29
2.4  Sketching Graphic Elements 32
2.5  Proportional Sketching 36
2.6  Applications of Sketching 38
2.7  Chapter Review Questions 40
2.8  Chapter Exercises 41
3  Computer Design Drafting Systems 43
3.1 Introduction 43
3.2  Brief History of CDD 44
3.3  Advantages and Disadvantages of CDD 45
viii  •  Contents

3.4   CDD System Elements 45


3.5   The Desktop Computer Hardware 47
3.6   Computer Networks 51
3.7   Types of Computer Graphics 52
3.8   Some CDD Software Features 53
3.9   Creating a CDD Drawing 56
3.10  CDD Productivity 56
3.11 Data Organization and Computer Care 59
3.12  Chapter Review Questions 60
3.13  Chapter Exercises 61
4  Geometric and Shape Constructions 65
4.1 Introduction 65
4.2  Constructing Geometric Elements 65
4.3  Constructing Basic Shapes 75
4.4  Composition of Compound Shapes 81
4.5  Chapter Review Questions 85
4.6  Chapter Exercises 86
5  Standard Orthographic Drawing Views 91
5.1  Introduction 91
5.2   Projection Types 91
5.3  Orthographic Projection Concepts and Assumptions 93
5.4   Object Planes and Features 94
5.5   Bounding Box Concept 95
5.6  Visualizing an Orthographic View Projection 96
5.7   Drawing Views 97
5.8   Nonunique Views 101
5.9   Required Views and Placement 101
5.10  Constructing Standard Multiviews 103
5.11  Generating Views from Solid Models 107
5.12  Checklist for Multiview Drawings 109
5.13  Chapter Review Questions 109
5.14  Chapter Exercises 110
About the Author 115
Index 117
List of Figures

Figure 1.1.  Drawing sheet orientations. 7


Figure 1.2.  Sheet layout elements. 8
Figure 1.3.  A simple bill of materials. 9
Figure 1.4.  Vertical characters. 11
Figure 1.5.  Inclined characters. 11
Figure 1.6.  Drawing with tolerances 12
Figure 1.7.  Leader, balloon, and callout. 12
Figure 1.8.   Samples of fonts. 13
Figure 1.9.  
Linestyles. 15
Figure 1.10. Drawing view with different linestyles. 17
Figure 1.11. Use of centerline and center mark. 18
Figure 2.1.  Freehand sketching tools. (a) Wooden pencils.
(b) Eraser. (c) Pencil sharpener. 22
Figure 2.2.  Common grid papers. (a) Ortho-grid paper.
(b) Iso-grid paper. 24
Figure 2.3.  Portable drawing board and T-square. 25
Figure 2.4.  Triangles. (a) 45° Triangle. (b) 60°/30° Triangle. 26
Figure 2.5.  Adjustable triangle. 26
Figure 2.6.  
180° Protractor.26
Figure 2.7.  
Compass. 27
Figure 2.8.  Friction divider. 27
Figure 2.9.  Drafting tape roll. 28
Figure 2.10. French curve. 28
Figure 2.11. Spline curve. 28
x  •   List of Figures

Figure 2.12.  Strokes for freehand lettering. 30


Figure 2.13.  Line sketching. (a) Horizontal line. (b) Vertical line.
(c) Inclined line 32
Figure 2.14a. Angle sketching with rule of two. 33
Figure 2.14b. Angle sketching with rule of three. 33
Figure 2.15.  Arc sketching. 34
Figure 2.16.  Curve sketching. 35
Figure 2.17.  Circle sketching. 35
Figure 2.18a. Ellipse prolate sketching. 36
Figure 2.18b. Ellipse oblate sketching. 36
Figure 2.19.  Proportional sketching of a single view object using
ortho-grid paper. (a) Drawing. (b) Outline proportions.
(c) Block the major internal features. (d) Block the
minor internal feature. (e) Sketch internal and external
features. (f) Finish features and darken visible lines
and arcs. 37
Figure 2.20.  Blocking and proportional sketching. 38
Figure 2.21.  Gear arm. 38
Figure 2.22.  Form roll lever. 39
Figure 2.23.  Multiview sketch. 39
Figure 2.24.  Multiview sketch. 39
Figure 2.25.  Isometric sketch. 40
Figure 2.26.  Isometric sketch. 40
Figure 3.1.   CDD system elements. 46
Figure 3.2.    Desktop computer system. 48
Figure 3.3.   Laptop computer. 48
Figure 3.4.   Hardcopy processing devices. (a) Printer. (b) Plotter.
(c) Scanner. 50
Figure 3.5.   Computer network. 52
Figure 3.6.    Data organization in a computer. 59
Figure P3.1.  Title block. 63
Figure 4.1.   Absolute and polar coordinate techniques.
(a) Absolute. (b) Polar. 66
Figure 4.2.   Relative coordinates technique. (a) Direct option.
(b) ORTHO option. 67
List of Figures   •   xi

Figure 4.3.   Creating arc from a circle. 69


Figure 4.4.    Creating a fillet with the fillet tool. 69
Figure 4.5.   Fillet arc tangent to two lines. 71
Figure 4.6.   Fillet arc tangent to a line and another arc. 71
Figure 4.7.   Small fillet arc tangent to two arcs. 73
Figure 4.8.   Large fillet arc tangent to two arcs. 74
Figure 4.9.   Rectangle by the ORTHO method. (a) Bottom H-line.
(b) Right V-line. (c) Top H-line. (d) Finished rectangle. 76
Figure 4.10.  Rectangle by the offset technique. 77
Figure 4.11.  Circumscribed hexagon. 78
Figure 4.12.  Inscribed hexagon. 79
Figure 4.13.  Creating a circle. 80
Figure 4.14.  Creating an ellipse. 81
Figure 4.15.  Creating a compound shape. (a) Create a rectangle.
(b) Create circles. (c) Create a central H-line.
(d) Trim inner circle arcs. (e) Create centerlines.
(f) Scale centerline and finish. 82
Figure 4.16a. Arc shape layout. 83
Figure 4.16b. Arc shape. 83
Figure 4.17.  View drawing. 84
Figure 4.18.  Creating a drawing view. 84
Figure 4.19.  Shape layout. 85
Figure 5.1.   Basic types of projection. (a) Parallel projection.
(b) Perspective projection. 92
Figure 5.2.   Normal faces. 94
Figure 5.3.   Non-normal faces. 94
Figure 5.4.   Planar and oblique faces. 94
Figure 5.5.   Bounding box and principal dimensions. 95
Figure 5.6.   Image box and object. 97
Figure 5.7.   Object views on principal planes. 97
Figure 5.8.   Image box faces and principal planes. 98
Figure 5.9.   Layout of six principal views on flat paper. 98
Figure 5.10.  Spatial and planar quadrants. (a) Spatial layout.
(b) Planar layout (Right view). 99
xii  •   List of Figures

Figure 5.11.  First angle projection. 99


Figure 5.12.  Third angle projection. 99
Figure 5.13.  U.S. standard views. 100
Figure 5.14.  European standard views. 100
Figure 5.15.  Principal dimensions and drawing layout.
(a) Object principal dimensions. (b) Layout of
standard views. 101
Figure 5.16.  Nonunique side views. 102
Figure 5.17.  Placement and alignment of multiviews. (a) Correct
placement and alignment.(b) Top view not aligned.
(c) Front view not aligned.(d) Right view not aligned. 103
Figure 5.18a. Object. 104
Figure 5.18b. Bounding box. 104
Figure 5.19.  Front view choice, local axes, and view directions.
(a) Front view choice. (b) Axes and view directions. 105
Figure 5.20.  View layout. (a) Top and front views’ boundaries.
(b) Bounding blocks for views. 106
Figure 5.21.  Development of views. (a) Visible features
development. (b) Hidden features development. 106
Figure 5.22.  Completed views. 107
Figure 5.23.  Generated views of a component. 108
Figure 5.24.  Plain multiview drawing. 108
List of Tables

Table 1.1.  Some ANSI/ASME Y14 standards 3


Table 1.2.  Some ISO drawing standards 3
Table 1.3.  Drawing units 4
Table 1.4.  Standard paper sizes 6
Table 2.1.  Freehand and instrument sketching 31
Table 3.1.  Generic layers 58
Table 3.2.  Linear units for some disciplines 59
Table 4.1.  Coordinates of points 66
Table 5.1.  Principal views and dimensions 101
Preface

The technical educational environment has changed dramatically in the


last few decades. Instructors and students in design technology, engineer-
ing technology, engineering and related disciplines are faced with lim-
ited study time but with increasing information for training in technical
­graphics. Contact hours for lectures and laboratories in technical graphics
have been shrinking, but product design continues to grow in complexities
and time to market continues to shrink! New design tools, which are largely
computer based, come into the workplace at astonishing speed. There are
more materials to cover but in fewer contact hours. These challenges need
serious considerations and this book is written to address them.
Fundamentals of Technical Graphics is designed for instruction and
study with students and instructors of engineering, engineering tech-
nology, and design technology in mind. It should be useful to technical
consultants, design project managers, Computer Design Drafting (CDD)
managers, design supervisors, design engineers, and everyone interested in
learning the fundamentals of design drafting. The book is written with full
cognizance of current standards of American National Standards I­ nstitute/
American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ANSI/ASME). The style is
plain and discussions are straight to the point. Its principal goal is meeting
the needs of first- and second-year students in engineering, engineering
technology, design technology, and related disciplines.
No assumption is made about the user’s previous knowledge or
skills in design drafting. Similarly no one CDD package is discussed.
­Principles and techniques are presented in generic styles so that users can
develop their skills with available CDD package(s). Acquaintance with
the computer and basic operating system functionalities may be initially
helpful but not required. Basic computer skills such as booting, launch-
ing a ­program, creating folders and subfolders, saving files, and backing
up documents are necessary but not required because these skills can be
learned easily in a few weeks in a design drafting class.
xvi  •  Preface

Fundamentals of Technical Graphics concentrates on the main con-


cepts and principles of technical graphics and provides users with the
information they need most in an easy and straightforward manner. The
book is separated into two volumes: Chapters 1 to 5 are contained in
­Volume I, while Chapters 6 to 10 are contained in Volume II. The c­ hapters
and topics are organized in a sequence that makes learning a gradual tran-
sition from one level to another. However, each chapter is presented in
a self-­contained fashion and may be studied separately. In each chapter,
techniques are presented for implementing the topics treated. These tech-
niques are largely computer based but are discussed in such a way that they
can be carried out with freehand or instrument sketching. CDD has grad-
ually replaced traditional or board drafting and design, so there appears to
be no real need to focus on board drafting skills. Actually, through free-
hand sketching, the principles of design drafting can be taught effectively
and practice with the computer made easier. This is because the principles
of traditional drafting and design are applicable in CDD environments, but
the implementation techniques are different.
Design Graphics Fundamentals is highly condensed so as to max-
imize the use of production materials. I hope students and teachers, the
­primary audience, will find the book a valuable resource and enjoy using
it. I am deeply grateful to Momentum Press’ dedicated team of reviewers
for their professional critique and invaluable suggestions. Many thanks
to the hundreds of students who have taken my drafting courses for
their suggestions and critiques over the years. I am profoundly grateful
to my wife and children who had to miss me while being busy with my
“books”! Please feel free to inform me of any error found and comment(s)
for improvement will be highly appreciated. All communications should
please be channeled through the Publisher.
Edward E. Osakue
January, 2018.
CHAPTER 1

Guidelines for Drafting

1.1 Introduction

Drafting is the process of creating technical drawings consisting of two-­


dimensional (2D) images and annotations, and the term draughting is used
to describe the language of drafting in this book. Draughting defines the
terminology, symbology, conventions, and standards used in drafting. It is
the universal technical language that is used for clearly and accurately
describing the form, size, finish, and color of a graphic design model for
construction or recording. Draughting guidelines deal with standards and
conventions in drawing media, lettering, linestyes, projection standards,
plot scales, dimensioning rules, sectioning rules, and so on. In this chapter,
we will concentrate mainly on drawing media, lettering, and linestyles,
while others will be discussed in the appropriate chapters.
The 2D images in drafting are constructed from lines and curves,
while annotations are composed from characters. 2D technical drawings
may be created using axonometric and perspective principles. Axonomet-
ric drawings are 2D drawings obtained by applying orthogonal projection
principles to three-dimensional (3D) objects and include orthographic,
isometric, dimetric, and trimetric drawings. Pictorial drawings such as
isometric and perspective drawings mimic 3D objects in appearance, but
are made of 2D entities by composition. Most technical drawings are of
the orthographic and isometric types, which are the focus of this book.
Some standards and conventions apply to both lines and characters in
drafting, and they must be learned and used correctly. Therefore, draft-
ing skills involve learning to correctly apply the rules of draughting in
creating acceptable or industry standard technical drawings. Proficiency
in drafting involves being able to create high-quality technical drawings,
so becoming proficient in drafting must be a commitment executed with
determined effort.
2  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

1.2  Conventions and Standards

Draughting principles, conventions, rules, and standards help to minimize


misinterpretations of drawing contents and eliminate errors in the commu-
nication of technical ideas. Conventions are commonly accepted practices,
methods, or rules used in technical drawings. Standards are sets of rules
established through voluntary agreements that govern the representation
of technical drawings. Standards ensure clear communication of technical
ideas. The design drafter must study and understand these conventions and
standards and learn to apply them correctly in practice. For example, good
technical drawings are achieved by following some principles such as:

1. Keeping all lines black, crisp, and consistent.


2. Using different linestyles.
3. Ensuring clarity in linestyle differences such as in thickness or
line weight.
4. Ensuring dashes have consistent spacing with definite endpoints.
5. Keeping guide or construction lines very thin.
6. Ensuring that corners are sharp and without overlap in drawing
views.
7. Placing dimension with thoughtfulness and adequate spacing.
8. Making notes simple and concise.
9. Making drawing readability a high priority.
10. Ensuring a pleasing drawing layout.

Principles one to six are largely built into computer design draft-
ing (CDD) software or packages. This means the CDD operator need
not worry about them, except know what linestyle to use for different
­features of objects and assign appropriate line weight or thickness. How-
ever, principles 7 to 10 must be mastered and consistently applied. These
have bearings on accuracy, legibility, neatness, and visual pleasantness
of drawings.
There are national and international organizations that develop
and manage the development of standards. Examples are the ­American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standardiza-
tion Organization (ISO). ANSI is a federation of government, private
companies, professional, technical, trade, labor, and consumer organiza-
tions that serve as a clearinghouse for nationally coordinated voluntary
standards. The standards may deal with dimensions, rating, test meth-
ods, safety and performance specifications for equipment, products and
components, symbols and terminology, and so on. Major c­ ontributors
Guidelines for Drafting   •  3

Table 1.1.  Some ANSI/ASME Y14 standards


Item Section
Size and format Y14.1
Lettering and linestyles Y14.2
Projections Y14.3
Pictorial drawings Y14.4
Dimensioning and tolerancing Y14.5M
Screw threads Y14.6
Gears, splines, and serrations Y14.7
Mechanical assemblies Y14.14

to ANSI standards include American Society of Mechanical Engi-


neers (ASME), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE),
­American Society for Testing Metals (ASTM), and so on. Drafting stan-
dards are specified in ANSI Y14 documents, which give only the charac-
ter of the graphic language. It is to contain 27 or more separate sections
when completed. ANSI/ASME Y14.2, Y14.3, and Y14.5M are popular
draughting standards in the United States Sample sections of the stan-
dard are given Table 1.1.
ISO is a nongovernmental worldwide body that coordinates stan-
dards development process in virtually every area of human activities.
It is located in Switzerland and was founded in 1947. Membership
includes over 150 countries, with each country represented by one
national standards institution. ANSI is the U.S. representative to ISO.
ANSI standards are usually similar but not identical to ISO standards.
The design drafter must be diligent in adhering to the standards that
are relevant to a particular work. Table 1.2 gives some ISO drawing
standards documents.

Table 1.2.  Some ISO drawing standards


Item Section
Technical drawings: sizes and layout of drawing ISO 5457
sheets
Technical drawings: general principles of ISO 128
­presentation
Technical drawings: methods of indicating surface ISO 1302
texture
General tolerances ISO 2768
4  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

1.3 Drawing Units

All engineering drawings must carry a unit of measure. This is required so


that the drawing sizes can be correctly interpreted. Because graphics have
linear and angular attributes, the units of length and angles are indispens-
able in drafting and design.

1.3.1  Units of Length

The SI unit of length is the meter. The English or U.S. customary unit of
length is the foot (ft). Table 1.3 shows the length denominations for SI and
English units. English units are still in use in North America, especially in
the United States.
The SI linear unit for drafting is the millimeter. Mechanical draw-
ings are dimensioned in millimeter (mm). Architectural drawings may be
dimensioned in millimeter (mm) and meter (m). Meter and kilometer (km)
are used for civil dimensioning. Only decimals are used in metric dimen-
sioning; fractions are not allowed. For numbers less than 1.0, which must
be expressed as decimals, a zero before the decimal marker is preferred.
For example, 0.234 is preferred to .234. The period symbol is the decimal
marker in this example.
In English units, mechanical drawings are dimensioned in decimal
inches, architectural drawings are commonly dimensioned in feet (‘), and
fractional inches and civil drawings are dimensioned in decimal feet and
inches. Drawings in metric units carry a general note such as “all dimen-
sions are in millimeter, unless otherwise stated” or the label “METRIC.”

Table 1.3.  Drawing units


SI: meter (m) Customary: Inch (in)-foot (ft)
1 m = 1,000 mm = 103 mm 1 in = 16 lines
1 m = 100 cm = 102 cm 1 ft = 12 inches
1 km = 1,000 m = 103 m 1 in = 25.4 mm

1.3.2  Units of Angle

Angle refers to the relative orientation of lines on a plane or the relative


orientation of planes in space and is measured in degrees (o) or radians.
There are 360 degrees in a circle; 60 minutes in a degree; and 60 seconds
Guidelines for Drafting   •  5

in a minute. The radian is the SI unit of angular measure. One radian is


approximately 57.3°. However, the degree is the unit of angular measure
in technical drawings.

1.4 Drawing Media

Drawing media are physical materials that can retain graphic and textual
information for a reasonable time period when placed on their surfaces.
They are used to produce hard or paper copies of models and drawings.
Certain characteristics make these media suitable for drawings and include
smoothness, eraseability, dimensional stability, transparency, durabil-
ity, and cost. Smoothness describes the ease of the media to accept lines
and letters without excessive effort. Eraseability describes the ease of the
media to allow lines and letters to be erased and cleaned-up. Ghosting
is a term used to describe the mark left after lines are erased. The more
visible they are, the poorer the eraseability. Dimensional stability refers
to the ability of the media to retain size in varying weather conditions.
Transparency allows drawings on one side of the media to be visible on
the other side. This used to be an important characteristic in traditional
drafting, but photocopying technology and plotter capabilities today make
this requirement a noncritical factor. Durability refers to the ability of the
media to resist normal usage wear and tear. Wear and tear is ever present
because wrinkles develop with usage that renders drawings difficult to
read or reproduce. Drawing media include bond stationary, vellum, mylar,
grid papers, and tracing papers.
Bond stationary or plain paper is good for all types of technical draw-
ing. They are made from wood pulp of higher quality than newsprint. How-
ever, they have low durability. There are different grades of plain paper in
the market. The better ones are whiter and smoother. Plain papers should be
preferably used for sketches, exploratory design drawings, and check prints.
Vellum is the most popular drafting paper. It is specially designed to
accept pencil marks and ink. It has good smoothness and transparency, but
susceptible to humidity and other weather conditions. This makes it not to
be very stable dimensionally. Some brands have better eraseability.
Mylar is a plastic type (polyester) drafting material that has excellent
dimensional stability, eraseability, durability, and transparency. It takes
ink easily, but it is expensive and requires special polyester lead for draw-
ing on it. It is, thus, used for very high-quality jobs or when cost is not
a factor. Mylar may have single or double working (mat) surfaces. The
single mat surface is more common.
6  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

Tracing paper is a translucent medium that is good when the need


to reduce manual repetitive work is considerable. It can also be used to
obtain a final sketch if the original sketch was drawn on a grid paper. The
grid background is not traced in this case. Tracing is a fast and accurate
method of reproducing an existing drawing manually.
Grid papers are especially helpful for good alignment and propor-
tioning of features on drawings when sketching. Advantage should be
taken of them whenever available. The square grid is used for sketch-
ing orthographic views, and isometric grid is used for sketching isometric
views. These grid papers are very common.

1.4.1  Drawing Sheet or Paper Sizes

Paper or sheet sizes have been standardized by ANSI and ISO. Standard
drafting papers are available in sheet or roll form. Table 1.4 summarizes
the standard paper or sheet sizes for English (ANSI) and metric (ISO)
applications with metric as preferred units. The sizes are the overall
dimensions of the sheets without allowance for margins. Roll sheets come
in different widths and lengths with the width usually equal to one of the
standard sheet dimensions as shown in Table 1.4. Metric roll sizes vary
from 297 to 420 mm in width. Large metric sheet sizes are cut from metric
rolls. Roll sizes in English unit vary in width from 18” to 48”, and the
usual length of a roll is 100’ long. In English unit, large sheet sizes F, G,
H, J, and K are cut from rolls. In most situations, the paper size is specified
by the company or stated in a given problem.

Table 1.4.  Standard paper sizes


Metric sizes (mm) English sizes (inches)
A4 210 × 297 A 8.5 × 11
A3 297 × 420 B 11 × 17
A2 420 × 594 C 17 × 22
A1 594 × 841 D 22 × 34
A0 841 × 1189 E 34 × 44

1.4.2 Sheet Orientation

Standard drawing sheet may be oriented with the long-side horizontal and
the short-side vertical as shown in Figure 1.1a. This type of orientation
is known as landscape and is generally preferred for sheet sizes B, C, D,
and E in English unit or sheet sizes A3, A2, A1, and A0 in metric unit.
Guidelines for Drafting   •  7

  (a) Landscape (b) Portrait


Figure 1.1.  Drawing sheet orientations.

Occasionally, portrait orientation, as shown in Figure 1.1b, is used, but is


largely limited to A-size sheet in English unit and A4-size sheet in metric
unit. In this layout, the short length of the sheet is horizontal and the long
side is vertical.

1.5 Sheet Layout

Drafting paper layout refers to the arrangement of information on the


paper. Figure 1.2 shows the general layout of a template drawing sheet.
Broadly, the information in a drawing sheet may be classified into two
groups of technical and administrative. The technical information consists
of drawing views and annotations. Annotation depends on the amount of
details desired in a drawing and may include dimensions and tolerances,
notes, and bill of materials in assembly drawings. The technical informa-
tion usually takes the greater portion of the drawing sheet. Administrative
information on a standard drawing sheet includes title block and revision
block information. A margin is provided at the four edges (top, bottom,
left, and right) of the sheet and is defined by the border line (not shown
in Figure 1.2) that is drawn at some distance from the edge. They provide
spaces for filing and handling the sheet. Based on ANSI recommenda-
tions, top, bottom, and right-side margins are in the range of 12.5 mm
(1/2”) to 25 mm (1”), depending on the paper size. The left-side margin is
often between 12.5 mm (1/2”) to 40 mm (1–1/2”) to allow for binding of
sheets. Drawing views depend on the type of documentation required, and
annotation content will vary accordingly.
8  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

1.5.1 Zoning

Zoning is a technique used in large paper sizes to aid in quickly locat-


ing information on a drawing. It involves assigning spaced numbers
on the top and bottom margins of a sheet and spaced letters on the left
and right margins as shown in Figure 1.2. This creates a grid system on
the drafting paper that is similar to that used for reading information
on maps. A zone is defined by the intersection of a letter segment and
a number segment. As a zone is a very small section of the drawing
paper, locating a piece of information in it is fast. The hatched block in
Figure 1.2 is for zone B3.

Revision
block area
Views, dimensions, and notes area

Title block area

Figure 1.2.  Sheet layout elements.

1.5.2 Title Block

By ANSI standard, a title block should be located on the lower-right


­corner of the drawing sheet. Though different title block designs are used
by companies, the information contained in them is fairly general. Most
information in a title block includes:

1. Company: name, address, phone number.


2. Project/Client: project number and title or client’s name and
address.
3. Drawing: name or title or number.
4. Personnel: designer, drafter, checker, approver.
5. Scale: ratio of design and drawing sizes.
6. Date: completion date of drawing or project.
7. Sheet: size and number (page) of sheets in drawing set.
8. Revisions block: a block for revision notes.
Guidelines for Drafting   •  9

9. General tolerance: tolerance applied to a size when unspecified.


10. Projection type symbol: first or third angle.

1.5.3  Bill of Materials (BOM)

An assembly drawing should have a bill of materials (BOM) or parts


list. It is usually a table list of the parts or components in an assembly.
­Figure 1.3 shows a sample of a simple BOM. By ANSI standard, it should
be located on the lower-right corner of the drawing sheet. Important infor-
mation in BOM is part name, item number, part material, quantity, part
number, or catalog number for standard parts. The item number is the
number assigned to a component in a particular assembly drawing, a form
of local identification and can change with different assembly drawings.
The part number is a fixed number assigned to that specific component, a
form of company or global identification and should not change for dif-
ferent drawings. Other information like weight and stock size may also be
included in the parts list.

Bill of materials
Item # Name Oty
1 Shaft 1
2 Gear 1
3 Flange 1
4 Sleeve 1
5 Retainer 1
6 Wood ruff key
7 Pulley 1
8 P & W key 1
9 Bearing 2
10 Hex. slotted nut 1
11 Hex. jain nut 1
12 Cotter pin 1
13 Seal 1
14 Hex. cap screw 4
Figure 1.3.  A simple bill of materials.

1.5.4 Revision Block

A revision block is of the same format as a BOM, but tracks changes


made on a component or assembly drawing. It is often located on the top
10  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

right-hand corner of the drawing sheet ad indicated in Figure 1.2. Changes


on working drawings (prototype and production design drawings) must
be approved, so each company usually has a documentation process in
place that must be strictly followed. Preliminary design drawings may
be changed without following this process, but with the approval of the
engineer or designer. Some of the information items in a revision block
may include date, change reason, requester, previous and new sizes, and
approved by.

1.6 Annotations

The textual information and symbols added to models and drawing views
for complete documentation of design are commonly called annotations.
When annotation is done manually, it is called lettering, which used to be a
tedious and time-consuming task. But, things are quite different now with
computers; they have greatly increased the speed and quality of lettering.
Text information consists of groups of characters that express meaning,
which could be words, phrases, and or sentences. In technical graphics, the
aim is to communicate clearly and legibly so as to avoid misinterpretation
of intent and purpose. The factors that can greatly affect legibility are:

1. Font
2. Character size (text height)
3. Character spacing
4. Word spacing
5. Line spacing (leading)

1.6.1 Lettering Conventions

Characters have different model designs known as fonts. A font is a set or


family of character design with specific attributes that determine the print
appearance of the characters. The attributes hold the information about the
character set. Simpler font styles are easier to read; therefore, open clean-
cut characters are the best for drafting. ANSI standard font for lettering in
technical graphics is single-stroke Gothic font. Each character in this font
is made up of a single straight or curved line element. This makes it easy
to draw the characters and make them clear to read. There are uppercase,
lowercase, and inclined Gothic letters. However, the vertical Gothic letters
have become industry standard. Figure 1.4a shows vertical uppercase let-
ters, Figure 1.4b shows numbers, and Figure 1.4c shows lowercase letters
Guidelines for Drafting   •  11

A B C D E F G H I JK L M N
O P Q R S T U VWX Y Z
(a)
a b c d e f g h ijkl m n
o p qrs t u v wx y z 68º
(b) A B CDEFGH IJ
0123567 89 a b c d e fg h ij
(c) 0 1 23 4 56 7 8 9
Figure 1.4.  Vertical characters. Figure 1.5.  Inclined characters.

and proportion, and ho is the symbol for text or character height in the
figure. Characters in annotations may be inclined from the horizontal at
an angle defined by 5/2 (rise over run), approximately 68 degrees ANSI as
shown in Figure 1.5.
An important attribute of a font is the text height or font size. Text
height is measured in linear unit of mm (inch). The ANSI recommended
text height is 3 mm (1/8”). The width of characters varies depending on
the specific font. Some characters are narrow like I and others wide like W.
The ratio of a character height to the width is described as width factor or
aspect ratio. Common aspect ratios for characters are 5/6, 1, and 4/3. The
spacing between words should be approximately equal and a minimum of
1/16” (1.5 mm) is recommended. A full character height for word spacing
is preferred. The spacing between lines should be at least half the text
height, but preferably a full text height. Sentences should be separated by
at least one text height; however, if space allows, two text heights should
be used.
Annotation information may be divided into two categories of
technical and administrative information. Administrative information
includes revision notes and title block. Revision notes are used for doc-
ument control and record-keeping of changes in design. The title block
contains vital information about the company and the drawing. Techni-
cal information includes BOM, dimensions, notes, and specifications.
Dimensions are the size values of objects, and tolerances are permissible
variations on object sizes. The sizes and tolerances shown on drawing
views must be the functional or design sizes and tolerances as specified
by the engineer or designer. In Figure 1.6, the diameter size of 20 mm has
a tolerance of 0.05 mm. Annotation symbols are commonly used for geo-
metric tolerancing and dimensioning (GD&T). Notes are explanatory or
required information needed on models and drawings for proper interpre-
tation. There are two types of notes found in drawings: general and local
notes. General notes apply to the whole drawing and may be placed in
12  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

Metric 36.87º ± 0.25º


+0.05
ø20 0

50

30
25±0.05

32.5±0.05
65

Figure 1.6.  Drawing with tolerances

ø 25.75 M10×1.5

Leader line Callout

2
M6×1
Callout
Balloon

Figure 1.7.  Leader, balloon, and callout.

the title block or at the bottom of a drawing view area. Local notes apply
only to a ­portion or specific features in a drawing and are placed close to
the feature referenced. A leader line can link a local note to a feature or
portion of a drawing; callouts and balloons are special formats of placing
local notes. Figure 1.7 shows examples of a leader, balloon, and callout.
Balloons are local notes placed inside a shape (circle, diamond, etc.).
Callouts are local notes placed without a shape. Notes should be made
simple and concise. Specifications are technical requirements and are
usually about material type, processing, and finishing. They often appear
as general notes or are put together as separate documents. Leader lines
are thin continuous lines used to direct information to specific features
in a drawing. A leader line has an arrow head, an inclined segment, and
a horizontal segment as a tail. The inclined segment connects the arrow
head with the horizontal segment.
Annotation in CDD is much easier than lettering. CDD letters are
neat, consistent, stylish, and can be created with speed and accuracy.
Guidelines for Drafting   •  13

Many fonts are available in the CDD software, so there is a tendency to


use several fonts in CDD lettering. However, this should be limited, per-
haps to two or three. Figure 1.8 shows a sample of fonts. In architectural
drawings, Country blueprint and City Blueprint are popular fonts, while
Simplex font is popular in mechanical drafting. Placing text in CDD draw-
ings requires decisions on text height and inclination angle at the least.
The inclination angle of text is 90° by default, but this could be changed.
The recommended inclination angle is about 68°. The position of the text
is often selected by clicking with a mouse. Text alignment or justifica-
tion is important in CDD lettering because it affects document appearance
and readability. Text can be aligned to the left (left justified), aligned to
the center (center justified), or aligned to the right (right justified). Texts
that are aligned on both left and right edges are referred to as fully justi-
fied. In technical notes, text should be left justified. Character, word, and
line spacing have been discussed earlier and in CDD packages; they have
default settings that may be changed if desired. Fonts can be formatted by
applying different treatments like bold, italic, and underline. These are
called special effects. They add aesthetics and emphasis to annotations.
The plot height of a character is the actual size on a printed sheet and
may be small print, normal print, or large print. Normal print is the recom-
mended ANSI text height of 3 mm (0.125”). Normal print is used within
the drawing views area and works fine for average-sized sheets such as A4
(A-size) and A3 (B-size). Dimensions, notes, and specifications should be
printed in normal print or standard height. Small prints are smaller than
the normal prints and are used when space is limited. They may vary in
height from 1.5 to 2.5 mm. It is often used in revision blocks and part lists
or BOM. Plot height in large prints can vary from 5 to 10 mm (0.188” to
0.375”). They are used for headers, view names, titles, labels, and num-
bers in title blocks. For large-sized sheets, text height of 0.175 to 0.25”
(5–6 mm) is common, but may be as high as 0.375 (10 mm). Text height
for zone letters and numbers is usually larger than those for dimensions or
tolerances. Uncrowded text (high aspect ratio) is easy to read, but needs
more space than crowded text (small aspect ratio). Some companies may

Font name Lowercase Uppercase


Arial Lettering LETTERING
Century Gothic Lettering LETTERING
Helvetica Lettering LETTERING
Impact Lettering LETTERING
Simplex Lettering LETTERING

Figure 1.8.  Samples of fonts.


14  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

prefer crowded text to uncrowded; however, clean and easy-to-read anno-


tations should be the goal. It is good practice to find out what the conven-
tion is in your company and stick to it! The design drafter must choose a
plot size that is legible and comfortable when hard copies are made. Small
plot sizes tend to be hard on the eyes and should normally be avoided.
In CDD situations, there are two aspects of text height: plot size and
screen size. The plot size is the actual text height value on a printed or
plotted document. ANSI-recommended plot size for small sized drawings
is 3 mm (0.125”). The screen text size in CDD is the text display size on
the monitor screen of the computer. This may be different from the plot
size if a drawing is not full scale in the default workspace of a CDD pack-
age. In this case, a screen factor must be applied to the desired plot size for
comfortable reading or viewing on the screen. The screen text height is the
plot size times the screen factor in reduction scaling where the image plot
size is smaller than the image design size. The screen text size is the plot
size divided by the screen factor in enlargement scaling where the image
plot size is larger than the image design size. Reduction scaling is com-
mon in macro-technology products while enlargement scaling is common
in micro- or nano-technology products. The ANSI standard plot or print
text height of 3 mm (1/8”) works well with A4-size (metric) or A-size
(English) sheet. For other sheet sizes, some adjustment in text height may
be necessary for comfortable reading of prints.

1.7 Linestyles

Linestyle describes the visual appearance of lines on papers and monitor


screens. Drafting uses different linestyles and symbols to describe object
models, especially in describing details of 3D graphics in 2D space. Good
line quality is essential for accurate communication of drawings. CDD
linestyles are crisp, consistent, clear, and different line thickness (or line-
weight) and colors can be assigned to them. Their dashes have consistent
spacing and constant width. Figure 1.9 shows some linestyles.
There are two fundamental linestyles, namely, continuous (solid) and
broken lines. Continuous lines have no gaps but broken lines do. Contin-
uous line variants include visible (object), construction, extension, and
border lines. These lines are distinguished by thickness or width. ANSI
recommends two line weights of thick and thin, with the thick being twice
the line weight of the thin. Thick lines have width greater than 0.3 mm
and thin lines have width of 0.3 mm or less. Visible and border lines are
thick, while guidelines, construction, and extension lines are thin. Broken
lines have visible gaps between consecutive line segments. The length of
Guidelines for Drafting   •  15

Thick line (0.6 mm)


Thin line (0.3 mm)

Visible line

Hidden line

Center line

Cutting plane lines

Dimension line
Extension line
158.31
Dimension line terminator

Short brake

Long brake

Phantom line

Section (hatch) line

Stitch (dot) line

Figure 1.9. Linestyles.

dash lines can vary from 3 to 10 mm (1/8”–3/8”), and the gap can vary
from 1.5 to 3 mm (1/16”–1/8”). Thickness of lines and length of dashes
mentioned here are best for an A-size sheet.
Visible (object) lines are thick continuous (solid) lines that repre-
sent visible edges or outlines of object. Straight edges are formed where
two planes intersect. Curved edges arise from curved faces and surfaces.
­Visible lines should be crisp and black with thickness of 0.40, 0.50, or
0.60 mm, depending and sheet size, but ANSI-recommended thickness of
visible line is 0.60 mm.
Hidden lines are thin dashed lines representing edges that are within
the object or behind some features, and so are not directly seen from a
view direction. The edges are known to be physically present in an object.
Hidden lines generally have dash length of 3 mm (1/8”) and a gap of
1 mm (1/32”), but can vary with sheet size or drawings. The gap is about
16  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

a ­quarter of the dash length. Hidden lines should start or end at visible or
other hidden lines. No gap is allowed between hidden and visible lines.
Centerlines are thin broken lines of alternating long and short strokes
separated by a gap. A centerline is used to show and locate centers of cir-
cles and arcs and to represent lines of symmetry and paths of motion in
objects. Centerlines should cross visible lines with 3 mm or more beyond
them. The gap and short stroke are of equal length. The short stroke is
about a quarter of the long stroke, which is about 10 mm long.
Dimension lines are continuous thin lines used to indicate the value
of a dimension. A dimension line has three elements: the dimension value,
the terminator, and the stem. The stem is the thin line that ends with the
terminators at both ends. The terminator may be arrows (usually filled),
slashes, or filled circles. The dimension value may be placed on top of the
stem or at a broken portion of the stem.
Extension lines are a pair of continuous thin lines used to establish the
extent of a dimension. The extension line references a point on a feature
with a small gap (1.5 mm minimum) between the point and the beginning
of the extension line. They are used in conjunction with dimension lines
and slightly extend beyond the dimension lines about 3 mm. Extension
and dimension lines are always perpendicular.
Phantom lines are thin dashed lines used to identify alternative posi-
tions of moving paths, adjacent positions of related paths, or repetitive
details. A phantom line consists of a long dash, two short dashes, and gaps
between the dashes. Gaps are about 3 mm long but can vary.
Cutting plane lines are used to indicate the position and direction of
view for cutting planes placed on an object model to create section views.
They are also used to indicate auxiliary view plane and direction. Cutting
plane lines are either thick phantom or hidden lines with arrow heads that
are normal to the main lines. The arrows point in the view directions. The
long dash is about five times the short dash. The short dash and gap are of
equal length. Gaps are about 3 mm long but can vary.
Section (hatch) lines are thin inclined lines used to identify a solid
material cut through by a section plane. They form a pattern on the section
affected. Section assembly drawings often have components of different
materials in the section plane. The deferent materials are distinguished by
using different angles for section lines in the section. Section line angles
normally vary between 15° and 75°.
Break lines can be either thin or thick. Long breaks are thin, while
short breaks are thick. They are used to show that some portion of an
object is left out. A short break line is used for small areas of interest and
allows greater details to be shown. Long break lines are used when space
Guidelines for Drafting   •  17

needs to be saved in representing very long objects. Usually, the middle


portion of the object is broken off or the portion without additional infor-
mation is left out.
Stitch lines consist of a series of dots and are also called dot lines.
They may be used as projection lines or guidelines in grid papers used for
freehand sketching.

1.8  Precedence of Linestyles

When lines of different styles overlap or coincide in a view, some take


precedence. Generally, lines of thicker weight take precedence over others
of thinner weight. Visible lines take precedence over all other linestyles.
The following order of precedence is generally accepted: visible, hidden,
cutting plane, centerline, break line, dimension and extension lines, and
hatch line. If more than one linestyles coincide in a view, then the rule of
precedence must be applied.

1.9  Applying Linestyles

Figure 1.10 shows a drawing view with several linestyles used in its rep-
resentation. The visible, hidden, and centerline styles are perhaps the most
frequently used in drawings. Though CDD has highly simplified linestyle

Phantom line (motion path)

Center line
A A

Cutting plane line

Visible line

Hidden line

Phantom line Short break line


(object line)
Section (hatch) line

Extension line
58, 45
Section A-A
Dimension line

Figure 1.10.  Drawing view with different linestyles.


18  •   Fundamentals of Technical Graphics

Center line extends


beyond visible line

Center marks

Figure 1.11.  Use of centerline and center mark.

c­ reation and placements, attention should be paid to the placement of center-


lines. This is because when the length of the horizontal and vertical centerlines
are unequal over a circle or arc, the center mark for the circle or arc will appear
unequal. This does not give a neat appearance in a drawing. One way to fix
this is to draw the centerlines across the circle or arc diameters. Then, scale the
centerlines with a scale factor slightly more than 1.0, say 1.25, 1.3, 1.4, or 1.5.
Figure 1.11 shows the use of centerlines and center marks. Note
that centerlines must not terminate on visible lines. They should extend
beyond visible lines at least 3 mm. The center marks may be used in place
of centerlines in circles or arcs of small radii or when overcrowding of
line types may be a problem. This is due to concern about drawing clarity
and readability, a top priority in graphic communication. Conventions
and standards must be applied to ensure unambiguous communication.
Center marks are easy and fast to apply to drawings in CDD systems.
Linestyle mistakes used to be quite common with board drafting.
However, CDD has largely eliminated these because the coding of the
CDD software can implement consistent and accurate line weight, line
crossing, and display. But, in freehand and instrument sketches, efforts
must be made to avoid these errors.

1.10  Chapter Review Questions

1. Define the terms draughting and drafting as used in this textbook.


2. Define the terms conventions and standards.
Guidelines for Drafting   •  19

3. State the principles for the creation of good technical drawings.


4. What are the meanings of the acronyms ANSI and ISO?
5. What ANSI standard deals with drafting?
6. Which section of ANSI drafting standard is concerned with dimen-
sioning and tolerancing?
7. What measurement units are found or used in drafting?
8. List the first three standard paper sizes in metric system.
9. List the first three standard paper sizes in English system.
10. What are the size specifications of A- and A4 sheets?
11. What information is often shown in a title block?
12. Define zoning as used in drawing sheets.
13. What is annotation? Describe lettering.
14. What are the two fundamental types of linestyles?
15. List three examples of each fundamental type of linestyles.
16. What are the types of line thickness mentioned in this chapter?
17. Distinguish between visible and hidden linestyles. When are they
used in drawings?
18. When are phantom lines used in drawings?
19. Where are centerlines used in drawings?
20. Can centerlines end at visible lines?
21. When can you replace centerlines with center marks?

1.11  Chapter Exercises

Exercise 1

(a) Sketch the following linestyes:


1. Visible line
2. Hidden line
3. Centerline
4. Phantom line

(b) Sketch two circles: one big and the other small. Show centerlines
on the big circle and center marks on the small circle.

Exercise 2

Use freehand sketching to reproduce Figure 1.10 and Figure 1.11, indicat-
ing the linestyles.
Index

A drawing units, 54
American Society for Testing graphic entities, 55
Metals (ASTM), 3 menus and icons, 54
American Society of Mechanical Centerlines, 16
Engineers (ASME), 3 Circle, 79–80
Angle, unit of, 4–5 Circumscribed hexagon, 78–79
Annotations, 10–14 Compass, 27
Application software, 46–47 Compound shapes, 81–85
Architectural drawings, 4 Computer-aided drafting (CAD),
Arcs, 68–69 43
Arc with fillet tool, 70 Computer care, 60
ASME. See American Society of Computer design drafting (CDD)
Mechanical Engineers advantages and disadvantages,
ASTM. See American Society for 45
Testing Metals computer-aided drafting vs., 43
creating drawing, 56
B description of, 2
Bill of materials (BOMs), 9 history of, 44–45
BOMs. See Bill of materials productivity, 56–59
Bond stationary, 5 system elements, 45–47
Bounding box concept, 95–96 Computer graphics, 52–53
Break lines, 16–17 Computer network, 51–52
Continuous lines, 14
C Conventions, 2
CAD. See Computer-aided Coordinate systems, 54–55
drafting Cutting plane lines, 16
CDD. See Computer design
drafting D
CD drive and disk, 49 Data organization, 59–60
CDD software features Desktop computer hardware
coordinate systems, 54–55 CD drive and disk, 49
drawing aids, 55 DVD drive and disk, 49
drawing templates, 55 flash drive and disk, 48
118  •   Index

hard copy devices, 49 fillet arc tangent to line and


hard drive and disk, 48 another arc, 70–72
plotter, 50–51 fillet arc tangent to two lines, 70
printer, 49–50 lines, 66–68
scanner, 51 parallel lines, 68
storage drives and disks, 47–48 points, 66
Dimension lines, 16 small fillet arc tangent to two
Dividers, 27 arcs, 72–75
Drafting, 1 Graphic entities, 55
Drafting tape, 27 Grid papers, 6
Draughting, 1
Drawing aids, 55 H
Drawing media, 5–7 Hard copy devices, 49
Drawing sheet, 6 Hard drive and disk, 48
Drawing sheet layout Hexagon, 77–79
bill of materials, 9 Hidden lines, 15–16
overview of, 7
revision block, 9–10 I
title block, 8–9 IEEE. See Institute of Electrical
zoning, 8 and Electronic Engineers
Drawing templates, 55 IGES. See Initial Graphics
Drawing units, 4–5, 54 Exchange Specifications
DVD drive and disk, 49 Initial Graphics Exchange
Specifications (IGES), 52–53
E Inscribed hexagon, 79
Ellipse, 80–81 Institute of Electrical and
Eraser, 23 Electronic Engineers (IEEE), 3
Extension lines, 16 Instrument sketching technique, 31
Instrument sketching tools, 24
F Irregular curves, 28
File management, 60 ISO drawing standards, 3
Fillet arc tangent
to line and another arc, 70–72 L
to two lines, 70 Lead pencils, 24–25
Flash drive and disk, 48 Length, unit of, 4
Freehand lettering, 29–30 Lettering conventions, 10–14
Freehand sketching technique, 30 Lines, 66–68
Freehand sketching tools, 22 Linestyles
applying, 17–18
G precedence of, 17
Generating views, solid models, types of, 14–17
107–109
Geometric elements M
arcs, 68–69 Mechanical drawings, 4
arc with fillet tool, 70 Mechanical pencils, 24–25
Index   •   119

Menus and icons, 54 Revision block, 9–10


Mylar, 5
S
N Scanner, 51
Nonunique views, 101 Shapes construction
circle, 79–80
O ellipse, 80–81
Operating system, 47 hexagon, 77–79
Orthographic drawing views rectangles, 75–77
bounding box concept, 95–96 Sheet orientation, 6–7
nonunique views, 101 Sketching
object planes and features, 94–95 applications of, 38–40
overview of, 91 definition of, 21
principal dimensions and layout, proportional, 36–38
100–101 technical skills, 21
principal views, 97–98 Sketching angles, 33
projection concepts and Sketching arcs, 34
assumptions, 93–94 Sketching circles, 35
projection standards, 98–100 Sketching ellipses, 35–36
projection types, 91–93 Sketching graphic elements,
required views and placement, 32–36
101–103 Sketching irregular curves, 34–35
standard views, 100 Sketching lines, 32–33
visualizing, 96–97 Sketching techniques
freehand lettering, 29–30
P freehand sketching, 30
Paper, 23 instrument sketching, 31
Paper size, 6 Sketching tools
Parallel lines, 68 compass, 27
Pencil sharpener, 23 dividers, 27
Phantom lines, 16 drafting tape, 27
Plotter, 50–51 eraser, 23
Points, 66 freehand, 22
Portable drawing board, 25 instrument sketching tools, 24
Principal dimensions and layout, irregular curves, 28
100–101 lead or mechanical pencils,
Principal views, 97–98 24–25
Printer, 49–50 paper, 23
Projection standards, 98–100 pencil sharpener, 23
Proportional sketching, 36–38 portable drawing board, 25
Protractors, 26 protractors, 26
templates, 28
R tracing paper, 24
Raster graphics, 53 triangles, 26
Rectangles, 75–77 T-square, 25
120  •   Index

wooden pencils, 22–23 Technical sketching skills, 21


Small fillet arc tangent to two arcs, Templates, 28
72–75 Text style, 57
Solid modeling, generating views, Title block, 8–9
107–109 Tracing paper, 6, 24
Standard for Exchange of Product Triangles, 26
Model Data (STEP), 52–53 T-square, 25
Standard multiview drawing
adding centerlines, 107 U
checklist, 109 Unit of angle, 4–5
drawing hidden features, 106 Unit of length, 4
drawing visible features, User, 46
105–106
envisioning bounding box, 104 V
front view selection, 104–105 Vector graphics, 52–53
layout drawing, 105 Vellum, 5
Standards, 2 Visible (object) lines, 15
Standard views, 100 Visualizing orthographic drawing,
STEP. See Standard for Exchange 96–97
of Product Model Data
Stitch lines, 17 W
Storage drives and disks, 47–48 Wooden pencils, 22–23

T Z
Technical drawings, principles, 2 Zoning, 8