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Running head: MAPPING ADDIE AND SEELS AND GLASGOW MODEL 1

Mapping ADDIE and the Seels and Glasgow Model of Instruction

Luay Askar

California State University, Monterey Bay

Points Description Comments

20/20 Shows a clear mapping between the Good descriptions of both models. I like your
chosen model and the ADDIE mapping of the ADDIE phases to the Seels &
framework. Glasgow model.
15/15 Includes differences between the Good.
two models.
15/15 Avoids giving ADDIE You got the main points of this.
characteristics that it does not Congratulations!
possess—even though various
authors have a tendency to do so
(see Molenda’s article).
8/10 Follows APA style (no abstract APA Style is looking pretty good. See some
required) and basic grammar and comments.
usage Watch turning inanimate ideas (models or
phases) into beings with human qualities. (It
can be a challenge not to, but in formal writing,
we should avoid the temptation.)
See a few comments about minor things.
Brianne has made some helpful wording
suggestions for you.
58/60 Good job, Luay. You’ve clearly learned something about both models. The three types
of ID models from Gustafson & Branch is an interesting addition to your paper.

IST 626

Dr. Jeanne Farrington

May 29, 2018


MAPPING ADDIE AND SEELS AND GLASGOW MODEL 2

Mapping ADDIE and the Seels and Glasgow Model of Instruction

Instructional Design (ID) Models are considered the roadmap for the instructional

designer to develop and implement instruction and they represent real-world problems in a

meaningful and structured manner. “They simplify the complexities of real situations into sets of

generic steps that can be applied in many contexts” (Gustafson and Branch, 2002). There are Commented [JF1]: Add page numbers for quotations.

many ID models that share many of the basic ID principles and patterns.

The ADDIE Model is a flexible and simple instructional model many instructional

designers implement it to accommodate their intended design. During the 1970s, the US Airforce Commented [BF2]: “The ADDIE Model is a flexible and
simple instructional model that many instructional designers
implement to accommodate their intended design.
and Florida State University used the ADDIE Model to design training. Molenda (2003) in his

research concluded that “the ADDIE Model is merely a colloquial term used to describe a

systematic approach to instructional development, virtually synonymous with instructional

systems development (ISD)”. In addition, he mentioned, “what is emerging in the recent

literature is a tendency to accept the ADDIE term as an umbrella term” (p.3).

Seels and Glasgow Model of instruction is a product-oriented instructional model Commented [BF3]: The article is missing for this
compound noun. It would be “The Seels and Glasgow
Model of instruction”.
according to Gustafson’s instructional model development taxonomy. Gustafson (1981) created a

taxonomy where he categorized ID models into classroom-oriented, product-oriented and

system-oriented models. The product-oriented models require a team to produce an instructional

package, also requires an experienced instructional designer to perform front-end analysis. “The Commented [JF4]: package, and they also require (except
that models are not human & cannot require things). Still…
the sentence structure is correct with these changes.
steps in the instructional design phase are interdependent and concurrent and may involve

iterative cycling” (Gustafson and Branch, 2002, p.43). In addition, (Gustafson and Branch, 2002) Commented [BF5]: If you are referencing the authors at
the beginning of a sentence, it would appear like this: “In
addition, Gustafson and Branch (2002) mentioned…’.
mentioned that “the end product is likely to be widely distributed using a moderately to highly

technical delivery media”. The main goal of the model is to improve the efficiency of the product

and it focuses strongly on project management (The Herridge Group Inc., 2004).
MAPPING ADDIE AND SEELS AND GLASGOW MODEL 3

ADDIE Commented [BF6]: This is a Level 1 heading and must be


centered and bold.
The ADDIE Model is an acronym that constitutes a framework for many ID Models’

processes. The US Military and during the 1970s the Florida State University used it to design

training. The acronyms are; Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Commented [BF7]: The US Military and Florida Sate
Univeristy used it during the 1970s to design training.
The five different phases can be used in succession (Analysis > Design > Development >

Implementation > Evaluation) or it can be flexible. According to Farrington, J. (2013),” [i]n the Commented [JF8]: Good point.

right hands, and with a little creativity, ADDIE provides a flexible structure for design”.

Therefore, the instructional phases of ADDIE Model are not only linear but can be iterative and Commented [BF9]: Make sure to include the article for
this noun.
interrelated (figure.1).

Figure 1. An ISD Model featuring the ADDIE processes adapted from Molenda, M. (2003). In

search of the elusive ADDIE model. Retrieved on May 19, 2018, from

http://www.comp.dit.ie/dgordon/Courses/ILT/ILT0004/InSearchofElusiveADDIE.pdf

The interrelated five phases of the ADDIE Model are:


Commented [BF10]: Either include ‘The’ here or use a
semicolon ‘Analysis phase:’/
 Analysis phase identifies the problem and information about the learners, the
Commented [BF11]: The Analysis phase is where the
problem is identified by collecting information about the
environment, and preexisting knowledge are collected. learners, the environment and pre-existing knowledge.
MAPPING ADDIE AND SEELS AND GLASGOW MODEL 4

 Design phase clarifies objectives and documents instructional methods,

activities, storyboards, and contents. Also, this phase documents subject matter

knowledge, lesson outline and the available media for use. Commented [BF12]: In your descriptions of each phase,
you are writing it as if the phase has human qualities of
being able to ‘clarify objectives’ and ‘documenting’.
 Development phase during this phase the instructional designer will build the Somehow show that it is the instructional designer, while
applying these phases, is the one carrying out the action.
model by assembling the material gathered in the design phase that included How you are writing about them is referred to as
anthropomorphizing.

written contents, activities with the interactions, graphics, and media. Commented [BF13]: Here you have written it without
anthropomorphizing = good.
 Implementation phase during this phase the designer will deliver the ID model

for learning or training purposes either to Learning Management Systems or for

use during face-to-face/ live training.

 Evaluation phase this phase consists of formative and summative evaluation

most of the times. The former takes place throughout the design and development

process and can be used to modify the model if required. The latter consists of

tests that take place after the training or the learning material are delivered and

aim at giving an idea whether the preset goals are accomplished or not.

The Seels and Glasgow Model

The Seels and Glasgow ID Model is a product-oriented model. This type of model

requires teamwork with an efficient project manager that works together to deliver instructional

packages. According to Gustafson and Branch (2002), product-oriented modules are Commented [BF14]: This type of model requires a team
and an efficient project manager working together to deliver
instructional packages.
characterized by the presence of the instructional product, something needs to be produced rather

than selected or modified from existing materials, there will be an emphasis on tryout and
Commented [BF15]: There are some problems with the
construction of this sentence. If it is a direct quote, make sure
revision and the product must be usable by learners in the presence of managers or facilitators that you have reproduced it correctly. If you are
paraphrasing, you may need to break it into two sentences as
there are 54 words in this one.
(p.30). The Seels and Glasgow ID Model is divided into three phases: needs analysis,
Commented [BF16]: You are introducing a seconday
source here. See http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-
instructional design, and implementation and evaluation. Presetera explains that the Seels and another-source.aspx
for the correct format for citing secondary sources in-text.
“Presetera explains (as cited in________)..”.
MAPPING ADDIE AND SEELS AND GLASGOW MODEL 5

Glasgow model leads to efficiency in project planning, resource allocation, and the control of the

product development cycle while recognizing that instructional designers are often asked to

either manage a project or work within an established project management framework (Presetera

as cited in The Herridge Group Inc., 2004).

Figure 2. Seels and Glasgow Model adapted from Gustafson, K. and Branch, R. (2002). Survey
of instructional development models. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University. Retrieved May
19, 2018, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED477517.pdf

The Seels and Glasgow Model consists of three phases (figure.2):

 Phase one (Needs Analysis Management Phase): this phase includes a needs

analysis (goals, requirements, and context).

 Phase two (Instructional Design and Management Phase): begins after phase

one is complete according to Gustafson and Branch (2002), and is made up of six

steps: task analysis, instructional analysis, objectives and tests, formative


MAPPING ADDIE AND SEELS AND GLASGOW MODEL 6

evaluation, material development, and instructional strategy and delivery systems

all of which are joined by feedback and interaction as indicated in Figure 2.

 Phase three (Implementation and Evaluation Management Phase): this

includes the development and implementation of the material and is followed by

delivering it for training, and summative evaluation.

The steps and the phases can be applied in a linear fashion or in an iterative manner.

According to Gustafson and Branch (2002), it does not take to complete each step to progress to Commented [BF17]: completing

the next one. “T[t]he steps in the instructional design phase are interdependent and concurrent

and may involve iterative cycling” (Gustafson and Branch, 2002, p.43).

Mapping Addie and Seels and Glasgow Model Commented [BF18]: Level 1 heading.

The Addie Model and the Seels and Glasgow Model have many ID similarities. Both

models include the five phases of ID. And, as mentioned by Molenda (2003), “what is emerging

in the recent literature is a tendency to accept the ADDIE term as an umbrella term” (p.3). The

design of the Seels and Glasgow Model includes all the five phases of the ADDIE Model

explicitly or implicitly, and some of the steps are merged together. Phase One of Seels and

Glasgow includes the Analysis phase of ADDIE. Phase Two includes Analysis, Design,

Development, and Evaluation. Phase Three includes Development, Implementation, and

Evaluation (figure 3). “Instructional design models, such as Seels and Glasgow, have also been Commented [BF19]: Capitalize most nouns that are
followed by numerals or letters.
http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2012/02/do-i-capitalize-this-
criticized for highlighting material development over learner outcomes, which in turn can lead to word.html

a greater emphasis on test data than unobservable or unmeasurable learning” (Bell & Lefoe,

1998).
MAPPING ADDIE AND SEELS AND GLASGOW MODEL 7

Design
Analysis Implementation

Development Evaluation

Figure 3. Seels and Glasgow model with ADDIE phases added. Adapted from Gustafson, K. and
Branch, R. (2002). Survey of instructional development models. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse
University. Retrieved May 19, 2018, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED477517.pdf

Conclusion

According to Molenda (2003), the ADDIE Model is considered the umbrella term for

almost all ID models. The main difference will be the type of model whether classroom-oriented,

product-oriented or system-oriented. Also, the selection of the appropriate type of model will Commented [BF20]: I think you mean here that it depends
on the type of environment in which it is applied.
differ according to the goals and the outcomes, whether learning, training, or a production

material. The Seels and Glasgow Model is characterized by being product-oriented, and “Seels Commented [BF21]: …whether it is learning, training, or
production materials.
and Glasgow concluded that their model is quite similar to many others but is based on the

assumption that design and development take place in the context of project management”

(Gustafson and Branch, 2002, p.43).


MAPPING ADDIE AND SEELS AND GLASGOW MODEL 8

References

Bell, M., & Lefoe, G.E. (1998, December). Curriculum design for flexible delivery – massaging

the model. Flexibility: The next wave? Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the

Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE), (pp.

65-73). University of Wollongong: ASCILITE.

Farrington, J. (2013, December 27). My good friend ADDIE. Retrieved on May 19, 2018 from

http://www.jfarrington.com/2013/11/my-good-friend-addie/

Gustafson, K. and Branch, R. (2002). Survey of instructional development models. Syracuse,

New York: Syracuse University. Retrieved May 19, 2018 from

https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED477517.pdf

Molenda, M. (2003). In search of the elusive ADDIE model. Retrieved on May 19, 2018 from

http://www.comp.dit.ie/dgordon/Courses/ILT/ILT0004/InSearchofElusiveADDIE.pdf

The Herridge Group Inc., (2004). The Use of Traditional Instructional Systems Design

Models for eLearning. Retrieved on May 19, 2018 from

http://www.herridgegroup.com/pdfs/The%20use%20of%20Traditional%20ISD%20for%

20eLearning.pdf