Yn
controlled.
(a) (b) (c)
Within the last fifteen years, several schemes have been developed
to reduce If and Vr Starting in 1962 N. Knudsen and E. Kimbark proposed
.
a 4legged reactor scheme for transposed lines.3,4 This scheme and others FIG. 1. MODIFIED 4LEGGED REACTOR BANK.
were also analyzed by various authors.5,6 Simple 4legged reactor schemes SWITCH POSITIONS FOR VARIOUS PHASETOGROUND
were installed and successfully tested on 400kV and 500kV lines.7'8 FAULTS: a) AND c)  OUTER PHASE FAULTS AND
b)  MIDDLE PHASE FAULTS.
The simple 4legged reactor scheme, however, will not sufficiently
reduce the secondary arc current on long untransposed lines because of
unequal interphase capacitances. For these lines the authors developed a The admittance matrices Ym for Figs. l(a), l(b) and l(c) are given by
modified 4legged reactor scheme for installation at one end of the line, to Eqs. (1), (2) and (3) respectively:
be used in conjunction with a conventional 4legged reactor at the other
end. This arrangement effectively reduces If and Vr.
fault on phase 1,
An efficient technique is developed to determine the optimum neutral
reactances for the simple and modified 4legged reactor banks. As an Y' Y2 °
example, the optimum neutral reactor values, steady state secondary arc
current, recovery voltage and neutral reactor voltages are determined for a [Y]=Y2 Y, ° (1)
240 km untransposed 765kV line.
O Y
The modified reactor bank includes four low cost switches whose fault on phase 2,
operations are coordinated with the line breakers. The switch parameters
are defined and suggestions for reactor neutral protection are given.
y Y2 Y2
CYm] ;= Y2 y I Y 2 (2)
Y2 Y2 Y
fault on phase 3,
F 77 7263. A paper recarunded and approved by
the ;E Transmissicn and Distribution Cciniittee of Y O O
the FE; Power Engineering Society for presentaticn
at the PES Suzvr Meeting, Mexico City, Mex., [Ym ] = O , Y2 (3)
July 1722, 1977. Manuscript submitted February 1,
1977; mrade available for printing April 21, 1977. 0 Y, Y
A simplified technique is developed to analyze the effect of the where S is the angle between VS and VR.
proposed scheme in reducing If, and to obtain optimum neutral reactance
values. The values for Yeq(i,h) and Yeq(i,k) depend on the phase which is
faulted and the positions of the modified reactor switches. For example,
Simplified Secondary Arc Current Calculations if the primary fault is on phase one, then the modified reactor switches are
The expression for If is derived for an untransposed line intercon positioned as shown in Fig. la and the admittance matrix for the modified
necting two power systems. The line is compensated by a simple 4legged reactor is given in Eq. (1). For the simple 4legged reactor scheme, the
reactor bank at the sending end, and a modified reactor bank at the receiv admittance matrix is similar to Eq. (2). Therefore, considering these
ing end. The systems are reduced to two busses (VS and VR) connected by matrices and Fig. 2, the equivalent phasetophase admittances for phase
a pisection (Fig. 2), which takes into account the static and the magnetic one fault can be expressed as:
coupling between phases.The line selfimpedance,and the resistive losses
associated with the reactive elements, are ignored. Yeq(1,2) = Y'2m + Y2s + Yc(1,2)
(7)
Assuming that the breakers associated with the faulted phase (i) are Yeq(1,3) = Y2S + Yc(1,3),
opened, the secondary arc current can be represented as:
If (i) = Ic (i) + It(i) (4) where the subscript "c" denotes line capacitance and "mi" and "n"
refer to modified and simple 4legged reactor schemes respectively.
where Ic(i) is the electrostatic (capacitive) component and 1J(i) is the Similarly, for a midphase fault the equivalent admittances, con
electromagnetic (inductive) component. sidering Eq. (2) and Fig. 2, are
The capacitive component lc(i mainly depends on the line voltage
and the interphase admittances, namely Yeq(1,2) = Y2m Y2s
+ + Yc(1,2)
(8)
'c (i) = Yeq(i,h) Va (h) + Yeq (i, k) Va (k) (5) Yeq(2,3) = Yeq(1,2)
VR Vs
,/<VS2~s?
VR2
VR3
The inductive component!1 depends mainly on the load current irn the
where as = 3 + Xs/Xsn,
healthy phases (I (h)and l(k)), their inductive coupling to the opene.d pihase am = 2 + Xm/Xmn for outer phase faults,
(X(i h) and X(i,k)) and the equivalent phasetoground admittance Yeq I(,g )
of the opened phase "i". That is: am = 3 + Xm/Xmn for middle phase faults,
It(i) = Yeq(i,g) (I(h) X(i,h) + I(k) X(i, k)) (11) Xs, Xm, Xsn and Xmn are phase to neutral &
464
I 0.4.
a
cc
EUl at
0 P;,; SI Frr to2:>
R
P 1/2 SI Frorni R >:: .
a Sv Fauta the :SendigEn
9 R FouGltSS3the Receivin End
a :s W2 .
0
I lii 5 _I 3i::::: Xs_
e w  PsO
4c
hI. PSIL
S a Fault at the Sending End
R a Fault at the Receiving End Xsn
Xs
0.2 0.4 O.6 0~~~~~~.Q2 0.4 0.6
REACTANCE RATIO SIMPLE REACTOR BANK REACTANCE RATIO SIMPLE REACTOR BANK
FIG. 3. NEUTRAL REACTOR VALUES FOR if < 15A, OUTER PHASE FIG. 4. NEUTRAL REACTOR VALUES FOR if < 15A, MIDDLE PHASE
FAULTS. FAULTS.
COMMON AREA FOR 1/2 SIL < P < SIL FROM S TO R, V/////// COMMON AREA FOR SIL < P < SIL
COMMON AREA FOR 0 < P < SIL FROM S TO R.
0.6
I~~..,
U, n
04
0.2
0.2 0.4
REACTANCE RATIOSIMPLE REACTOR BANK
culations. The accuracy of the program was proved by other programs such
as BPA program.9 I'I
0
,U
The same system as before was modeled using complete line data >cc
from Appendix 11. A Q factor of 350 was assumed for all reactors. The
secondary arc resistance Rf was assumed constant and equal to 10 Ohms.
(The effect of Rf was found to be negligible in the range 0 to 500 Ohms.)
Many points inside and outside the common areas A1 and A2, shown
in Fig. 5, were selected to calculate If, Vr, Vmn and Vsn. The results of 0.4C
a range, 0.25 < X mn/X m 0.4 and Xsn /Xs a 0.2, which includes the REACTANCE RATIO
optimum neutral reactor values, are described below.
FIG. 7. RECOVERY VOLTAGE VERSUS MODIFIED NEUTRAL REACTOR
The secondary arc current dependency on the power flow conditions VALUES; Xsn/Xs 0.2
(P=O, 1/2SIL, SIL) and on various fault locations is shown in Fig. 6. For
example, if < 13A when Xmn/Xm 0.375, and Xsn/Xs  0.2, with the

choice of SIL from the sending end and 1/2 SIL for the opposite direction.
The secondary arc current if < IIA when the power transfer is assumed
only from the sending end. Fig. 6 can also be used to verify that the 0.30 Vmn L E G E N D
simplified calculations using inequality (17) agree with the computer Vnom  Secondary Arc Extinguished
results. For example if = 14.5A compared with 15A using the simplified 8  Secondary Arc Burning
calculations for Xsn/Xs 0.2 and Xmn/Xm 0.32, which is a point on the
a
a) 4
i 0.20
I..
w
z I
0.15
Midl Phase Fault
Xmn
Xm.
U) 0.25 030 0.35 0.4C
REACTANCE RATIO
The modified reactor bank neutral voltage vmnn before and after
secondary arc extinction is shown in Fig. 8. The neutral voltage vmn is
not very sensitive to the value of X mn and changes from 0.2vnom to
0.23vnom when Xmn/Xm varies from 0.25 to 0.4. Generally, the steady
state neutral reactor voltages are small during singlepole switching, i.e.,
vmn< .225v nom and vsn<0 14vnom for Xmn/Xm = 0.375 and Xsn/Xs = 0.2.
The effect of power transfer and fault locations on vmn is less than 7
w Pa l/2 SIL from RtoS percent and is not shown.
cn
So Fault at the Sending End
Optimum neutral reactor values can now be selected by analyzing
Figs. 6, 7 and 8 for the conditions under consideration. The range 0.32
. Xmn /Xm <5 0.4 and Xsn/Xs = 0.2 satisfies the condition if S 15A. For
REACTANCE RATIO this range, the recovery voltage Vr < 0.15vnom and neutral voltages vin
0O.23vnom and vsn . 0.14vnom.
FIG. 6. SECONDARY ARC CURRENT VERSUS MODIFIED NEUTRAL
REACTOR VALUES; Xsn /Xs = 0.2 The above data indicates the applicability of the proposed compen
sation scheme and the efficiency of the developed procedure for obtaining
a) OUTER PHASE FAULTS, optimum neutral reactor values. Note, that if . 50A if only simple 4legged
b) MIDDLE PHASE FAULTS. reactor banks were used at both line terminals in the above example.
1426
SWITCH SELECTION AND NEUTRAL PROTECTION dure was verified for a 240km untransposed 765kV line and the fol
lowing main results were obtained:
The following rating for the neutral reactor switches should be
considered. During system normal conditions, the switches are closed. a) The optimization procedure proved to be efficient in determining
During single pole switching the voltage across any open switch is equal neutral reactances;
to vmn. The steady state current through a closed switch can not exceed
the current through a shunt reactor. For the above 765kV system, the b) The secondary arc current and the recovery voltage do not exceed
voltage and current are below 100kV and 230 A and, therefore, vacuum 13A and 0.14vnom, respectively, for optimum neutral reactor values
switches can be used. Xsn/Xs = 0.2 and Xmn/Xm 0.375. The neutral reactor voltage is
less than 0.225vnom for the modified and 0.14vnom for the simple
The switch operations must be coordinated with the line breakers. reactor banks.
Opening the line breakers must be accompanied by opening the appropriate
two switches. The switch closing longer than the singlepole reclosing c) Electromagnetic couplingsignificantly affectssecondary arc current,
time is not very critical. especially near the optimum point.
Surge arresters can be used across the neutral reactors to protect
the neutrals of the reactor banks against transient overvoltages. The
protective level at system frequency should be at least larger than vmn APPENDIX I
and vsn when the secondary arc is burning.
For convenience inequality (18) is repeated and the functions are
defined below.
CONCLUSIONS
P(as) a 2 + Q(as)am + R(as) < 0
1. A Modified FourLegged Reactor Scheme was developed for high speed
single pole switching on untransposed lines. The new scheme together where
with a simplefourleggedreactor bank effectively reducesthe secondary
arc current and the recovery voltage. as = 3 + Xs/Xsn
2. The modified bank, in addition to normal shunt reactors and neutral P(as) =
(kI2 +
nl2W2)a52 2(klk2 +
n, n2)as +
(k22 n2)
reactor, includes four switches which are coordinated with the line
breakers and are closed during normal conditions. The switch param Q(as) =2 [(k2 k3 + n2 n3) 
(ki k3 + ni n3) as]as
eters are developed.
R(as) = (k2 + n2)a2
3. An optimization technique was developed to determine the neutral 3 3 s
reactances which result in low secondary arc current and recovery W  limit selected for the secondary arc current
voltage. The equations were derived considering both electrostatic and
electromagnetic components of the secondary arc current.
Depending on the fault location, the other parameters are defined in
4. The applicability of the compensation scheme and optimization proce Tables 11 and 12.
am
a ~~~~~~~~Xmn/Xm 2
 lk kl
(BC(1,2)fBC(1,3))va ( +
~C~~~~B
~~ Bm)
(l,g) )d2
(Bc(
B3)Wa
T 12)41Bc(j13 v+(1Bc'jgBSd
c(,g)B )dl 2
 v" (13) a
d2  (X( 12)  X ( 1,3))ia
1427
TABLE 12. PARAMETERS FOR MIDDLE PHASE FAULTS NOMENCLATURE
FAULT LOCATION For the voltages and currents, the capital letters represent vectors and
PARA the corresponding small letters represent their magnitude.
METERS SENDING END RECEIVING END
Bm Bs = modified and simple reactor banks susceptances (phaseto
neutral).
~~~~Xmn/Xm
Xm x +
I
l amam 3l
Bc = line capacitive susceptance.
I ,i = load current.
k1 Bc(1l2) va
la = average load current through the healthy phases.
k2 Bs Va
k3 Bm va Ic = capacitive component of If.
Ymn 'ysn = neutral admittances for the modified and simple reactor banks.
W = secondary arc current limit.
= phase angle between VS and VR
G.W. 11.35m 11.35m G.W.
Subscripts
0.0 0
g = ground
000
1 3 0 0
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
FIG. 11.1. LINE CONFIGURATION. The authors would like to thank Mr. C. Skalba who assisted them by
PHASE CONDUCTOR: 4954 MCM ACSR developing the computer programs. Thanks are also extended to Mr. S. H.
GROUND CONDUCTOR: 27#8 Horowitz and Mr. A. Volk for their helpful comments.
1428
REFERENCES fect considerations. Would the authors care to comment? The main ad
vantage of the higher compensation levels is better control of the elec
1. H. J. Haubrich, G. Hosemann, R.Thomas, "SinglePhase AutoReclosing tromagnetic component of the secondary arc current. Was the shunt
in EHV Systems", Paper No. 3109, CIGRE, Paris, 1974. compensation level selected in order to meet the 15 amp requirement?
Finally, would the authors care to comment on the effect of har
2. M. Fukunishi, et al, "Laboratory Study on Dead Time on High Speed monics in the secondary arc current. Have TNA studies been performed
on this scheme to evaluate the effect of harmonoic currents and tran
Reclosing of 500kV Systems", Paper No. 3103, CIGRE, Paris, 1970. sient voltages?
3. N. Knudsen, "SinglePhase Switching on Transmission Lines Using
Reactors for Extinction of the Secondary Arc", Paper No. 310, CIGRE,
Paris, 1962.
4. E. W. Kimbark, Supression of GroundFault Arcs on SinglePoleSwitch L. Roy (Queen Mary College, University of London, London,
ed EHV Lines by Shunt Reactors",JEEE Transactions on PowerAppa England): The authors have developed a compensation scheme for the
ratus and Systems, Vol. PAS83, March 1964, pp. 285290. singlepoleswitching on the untransposed transmission lines in order to
reduce the secondary arc current and recovery voltage to the acceptable
5. H. A. Peterson, N. V. Dravid, "A Method for Reducing Dead Time for minimum value. Balancing of the three phase supply, especially in case
Single Phase Reclosing in EHV Transmission Lines", IEEE Trans of the extrahighvoltage transmission, is difficult to accomplish even
actions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS88, April 1969, after the complete transposition and so such a scheme would be very
pp. 286292. useful to minimize the arc extinction time; help quick reclosing of the
circuit breakers and improve reliability of the supply. The authors have
6. S. N. Rozhavskaja, B. R. T. Shperling, "Possibility of SinglePole done good work and should be congratulated.
Switching on High Voltage Transmission Lines'', Leningrad: Proceed The authors opinion on the following points would be highly ap
ings of the Direct Current Institute, Vol. 20, 1974, pp. 161174. preciated:
(1) All the extrahighvoltage lines are, generally, series compensated.
How would the degree of compensation affect the optimum neutral
7. L. Edwards, J. W. Chadwick, Jr., H. A. Riech, L. E. Smith, "Single reactor value?
Pole Switching on TVA's ParadiseDavidson 500 kV Line. Design (2) The authors in their scheme suggest installation of the single four
Concepts and Staged Fault Test Results", IEEE Transactions on legged reactor bank at the sending end and the modified fourlegged
Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS90, No.6,1971, pp. 24362450. reactor bank at the receiving end. How would the optimum value of the
neutral reactor be affected if the reactor banks are interchanged?
8. L. Carlsson, et al, "SinglePole Reclosing on EHV Lines", Paper No. (3) For the acceptable secondary arc current and recovery voltage
3103, CIGRE, Paris, 1974. how does the ratio of Ym/Ymn get affected for the double circuit line?
(4) When the existing onecircuit line is to be doubled ata later date,
9. H.W. Dommel, "Digital Computer Solution of Electromagnetic Transients
the value of the modified fourlegged reactor bank is also to be chang
ed. Could the authors comment on choosing the value of Ym and Ymn
in Single and Multiphase Networks", IEEE Transactions on Power in the beginning itself such that acceptable results are achieved in the
Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS88, No. 4, 1969, pp. 388398. two cases. Such a scheme would eliminate replacing the old bank with
the new one following doubling of the circuit.
Manuscript received August 16, 1977.
Discussion
R.G. Rocamora (McGrawEdison Company, Canonsburg, PA): The B.R. Shperling, A. Fakheri, and B.J. Ware: The authors would like to
authors have presented a novel scheme for control of secondary arc cur thank the discussers for their comments.
rents following single phase fault clearing. The primary advantage of In response to the relay question raised by Mr. Rocamora, we
this scheme is the reduced level of the secondary arc current as com would like to point out that the relay schemes are practically the same
pared to that achieved through the use of a conventional fourlegged for lines using either a conventional 4legged reactor scheme or the
reactor scheme. The conventional fourlegged reactor method is design scheme developed in the paper. In either case, the relays must be
ed for an idealized, continuously transposed transmission line to com capable of selecting the faulted phase and transmitting trip signals to
pletely compensate the electrostatic component of the secondary arc the proper line breakers. With the provision of some additional aux
current and partially compensate the electromagnetic component. In iliary contacts, these signals can also be used to operate the proper swit
practice, the actual transmission line is not continuously transposed, ches. Relay reliability, therefore, is practically the same for either
resulting in unbalanced interphase capacitance and, therefore, a portion scheme.
of the electrostatic component of the secondary arc current will flow in We would also like to comment on the reliability of the neutral
to the fault. As verified by actual field experience, this has not proved switches. Since 1973, neutral switches which are applicable to our
to be critical. The compensation scheme proposed by the authors would scheme have been used across resistors in the neutrals of a shunt reactor
provide better compensation for this condition as well as for a fully un bank. These resistors cause a rapid decay of the line trapped charge
transposed transmission line. subsequent to line opening'. Rated to be maintenance free for 10,000
The major disadvantage of the method proposed by the authors is operations, these switches have operated without problems throughout
the reactor switching that is required immediately following single the four year inservice period. The total number of operations has been
phase fault clearing. The implementation of single phase reclosing re about 105 times per switch.
quires extensive additional relaying for the system. This method ap The effect of unbalanced shunt compensation on system voltage
pears to require even more extensive relaying and the method is entirely was questioned for the case where there is a relay malfunction during
dependent on its successful implementation. Would the authors care to normal system operation. This phenomenon was studied and the effect
comment on the effect this will have on reliability? If there is a relay was found negligible.
malfunction during normal system operation, what effect will the un Regarding the optimum neutral reactor values, they depend not
balanced shunt compensation have on system voltages? only on the compensation factor, but also on power flow, reactor loca
For the conventional fourlegged reactor scheme, a minimum of tions, and line length. We cannot give an absolute answer about the
approximately 60 percent shunt compensation is required in order to minimum level of shunt compensation required to assure a reasonable
use a reasonably small ohmic value reactor in the neutral. For the selection of the neutral reactors. We believe, however, that 6570 per
transmission line and compensation scheme in the authors study, what cent shunt compensation is an acceptable level for the developed
is the minimum level of shunt compensation required in order to assure scheme on untransposed lines in the same sense as Mr. Rocamora uses
a reasonable selection of neutral reactor? 60 percent shunt compensation for a conventional fourlegged reactor
For the example given in the paper, it was chosen to compensate scheme on transposed lines. For example, some parameters for single
the line at about the 90 percent level. This appears to be quite high and pole switching on a transposed and an untransposed 765 kV line with
probably unnecessary, based on conventional light load and Ferranti ef close compensation factors are given in Table I.1.
Manuscript received August 3, 1977. Manuscript received November 9, 1977.
1429
Table I. I
SinglePole Switching Parameters for a Transposed and Untransposed Line
Transposed Untransposed
Outer Middle
Parameters ~~~___ Phase Fault Phase Fault
Compensation 61 67
Factor %
Maximum Secondary
xArc Current (Arms) 18.5 17.5 20.5
Neutral 300 MVAr 95 115 90
Voltages Reactor
I(kV rms)
I .5 0 MVAr 60 75
j Reactor
~~~~~~At i''W _.