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IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-97, no.

4 July/Aug 1978 1421

COMPENSATION SCHEME FOR SINGLE-POLE SWITCHING ON


UNTRANSPOSED TRANSMISSION LINES
B. R. SHPEERLING A. FAKHERI IB. J. WARE
AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER
NEW YORK, N. Y.
ABSTRACT SIMPLE AND MODIFIED 4-LEGGED REACTOR BANKS
A Modified Four-Legged Reactor Scheme was developed for high The equivalent capacitive admittance matrix for a fully transposed
speed, single-pole reclosing on untransposed lines. The new scheme, line is a symmetrical matrix with identical diagonal elements and identical
together with the simple four-legged reactor bank, effectively reduces the off-diagonal elements. The equivalent admittance matrix for a simple
secondary arc current and the recovery voltage. Equations were derived to 4-legged reactor bank also has the same structure. Thus, a simple 4-legged
determine optimum neutral reactor values. Efficiency of the compensation reactor bank, in addition to its duty during system normal conditions, is
scheme and the optimization procedure were verified by an example. The used to compensate phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground capacitances of
modified four-legged reactor bank includes four switches whose operations transposed transmission lines during single-pole switching to ensure the
are coordinated with the line breakers. Switch parameters and suggestions secondary arc extinction.
for neutral reactor protection are given.
The equivalent capacitive admittance matrix of an untransposed line
INTRODUCTION also is a symmetrical matrix, but neither the diagonal elements nor the
Transitory single line to ground faults are the most frequent type of off-diagonal elements are identical. For example, mid-to-outer phase
faults on EHV transmission lines. For these faults successful high speed capacitances for all the AEP 765-kV lines are 3.55 to 3.9 times larger than
single-pole switching effectively improves system stability and reduces the outer-to-outer phase capacitances. Again, for single-pole switching
reclosing overvoltages. purposes, the reactive admittance matrix for the compensation banks must
match the line capacitive admittance matrix. The developed scheme
In the single-pole switching scheme, the conductor which is opened satisfies this condition. The simple 4-legged reactor bank ensures suf-
at both ends to clear a line-to-ground fault, is inductively and capacitively ficient compensation between outer phases; the modified 4-legged reactor
coupled to the healthy load-carrying phases energized at normal system bank provides the additional compensation required for the mid-to-outer
voltage. The coupling, if not compensated, can maintain the secondary arc phase capacitances.
in the path of the primary fault current and prevent successful high speed
reclosing. The modifiedreactor scheme,with associated neuitralswitch positions
for various phase-to-ground faults, is shown in Fig. 1.
During the last two decades, many field and laboratory experiments
were performed to ascertain secondary arc behavior on high voltage 2 3 2 3 2 3
lines.1 ,2 Variables such as secondary arc current, recovery voltage, pri-
mary fault current, fault location, arc length and meteorological conditions F
Y y Fy y y y y F
affect arc extinction time. Of all these, the secondary arc current (If) and
the recovery voltage (Vr ) are the most important and can be reduced with
special compensation schemes. The other variables cannot practically be Si 53 4 5 5S4 Si 4 S

Yn
controlled.
(a) (b) (c)
Within the last fifteen years, several schemes have been developed
to reduce If and Vr Starting in 1962 N. Knudsen and E. Kimbark proposed
.

a 4-legged reactor scheme for transposed lines.3,4 This scheme and others FIG. 1. MODIFIED 4-LEGGED REACTOR BANK.
were also analyzed by various authors.5,6 Simple 4-legged reactor schemes SWITCH POSITIONS FOR VARIOUS PHASE-TO-GROUND
were installed and successfully tested on 400-kV and 500-kV lines.7'8 FAULTS: a) AND c) - OUTER PHASE FAULTS AND
b) - MIDDLE PHASE FAULTS.
The simple 4-legged reactor scheme, however, will not sufficiently
reduce the secondary arc current on long untransposed lines because of
unequal interphase capacitances. For these lines the authors developed a The admittance matrices Ym for Figs. l(a), l(b) and l(c) are given by
modified 4-legged reactor scheme for installation at one end of the line, to Eqs. (1), (2) and (3) respectively:
be used in conjunction with a conventional 4-legged reactor at the other
end. This arrangement effectively reduces If and Vr.
fault on phase 1,
An efficient technique is developed to determine the optimum neutral
reactances for the simple and modified 4-legged reactor banks. As an -Y' -Y2 °
example, the optimum neutral reactor values, steady state secondary arc
current, recovery voltage and neutral reactor voltages are determined for a [Y]=-Y2 Y, ° (1)
240 km untransposed 765-kV line.
O Y
The modified reactor bank includes four low cost switches whose fault on phase 2,
operations are coordinated with the line breakers. The switch parameters
are defined and suggestions for reactor neutral protection are given.
y -Y2 -Y2

CYm] ;= Y2 y I Y 2 (2)

Y2 -Y2 Y

fault on phase 3,
F 77 726-3. A paper recaru-nded and approved by
the ;E Transmissicn and Distribution Cciniittee of Y O O
the FE; Power Engineering Society for presentaticn
at the PES Suzvr Meeting, Mexico City, Mex., [Ym ] = O , Y2 (3)
July 17-22, 1977. Manuscript submitted February 1,
1977; mrade available for printing April 21, 1977. 0 -Y, Y

0018-9510/78/0600-1421$00. 75 0 1978 IEEE


1422

where Y'1 Y(Y + Yn) - 2Y


2
where Yeq(i,h) and Yeq(i k are equivalent interphase admittances between
2Y + Yn ' 2 =T-2Y+n the faulte phase (i) ana the healthy phases (h and k).
and y, =Y 2Y + Yn), Y2 = 2 Forthese calculations,the line voltage for each healthy phase can be
expressed as an average value by consideringthe vector diagrams in Fig. 2
and letting vS = VR (capital letters represent vectors and the corresponding
The admittance matrix Ys for a simple 4-legged reactor bank is similar small letters represent their magnitude).Therefore:
to Eq. (2).

OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR NEUTRAL REACTOR VALUES Va VS cos(8/2)e ij/2 = VR cos(s/2)ej8/2


= (6)

A simplified technique is developed to analyze the effect of the where S is the angle between VS and VR.
proposed scheme in reducing If, and to obtain optimum neutral reactance
values. The values for Yeq(i,h) and Yeq(i,k) depend on the phase which is
faulted and the positions of the modified reactor switches. For example,
Simplified Secondary Arc Current Calculations if the primary fault is on phase one, then the modified reactor switches are
The expression for If is derived for an untransposed line intercon- positioned as shown in Fig. la and the admittance matrix for the modified
necting two power systems. The line is compensated by a simple 4-legged reactor is given in Eq. (1). For the simple 4-legged reactor scheme, the
reactor bank at the sending end, and a modified reactor bank at the receiv- admittance matrix is similar to Eq. (2). Therefore, considering these
ing end. The systems are reduced to two busses (VS and VR) connected by matrices and Fig. 2, the equivalent phase-to-phase admittances for phase
a pi-section (Fig. 2), which takes into account the static and the magnetic one fault can be expressed as:
coupling between phases.The line self-impedance,and the resistive losses
associated with the reactive elements, are ignored. Yeq(1,2) = Y'2m + Y2s + Yc(1,2)
(7)
Assuming that the breakers associated with the faulted phase (i) are Yeq(1,3) = Y2S + Yc(1,3),
opened, the secondary arc current can be represented as:
If (i) = Ic (i) + It(i) (4) where the subscript "c" denotes line capacitance and "mi" and "n"
refer to modified and simple 4-legged reactor schemes respectively.
where Ic(i) is the electrostatic (capacitive) component and 1J(i) is the Similarly, for a mid-phase fault the equivalent admittances, con-
electromagnetic (inductive) component. sidering Eq. (2) and Fig. 2, are
The capacitive component lc(i mainly depends on the line voltage
and the interphase admittances, namely Yeq(1,2) = Y2m Y2s
+ + Yc(1,2)
(8)
'c (i) = Yeq(i,h) Va (h) + Yeq (i, k) Va (k) (5) Yeq(2,3) = Yeq(1,2)

VR Vs

Modified 4- Transmission Line Simple 4-


Legged Reactor Legged Reactor
Bank Bank
VRI

,/<VS2~-s?
VR2
VR3

FIG. 2. SYSTEM EQUIVALENT AND VECTOR DIAGRAMS FOR A TRANSMISSION LINE


1423
Using Eqs. (7) and (8) and considering vector diagrams thown in Fij where: = 1, 2 or 3 (outer or middle phase) and W is an arbitrary secondary
'c(i) for outer and rmiddle phase faults can be obtained from Eq. (c arc current limit. Practically, W should be selected low enough such that
follows: its extinction can be ensured during the single-pole reclosing dead time.
The expressions for If(i) in inequality (17) are given by Eqs. (15) and
lc(1) (Yeq(1,2) + a2 yeq(1,3))vae i/12 (16). For each case, inequality (17) can be reduced by simple algebraic
manipulations to the following quadratic form:
lc(2) = Yeq(1,2) a(1 + a) v.aei s/2 k 1U) P(as)am2 +
Q(as)am R(as) 0

where a = 1 / 1200 (18)

The inductive component!1 depends mainly on the load current irn the
where as = 3 + Xs/Xsn,
healthy phases (I (h)and l(k)), their inductive coupling to the opene.d pihase am = 2 + Xm/Xmn for outer phase faults,
(X(i h) and X(i,k)) and the equivalent phase-to-ground admittance Yeq I(,g )
of the opened phase "i". That is: am = 3 + Xm/Xmn for middle phase faults,

It(i) = -Yeq(i,g) (I(h) X(i,h) + I(k) X(i, k)) (11) Xs, Xm, Xsn and Xmn are phase to neutral &

neutral to ground reactances.


The admittance Yeq(i g) for various fault locations is determined by con-
sidering Eqs. (1), (2), (3) and Fig. 2 and is given in Table 1. For different fault locations, the functions P(as), Q(as) and R(as) in (18)
are defined in Appendix 1. The solution of (18) for different fault locations
are areas in terms of as and am (or Xmn Xm and Xsn/Xs). The common
TABLE 1. EQUIVALENT LINE-TO-GROUND ADMITTANCE area bounded by the graphing of these solutions determines the range of
neutral reactors which limit if to a given value W. The existence and the
size of a common area depend on system parameters, the magnitude of W,
FAULT LOCATION the amount of power flow in each direction, etc. For example, if W is
selected too small, a common area may not exist.
SENDING END RECEIVING END
Outer Phase Middle Phase Outer or Middle Phase The example presented in the next section of this paper illustrates
(i = I or 3) (i = 2) (i = 1, 2 or 3) the use of the optimization technique.

- Yc(i,g) + VIm - Y2m f Yc(2,g) + Y lm - 2y2m 2 Yc(i,g) + yjs - 2Y2s Example


The system shown in Fig. 2, in conjunction with the following
parameters and conditions, is analysed.
The inductive component of If for an opened outer phase (for example
phase one), can be simplified by considering Eq. (11), Table 1, and the Nominal Voltage (vnom): 765/v3kV, phase to ground.
vector diagrams in Fig. 2
Frequency: 60Hz.
1 (1) =
-Yeq(l,g) ia (X(1,2) + a2 X( 1 3)) e i(8 +T)/2 (12)
Line: 240 km long, untransposed and flat configuration.
and for the case where the mid-phase is opened, The line constants are given in Appendix II.
1e(2) =
-Yeq(2,g) ia X(1,2)a(1+a)e i(S +TT )/2 (13) Compensation Reactors: 300 Mvar at each end of the line.
where the load current in the sound phases is assumed of equal magnitude
(ia=i(h)=i(k)) and 120 degrees apart. The maximum normal power flow from the sending end is assumed equal
to surge impedance loading (SIL), and in the opposite direction is equal to
The general equation for the total secondary arc current (If) can be half of SIL. The angle 8 between Vs and VR for SIL corresponds to 18.20.
expressed by substituting Eqs. (5) and (11) in Eq. (4):
The purpose is to find a range of neutral reactor values which
satisfies inequality (17). For W = 15A and with the above parameters,
lf(i) Yeq(i,h) Va(h) +
Yeq(i,k) Va(k) -Yeq(i,g) (l(h)X(i,h)+l(k)X(i,k)) (14) the functions P (as), Q (as), and R (as) are determined using the formulas
given in Appendix 1. Then, for various conditions, inequality (18) is used
Specifically, for an outer phase fault (i = 1 for example) the total to solve for am in terms of as (or Xmn/Xm in terms of Xsn/Xs).
secondary arc current can be expressed by substituting Eqs. (9) and (12)
in Eq. (4): For an outer phase fault, Fig. 3 shows five curves, each representing
a solution to inequality (18). The curves apply to two fault locations, and
If (1) =
[ (Yeq( 1,2) + a2 Yeq(1,3))va three power flow values.
( 1 5)
-jYeq(l,g) ia (X(1,2) +a2X(1,3)) ]ei 8/2 For a middle phase fault, Fig. 4 shows three curves. These curves,
also, represent the solutions to inequality (18) and apply to two fault
For the middle phase fault If can be expressed by substituting Eqs. (10) locations and two values of power transfer. Eq. (16) indicates that if (2)
and (13) in Eq. (4): does not depend on the direction of power transfer. Therefore, curves in
F ig. 4 for SIL transfer from the sending end are the same for transfer in
the opposite direction. Curves for half SIL are not needed since they
If(2) = (Yeq(1, 2)va-jyeq(2,g) iaX(1,2))a(l + a)ei8/2 (16) encompass the corresponding curves for SIL.
Optimum Neutral Reactor Values Area A1 shown by Fig. 5, is the common area obtained from Figs. (3)
and (4). Therefore, the neutral reactor values, selected from this area,
The above equations for If were derived to determine the neutral result in if S 15A. Fig. 5 also shows a larger area A2 for the case where
reactor values which will limit the maximum steady state secondary arc powerflow in only one direction is considered.The comparison emphasizes
current to a given value. The optimum neutral reactor values could, there- the fact that the existence, and the size of the common area, depend on
fore, be determined with the following conditions the power flow condition and fault location. In other words, it points out
the significance of the electromagnetic component of the secondary arc
if(i) I W (17) current.
1424

464
I 0.4.

a
cc
EUl at
0 P;,; SI Frr to2:->-
R
P 1/2 SI Frorni R >:: .---
a Sv- Fauta the :SendigEn
9- R FouGltSS3the Receivin End
a :-s W2 .

0
I -l-ii 5 _I 3i::--::: Xs_

e w -- PsO
4c
hI. PSIL|
S a Fault at the Sending End--
R a Fault at the Receiving End Xsn
Xs
0.2 0.4 O.6 0~~~~~~.Q2 0.4 0.6
REACTANCE RATIO -SIMPLE REACTOR BANK REACTANCE RATIO- SIMPLE REACTOR BANK

FIG. 3. NEUTRAL REACTOR VALUES FOR if < 15A, OUTER PHASE FIG. 4. NEUTRAL REACTOR VALUES FOR if < 15A, MIDDLE PHASE
FAULTS. FAULTS.
COMMON AREA FOR -1/2 SIL < P < SIL FROM S TO R, V/////// COMMON AREA FOR -SIL < P < SIL
COMMON AREA FOR 0 < P < SIL FROM S TO R.

0.6

I~~-..,
U, n
04

0.2

0.2 0.4
REACTANCE RATIO-SIMPLE REACTOR BANK

FIG. 5. NEUTRAL REACTOR VALUES FOR if < 15A.


COMMON AREAS FROM FIG. 3 AND FIG. 4:
A1 -1/2 SIL < P < SIL FROM S TO R

0 A2 =0 P < SIL FROM S TO R.


1425
SECONDARY ARC CURRENT, NEUTRAL
REACTOR VOLTAGES AND
RECOVERY VOLTAGE: COMPUTER CALCULATIONS a

The accuracy of the optimization procedure, the secondary arc w


current If, recovery voltage Vr and neutral reactor voltages Vmn and Vsn 49
were determined by a computer program developed for steady state cal- I-.

culations. The accuracy of the program was proved by other programs such
as BPA program.9 I'I
0
,U
The same system as before was modeled using complete line data >cc
from Appendix 11. A Q factor of 350 was assumed for all reactors. The
secondary arc resistance Rf was assumed constant and equal to 10 Ohms.
(The effect of Rf was found to be negligible in the range 0 to 500 Ohms.)
Many points inside and outside the common areas A1 and A2, shown
in Fig. 5, were selected to calculate If, Vr, Vmn and Vsn. The results of 0.4C
a range, 0.25 < X mn/X m 0.4 and Xsn /Xs a 0.2, which includes the REACTANCE RATIO
optimum neutral reactor values, are described below.
FIG. 7. RECOVERY VOLTAGE VERSUS MODIFIED NEUTRAL REACTOR
The secondary arc current dependency on the power flow conditions VALUES; Xsn/Xs 0.2
(P=O, -1/2SIL, SIL) and on various fault locations is shown in Fig. 6. For
example, if < 13A when Xmn/Xm 0.375, and Xsn/Xs - 0.2, with the
-

choice of SIL from the sending end and 1/2 SIL for the opposite direction.
The secondary arc current if < IIA when the power transfer is assumed
only from the sending end. Fig. 6 can also be used to verify that the 0.30 Vmn L E G E N D
simplified calculations using inequality (17) agree with the computer Vnom - Secondary Arc Extinguished
results. For example if = 14.5A compared with 15A using the simplified 8 - Secondary Arc Burning
calculations for Xsn/Xs 0.2 and Xmn/Xm 0.32, which is a point on the
a

boundary of the common area A1. I- 0.25


5
4
Outer
Ph aseFa ult

a) 4
i 0.20
I..
w
z I
0.15
Midl Phase Fault

Xmn
Xm.
U) 0.25 030 0.35 0.4C
REACTANCE RATIO

FIG. 8. MODIFIED REACTOR BANK NEUTRAL VOLTAGE VERSUS


0 - -P SrLromStaR ITS NEUTRAL REACTOR VALUES; Xsn/Xs = 0.2
Ia Pi/2SILftromRtoS
cn Sa Fault at the Sending End
R Faul t at the Receiving End Xmn
0
.25
l
0.3
~ ~~
Q~~~~~O35
Xm,
0.4
crr REACTANCE RATIlO The maximum recovery voltage along an opened phase is shown in
b)
Fig. 7. The recovery voltage is also sensitive to power flow conditions.
For example,when Xmn/X m = 0.375, then Vr /vnom < 0.14 for two directions
>20 ~~~L
E G E N D e of power flow and vr/vnom < 0.11 for power flow only from the sending
0 - Ps StL f romn S to R end. The slopes for if and vr in Figs. 6 and 7 have the same tendency;
this indicates that a smaller if corresponds to a smaller vr.
...

The modified reactor bank neutral voltage vmnn before and after
secondary arc extinction is shown in Fig. 8. The neutral voltage vmn is
not very sensitive to the value of X mn and changes from 0.2vnom to
0.23vnom when Xmn/Xm varies from 0.25 to 0.4. Generally, the steady
state neutral reactor voltages are small during single-pole switching, i.e.,
vmn< .225v nom and vsn<0 14vnom for Xmn/Xm = 0.375 and Xsn/Xs = 0.2.
The effect of power transfer and fault locations on vmn is less than 7
w Pa l/2 SIL from RtoS percent and is not shown.
cn
So Fault at the Sending End
Optimum neutral reactor values can now be selected by analyzing
Figs. 6, 7 and 8 for the conditions under consideration. The range 0.32
. Xmn /Xm <5 0.4 and Xsn/Xs = 0.2 satisfies the condition if S 15A. For
REACTANCE RATIO this range, the recovery voltage Vr < 0.15vnom and neutral voltages vin
0O.23vnom and vsn . 0.14vnom.
FIG. 6. SECONDARY ARC CURRENT VERSUS MODIFIED NEUTRAL
REACTOR VALUES; Xsn /Xs = 0.2 The above data indicates the applicability of the proposed compen-
sation scheme and the efficiency of the developed procedure for obtaining
a) OUTER PHASE FAULTS, optimum neutral reactor values. Note, that if . 50A if only simple 4-legged
b) MIDDLE PHASE FAULTS. reactor banks were used at both line terminals in the above example.
1426
SWITCH SELECTION AND NEUTRAL PROTECTION dure was verified for a 240-km untransposed 765-kV line and the fol-
lowing main results were obtained:
The following rating for the neutral reactor switches should be
considered. During system normal conditions, the switches are closed. a) The optimization procedure proved to be efficient in determining
During single pole switching the voltage across any open switch is equal neutral reactances;
to vmn. The steady state current through a closed switch can not exceed
the current through a shunt reactor. For the above 765kV system, the b) The secondary arc current and the recovery voltage do not exceed
voltage and current are below 100kV and 230 A and, therefore, vacuum 13A and 0.14vnom, respectively, for optimum neutral reactor values
switches can be used. Xsn/Xs = 0.2 and Xmn/Xm 0.375. The neutral reactor voltage is
less than 0.225vnom for the modified and 0.14vnom for the simple
The switch operations must be coordinated with the line breakers. reactor banks.
Opening the line breakers must be accompanied by opening the appropriate
two switches. The switch closing longer than the single-pole reclosing c) Electromagnetic couplingsignificantly affectssecondary arc current,
time is not very critical. especially near the optimum point.
Surge arresters can be used across the neutral reactors to protect
the neutrals of the reactor banks against transient overvoltages. The
protective level at system frequency should be at least larger than vmn APPENDIX I
and vsn when the secondary arc is burning.
For convenience inequality (18) is repeated and the functions are
defined below.
CONCLUSIONS
P(as) a 2 + Q(as)am + R(as) < 0
1. A Modified Four-Legged Reactor Scheme was developed for high speed
single pole switching on untransposed lines. The new scheme together where
with a simplefour-leggedreactor bank effectively reducesthe secondary
arc current and the recovery voltage. as = 3 + Xs/Xsn

2. The modified bank, in addition to normal shunt reactors and neutral P(as) =
(kI2 +
nl2-W2)a52 -2(klk2 +
n, n2)as +
(k22 n2)
reactor, includes four switches which are coordinated with the line
breakers and are closed during normal conditions. The switch param- Q(as) =2 [(k2 k3 + n2 n3) -
(ki k3 + ni n3) as]as
eters are developed.
R(as) = (k2 + n2)a2
3. An optimization technique was developed to determine the neutral 3 3 s

reactances which result in low secondary arc current and recovery W - limit selected for the secondary arc current
voltage. The equations were derived considering both electrostatic and
electromagnetic components of the secondary arc current.
Depending on the fault location, the other parameters are defined in
4. The applicability of the compensation scheme and optimization proce- Tables 1-1 and 1-2.

TABLE I-l. PARAMETERS FOR OUTER PHASE FAULTS


PARA- FAULT LOCATION
METERS SENDING END RECEIVING END

am
a ~~~~~~~~Xmn/Xm 2

| lk kl
(BC(1,2)-fBC(1,3))va ( +
~C~~~~B
~~ -Bm)
(l,g) )d2
(Bc(

B3)Wa
T 12)-41Bc(j13 v+(1Bc'jg-BSd
c(,g)B )dl 2

k2 | I.B5 Va BS(+ va-3dj)


k3 Bm(Va-2dl) Bm Va

nI Bc2c(l 3) va + (L BC( ,g)- Bm)dd1 BC(1,3)Va + g(1,g) -Bs) d2


n2 | v3 Bs Va Bs( V-a -3d2)
n3 1 _ 2 Bmd2 |0

- v" (13) a
d2 | (X( 12) - X ( 1,3))ia
1427
TABLE 1-2. PARAMETERS FOR MIDDLE PHASE FAULTS NOMENCLATURE

FAULT LOCATION For the voltages and currents, the capital letters represent vectors and
PARA- the corresponding small letters represent their magnitude.
METERS SENDING END RECEIVING END
Bm Bs = modified and simple reactor banks susceptances (phase-to-
neutral).
~~~~Xmn/Xm
Xm -x +
I

l amam 3l
Bc = line capacitive susceptance.
I ,i = load current.
k1 Bc(1l2) va
la = average load current through the healthy phases.
k2 Bs Va
k3 Bm va Ic = capacitive component of If.

If, if = secondary arc current.


= inductive component of If.
nd(2Bc(2,g-Bm) d(tBc(2,g)- Bs)
SIL = surge impedance loading.
n2 0 - 3dBs
p = power flow.
n3 - 3dBm 0
va = average voltage.
Va

Vmnt Vmn = Neutral voltage for the modified reactor bank.


d X(12) ia
Vnom = nominal system voltage (phase-to-ground).
Vr, vr = recovery voltage along the opened phase.
VR, vR = receiving end voltage.
APPENDIX 11
Vs, vs = sending end voltage.
Parameters and configuration for a typical 765-kV untransposed line.
Vsn t Vsn = neutral voltage for the simple reactor bank.

Line impedance matrix: x = line interphase mutual reactance.


.113 + j .561 .098 + j .238 .096 +fj .187 Xm, Xs = modified and simple reactor banks reactances (phase-to-neutral).
[Z] = .098 + j .238 .115 + j .557 .098 +j .238 Q/km
Xmn, Xsn neutral reactances for modified and simple reactor banks.
L.096
=
+ j .187 .098 + j .238 .113 +j .561
YC = line capacitive admittance.
Line admittance matrix:
Yeq = equivalent admittance.
[j4.39 1 - j.720 -j.187
[Y] = -j.720 j 4.511 -j.720 uZ/km Ym Ys I = modified and simple reactor banks admittances (phase-
L-j. 187 -j.720 j4.39 1J to-neutral).

Ymn 'ysn = neutral admittances for the modified and simple reactor banks.
W = secondary arc current limit.
= phase angle between VS and VR
G.W. 11.35m 11.35m G.W.

Subscripts

I 10.67m i = faulted phase


.457m
h and k = healthy phases

0.0 0
g = ground

000
1 3 0 0

.457m 13.87m _ 13J87m


_~~~O

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

FIG. 11.1. LINE CONFIGURATION. The authors would like to thank Mr. C. Skalba who assisted them by
PHASE CONDUCTOR: 4-954 MCM ACSR developing the computer programs. Thanks are also extended to Mr. S. H.
GROUND CONDUCTOR: 2-7#8 Horowitz and Mr. A. Volk for their helpful comments.
1428
REFERENCES fect considerations. Would the authors care to comment? The main ad-
vantage of the higher compensation levels is better control of the elec-
1. H. J. Haubrich, G. Hosemann, R.Thomas, "Single-Phase Auto-Reclosing tromagnetic component of the secondary arc current. Was the shunt
in EHV Systems", Paper No. 31-09, CIGRE, Paris, 1974. compensation level selected in order to meet the 15 amp requirement?
Finally, would the authors care to comment on the effect of har-
2. M. Fukunishi, et al, "Laboratory Study on Dead Time on High Speed monics in the secondary arc current. Have TNA studies been performed
on this scheme to evaluate the effect of harmonoic currents and tran-
Reclosing of 500kV Systems", Paper No. 31-03, CIGRE, Paris, 1970. sient voltages?
3. N. Knudsen, "Single-Phase Switching on Transmission Lines Using
Reactors for Extinction of the Secondary Arc", Paper No. 310, CIGRE,
Paris, 1962.
4. E. W. Kimbark, Supression of Ground-Fault Arcs on Single-Pole-Switch- L. Roy (Queen Mary College, University of London, London,
ed EHV Lines by Shunt Reactors",JEEE Transactions on PowerAppa- England): The authors have developed a compensation scheme for the
ratus and Systems, Vol. PAS-83, March 1964, pp. 285-290. single-pole-switching on the untransposed transmission lines in order to
reduce the secondary arc current and recovery voltage to the acceptable
5. H. A. Peterson, N. V. Dravid, "A Method for Reducing Dead Time for minimum value. Balancing of the three phase supply, especially in case
Single Phase Reclosing in EHV Transmission Lines", IEEE Trans- of the extra-high-voltage transmission, is difficult to accomplish even
actions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-88, April 1969, after the complete transposition and so such a scheme would be very
pp. 286-292. useful to minimize the arc extinction time; help quick reclosing of the
circuit breakers and improve reliability of the supply. The authors have
6. S. N. Rozhavskaja, B. R. T. Shperling, "Possibility of Single-Pole done good work and should be congratulated.
Switching on High Voltage Transmission Lines'', Leningrad: Proceed- The authors opinion on the following points would be highly ap-
ings of the Direct Current Institute, Vol. 20, 1974, pp. 161-174. preciated:
(1) All the extra-high-voltage lines are, generally, series compensated.
How would the degree of compensation affect the optimum neutral
7. L. Edwards, J. W. Chadwick, Jr., H. A. Riech, L. E. Smith, "Single- reactor value?
Pole Switching on TVA's Paradise-Davidson 500 kV Line. Design (2) The authors in their scheme suggest installation of the single four-
Concepts and Staged Fault Test Results", IEEE Transactions on legged reactor bank at the sending end and the modified four-legged
Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-90, No.6,1971, pp. 2436-2450. reactor bank at the receiving end. How would the optimum value of the
neutral reactor be affected if the reactor banks are interchanged?
8. L. Carlsson, et al, "Single-Pole Reclosing on EHV Lines", Paper No. (3) For the acceptable secondary arc current and recovery voltage
31-03, CIGRE, Paris, 1974. how does the ratio of Ym/Ymn get affected for the double circuit line?
(4) When the existing one-circuit line is to be doubled at-a later date,
9. H.W. Dommel, "Digital Computer Solution of Electromagnetic Transients
the value of the modified four-legged reactor bank is also to be chang-
ed. Could the authors comment on choosing the value of Ym and Ymn
in Single and Multiphase Networks", IEEE Transactions on Power in the beginning itself such that acceptable results are achieved in the
Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-88, No. 4, 1969, pp. 388-398. two cases. Such a scheme would eliminate replacing the old bank with
the new one following doubling of the circuit.
Manuscript received August 16, 1977.

Discussion
R.G. Rocamora (McGraw-Edison Company, Canonsburg, PA): The B.R. Shperling, A. Fakheri, and B.J. Ware: The authors would like to
authors have presented a novel scheme for control of secondary arc cur- thank the discussers for their comments.
rents following single phase fault clearing. The primary advantage of In response to the relay question raised by Mr. Rocamora, we
this scheme is the reduced level of the secondary arc current as com- would like to point out that the relay schemes are practically the same
pared to that achieved through the use of a conventional four-legged for lines using either a conventional 4-legged reactor scheme or the
reactor scheme. The conventional four-legged reactor method is design- scheme developed in the paper. In either case, the relays must be
ed for an idealized, continuously transposed transmission line to com- capable of selecting the faulted phase and transmitting trip signals to
pletely compensate the electrostatic component of the secondary arc the proper line breakers. With the provision of some additional aux-
current and partially compensate the electromagnetic component. In iliary contacts, these signals can also be used to operate the proper swit-
practice, the actual transmission line is not continuously transposed, ches. Relay reliability, therefore, is practically the same for either
resulting in unbalanced interphase capacitance and, therefore, a portion scheme.
of the electrostatic component of the secondary arc current will flow in- We would also like to comment on the reliability of the neutral
to the fault. As verified by actual field experience, this has not proved switches. Since 1973, neutral switches which are applicable to our
to be critical. The compensation scheme proposed by the authors would scheme have been used across resistors in the neutrals of a shunt reactor
provide better compensation for this condition as well as for a fully un- bank. These resistors cause a rapid decay of the line trapped charge
transposed transmission line. subsequent to line opening'. Rated to be maintenance free for 10,000
The major disadvantage of the method proposed by the authors is operations, these switches have operated without problems throughout
the reactor switching that is required immediately following single the four year in-service period. The total number of operations has been
phase fault clearing. The implementation of single phase reclosing re- about 105 times per switch.
quires extensive additional relaying for the system. This method ap- The effect of unbalanced shunt compensation on system voltage
pears to require even more extensive relaying and the method is entirely was questioned for the case where there is a relay malfunction during
dependent on its successful implementation. Would the authors care to normal system operation. This phenomenon was studied and the effect
comment on the effect this will have on reliability? If there is a relay was found negligible.
malfunction during normal system operation, what effect will the un- Regarding the optimum neutral reactor values, they depend not
balanced shunt compensation have on system voltages? only on the compensation factor, but also on power flow, reactor loca-
For the conventional four-legged reactor scheme, a minimum of tions, and line length. We cannot give an absolute answer about the
approximately 60 percent shunt compensation is required in order to minimum level of shunt compensation required to assure a reasonable
use a reasonably small ohmic value reactor in the neutral. For the selection of the neutral reactors. We believe, however, that 65-70 per-
transmission line and compensation scheme in the authors study, what cent shunt compensation is an acceptable level for the developed
is the minimum level of shunt compensation required in order to assure scheme on untransposed lines in the same sense as Mr. Rocamora uses
a reasonable selection of neutral reactor? 60 percent shunt compensation for a conventional four-legged reactor
For the example given in the paper, it was chosen to compensate scheme on transposed lines. For example, some parameters for single-
the line at about the 90 percent level. This appears to be quite high and pole switching on a transposed and an untransposed 765 kV line with
probably unnecessary, based on conventional light load and Ferranti ef- close compensation factors are given in Table I.1.
Manuscript received August 3, 1977. Manuscript received November 9, 1977.
1429
Table I. I
Single-Pole Switching Parameters for a Transposed and Untransposed Line

Transposed Untransposed
Outer Middle
Parameters ~~~-___ Phase Fault Phase Fault

Line Length, (km) 256 232

Compensation 61 67
Factor %
Maximum Secondary
xArc Current (Arms) 18.5 17.5 20.5
Neutral 300 MVAr 95 115 90
Voltages Reactor
I(kV rms)
I .5 0 MVAr 60 75
j Reactor
~~~~~~At i''--W _.

Each line is compensated by 300 and 150 MVAr shunt reactor


banks with the 'corresponding optimum neutral reactors. Simple
4-legged banks are used in all cases except that the 300 MVAr bank in
the untransposed line is the modified bank. Power flow was assumed to
be ± SIL during system normal conditions. As indicated secondary arc
currents and neutral voltages are about the same for the transposed line
with 61 percent compensation and the untransposed line with 67 percent
compensation. z
Xm
The transmission line selected as an example in the paper was not a
hypothetical one but a real 765 kV line built in 1972 within the AEP
system. It is planned to test the new compensation scheme on this par- 0
ticular line.
Mr. Rocamora's last question is with regard to the effect of har- 49
monics on the secondary arc current. The transformer and reactor W 00.6 0.4
saturation characteristics were closely modelled in a TNA study and no a
harmonics were observed in the steady-state secondary arc current. w
Dr. L. Roy raised some interesting points about the single-pole
switching application. The scheme we developed would also be ap- 0
plicable to series compensated lines and the neutral reactor values may
be obtained using the technique described in the paper.
The common area A, in Fig. 5 of the paper, would be slightly 0
smaller (area A1) if the reactor bank locations were interchanged. For
example, Fig. I.1 shows the common areas A, and A' for if < 17 A rms. at04
Thus, if will not exceed 17 A rms regardless of the reactor loca- w
U
AI
tions, if the neutral reactor values are selected from the intersection of
A, and At .
The compensation scheme was developed for single-pole switching
on a single-circuit transmission line. A double circuit line would require 021
a more complicated arrangement with at least three neutral reactors at
each end of the line. We do not think, therefore, that neutral reactors
optimized for a single-circuit line could be used when a second circuit is
strung at some future time. 0.2 0___ 4
Fig. X. 0eta eco ausfri 7Arsn
REFERENCE REACTANCE RATIO- SIMPLE REACTOR BANK
1. T.F. Garrity, J.C. Haahr, L. Knudsen, and M.C. Raezer, "Ex-
perience with the AEP 765 kV System, Part V - Overvoltage and Fig. 1.1 Neutral Reactor Values for if < 17 A mis.
Stage Fault Tests: Analysis", IEEE Trans. PAS Vol. 92, No. 3, A, - reactor locations the same as in Fig. 2.
May/June 1973. A, - reactors are interchanged.