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Compressible Flows

AE 412
Recap of Thermodynamics

Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Assistant Professor
Department of Aeronautical Engineering

King Abdul Aziz University


AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
Review of Thermodynamics

• Compressible Flow:   Const

• For one dimensional (1D) flows, Significant changes in velocity (u) and pressure (p) result in density
variations throughout a flow field

• Large density variations results in Temperature variations

• As a result we now have two new variables we must solve for: T and ρ

• Therefore, overall there are four unknown variables: u, p, T and ρ

• We need 2 new equations: Energy equation and equation of state

• We will solve four equations: mass, linear momentum, energy and an equation of state to
solve above four unknowns

• Energy transformation and temperature change are important considerations


→ Importance of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics

• Thermodynamics can be defined as the science of energy.

• Energy can be viewed as the ability to cause changes.

• The name thermodynamics stems from Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis
(power), which is most descriptive of early efforts to convert heat into power.

• Thermodynamics includes all aspects of energy and energy transformations,


including power generation, refrigeration, jet engine etc…

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Continuum
• Matter is made up of atoms that are widely spaced in the gas phase.

• Yet it is very convenient to disregard the atomic nature of a substance and view
it as a continuous, homogeneous matter with no holes, that is, a continuum.

• The continuum idealization allows us to treat properties as point functions and


to assume the properties vary continually in space with no jump discontinuities.

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System, Boundary and Surrounding

• A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study.

• The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings.

• The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary.

• Systems may be considered to be closed or open, depending on whether a fixed mass or a fixed volume
in space is chosen for study

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Closed system

• Closed system (also known as a control mass) consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can
cross its boundary. But energy, in the form of heat or work, can cross the boundary.

Fig. heat transfer across the closed system


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• Isolated system is a special case of closed system where no mass and no energy crosses the boundary.

• Our universe can be assume to be isolated system

• Across imaginary boundary of isolated system


mass m =0 and energy in form of heat Q=0 and Work W=0)

Fig. A system and its surroundings form an isolated system.

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Open system
• An open system, or a control volume (CV), both mass and energy can cross the boundary
of a control volume. The energy can transfer in form of Heat (Q) or Work (W)
• Examples: compressor, turbine, nozzle, water heater etc.

Fig. Nozzle
Fig. Open system

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Fig. Water heater
• Any characteristic of a system is called a property.

• Examples: pressure P, temperature T, volume V, mass m,


density

• Other examples: viscosity, thermal conductivity, modulus of


elasticity, velocity and elevation (height)

• properties per unit mass are called specific properties.

• Examples: specific volume (v = V/m) and


specific total energy (e = E/m).

• Extensive properties are those whose values depend on size or extent of system, such as mass
and volume.

• Intensive properties are those that are independent of mass of a system, such as temperature,
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pressure, and density.
Thermodynamic state

• Properties that completely describes thermodynamic condition, or thermodynamic state


or just state of the system.

Fig. A closed system changing from state-1 to state-2 after some time lapse.
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Note the volume has been changed from initial state to final state.
• Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a
thermodynamic process or just process.

• The series of states through which a system passes during a process is called thermodynamic
process path or just path.

• To describe a process completely, one should specify initial and final states of process, as well as
path it follows, and the interactions with the surroundings.

Fig. Process and path AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
Fig. compression of gas in piston-cylinder
Equilibrium
• Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states.

• The word equilibrium implies a state of balance.

• In an equilibrium state there are no unbalanced potentials (or driving forces) within the system.

• Thermal equilibrium: if temperature is same throughout the entire system

• That is, system involves no temperature differential (difference), which is driving force for heat flow.

Fig. A closedAE412-Compressible
system reaching thermal equilibrium.
Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
Equilibrium continue….

• Mechanical equilibrium is related to pressure, and a system is in mechanical equilibrium if


there is no change in pressure at any point of system with time.

• If a system involves two phases, it is in phase equilibrium when mass of each phase reaches
an equilibrium level and stays there.

• Finally, a system is in chemical equilibrium if its chemical composition does not change with
time, that is, no chemical reactions occur.

• A system is in equilibrium if it is in thermal, mechanical, phase and chemical equilibrium.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Quasi-equilibrium process
• When a process proceeds in such a manner that the system remains infinitesimally close to an
equilibrium state at all times, it is called a quasistatic, or quasi-equilibrium, process

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• Density is defined as mass per unit volume

• Specific volume v, which is defined as volume per unit mass. It is reciprocal of density.

Substance SG
• Specific gravity (SG), or relative density: is defined as ratio
of density of a substance to the density of some standard Water 1.0
substance at a specified temperature (usually water at 4°C, Gasoline 0.7
for which density of water = 1000 kg/m3). Mercury 13.6
Wood 0.3–0.9
Gold 19.2
Ice 0.92
Air (at 1 atm) 0.0013
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
• Pressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area.

• Units: newtons per square meter (N/m2), which is called a pascal (Pa).

• 1 bar = 105 Pa and 1 atm = 1.01325 x 105 Pa

• Actual pressure at a given position is called the absolute pressure and it is measured relative to absolute
vacuum (i.e., absolute zero pressure).

• Gage pressure is the difference between the absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure.
Most pressure-measuring devices, however, are calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere
and so they indicate.

• Pressures below atmospheric pressure are called vacuum pressures


and are measured by vacuum gages that indicate the difference between
the atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure.

• Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures are all positive quantities

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


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Temperature

• Temperature is a property of substance which is a measure of average


translational kinetic energy associated with disorderness of microscopic
motion of atoms and molecules.

• Heat is transferred from the body at higher temperature to the one at lower temperature until both
bodies attain the same temperature (see Fig.)

• At that point, the heat transfer stops, and the two bodies are said to have reached thermal
equilibrium.

• The equality of temperature is the only requirement for thermal equilibrium.

• Zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third
body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

• By replacing the third body with a thermometer, the zeroth law can be restated as two bodies are
in thermal equilibrium if both have the same temperature reading even if they are not in contact.
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The temperature scales used in the SI and the English system today are the Kelvin Scale (K)
and Celsius scale (oC).

They are related by

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perfect gas or ideal gas?

• A thermally perfect gas is one with which assumes non-intermolecular forces and
negligible molecule.
• The individual molecules interact only via direct collisions.
• For a perfect gas, pressure p, density ρ, and the temperature T are related by the
following equation of state
p   RT
• It is valid at low pressure and high temperatures
• At moderate temperatures, of the order of 1000 K, the fluid can be considered calorically perfect and the specific
heat, Cp is considered temperature independent ; therefore h =Cp T.

• The assumptions of thermally and calorically perfect gases represent the simplification known as ideal gases.

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• Note: greater than 1000 K, the specific heat is considered
temperature dependent , Cp(T);
• therefore h =Cp(T) T.

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• A real gas is where inter intermolecular forces are present.
• At very pressures and low temperatures gas behaves like real gas.
• We have to use Vander-Walls equation.

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• The prefix iso- is often used to designate a process for which a particular property remains constant.

• Isothermal process is a process during which the temperature T remains constant.

• Isobaric process is a process during which the pressure P remains constant.

• Isochoric (or isometric) process is a process during which the specific volume v remains constant.

• Adiabatic process is a process during which there is no heat transfer across boundary.

• Isentropic process is a process during which the entropy S (to be discussed later) remains constant.
• It is an adiabatic and frictionless process

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Steady-Flow Process
• The term steady implies no change in properties with time. The opposite of steady is unsteady, or transient.
• Large number of engineering devices such as Nozzles, diffusers, compressors, turbines, heat exchangers etc…
operate for long periods of time under the same conditions, and they are classified as steady-flow devices.

• Fig. Under steady-flow conditions, the mass and energy contents


of a control volume remain constant

• Note: Uniform flow implies no change of properties with location over a specified region.
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
• Question: A candle is burning in a well-insulated room. Taking the room (the air plus the candle) as the system,
determine (a) if there is any heat transfer during this burning process and (b) if there is any change in the
internal energy of the system.

• Answer: Since the room is well insulated, we have an adiabatic system and no heat will pass through the boundaries.
Therefore, Q = 0 for this process.
• The internal energy involves energies that exist in various forms (sensible, latent, chemical, nuclear).
During the process just described, part of the chemical energy is converted to sensible energy.
Since there is no increase or decrease in the total internal energy of the system, ΔU = 0 for this process.
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
• A well-insulated electric oven is being heated through its heating element. If the entire oven, including the
heating element, is taken to be the system, determine whether this is a heat or work interaction.

Fig. the system boundary will include the outer surface of


Fig. The energy content of the oven obviously increases the heating element and will not cut through The energy
during this process, as evidenced by a rise in generated in the interior of the heating element will be
temperature. This energy transfer to the oven caused by transferred to the air around it as a result of the
electrons crossing the system boundary and thus doing temperature difference between the heating element and
work. Therefore, this is a work interaction. the air in the oven. Therefore, this is a heat transfer
process.
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
Internal energy
• Internal energy is defined as the sum of all the microscopic forms of energy of
a system (see Fig.).

• It is related to the molecular structure and the degree of molecular activity


and can be viewed as the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the
molecules.
• Concept of internal energy can be understood well at molecular level (see Fig.).
The molecules of a gas move through space with some velocity, and thus possess
some kinetic energy. This is known as translational energy.
• The atoms of polyatomic molecules rotate about an axis, and the energy associated
with this rotation is the rotational kinetic energy.
• The atoms of a polyatomic molecule may also vibrate about their common center of
mass, and the energy associated with this back-and-forth motion is the vibrational
kinetic energy.
• For gases, kinetic energy is mostly due to translational and rotational motions, with
vibrational motion becoming significant at higher temperatures.
• The electrons in an atom rotate about the nucleus, and thus possess rotational
kinetic energy.
• Electrons at outer orbits have larger kinetic energies. Electrons also spin about their
axes, and the energy associated with this motion is the spin energy.
Other particles in nucleus of an atom also possess spin energy.
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
(a) Heat (b) Work

• Heat is defined as the form of energy that is transferred between two systems (or a system and its
surroundings) by virtue of a temperature difference (see Fig. b).

• Temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer. The larger the temperature difference, the
higher is the rate of heat transfer (see Fig. b).

• If the energy crossing the boundary of a closed system is not heat, it must be work.

• Work is the energy transfer associated with a force acting through a distance (see Fig. b).
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
• As a form of energy, heat and work has units of kJ.

• The amount of heat transferred during the process between two states (states 1 and 2) is
denoted by Q12 or just Q.

• Heat transfer per unit mass of a system is denoted q and is determined from:

• The heat transfer rate is denoted by where the overdot stands for the time derivative,
or ―per unit time.‖ The heat transfer rate has the unit kJ/s, which is equal to kW.

• When remains constant during a process and Δt = t2 - t1 is the time interval during
which the process takes place than transfer of energy by heat is given by

• Work done during a process between states 1 and 2 is denoted by W12, or simply W.

• Work done per unit mass of a system is denoted by w and is expressed as


• Work done per unit time is called power and is denoted by Ẇ = W/Δt

• The unit of power is kJ/s, or kW.


AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
Sign convention for heat and work

• heat transfer to a system and work done by a system are positive;

• heat transfer from a system and work done on a system are negative.

• Another way is to use the subscripts in and out to indicate direction (see Fig.)
• For example, a work input of 5 kJ can be expressed as Win = 5 kJ, while a heat loss of 3 kJ
can be expressed as Qout = 3 kJ.

• When the direction of a heat or work interaction is not known, we can simply assume a direction for
the interaction (using the subscript in or out) and solve for it.

• A positive result indicates the assumed direction is right. A negative result, on the other hand,
indicates that the direction of the interaction is the opposite of the assumed direction.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


• Heat and work are energy transfer mechanisms between a system and its surroundings, and there are
Many similarities between them:

1. Both are recognized at the boundaries of a system as they cross the boundaries. That is, both heat and
work are boundary phenomena.

2. Systems possess energy, but not heat or work.

3. Both are associated with a process, not a state. Unlike properties, heat or work has no meaning at a
state.

4. Both are path functions (i.e., their magnitudes depend on the path followed during a process as well as
the end states).

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Work

• work done by a constant force F on a body displaced a distance s in the direction of the force is given by

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Electrical Work

• We is electrical power and I is number of electrical charges flowing per unit time, that is, current
and V is potential difference

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Shaft Work
• For a specified constant torque, the work done during n revolutions is determined
as follows: A force F acting through a moment arm r generates a torque T

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Boundary work

Note:
P = Pressure
dV = differential change Volume
F = constant Force
ds = differential change displacemen
A= Area of Piston

• The work associated with a moving


boundary is called boundary work (Wb).

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


• The total area (A) under the process curve on a P-V diagram represents the boundary work = Wb

= Wb

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Flow work
• Flow work is defined as work required to push mass into or out of Control Volume (CV).

• A pressure force acting on a fluid through a distance produces work, called flow work.

• Flow work is a part of the energy of a flowing fluid and is also called as flow energy.

• Flow work per unit mass = specific flow work


= Pressure (P) x specific volume (v)

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Enthalpy
• In the analysis of certain types of processes, particularly in power generation and refrigeration
(see Fig.), we frequently encounter the combination of properties u + Pv. For sake of simplicity
and convenience, this combination is defined as a new property, enthalpy, and given the symbol h:

• Here, H= total enthalpy, h =specific enthalpy,


U= total internal energy, u =specific internal energy
V = total volume, v = specific volume
and P = pressure
Fig. When analyzing control volumes, we find it
very convenient to combine the internal energy
and the flow energy of a fluid into a single term,
called enthalpy, i.e. (u + Pv) = h.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Ideal gas or perfect gas
• An ideal gas or perfect gas is a gas where the intermolecular forces are negligible (zero).

• Any equation that relates the pressure (P), temperature (T), and specific volume (v) of a
substance is called an equation of state. Here m is mass of gas and V is total volume.

or or PV = mRT

• Characteristic gas constant, R = Universal gas constant, Ru/Molecular weight, M. Its value is different for different gasses

Fig. At very low pressures, all gases approach ideal-gas behavior (regardless of their temperature).

• Note: In a similar way at high temperatures, ideal-gas behavior can be assumed with good accuracy regardless of pressure

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• The molar mass M can simply be defined as the mass of one kmol of substantce (also called a kilogram-
mole, abbreviated kgmol) in kilograms.

• The molar mass of nitrogen is 28, it simply means the mass of 1 kmol of nitrogen is 28 kg, or that is,
MN2 = 28 kg/kmol.
• The molar mass of air is 28, it simply means the mass of 1 kmol of air (80% of O2 [MO2 = 32 kg/kmol] +
20% of N2 [MN2 = 28 kg/kmol] ) is 29 kg, or that is, Mair = 29 kg/kmol

• Universal gas constant, Ru = 8.31447 kJ/kmol.K. and is same for all gasses

• Mass, m of a system is equal to the product of its molar mass M


and mole number N:

• Fig. Value of Gas constant R is different for each gas


(calculate and check it for all gasses
example for air R = Ru/M = 8.31447/29 = 0.287 kJ/kg.K )

• An ideal gas at two different states 1 and 2 are related to each other by
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Specific Heat
• Specific heat is the energy (in form of heat) required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a
substance by one degree in a specified way.

Fig. For example if 5 kJ of heat is required to raise 1 kg of substance by 1oC, it implies


the value of specific heat of substance= 5 kJ/kg. oC

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Specific heat at constant volume and pressure
• specific heat at constant volume cv can be viewed as the energy required to raise the temperature
of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the volume is maintained constant (Fig. a).

• Specific heat at constant pressure cp can be viewed as the energy required to raise the temperature
of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the pressure is maintained constant (Fig. b).

(a) (b)
• Note: Specific heat at constant pressure cp is always greater than cv because at constant pressure
system is allowed to expand and the energy for this expansion work must also be supplied to system.
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
Specific heat

• Specific heat, implies that energy is transferred (and stored) in the form of heat.

• Cv is a measure of the variation of internal energy of a substance with temperature, and

• Cp is a measure of the variation of enthalpy of a substance with temperature.

Note:

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


For ideal gasses:

• Specific heat ratio: ϒ = cp/cv or

• Therefore from above 2 equations we obtain: and

• For monatomic gases such as argon, neon, and helium, value of k = 1.667.

• Many diatomic gases, including air, have a specific heat ratio, k = 1.4 at room temperature.

• For ideal gasses internal energy and enthalpy are only functions of temperature, u = cv T and
h = cpT and change in internal energy and change in enthalpy is given by

and Δh = cp Δ T
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
Specific heat for compressible substances

• Example: All ideal gasses like Air, nitrogen,


oxygen, helium, methane, carbon-dioxide etc…

h = cvT +RT = (cv + R)T = cp T • It takes 0.718 kJ of energy in the form of heat to raise the
temperature of 1 kg of air by one degree, 1oC raise in
Therefore, h = cpT temperature then we say specific heat of air at constant
volume cv = 0.718 kJ/kg. oC or 0.718 kJ/kg. K

• Similarly it takes 1.005 kJ of energy in the form of heat to


raise the temperature of 1 kg of air by one degree, 1oC
raise in temperature then we say specific heat of air at
constant pressure cp = 1.005 kJ/kg. oC
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
• For ideal gasses:

(a) (b)

• Change in internal energy for process 1-2 (constant volume – Fig. a) is given by:

• Change in enthalpy for process 1-2 (constant pressure – Fig. b) is given by:

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• Energy can cross the boundary of a closed system in two distinct forms: heat and work

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• Energy can cross the boundary of a open system or control volume (CV) in three distinct forms:
mass, heat and work

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conservation of energy principle
• first law of thermodynamics, also known as the conservation of energy principle states that energy can be
neither created nor destroyed during a process; it can only change forms.

• For example, a rock falling off a cliff,, picks up speed as a result of its
potential energy being converted to kinetic energy (see Fig.).

Fig. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms (the first law of thermodynamics).
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
First Law of thermodynamics
• First law of thermodynamics is a version of law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.

• The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy (E) of an isolated system (example our universe) is
constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.

• The first law of thermodynamics is essentially an expression of the conservation of energy principle,
also called the energy balance.

• The general energy (E) balances for any system undergoing any process can be expressed as

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


First Law of thermodynamics - closed systems

• For closed systems, the conservation of mass principle is implicitly used by requiring that the mass of the
system remain constant during a process.

• The energy in form of heat (Q) and work (W) can cross the boundary of system

• In a thermodynamic process involving a closed system, the difference


between the heat accumulated (Q) by the system and the work done by
it (W) is equal to the increment in the total energy (ΔE).

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closed system are shown in Fig.

• Taking heat transfer to the system and work done by


the system to be positive quantities, the energy
balance for a closed system can also be expressed as:

Fig. First law of thermodynamics for closed system

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First Law of thermodynamics - Open systems

• For control volumes, apart from energy ( in form of heat and work), mass can cross the boundaries, and so
we must keep track of the amount of mass entering and leaving the control volume.

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Mass flow rate

• The amount of mass flowing through a cross section per unit


time is called the mass flow rate and is denoted by ṁ

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AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
• steady-flow process is defined as a process during which a fluid
flows through a control volume steadily.

• That is, the fluid properties can change from point to point within
control volume, but at any point, they remain constant during the
entire process.

• Remember, steady means no change with time.

Fig. Under steady-flow conditions, the


mass and energy contents of a control
volume remain constant.

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Applying first law of thermodynamics for open systems under steady state conditions:

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Steady flow Energy Equation (SFEE) for control volume or open system
• During a steady-flow process, the fluid flows through the control volume steadily, experiencing
no change with time at a fixed position.

• The mass and energy content of the control volume remain constant during a steady-flow process.

• Taking heat transfer to the system (net heat transfer out) and work done by the system (net work in) to be positive
quantities, the conservation of mass and energy equations for steady-flow processes are expressed as:

OR

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Example: A water heater in steady operation

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Fig. Under steady operation, shaft work and electrical work are the only forms
of work a simple compressible system may involve.

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STEADY-FLOW ENGINEERING DEVICES

• Many engineering devices operate essentially under the same conditions for long periods of time.

• The components of a steam power plant (turbines, compressors, heat exchangers, and pumps), for
example, operate nonstop for months before the system is shut down for maintenance. Therefore, these
devices can be conveniently analyzed as steady-flow devices.

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Throttling valves
• Throttling valves are any kind of flow-restricting devices that cause a significant pressure drop in the fluid.

same.

Fig.Throttling valves are devices that


cause large pressure drops in the fluid.
If Than u2 < u1, therefore temperature drops at exit
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Refrigerant fluid flow through a throttling valve

Fig. During a throttling process, the enthalpy = (flow energy + internal energy) of a fluid
remains constant. But internal and flow energies may be converted to each other.
Note, the fluid flow is from left to right in the above figure.

Note in the above example for the flow of refrigerant (fluid) in a throttling valve

Therefore u2 < u1, hence temperature drops at exit

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Fig. The temperature of an ideal gas does not change during a throttling (h =
constant) process since h = h(T).

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Compressor

Win

• Compressors, as well as pumps and fans, are devices used to increase the pressure of a
fluid (gas or vapors).
Work is supplied to these devices from an external source through a rotating shaft.

• Therefore, compressors involve work inputs (Win).

• Even though these three devices function similarly, they do differ in the tasks they perform.

• A fan increases the pressure of a gas slightly and is mainly used to mobilize a gas.

• A compressor is capable of compressing the gas to very high pressures.


AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
• Pumps work very much like compressors except that they handle liquids (e.g. water) instead of gases.
Turbine

• As the fluid passes through the turbine, work is done against the blades, which are attached to the shaft.

as a result, the shaft rotates, and the turbine produces work.

Therefore, turbines involve work outputs (Wout)

• In gas or steam or hydroelectric - power plants, the device that drives the electric generator is the turbine.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Gas turbine Power plant (actual things are complicated compared to simple
sketches)

Fig. Gas turbine cycle used to generate electric power.


It has a length of 6.2 m, it weighs 12.5 tons, and produces 55.2 MW at 3600 rpm.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Nozzles and diffusers
• Nozzles and diffusers are commonly utilized in jet engines, rockets, spacecraft, and even fire engines and garden
hoses.

• A nozzle is a device that increases the velocity of a fluid at the expense of pressure.

• A diffuser is a device that increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down.

• That is, nozzles and diffusers perform opposite tasks.

• For subsonic flows (Mach number, M < 1), the cross-sectional area of a nozzle decreases in the flow direction
and cross-sectional area of a diffuser increases in the flow direction.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Fig.1 In jet engines, the high-temperature and high-pressure gases
leaving the turbine are accelerated in a nozzle to provide thrust.

Fig 2. Basic components of a turbojet engine used in aircraft


AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha
Heat exchangers
• heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange heat
without mixing.

• Heat exchangers are widely used in various industries, and they come in various
designs. Few examples are: boilers, condensers, evaporators,
Regenerators, combustion chamber etc…

• The simplest form of a heat exchanger is a double-tube (also called tube and-
shell) heat exchanger, shown in Fig. It is composed of two concentric pipes of
different diameters. One fluid flows in the inner pipe, and the other in the annular
space between the two pipes.
• Heat is transferred from the hot fluid to the cold (hence named heat exchanger)
one through the wall separating them
Fig. A Simple heat exchanger with
two concentric pipes.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Fig. In a heat exchanger, the heat transfer
Fig. Refrigerant-134a is to be cooled by water in a depends on the choice of the control volume.
heat exchanger (condenser).

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Summary

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


The low wattage heaters are used to raise the temperature of the outer surfaces
of the refrigerator at critical locations above the dew point in order to
avoid water droplets forming on the surfaces and sliding down.

Condensation is most likely to occur in summer in hot and humid


climates in homes without air-conditioning.

The moisture formation on the surfaces is undesirable since it may cause the painted finish
of the outer surface to deteriorate and it may wet the kitchen floor.

In cold weather, condensation frequently occurs on the inner surfaces of the


windows due to the lower air temperatures near the window surface.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


dew-point temperature?
The dew-point temperature Tdp is defined as the temperature at
which condensation begins when the air is cooled at constant
pressure. In other words, Tdp is the saturation temperature of
water corresponding to the vapor pressure:

You have probably noticed that when you buy a cold canned drink from a
vending machine on a hot and humid day, dew forms on the can. The
formation of dew on the can indicates that the temperature of the drink is
below the dew-point temperature of the surrounding air Fig. Constant-presssure cooling of moist
air and the dew-point temperature on
the T-s diagram of water.

Fig. When the temperature of a cold drink is


below the dew-point temperature of
AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha the surrounding air, it “sweats.”
Wet bulb temperature?

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha


Reversible process

Thermofluids by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha 77


Second Law of thermodynamics

• The first law of thermodynamics is simply an expression of the conservation of energy principle, and it
asserts that energy is a thermodynamic property.

• The second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy has quality as well as quantity, and actual
processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of energy.

It is common experience that a cup of hot coffee left in a cooler


room eventually cools off (see Fig).

Case (a): This process satisfies the first law of thermodynamics,


since the amount of energy lost by the coffee is equal to the
amount gained by the surrounding air.

Case (b): Now let us consider the reverse process—the hot coffee
getting even hotter in a cooler room as a result of heat transfer
from the room air.
We all know that this process never takes place. Yet, doing so
would not violate the first law as long as the amount of energy lost
by the air is equal to the amount gained by the coffee.

We conclude that processes proceed in aThermofluids


certain bydirection as in
Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha 78
Case (a) and not in the reverse direction as in Case (b).
The first law places no restriction on the direction of a process, but
satisfying the first law does not ensure that the process can actually
occur.

This inadequacy of the first law to identify whether a process can take
place is remedied by introducing another general principle, the second
law of thermodynamics.

We will show later in this session that the reverse processes discussed
above violate the second law of thermodynamics.

This violation is easily detected with the help of a property,


called entropy (to be discussed).

A process cannot occur unless it satisfies


both the first and the second laws of thermodynamics (see Fig.).

Thermofluids by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha 79


• processes proceed in a certain direction as in fig (a) and not in the reverse direction as seen in fig (b).

Fig (a). Soda at 5oC becomes warm to 20oC naturally, Fig (b). Soda at 5oC becomimg cool to 2oC naturally,
A possible heat transfer process (a possible direction An impossible heat transfer process (an impossible direction
of heat transfer) of heat transfer)

Thermofluids by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha 80


Entropy
• Entropy (S) is defined as disorderness of system.

Fig. The level of molecular disorder (entropy) of a substance increases as it melts or evaporates.
Thermofluids by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha 81
Entropy?
• The second law of thermodynamics leads to the definition of a new property called entropy, which is a
quantitative measure of microscopic disorder for a system.

• It gives direction of natural occurring process.

• It states that disorderness of universe is increasing or entropy


of universe (isolated system) is increasing (to be discussed).

Thermofluids by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha 82


A perfect gas is one whose individual molecules interact only via direct collisions, with no
other intermolecular forces present. For such a perfect gas, p, ρ, and the temperature T are related
by the following equation of state

Perfect gas Cv , C p ,   cons tan t

e  e(T )
Ideal gas p   RT
h  h(T )

Cp R R
Cp  Cv  R;    Cp  , Cv 
Cv  1  1
First law of the thermodynamics

-Conservation of Energy
Consider a system, which is a fixed mass of gas separated from the
surroundings by a flexible boundary. For the time being, assume the
system is stationary, i.e., it has no directed kinetic energy

e is state variable, de is an exact differential


 q   w  de depends only on the initial and final states
of the system

The work done on the system by the


An incremental surrondings
amount of heat
added to the
system across the
boundary
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Define a new state variable, the entropy,


A contribution from the
qrev or q
ds  ds   siirev irreversible dissipative
T T phenomena of viscosity
thermal conductivity, and
mass diffusion occurring
The actual heat added/T,
within the system

siirev  0 These dissipative phenomena ― always‖ increase


the entropy
For a reversible process
q
ds  If the process is adiabatic,  q  0 2nd law
T
 ds  sirrev  0
In summary, the concept of entropy in combination with the 2nd law allow us to
predict the direction that nature takes.
Assume the heat is reversible,  q   qrev   qrev  Tds
1st law becomes  q  pdv  de  Tds  de  pdv

h  e  pv dh  de  pdv  vdp
Tds  dh  vdp
For a thermally perfect gas, dh  C p dT
dT vdp
ds  C p 
T T
1
If the gas also obey the ideal gas equation of state p  RT  pv  RT   
v
dT dp
ds  C p R
T p
T2
dT P2
Integrate s2  s1   Cp  R ln Note C p  C p (T )
T1
T P1
Entropy change for perfect gas

If we further assume a calorically perfect gas, C p  Cv  R

T2 P2
s2  s1  Cp ln  R ln
T1 P1
T2 v2
 Cv ln  R ln Tds  de  pdv
T1 v1
Isentropic relation

For an adiabatic process and for a reversible process


Hence, from eq q  0 ,i.e., dsirrev  0
q
ds   dsirrev  0
T

the entropy is constant. s2  s1


Isentropic relation


T2 P2 P2 T2 C p / R T2  1
0  C p ln  R ln  ( ) ( )
T1 P1 P1 T1 T1
1
T2 v2 v2 T2  Cv / R T2 
 1
0  Cv ln  R ln   ( ) ( )
T1 v1 v1 T1 T1
2 T
1
2  1
( )
1 T1

P2 2  T2  1
( ) ( )
P1 1 T1