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Recap Thermodynamics

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AE 412

Recap of Thermodynamics

Assistant Professor

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Review of Thermodynamics

• For one dimensional (1D) flows, Significant changes in velocity (u) and pressure (p) result in density

variations throughout a flow field

• As a result we now have two new variables we must solve for: T and ρ

• We will solve four equations: mass, linear momentum, energy and an equation of state to

solve above four unknowns

→ Importance of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics

• The name thermodynamics stems from Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis

(power), which is most descriptive of early efforts to convert heat into power.

including power generation, refrigeration, jet engine etc…

Continuum

• Matter is made up of atoms that are widely spaced in the gas phase.

• Yet it is very convenient to disregard the atomic nature of a substance and view

it as a continuous, homogeneous matter with no holes, that is, a continuum.

to assume the properties vary continually in space with no jump discontinuities.

System, Boundary and Surrounding

• The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary.

• Systems may be considered to be closed or open, depending on whether a fixed mass or a fixed volume

in space is chosen for study

Closed system

• Closed system (also known as a control mass) consists of a fixed amount of mass, and no mass can

cross its boundary. But energy, in the form of heat or work, can cross the boundary.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

• Isolated system is a special case of closed system where no mass and no energy crosses the boundary.

mass m =0 and energy in form of heat Q=0 and Work W=0)

Open system

• An open system, or a control volume (CV), both mass and energy can cross the boundary

of a control volume. The energy can transfer in form of Heat (Q) or Work (W)

• Examples: compressor, turbine, nozzle, water heater etc.

Fig. Nozzle

Fig. Open system

Fig. Water heater

• Any characteristic of a system is called a property.

density

elasticity, velocity and elevation (height)

specific total energy (e = E/m).

• Extensive properties are those whose values depend on size or extent of system, such as mass

and volume.

• Intensive properties are those that are independent of mass of a system, such as temperature,

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

pressure, and density.

Thermodynamic state

or just state of the system.

Fig. A closed system changing from state-1 to state-2 after some time lapse.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Note the volume has been changed from initial state to final state.

• Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a

thermodynamic process or just process.

• The series of states through which a system passes during a process is called thermodynamic

process path or just path.

• To describe a process completely, one should specify initial and final states of process, as well as

path it follows, and the interactions with the surroundings.

Fig. Process and path AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Fig. compression of gas in piston-cylinder

Equilibrium

• Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states.

• In an equilibrium state there are no unbalanced potentials (or driving forces) within the system.

• That is, system involves no temperature differential (difference), which is driving force for heat flow.

Fig. A closedAE412-Compressible

system reaching thermal equilibrium.

Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Equilibrium continue….

there is no change in pressure at any point of system with time.

• If a system involves two phases, it is in phase equilibrium when mass of each phase reaches

an equilibrium level and stays there.

• Finally, a system is in chemical equilibrium if its chemical composition does not change with

time, that is, no chemical reactions occur.

Quasi-equilibrium process

• When a process proceeds in such a manner that the system remains infinitesimally close to an

equilibrium state at all times, it is called a quasistatic, or quasi-equilibrium, process

• Density is defined as mass per unit volume

• Specific volume v, which is defined as volume per unit mass. It is reciprocal of density.

Substance SG

• Specific gravity (SG), or relative density: is defined as ratio

of density of a substance to the density of some standard Water 1.0

substance at a specified temperature (usually water at 4°C, Gasoline 0.7

for which density of water = 1000 kg/m3). Mercury 13.6

Wood 0.3–0.9

Gold 19.2

Ice 0.92

Air (at 1 atm) 0.0013

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

• Pressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area.

• Units: newtons per square meter (N/m2), which is called a pascal (Pa).

• Actual pressure at a given position is called the absolute pressure and it is measured relative to absolute

vacuum (i.e., absolute zero pressure).

• Gage pressure is the difference between the absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure.

Most pressure-measuring devices, however, are calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere

and so they indicate.

and are measured by vacuum gages that indicate the difference between

the atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Temperature

translational kinetic energy associated with disorderness of microscopic

motion of atoms and molecules.

• Heat is transferred from the body at higher temperature to the one at lower temperature until both

bodies attain the same temperature (see Fig.)

• At that point, the heat transfer stops, and the two bodies are said to have reached thermal

equilibrium.

• Zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third

body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

• By replacing the third body with a thermometer, the zeroth law can be restated as two bodies are

in thermal equilibrium if both have the same temperature reading even if they are not in contact.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

The temperature scales used in the SI and the English system today are the Kelvin Scale (K)

and Celsius scale (oC).

perfect gas or ideal gas?

• A thermally perfect gas is one with which assumes non-intermolecular forces and

negligible molecule.

• The individual molecules interact only via direct collisions.

• For a perfect gas, pressure p, density ρ, and the temperature T are related by the

following equation of state

p RT

• It is valid at low pressure and high temperatures

• At moderate temperatures, of the order of 1000 K, the fluid can be considered calorically perfect and the specific

heat, Cp is considered temperature independent ; therefore h =Cp T.

• The assumptions of thermally and calorically perfect gases represent the simplification known as ideal gases.

• Note: greater than 1000 K, the specific heat is considered

temperature dependent , Cp(T);

• therefore h =Cp(T) T.

• A real gas is where inter intermolecular forces are present.

• At very pressures and low temperatures gas behaves like real gas.

• We have to use Vander-Walls equation.

• The prefix iso- is often used to designate a process for which a particular property remains constant.

• Isochoric (or isometric) process is a process during which the specific volume v remains constant.

• Adiabatic process is a process during which there is no heat transfer across boundary.

• Isentropic process is a process during which the entropy S (to be discussed later) remains constant.

• It is an adiabatic and frictionless process

Steady-Flow Process

• The term steady implies no change in properties with time. The opposite of steady is unsteady, or transient.

• Large number of engineering devices such as Nozzles, diffusers, compressors, turbines, heat exchangers etc…

operate for long periods of time under the same conditions, and they are classified as steady-flow devices.

of a control volume remain constant

• Note: Uniform flow implies no change of properties with location over a specified region.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

• Question: A candle is burning in a well-insulated room. Taking the room (the air plus the candle) as the system,

determine (a) if there is any heat transfer during this burning process and (b) if there is any change in the

internal energy of the system.

• Answer: Since the room is well insulated, we have an adiabatic system and no heat will pass through the boundaries.

Therefore, Q = 0 for this process.

• The internal energy involves energies that exist in various forms (sensible, latent, chemical, nuclear).

During the process just described, part of the chemical energy is converted to sensible energy.

Since there is no increase or decrease in the total internal energy of the system, ΔU = 0 for this process.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

• A well-insulated electric oven is being heated through its heating element. If the entire oven, including the

heating element, is taken to be the system, determine whether this is a heat or work interaction.

Fig. The energy content of the oven obviously increases the heating element and will not cut through The energy

during this process, as evidenced by a rise in generated in the interior of the heating element will be

temperature. This energy transfer to the oven caused by transferred to the air around it as a result of the

electrons crossing the system boundary and thus doing temperature difference between the heating element and

work. Therefore, this is a work interaction. the air in the oven. Therefore, this is a heat transfer

process.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Internal energy

• Internal energy is defined as the sum of all the microscopic forms of energy of

a system (see Fig.).

and can be viewed as the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of the

molecules.

• Concept of internal energy can be understood well at molecular level (see Fig.).

The molecules of a gas move through space with some velocity, and thus possess

some kinetic energy. This is known as translational energy.

• The atoms of polyatomic molecules rotate about an axis, and the energy associated

with this rotation is the rotational kinetic energy.

• The atoms of a polyatomic molecule may also vibrate about their common center of

mass, and the energy associated with this back-and-forth motion is the vibrational

kinetic energy.

• For gases, kinetic energy is mostly due to translational and rotational motions, with

vibrational motion becoming significant at higher temperatures.

• The electrons in an atom rotate about the nucleus, and thus possess rotational

kinetic energy.

• Electrons at outer orbits have larger kinetic energies. Electrons also spin about their

axes, and the energy associated with this motion is the spin energy.

Other particles in nucleus of an atom also possess spin energy.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

(a) Heat (b) Work

• Heat is defined as the form of energy that is transferred between two systems (or a system and its

surroundings) by virtue of a temperature difference (see Fig. b).

• Temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer. The larger the temperature difference, the

higher is the rate of heat transfer (see Fig. b).

• If the energy crossing the boundary of a closed system is not heat, it must be work.

• Work is the energy transfer associated with a force acting through a distance (see Fig. b).

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

• As a form of energy, heat and work has units of kJ.

• The amount of heat transferred during the process between two states (states 1 and 2) is

denoted by Q12 or just Q.

• Heat transfer per unit mass of a system is denoted q and is determined from:

• The heat transfer rate is denoted by where the overdot stands for the time derivative,

or ―per unit time.‖ The heat transfer rate has the unit kJ/s, which is equal to kW.

• When remains constant during a process and Δt = t2 - t1 is the time interval during

which the process takes place than transfer of energy by heat is given by

• Work done during a process between states 1 and 2 is denoted by W12, or simply W.

• Work done per unit time is called power and is denoted by Ẇ = W/Δt

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Sign convention for heat and work

• heat transfer from a system and work done on a system are negative.

• Another way is to use the subscripts in and out to indicate direction (see Fig.)

• For example, a work input of 5 kJ can be expressed as Win = 5 kJ, while a heat loss of 3 kJ

can be expressed as Qout = 3 kJ.

• When the direction of a heat or work interaction is not known, we can simply assume a direction for

the interaction (using the subscript in or out) and solve for it.

• A positive result indicates the assumed direction is right. A negative result, on the other hand,

indicates that the direction of the interaction is the opposite of the assumed direction.

• Heat and work are energy transfer mechanisms between a system and its surroundings, and there are

Many similarities between them:

1. Both are recognized at the boundaries of a system as they cross the boundaries. That is, both heat and

work are boundary phenomena.

3. Both are associated with a process, not a state. Unlike properties, heat or work has no meaning at a

state.

4. Both are path functions (i.e., their magnitudes depend on the path followed during a process as well as

the end states).

Work

• work done by a constant force F on a body displaced a distance s in the direction of the force is given by

Electrical Work

• We is electrical power and I is number of electrical charges flowing per unit time, that is, current

and V is potential difference

Shaft Work

• For a specified constant torque, the work done during n revolutions is determined

as follows: A force F acting through a moment arm r generates a torque T

Boundary work

Note:

P = Pressure

dV = differential change Volume

F = constant Force

ds = differential change displacemen

A= Area of Piston

boundary is called boundary work (Wb).

• The total area (A) under the process curve on a P-V diagram represents the boundary work = Wb

= Wb

Flow work

• Flow work is defined as work required to push mass into or out of Control Volume (CV).

• A pressure force acting on a fluid through a distance produces work, called flow work.

• Flow work is a part of the energy of a flowing fluid and is also called as flow energy.

= Pressure (P) x specific volume (v)

Enthalpy

• In the analysis of certain types of processes, particularly in power generation and refrigeration

(see Fig.), we frequently encounter the combination of properties u + Pv. For sake of simplicity

and convenience, this combination is defined as a new property, enthalpy, and given the symbol h:

U= total internal energy, u =specific internal energy

V = total volume, v = specific volume

and P = pressure

Fig. When analyzing control volumes, we find it

very convenient to combine the internal energy

and the flow energy of a fluid into a single term,

called enthalpy, i.e. (u + Pv) = h.

Ideal gas or perfect gas

• An ideal gas or perfect gas is a gas where the intermolecular forces are negligible (zero).

• Any equation that relates the pressure (P), temperature (T), and specific volume (v) of a

substance is called an equation of state. Here m is mass of gas and V is total volume.

or or PV = mRT

• Characteristic gas constant, R = Universal gas constant, Ru/Molecular weight, M. Its value is different for different gasses

Fig. At very low pressures, all gases approach ideal-gas behavior (regardless of their temperature).

• Note: In a similar way at high temperatures, ideal-gas behavior can be assumed with good accuracy regardless of pressure

• The molar mass M can simply be defined as the mass of one kmol of substantce (also called a kilogram-

mole, abbreviated kgmol) in kilograms.

• The molar mass of nitrogen is 28, it simply means the mass of 1 kmol of nitrogen is 28 kg, or that is,

MN2 = 28 kg/kmol.

• The molar mass of air is 28, it simply means the mass of 1 kmol of air (80% of O2 [MO2 = 32 kg/kmol] +

20% of N2 [MN2 = 28 kg/kmol] ) is 29 kg, or that is, Mair = 29 kg/kmol

• Universal gas constant, Ru = 8.31447 kJ/kmol.K. and is same for all gasses

and mole number N:

(calculate and check it for all gasses

example for air R = Ru/M = 8.31447/29 = 0.287 kJ/kg.K )

• An ideal gas at two different states 1 and 2 are related to each other by

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Specific Heat

• Specific heat is the energy (in form of heat) required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a

substance by one degree in a specified way.

the value of specific heat of substance= 5 kJ/kg. oC

Specific heat at constant volume and pressure

• specific heat at constant volume cv can be viewed as the energy required to raise the temperature

of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the volume is maintained constant (Fig. a).

• Specific heat at constant pressure cp can be viewed as the energy required to raise the temperature

of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the pressure is maintained constant (Fig. b).

(a) (b)

• Note: Specific heat at constant pressure cp is always greater than cv because at constant pressure

system is allowed to expand and the energy for this expansion work must also be supplied to system.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Specific heat

• Specific heat, implies that energy is transferred (and stored) in the form of heat.

Note:

For ideal gasses:

• For monatomic gases such as argon, neon, and helium, value of k = 1.667.

• Many diatomic gases, including air, have a specific heat ratio, k = 1.4 at room temperature.

• For ideal gasses internal energy and enthalpy are only functions of temperature, u = cv T and

h = cpT and change in internal energy and change in enthalpy is given by

and Δh = cp Δ T

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Specific heat for compressible substances

oxygen, helium, methane, carbon-dioxide etc…

h = cvT +RT = (cv + R)T = cp T • It takes 0.718 kJ of energy in the form of heat to raise the

temperature of 1 kg of air by one degree, 1oC raise in

Therefore, h = cpT temperature then we say specific heat of air at constant

volume cv = 0.718 kJ/kg. oC or 0.718 kJ/kg. K

raise the temperature of 1 kg of air by one degree, 1oC

raise in temperature then we say specific heat of air at

constant pressure cp = 1.005 kJ/kg. oC

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

• For ideal gasses:

(a) (b)

• Change in internal energy for process 1-2 (constant volume – Fig. a) is given by:

• Change in enthalpy for process 1-2 (constant pressure – Fig. b) is given by:

• Energy can cross the boundary of a closed system in two distinct forms: heat and work

• Energy can cross the boundary of a open system or control volume (CV) in three distinct forms:

mass, heat and work

conservation of energy principle

• first law of thermodynamics, also known as the conservation of energy principle states that energy can be

neither created nor destroyed during a process; it can only change forms.

• For example, a rock falling off a cliff,, picks up speed as a result of its

potential energy being converted to kinetic energy (see Fig.).

Fig. Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can only change forms (the first law of thermodynamics).

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

First Law of thermodynamics

• First law of thermodynamics is a version of law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.

• The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy (E) of an isolated system (example our universe) is

constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.

• The first law of thermodynamics is essentially an expression of the conservation of energy principle,

also called the energy balance.

• The general energy (E) balances for any system undergoing any process can be expressed as

First Law of thermodynamics - closed systems

• For closed systems, the conservation of mass principle is implicitly used by requiring that the mass of the

system remain constant during a process.

• The energy in form of heat (Q) and work (W) can cross the boundary of system

between the heat accumulated (Q) by the system and the work done by

it (W) is equal to the increment in the total energy (ΔE).

closed system are shown in Fig.

the system to be positive quantities, the energy

balance for a closed system can also be expressed as:

First Law of thermodynamics - Open systems

• For control volumes, apart from energy ( in form of heat and work), mass can cross the boundaries, and so

we must keep track of the amount of mass entering and leaving the control volume.

Mass flow rate

time is called the mass flow rate and is denoted by ṁ

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

• steady-flow process is defined as a process during which a fluid

flows through a control volume steadily.

• That is, the fluid properties can change from point to point within

control volume, but at any point, they remain constant during the

entire process.

mass and energy contents of a control

volume remain constant.

Applying first law of thermodynamics for open systems under steady state conditions:

Steady flow Energy Equation (SFEE) for control volume or open system

• During a steady-flow process, the fluid flows through the control volume steadily, experiencing

no change with time at a fixed position.

• The mass and energy content of the control volume remain constant during a steady-flow process.

• Taking heat transfer to the system (net heat transfer out) and work done by the system (net work in) to be positive

quantities, the conservation of mass and energy equations for steady-flow processes are expressed as:

OR

Example: A water heater in steady operation

Fig. Under steady operation, shaft work and electrical work are the only forms

of work a simple compressible system may involve.

STEADY-FLOW ENGINEERING DEVICES

• Many engineering devices operate essentially under the same conditions for long periods of time.

• The components of a steam power plant (turbines, compressors, heat exchangers, and pumps), for

example, operate nonstop for months before the system is shut down for maintenance. Therefore, these

devices can be conveniently analyzed as steady-flow devices.

Throttling valves

• Throttling valves are any kind of flow-restricting devices that cause a significant pressure drop in the fluid.

same.

cause large pressure drops in the fluid.

If Than u2 < u1, therefore temperature drops at exit

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Refrigerant fluid flow through a throttling valve

Fig. During a throttling process, the enthalpy = (flow energy + internal energy) of a fluid

remains constant. But internal and flow energies may be converted to each other.

Note, the fluid flow is from left to right in the above figure.

Note in the above example for the flow of refrigerant (fluid) in a throttling valve

Fig. The temperature of an ideal gas does not change during a throttling (h =

constant) process since h = h(T).

Compressor

Win

• Compressors, as well as pumps and fans, are devices used to increase the pressure of a

fluid (gas or vapors).

Work is supplied to these devices from an external source through a rotating shaft.

• Even though these three devices function similarly, they do differ in the tasks they perform.

• A fan increases the pressure of a gas slightly and is mainly used to mobilize a gas.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

• Pumps work very much like compressors except that they handle liquids (e.g. water) instead of gases.

Turbine

• As the fluid passes through the turbine, work is done against the blades, which are attached to the shaft.

• In gas or steam or hydroelectric - power plants, the device that drives the electric generator is the turbine.

Gas turbine Power plant (actual things are complicated compared to simple

sketches)

It has a length of 6.2 m, it weighs 12.5 tons, and produces 55.2 MW at 3600 rpm.

Nozzles and diffusers

• Nozzles and diffusers are commonly utilized in jet engines, rockets, spacecraft, and even fire engines and garden

hoses.

• A nozzle is a device that increases the velocity of a fluid at the expense of pressure.

• For subsonic flows (Mach number, M < 1), the cross-sectional area of a nozzle decreases in the flow direction

and cross-sectional area of a diffuser increases in the flow direction.

Fig.1 In jet engines, the high-temperature and high-pressure gases

leaving the turbine are accelerated in a nozzle to provide thrust.

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha

Heat exchangers

• heat exchangers are devices where two moving fluid streams exchange heat

without mixing.

• Heat exchangers are widely used in various industries, and they come in various

designs. Few examples are: boilers, condensers, evaporators,

Regenerators, combustion chamber etc…

• The simplest form of a heat exchanger is a double-tube (also called tube and-

shell) heat exchanger, shown in Fig. It is composed of two concentric pipes of

different diameters. One fluid flows in the inner pipe, and the other in the annular

space between the two pipes.

• Heat is transferred from the hot fluid to the cold (hence named heat exchanger)

one through the wall separating them

Fig. A Simple heat exchanger with

two concentric pipes.

Fig. In a heat exchanger, the heat transfer

Fig. Refrigerant-134a is to be cooled by water in a depends on the choice of the control volume.

heat exchanger (condenser).

Summary

The low wattage heaters are used to raise the temperature of the outer surfaces

of the refrigerator at critical locations above the dew point in order to

avoid water droplets forming on the surfaces and sliding down.

climates in homes without air-conditioning.

The moisture formation on the surfaces is undesirable since it may cause the painted finish

of the outer surface to deteriorate and it may wet the kitchen floor.

windows due to the lower air temperatures near the window surface.

dew-point temperature?

The dew-point temperature Tdp is defined as the temperature at

which condensation begins when the air is cooled at constant

pressure. In other words, Tdp is the saturation temperature of

water corresponding to the vapor pressure:

You have probably noticed that when you buy a cold canned drink from a

vending machine on a hot and humid day, dew forms on the can. The

formation of dew on the can indicates that the temperature of the drink is

below the dew-point temperature of the surrounding air Fig. Constant-presssure cooling of moist

air and the dew-point temperature on

the T-s diagram of water.

below the dew-point temperature of

AE412-Compressible Flows by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha the surrounding air, it “sweats.”

Wet bulb temperature?

Reversible process

Second Law of thermodynamics

• The first law of thermodynamics is simply an expression of the conservation of energy principle, and it

asserts that energy is a thermodynamic property.

• The second law of thermodynamics asserts that energy has quality as well as quantity, and actual

processes occur in the direction of decreasing quality of energy.

room eventually cools off (see Fig).

since the amount of energy lost by the coffee is equal to the

amount gained by the surrounding air.

Case (b): Now let us consider the reverse process—the hot coffee

getting even hotter in a cooler room as a result of heat transfer

from the room air.

We all know that this process never takes place. Yet, doing so

would not violate the first law as long as the amount of energy lost

by the air is equal to the amount gained by the coffee.

certain bydirection as in

Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha 78

Case (a) and not in the reverse direction as in Case (b).

The first law places no restriction on the direction of a process, but

satisfying the first law does not ensure that the process can actually

occur.

This inadequacy of the first law to identify whether a process can take

place is remedied by introducing another general principle, the second

law of thermodynamics.

We will show later in this session that the reverse processes discussed

above violate the second law of thermodynamics.

called entropy (to be discussed).

both the first and the second laws of thermodynamics (see Fig.).

• processes proceed in a certain direction as in fig (a) and not in the reverse direction as seen in fig (b).

Fig (a). Soda at 5oC becomes warm to 20oC naturally, Fig (b). Soda at 5oC becomimg cool to 2oC naturally,

A possible heat transfer process (a possible direction An impossible heat transfer process (an impossible direction

of heat transfer) of heat transfer)

Entropy

• Entropy (S) is defined as disorderness of system.

Fig. The level of molecular disorder (entropy) of a substance increases as it melts or evaporates.

Thermofluids by Dr. Amjad Ali Pasha 81

Entropy?

• The second law of thermodynamics leads to the definition of a new property called entropy, which is a

quantitative measure of microscopic disorder for a system.

of universe (isolated system) is increasing (to be discussed).

A perfect gas is one whose individual molecules interact only via direct collisions, with no

other intermolecular forces present. For such a perfect gas, p, ρ, and the temperature T are related

by the following equation of state

e e(T )

Ideal gas p RT

h h(T )

Cp R R

Cp Cv R; Cp , Cv

Cv 1 1

First law of the thermodynamics

-Conservation of Energy

Consider a system, which is a fixed mass of gas separated from the

surroundings by a flexible boundary. For the time being, assume the

system is stationary, i.e., it has no directed kinetic energy

q w de depends only on the initial and final states

of the system

An incremental surrondings

amount of heat

added to the

system across the

boundary

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

A contribution from the

qrev or q

ds ds siirev irreversible dissipative

T T phenomena of viscosity

thermal conductivity, and

mass diffusion occurring

The actual heat added/T,

within the system

the entropy

For a reversible process

q

ds If the process is adiabatic, q 0 2nd law

T

ds sirrev 0

In summary, the concept of entropy in combination with the 2nd law allow us to

predict the direction that nature takes.

Assume the heat is reversible, q qrev qrev Tds

1st law becomes q pdv de Tds de pdv

h e pv dh de pdv vdp

Tds dh vdp

For a thermally perfect gas, dh C p dT

dT vdp

ds C p

T T

1

If the gas also obey the ideal gas equation of state p RT pv RT

v

dT dp

ds C p R

T p

T2

dT P2

Integrate s2 s1 Cp R ln Note C p C p (T )

T1

T P1

Entropy change for perfect gas

T2 P2

s2 s1 Cp ln R ln

T1 P1

T2 v2

Cv ln R ln Tds de pdv

T1 v1

Isentropic relation

Hence, from eq q 0 ,i.e., dsirrev 0

q

ds dsirrev 0

T

Isentropic relation

T2 P2 P2 T2 C p / R T2 1

0 C p ln R ln ( ) ( )

T1 P1 P1 T1 T1

1

T2 v2 v2 T2 Cv / R T2

1

0 Cv ln R ln ( ) ( )

T1 v1 v1 T1 T1

2 T

1

2 1

( )

1 T1

P2 2 T2 1

( ) ( )

P1 1 T1

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