You are on page 1of 43

Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.

)
1. Necessity of Directional well
2. well’s trajectory
3. Major Types of Wellbore Trajectories
4. Trajectory rule of thumbs and terms
5. Trajectory Calculation
1. the Survey of a Well
2. Calculating the Survey of a Well
3. Deflection Tools and Techniques
4. Hydraulic Method (Jetting)
5. Mechanical Methods
survey stations
When drilling a well, inclination, azimuth and MD
are measured at various so called “survey stations”.
This is done with survey tools
to check the actual traverse of the well.
These measurements are then used for
(a) estimation of the real trajectory path,
(b) comparison with the planned well trajectory and
(c) planning necessary steps to re-direct the well
to reach the desired location.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 5


Survey tools

Sketch of a Single shot and Multishot tool Sketch of a gyroscope


Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 6
Survey tools
The tools to measure the inclination and
azimuth at the survey stations can be
as simple as dropping tools (totco, measures only
inclination, thus only used for vertical wells)
like single (one measurement per tool run) or
multishot magnetic instruments and gyroscopes, or
sophisticated
measurement while drilling tools that
• are assembled within the drillstring (close to the bit) and nearly
continuously measure the desired directional parameters or
logging while drilling tools that
• also make measurements of the formations penetrated for online
trajectory re-designing (e.g. following a geological horizon).

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 7


full survey
The direction angles obtained by magnetic tools
must be corrected for true north and
the gyroscope corrected for drift
since the magnetic north
does not coincides with the true north.
Next Figure shows a map of these correction angles
for various locations.
With these corrected azimuth and inclination
values, a so called full survey
(containing TVD, horizontal departure, etc.) is calculated.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 8


Declination map

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 9


Full survey methods
To obtain the full survey method
from MD, inclination and  Mercury method
azimuth, various methods  Minimum curvature method
that depend on different  (the most accurate)
models are proposed.  Quadratic method
Below is a list of the most  Radius of curvature method
 (the most accurate)
popular ones:
 Secant method
 Acceleration method
 Tangential method
 Average angle method  (the simplest one but gives
 Angle-averaging method inaccurate results)
 Backward station method  Terminal angle method
 Balanced tangential method  Trapezoidal method
 Circular arc method  Vector averaging method
 Compensated acceleration

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 11


Average angle method

α [◦] hole angle


𝜖[radian] azimuth
DMi [ft] measured depth between two survey stations
Li[ft] north/south coordinate between the two stations
Mi [ft] east/west coordinate between the two stations
The total north/south and east/west coordinates
and the TVD value are computed with:

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 12


Radius of curvature method

𝛽[radians]
curvature or the dogleg
F [1] ratio factor used
where: to smooth the wellbore
between the two survey
stations

𝛼1 inclination at station 1


When < 0.25 [radians], F 𝛼2 inclination at station 2
can be set to 1.0 𝜖1 azimuth at station 1
𝜖1 azimuth at station 2

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 13


Minimum Curvature Method

where:
DL [/100 ft] dog leg

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 14


Dogleg Severity
By definition, a dogleg is
a sudden change of inclination and/or
direction of a well’s trajectory.
For description purpose, the change is usually
expressed in a 100-[ft] interval ([◦/ 100 ft]) and
called “dogleg severity”.
As it has been seen in practice,
large dogleg severities can lead to
failure of drillpipe, drill collar or tool joints as well as
create so called “keyseats”
which result in stuck drillstrings.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 15


Dogleg Severity Calculations
To obtain the dogleg severity, the survey calculated
with one of the methods described above is used
along with following equations:

δ [◦/100 ft] dogleg severity


β [◦] total angle of change (turn)
αN [◦] new inclination
Δ𝜖 [◦] change in azimuth
∆α [◦] change in inclination
Lc [ft] length over which change of trajectory occurs

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 16


drillpipe protector
To reduce the wear-
effect of large dogleg
severities, the add of
multiple steel or rubber
drillpipe protectors
which are
cylindrical pieces,
having an outside
diameter equal to
the outside diameter of
the tool joints, have
proven to be efficient.
drillpipe protectors
Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 17
actual vs. planned trajectory
The methods presented To correct
above calculate the course of the well
the trajectory path of the in case of minor
well as it is drilled. deflections,
an experienced driller can
The actual trajectory is vary the individual drilling
constantly compared parameters
with the planned one and (WOB, RPM, etc.)
to adjust for
in case the actual one is the of-going trajectory.
going of course In case the trajectory is
(which it always does largely of course,
to some extend), a deflection tool
has to be run and
correction steps to bring drilling in sliding mode
the trajectory on course (e.g. positive displacement
again have to be taken. motor (PDM)) carried out
to make the necessary
correction.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 20


The well direction determination
To determine
the direction the well is
drilled in sliding mode,
the bottom hole assembly
containing the deflection
tool is rotated
from the surface
by rotating
the whole drill string.
Then, either a so called
“Ragland vector diagram”
or the following
equations are applied
to compute the tool face
orientation.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 21


Calculation of the new inclination and
direction angles
The computational results have shown to be more
accurate than the graphical one gained from the
Ragland vector diagram. The tool face angle is given
by:

The new inclination and direction angles are:

for γ is right of high side of the borehole:


and for γ is left of high side of the borehole:
𝜖𝑁 [◦] new direction of the trajectory
αN [◦] new inclination of the trajectory

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 22


special deflection tools
Although rotary In drilling operations,
assemblies can be the bit is forced under
designed to alter the path weight and rotation to cut
of the wellbore, a certain diameter hole.
there are certain As the bit penetrates along
circumstances the vertical axis,
where it is necessary to use it also moves laterally.
special deflection tools, This movement can range
for example kicking-off and from very small to
sidetracking. considerable displacement.
These special tools include This displacement
can be represented
jetting bits, whipstocks, and in three dimensions.
downhole motors with a
deflection device.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 23


The various methods of deviations
Directional drilling is
to cause the bit to deviate in a controlled manner.
The various methods used
to induce the bit to build, drop and turn
can be classed into mechanical and hydraulic methods
besides the natural formation effects.
Mechanical techniques include whipstocks,
bottom hole assemblies, and down hole motors
with bending device.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 24


Different methods to deflect
the trajectory of a borehole

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 25


Natural Formation Effects
The formations encountered when drilling oil wells
are very rarely homogeneous and isotropic.
One is more likely to find a sequence of different layers,
with each layer having its own drillability characteristics.
The bit may have to drill through
alternating layers of hard and soft rocks.
Furthermore,
these strata may not be lying evenly in horizontal beds
but instead be dipping at some angle.
The geology may be further complicated
by faulting and folding of the strata.
Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 26
Effect of dipping on well deviation
As the bit drills across a formation boundary,
it will tend to be deflected from its original course.
Experience has shown that
where the formations are steeply dipping
(greater than about 60◦)
the bit tends to drill parallel with the bedding planes.
Where the formation dip is less steep,
the bit tends to drill at right angles to the bedding planes.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 27


Bit walk & drilling related effects
In addition to changes in inclination
there may also be changes in direction
in which case the bit will tend to walk.
Under normal rotary drilling,
the bit will tend to walk to the right,
but with a downhole motor
the effect of reactive torque may force it to the left.
Drilling parameters such as:
weight on bit, RPM, and hydraulics,
will also affect the amount of deviation.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 28


Jetting technique
This method of changing the trajectory
of a wellbore
requires the use of a jetting bit
to wash away the formation.
Water or drilling mud is pumped
through a large jet that is oriented
in the direction of the desired trajectory change.
Jetting is a technique best suited to
soft-medium formation in which
the compressive strength is relatively low and
hydraulic power can be used
to wash away a pocket of the formation to initiate deflection.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 30


Bit design of jetting technique
The amount of inclination produced is also related to
the type of bottom hole assembly used with the jetting bits.
There are two commercial bits especially designed for
the jetting technique.
One is a two-cone bit
with an extended jet replacing the third cone and
the second one is a conventional three cone bit
with two small and one large “big eye” jet.
The actual design of the jetting process is a function of
hole size, pump capacity, expected formation hardness, and
the desired bit cleaning efficiency while drilling.
Compared to trajectory deflection
using a whipstock or downhole motors,
jetting is the most approximate method.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 31


Procedure of jetting technique
On any particular run,
the bit is mounted on an assembly, which
includes an orienting sub and a full-gauge stabilizer near the bit.
Once the bit touches the bottom,
the large nozzle is oriented in the required direction.
Maximum circulation rate is used
to begin washing without rotating the drill string.
The pipe is worked up and down with continuous jetting,
until a pocket is washed away.
At this stage the drill string can be rotated
to ream out the pocket
and continue building angle
as more weight is applied to the bit.
Surveys are taken frequently
to ensure that the inclination and direction are correct.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 32


pros and cons of jetting technique
Advantages of this method are:
several attempts can be made to initiate deflection
without pulling out of the hole,
a full gauge hole can be drilled from the beginning.
Disadvantages of this method are:
the technique is limited to soft-medium formations,
severe dog-legs can occur
if the jetting is not carefully controlled,
on smaller rigs there may not be enough pump capacity
to wash away the formation.
In summary, jetting is a very cost-efficient giving that
kicking-off takes place under suitable geological conditions.
In general it requires a good directional monitoring.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 33


mechanical methods
All mechanical methods rely on
the application of an appropriate side force
which causes the bit to deviate.
When the imposed side force on the bit is positive,
an angle is build up,
when it is negative, the force drops the angle.
Common mechanical techniques used
to deflect the bit are:
whipstocks,
downhole motors with bending device,
and bottom hole assembly.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 35


Whipstocks
The whipstock method to deviate a bit is
the oldest technique and,
if properly used, the most reliable one.
In comparison with other alternative methods,
it is the most time consuming one.
A whipstock can be
as simple as a kick-off sub at the end of
a conductor pipe or casing, or it can be
a more sophisticated retrievable jetting whipstock.
Although there are a number of variations
all whipstocks work on the principle of creating a curvature.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 36


Whipstock application
The successful use of a whipstock is largely
a matter of knowing when to run a whipstock
in relation to other mechanical or hydraulic devices.
In today’s industry,
the whipstock is predominately used for
sidetracking out the casing pipe,
which is called “casing whipstock”.
also it can be used to side-track out the open hole
when hydraulic jetting or running a mud motor
fails to deviate the well.
Which is called “open hole whipstock”.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 37


Deflection with a Whipstock
A whipstock can be
described as a steel
wedge with a chisel
shaped point at the
bottom.
This chisel shape
prevents the whipstock
from turning when
drilling begins.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 38


The whipstock installation
The whipstock, that is run down hole,
is attached to the lower end of the drill string
by means of a shear pin.
It is either set on the bottom or anchored and locked in
a packer which was previously installed in a casing string.
A modern whipstock has a tapered concave groove,
called the tool face,
which helps in orienting the whipstock.
Once it is installed down hole,
it guides the bit or the mill against the casing or
the open hole wall to drill in the desired direction.

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 39


Sample of whipstocks

Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 40


1. Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang F. Prassl. “Drilling
Engineering.” Master of Petroleum
Engineering. Curtin University of Technology,
2001. Chapter 9
1. Whipstock Running Procedures
2. Adjustable bent sub above motor
3. Motor housing with one or two bends
4. Offset Stabilizer on Motor
5. While Drilling Techniques
A. Data Transfer

Related Interests