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# Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.

)
1. Necessity of Directional well
2. well’s trajectory
3. Major Types of Wellbore Trajectories
4. Trajectory rule of thumbs and terms
5. Trajectory Calculation
1. the Survey of a Well
2. Calculating the Survey of a Well
3. Deflection Tools and Techniques
4. Hydraulic Method (Jetting)
5. Mechanical Methods
survey stations
When drilling a well, inclination, azimuth and MD
are measured at various so called “survey stations”.
This is done with survey tools
to check the actual traverse of the well.
These measurements are then used for
(a) estimation of the real trajectory path,
(b) comparison with the planned well trajectory and
(c) planning necessary steps to re-direct the well
to reach the desired location.

Survey tools

## Sketch of a Single shot and Multishot tool Sketch of a gyroscope

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Survey tools
The tools to measure the inclination and
azimuth at the survey stations can be
as simple as dropping tools (totco, measures only
inclination, thus only used for vertical wells)
like single (one measurement per tool run) or
multishot magnetic instruments and gyroscopes, or
sophisticated
measurement while drilling tools that
• are assembled within the drillstring (close to the bit) and nearly
continuously measure the desired directional parameters or
logging while drilling tools that
• also make measurements of the formations penetrated for online
trajectory re-designing (e.g. following a geological horizon).

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 7

full survey
The direction angles obtained by magnetic tools
must be corrected for true north and
the gyroscope corrected for drift
since the magnetic north
does not coincides with the true north.
Next Figure shows a map of these correction angles
for various locations.
With these corrected azimuth and inclination
values, a so called full survey
(containing TVD, horizontal departure, etc.) is calculated.

Declination map

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 9

Full survey methods
To obtain the full survey method
from MD, inclination and  Mercury method
azimuth, various methods  Minimum curvature method
that depend on different  (the most accurate)
models are proposed.  Quadratic method
Below is a list of the most  Radius of curvature method
 (the most accurate)
popular ones:
 Secant method
 Acceleration method
 Tangential method
 Average angle method  (the simplest one but gives
 Angle-averaging method inaccurate results)
 Backward station method  Terminal angle method
 Balanced tangential method  Trapezoidal method
 Circular arc method  Vector averaging method
 Compensated acceleration

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 11

Average angle method

## α [◦] hole angle

DMi [ft] measured depth between two survey stations
Li[ft] north/south coordinate between the two stations
Mi [ft] east/west coordinate between the two stations
The total north/south and east/west coordinates
and the TVD value are computed with:

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 12

curvature or the dogleg
F [1] ratio factor used
where: to smooth the wellbore
between the two survey
stations

## 𝛼1 inclination at station 1

When < 0.25 [radians], F 𝛼2 inclination at station 2
can be set to 1.0 𝜖1 azimuth at station 1
𝜖1 azimuth at station 2

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 13

Minimum Curvature Method

where:
DL [/100 ft] dog leg

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 14

Dogleg Severity
By definition, a dogleg is
a sudden change of inclination and/or
direction of a well’s trajectory.
For description purpose, the change is usually
expressed in a 100-[ft] interval ([◦/ 100 ft]) and
called “dogleg severity”.
As it has been seen in practice,
large dogleg severities can lead to
failure of drillpipe, drill collar or tool joints as well as
create so called “keyseats”
which result in stuck drillstrings.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 15

Dogleg Severity Calculations
To obtain the dogleg severity, the survey calculated
with one of the methods described above is used
along with following equations:

## δ [◦/100 ft] dogleg severity

β [◦] total angle of change (turn)
αN [◦] new inclination
Δ𝜖 [◦] change in azimuth
∆α [◦] change in inclination
Lc [ft] length over which change of trajectory occurs

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 16

drillpipe protector
To reduce the wear-
effect of large dogleg
multiple steel or rubber
drillpipe protectors
which are
cylindrical pieces,
having an outside
diameter equal to
the outside diameter of
the tool joints, have
proven to be efficient.
drillpipe protectors
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actual vs. planned trajectory
The methods presented To correct
above calculate the course of the well
the trajectory path of the in case of minor
well as it is drilled. deflections,
an experienced driller can
The actual trajectory is vary the individual drilling
constantly compared parameters
with the planned one and (WOB, RPM, etc.)
in case the actual one is the of-going trajectory.
going of course In case the trajectory is
(which it always does largely of course,
to some extend), a deflection tool
has to be run and
correction steps to bring drilling in sliding mode
the trajectory on course (e.g. positive displacement
again have to be taken. motor (PDM)) carried out
to make the necessary
correction.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 20

The well direction determination
To determine
the direction the well is
drilled in sliding mode,
the bottom hole assembly
containing the deflection
tool is rotated
from the surface
by rotating
the whole drill string.
Then, either a so called
“Ragland vector diagram”
or the following
equations are applied
to compute the tool face
orientation.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 21

Calculation of the new inclination and
direction angles
The computational results have shown to be more
accurate than the graphical one gained from the
Ragland vector diagram. The tool face angle is given
by:

## for γ is right of high side of the borehole:

and for γ is left of high side of the borehole:
𝜖𝑁 [◦] new direction of the trajectory
αN [◦] new inclination of the trajectory

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 22

special deflection tools
Although rotary In drilling operations,
assemblies can be the bit is forced under
designed to alter the path weight and rotation to cut
of the wellbore, a certain diameter hole.
there are certain As the bit penetrates along
circumstances the vertical axis,
where it is necessary to use it also moves laterally.
special deflection tools, This movement can range
for example kicking-off and from very small to
sidetracking. considerable displacement.
These special tools include This displacement
can be represented
jetting bits, whipstocks, and in three dimensions.
downhole motors with a
deflection device.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 23

The various methods of deviations
Directional drilling is
to cause the bit to deviate in a controlled manner.
The various methods used
to induce the bit to build, drop and turn
can be classed into mechanical and hydraulic methods
besides the natural formation effects.
Mechanical techniques include whipstocks,
bottom hole assemblies, and down hole motors
with bending device.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 24

Different methods to deflect
the trajectory of a borehole

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 25

Natural Formation Effects
The formations encountered when drilling oil wells
are very rarely homogeneous and isotropic.
One is more likely to find a sequence of different layers,
with each layer having its own drillability characteristics.
The bit may have to drill through
alternating layers of hard and soft rocks.
Furthermore,
these strata may not be lying evenly in horizontal beds
but instead be dipping at some angle.
The geology may be further complicated
by faulting and folding of the strata.
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Effect of dipping on well deviation
As the bit drills across a formation boundary,
it will tend to be deflected from its original course.
Experience has shown that
where the formations are steeply dipping
the bit tends to drill parallel with the bedding planes.
Where the formation dip is less steep,
the bit tends to drill at right angles to the bedding planes.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 27

Bit walk & drilling related effects
In addition to changes in inclination
there may also be changes in direction
in which case the bit will tend to walk.
Under normal rotary drilling,
the bit will tend to walk to the right,
but with a downhole motor
the effect of reactive torque may force it to the left.
Drilling parameters such as:
weight on bit, RPM, and hydraulics,
will also affect the amount of deviation.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 28

Jetting technique
This method of changing the trajectory
of a wellbore
requires the use of a jetting bit
to wash away the formation.
Water or drilling mud is pumped
through a large jet that is oriented
in the direction of the desired trajectory change.
Jetting is a technique best suited to
soft-medium formation in which
the compressive strength is relatively low and
hydraulic power can be used
to wash away a pocket of the formation to initiate deflection.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 30

Bit design of jetting technique
The amount of inclination produced is also related to
the type of bottom hole assembly used with the jetting bits.
There are two commercial bits especially designed for
the jetting technique.
One is a two-cone bit
with an extended jet replacing the third cone and
the second one is a conventional three cone bit
with two small and one large “big eye” jet.
The actual design of the jetting process is a function of
hole size, pump capacity, expected formation hardness, and
the desired bit cleaning efficiency while drilling.
Compared to trajectory deflection
using a whipstock or downhole motors,
jetting is the most approximate method.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 31

Procedure of jetting technique
On any particular run,
the bit is mounted on an assembly, which
includes an orienting sub and a full-gauge stabilizer near the bit.
Once the bit touches the bottom,
the large nozzle is oriented in the required direction.
Maximum circulation rate is used
to begin washing without rotating the drill string.
The pipe is worked up and down with continuous jetting,
until a pocket is washed away.
At this stage the drill string can be rotated
to ream out the pocket
and continue building angle
as more weight is applied to the bit.
Surveys are taken frequently
to ensure that the inclination and direction are correct.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 32

pros and cons of jetting technique
several attempts can be made to initiate deflection
without pulling out of the hole,
a full gauge hole can be drilled from the beginning.
the technique is limited to soft-medium formations,
severe dog-legs can occur
if the jetting is not carefully controlled,
on smaller rigs there may not be enough pump capacity
to wash away the formation.
In summary, jetting is a very cost-efficient giving that
kicking-off takes place under suitable geological conditions.
In general it requires a good directional monitoring.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 33

mechanical methods
All mechanical methods rely on
the application of an appropriate side force
which causes the bit to deviate.
When the imposed side force on the bit is positive,
an angle is build up,
when it is negative, the force drops the angle.
Common mechanical techniques used
to deflect the bit are:
whipstocks,
downhole motors with bending device,
and bottom hole assembly.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 35

Whipstocks
The whipstock method to deviate a bit is
the oldest technique and,
if properly used, the most reliable one.
In comparison with other alternative methods,
it is the most time consuming one.
A whipstock can be
as simple as a kick-off sub at the end of
a conductor pipe or casing, or it can be
a more sophisticated retrievable jetting whipstock.
Although there are a number of variations
all whipstocks work on the principle of creating a curvature.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 36

Whipstock application
The successful use of a whipstock is largely
a matter of knowing when to run a whipstock
in relation to other mechanical or hydraulic devices.
In today’s industry,
the whipstock is predominately used for
sidetracking out the casing pipe,
which is called “casing whipstock”.
also it can be used to side-track out the open hole
when hydraulic jetting or running a mud motor
fails to deviate the well.
Which is called “open hole whipstock”.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 37

Deflection with a Whipstock
A whipstock can be
described as a steel
wedge with a chisel
shaped point at the
bottom.
This chisel shape
prevents the whipstock
from turning when
drilling begins.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 38

The whipstock installation
The whipstock, that is run down hole,
is attached to the lower end of the drill string
by means of a shear pin.
It is either set on the bottom or anchored and locked in
a packer which was previously installed in a casing string.
A modern whipstock has a tapered concave groove,
called the tool face,
which helps in orienting the whipstock.
Once it is installed down hole,
it guides the bit or the mill against the casing or
the open hole wall to drill in the desired direction.

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 39

Sample of whipstocks

## Spring14 H. AlamiNia Drilling Engineering 2 Course (2nd Ed.) 40

1. Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang F. Prassl. “Drilling
Engineering.” Master of Petroleum
Engineering. Curtin University of Technology,
2001. Chapter 9
1. Whipstock Running Procedures
2. Adjustable bent sub above motor
3. Motor housing with one or two bends
4. Offset Stabilizer on Motor
5. While Drilling Techniques
A. Data Transfer